Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy | A. Scott Roberts | Skillshare

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Lessons in This Class

27 Lessons (1h 29m)
    • 1. REBT Pitch

    • 2. Course Overview

    • 3. About Me

    • 4. What is REBT

    • 5. Background of REBT

    • 6. Unconditional Self Acceptance

    • 7. Defining the Terms

    • 8. Differences Between REBT and CBT

    • 9. Appropriate VS Innapropriate Behaviors

    • 10. Accept Yourself Regardless

    • 11. Unconditional Self Acceptance

    • 12. Hijacking the Brain

    • 13. Types of Irrational Thinking

    • 14. Types of Disturbance

    • 15. Discomfort Disturbance

    • 16. Core Beliefs

    • 17. Types of Evaluative Belief

    • 18. The Way We Think

    • 19. Flexible and Not Extreme

    • 20. True or False

    • 21. Constructive or Unconstructive

    • 22. Intellectual and Emotive Understanding

    • 23. ABCDE Model

    • 24. You Have Control

    • 25. Intro to Cognitive Distortions

    • 26. Debating and Effective Beliefs

    • 27. Adopting New Beliefs

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About This Class

In this course, you will understand how Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) can be extremely effective for anxiety, depression, addiction or any other psychological or emotional problem.

REBT has also been referred to as “rational therapy” or “rational emotive therapy” - emphasizing the rational aspect of therapy.

REBT helps you or your clients to focus on living more rational or in a rational way. Albert Ellis, the pioneer of REBT, believed that most people with psychological distress had unhelpful beliefs that limited them or caused emotional problems/concerns. 

Essentially, REBT states that our behaviors and emotions, or the way we feel and act, are influenced by the attitudes and beliefs we have about situations or events. The expectations we might have about events in our lives can trigger emotional discomfort because of our beliefs about these events. Therefore, if we change our beliefs to be more constructive, helpful and "rational" we will find success. 

Meet Your Teacher

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A. Scott Roberts

M. S. Rehabilitation Counselor, CRC


A. Scott Roberts is a rehabilitation counselor and has taught at a major university. He has a bachelor’s degree in psychology and a master’s degree in rehabilitation counseling. He has worked in education and also in a clinical setting. He is also the creator of the Truth of Addiction system, that has reached people in over 120 countries.

He has a passion for helping others, helping them to transform and overcome personal barriers.

See full profile

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1. REBT Pitch: Welcome to the Ari BT course R E B T. Stands for rational motive behavioral therapy, and it has become a very effective way to get to the root of the issues of depression, anxiety, addiction, phobias, PTSD, stress, panic attacks and many other conditions. Ari BT is a type of cognitive behavioral therapy. The focus is on clients changing their irrational beliefs about events to more rational ones, which brings about positive change. What's even better is that R E B T is one of the few therapies that are strongly evidence based, its effective and it works. My name is a Scott Roberts, and I'm the author and creator of this course. I have a real masters degree in counseling from a major university. I am a certified rehabilitation counselor, and I have worked in clinical setting and in education teaching of the university. I first studied already. Bt in my Masters program. Albert Ellis's book A Guide to Rational Living, was a text I used often with. My clients, then, working at a state agency, is a rehabilitation counselor. I used it with my clients who were dealing with some of the most toughest issues what you will find with RGB T is how applicable it really is, how helpful it can be and, when understood properly, can work for so many maladaptive behaviors. I designed this course for practitioners, counselors or anyone who wants an in depth and easier to understand course on R E B T. Individuals will benefit from this course as well. Once you know how to use this therapy, it becomes helpful in your own life, and I have provided you with all the tools you need to get started right away. I will be showing you are a BT in detail how to increase awareness of those irrational thoughts that cause unnecessary suffering, how to debate and challenge them, and then how to be most effective to adopt helpful, beneficial and constructive beliefs that lead to more adaptive behaviors and consequences. I will provide real life examples for all sorts of emotional problems, how to address these issues, how to approach them and how to resolve them in a more effective way. Feel free to look through this course description, and I look forward to seeing you inside 2. Course Overview: welcome to the RTB T Evidence based in modern therapy course. In this course, I will be guiding you through each video and section outlined in this course. I will be showing you what Ari BT actually is what it isn't how to effectively use it for yourself or those who work with how it differs from other therapies. And we would really dive deep into understanding this therapy developed by Albert Ellis in Section one. I will give you a bit about me, show you what to expect throughout this course and how you can best benefit from it. Section two will give you more of a background behind our DBT how you will discover what it is and what it isn't, and a basic overview on main components of our A B T. This section also helped lay the framework of this theory and its practical application, so you can build your knowledge based on correct principles. In Section three, you'll discover the differences between our Bt and other cognitive behavioral therapies. This will help you understand what situations are a BT might be most useful for for yourself, for those who work with it will also help clear up some misconceptions. Section four will show you the specifics more about the therapy in detail. It will provide you with more specific examples of irrational beliefs. How to identify and replace them with helpful, rational beliefs. Section five will dive deeper into understanding the exact components of identifying beliefs that need to be changed. How to identify them based on criteria it should meet steps to take to dispute them. Examples of beliefs that need to change and have to dispute and challenge them, then focus more on adaptive and helpful alternatives. With Section six, we will dive deeper into the ABC model, the activating event, the beliefs and consequences with really examples, and then how to use the D and e of disputing the unhelpful beliefs and adapting effective and helpful beliefs. Section seven will focus on the cognitive distortions many of us know of cognitive distortions that are commonly used in cognitive behavioral therapy in general. But in this section you can see how you can use them to also identify and effectively use our A B T for ease of understanding for self and your clients Again, welcome to this course. I'm happy to have you here and see you in the next video 3. About Me: so whom I will share a little bit about me. I earned my bachelor's degree in psychology. I minored in sociology and I earned my masters and rehabilitation counseling. My degrees were obtained from a really US based major university where I participated in various research projects. During my Masters program, I was required to read A Guide to Rational Living, the book from Albert Ellis. This is where I was first introduced to R E B T. When I first read Albert Ellis's book. What stuck out to me most was that R E B T gets to the root of the issues that leads to unnecessary suffering or distress. It is very applicable for almost any dysfunction and very practical. As I started my professional careers accounts or I worked with clients that had some of the most severe disabilities and mental health concerns here, I discovered the power of our A B T to change perspectives, emotional responses and inappropriate behavior to more positive and helpful behaviours. I have reviewed many R E B T guides and manuals from nonprofit organizations and government agencies while I worked for the state and found them not to be very engaging. This is why I felt there was a need to create an in depth course in what I thought to be a more clear, understandable way for anyone wanting to benefit from it into assist practitioners that are wanting to learn more about it and how to use it in real life and real life situations. Another reason, or IBT caught my attention is that it is more evidence based and appears more modern for today compared to other therapies because of its utility for today's world, it is effective, and the principles could be used ineffectively used in a self management therapy. I believe I have an easy to understand approach to help teach you the basics and more advanced concepts behind rational motive behavioral therapy so they stick. So as we go through this course, I ask that you keep an open mind and you will start to see why this method is so effective . 4. What is REBT: So what is our B T R E? B T stands for rational motive behavioral therapy, and in this course I will show you these four elements, and what they mean and how to apply them are BT has also been referred to his rational therapy or rational emotive therapy, emphasizing the rational aspect of therapy, as you can probably guess. The focus, then, is to help claims live in a more rational way. Ellis believes that the thoughts and beliefs that led toe unhelpful of maladaptive behaviors and consequences were really a result of irrational are self defeating beliefs. So the main idea then of our A b T is that our behaviors and emotions, which are the way we feel and act, are influenced by our attitudes and beliefs. This makes sense, doesn't it? Our emotions and behaviors are the result of our beliefs that preceded it. The expectations we have about our situations are thoughts or how we should act and how others should act, affect how we feel and really decide our emotional responses to challenging or difficult life events. Therefore, instead of addressing the symptoms with R E B T, we go farther down to the underlying costs. We change our beliefs when we change our beliefs. It changes us. RTB tea is really a self help and self management type of therapy has become so popular because it is effective and simple to use for many different problems. It has been used for anxiety disorders, pain management, coping with stress, depression, PTSD, family issues, addictions of all sorts, phobias and much more. It is one of a kind therapy that really encourages people to examine their goals, values and expectations of themselves. One thing to keep in mind, though, is that even though some people do have genetics or upbringing or family situations that they can't change or control, they can change their perceptions and beliefs about it and their underlying thoughts about it to bring relief. So with that said, R E B T focuses on the techniques of change rather than just gaining insight. In the next video, I will lay the groundwork in background of already be t so you can more broadly understand how to use it for yourself or those you're working with and I will see you in the next video 5. Background of REBT: okay before we begin, it would be a good idea to get some background information about our govt and how it came about. Dr. Albert Ellis was a clinical psychologist that was trained in psychoanalysis. He found that by using the current and existing therapies of his time resulted in slow progress of his clients. But one thing he noticed is that his clients, when they changed their thinking about themselves, about the problems they encounter and about the world they progressed. He thought that progression would be much faster if therapy focused directly on clients beliefs. This is when Ari, BT was born. He first called his therapy when it was first established in 19 fifties as rational therapy . He called it rational therapy because he wanted to emphasize again that the emotional problems his clients were dealing with were based on a rational thought. So what is a rational thinking or rational thought? The term, irrational and rational are used his adjectives that precede the noun beliefs, so they describe really a person's attitude towards something. So Albert Ellis thought that his clients problems could be effectively remedied by changing such a rational thinking to its rational equivalent I think about that for a moment, changing the irrational thought, the belief or attitude that is irrational, such as I must have everyone like me. I must be accepted by everyone will always result in failure because you can't make everyone like you, and in turn it will result in negative emotional consequences such as depression and despair. But when you change that belief to its rational equivalent, it would be, I know not everyone will like me. I can't control what they dio. I can be content without the approval of others. This thought is helpful because it allows others toe like you or not, and you realize you cannot control how others acts or what they do. This is more rational because really, you cannot control. If others like you or not. It's their decision. What this does is it really allows you to not be so affected by how others treat you. It really brings relief to those who are seeking approval from others constantly. It allows you to be content regardless. If you have this belief, you would be much happier and content in social situations, which you might have been seeking. Everyone's approval, which often will result in failure low self esteem, stress, depression or anxiety and social situations. The rational underlying beliefs that we have about events in our life, our un constructive expectations of these events and are unrealistic attitudes and thought processes surrounding them affects us greatly. But when we change our irrational underlying beliefs about them, it brings relief. Emotional problems and unpleasant feelings such as anxiety, depression, low self esteem, grief, anger, addiction and the many other unreasonable negative experiences that we have about life are a result of irrational thinking, and so changing to its rational equivalent resolves THEA unhelpful consequences that followed. 6. Unconditional Self Acceptance: in this video, I will be covering unconditional self acceptance. Now, the basis of effectively using our A B T is that clients need to first have unconditional self acceptance. Unconditional self acceptance is really an alternative to self esteem and more appropriate for R E B T. The reason being again is that self esteem is gained through looking at the plus side of your attributes or qualities and characteristics. When you try to bolster your self esteem by looking at your positive attributes, it doesn't help you when you do fall short or fail when you don't reach your expectations in our e b. T, we use unconditional self acceptance as a way to accept our flaws and use constructive means. When we do fail, when you have unconditional self acceptance, you separate yourself from your qualities and realize you're not perfect, but still accept yourself. In this mindset. Your happiness is not based on your qualities and not based on your characteristics. When you do fail, it won't throw you into a bout of depression. But having unconditional self acceptance will help you to accept that you are not perfect, but we'll continue to try to be better. Interesting research on a similar topic was found by Alan Marlet that has made a great impact on relapse prevention strategies for those who struggle with addiction and substance abuse. He found that individuals who lapsed in other words, those who were trying to recover from an addiction and slipped or gave in to their drinker drug and had a greater amount of grief following actually had a greater likelihood of falling back into the same destructive pattern of addiction, otherwise a full blown relapse. The truth is that the greater amount of grief and guilt we feel often propels us not away from the problematic behavior, but into it even more. But those that are more positive about their lapses or slips or mistakes and viewed it as a stepping stone instead of a stumbling block actually progressed farther and have more success. Similarly, with life, whatever challenges you may have, you will and can perform well. But you need to keep in mind that you also make mistakes. When you succeed, you should take pride in it, but when you don't succeed, you don't beat yourself up about it. To the point of despair. This is really important to help others to understand. When you do something that you shouldn't have, you can criticize your actions. But remember, don't punish yourself. Don't make it personal in our A B T. We don't make it personal. You pick yourself up and move on. This is what unconditional self acceptances realize that you fail without being a failure. You can act in a bad way without being a bad person. You would see mistakes. Just is a mistake, something to learn from. You unconditionally accept yourself as a human with faults but also with successes. This in itself is irrational because it is true. In already BT, we also want our clients toe have unconditional other acceptance. It is accepting others in a way that you evaluate their behavior what they dio, but not them personally. So throughout this course, keep that in mind. You will be focused on the behavior, not the person. This is important because our expectations of other people were not properly put into perspective can greatly impact how we feel about ourselves when we are let down 7. Defining the Terms: So now we know that using the r E B T approach, individuals are asked to actively take part in replacing their rational beliefs to more effective, helpful and rational beliefs that are adaptive and have a positive impact on the consequences that follow an event or challenging situation. But it is important to better define the terms and put it into context. Are again is rational. So this is the are part of our A B T. When we think of rational, we often think logical, sound or helpful. When we think of rational behavior, we often think that life tends to get better at work. We may say that is a rational or logical conclusion. Let's go with it or when we talk about rational thinking. We think often about something thoroughly. And if it is sound or helpful to us. Rational thinking also helps us to make good decisions when we say we need to think rationally about the options. Thea outcome is usually better. Albert Ellis really wanted to emphasize the rational part of our a b t. It is the driving principle behind this therapy, then e the term a motive. This is how we understand the emotions that are affected by what happens to us and how we think about events in our lives. Then B stands for behavior most people know and accept the fact that behaviour follows how we think and feel. Then T, which is therapy therapy, can also mean to teach or train. This is when you teach and train yourself for those who work with, and this is how any client can teach and train themselves as well once they understand these principles and this effective therapy. This is where you can modify and change an unhealthy negative beliefs about event which leads to improvement. And together is the our govt method, which I find very helpful and even more beneficial than other cognitive behavioral therapies because it gets to the root of the issue, the core beliefs. And in the next videos, I will explain why Ari BT is different and what separates it from others 8. Differences Between REBT and CBT: R E B T. As mentioned addresses both the underlying reasons of emotional problems and the cognitive distortions described by Aaron Back, the founder of cognitive behavioral therapy. Cognitive distortions or a concept that people who have irrational thinking patterns have a distorted reality is where our minds convince us a something that really isn't true for cognitive distortions. CBT, or cognitive behavioral therapy typically just focuses on the cognitive distortions such as over generalisation, which could be My friend doesn't text me back. This proves no one likes me with this thought in CBT. You would label it as an over generalization, then challenge it. Such is thinking of all the reasons why it is a false statement. But an RGB tea allows us to address the underlying reasons why we have cognitive distortions such as over generalization, in this example, and allows them to become corrected by replacing them or replace in this statement with a completely different belief. As another example, let's say you have a friend that doesn't return your phone call. You start to get anxious and tell yourself she doesn't like me. I am not good at maintaining friendships in cognitive behavioral therapy. We would say, Well, we can only observe the behavior. We would label it as mind reading and try to dismiss it as a cognitive distortion and pretty much leave it at that. But with our E b. T. The underlying issue is that you are telling yourself you need approval on acceptance from your friend, and the irrationality of it is that you are making broad conclusions based on specific minor events. If your friend isn't texture back right away, you sometimes unl owing Lee believe that this is just another piece of evidence that no one likes you. When your friend isn't call you back in the time frame you wanted. You worry. You become anxious that you are not good at maintaining friendships. The underlying reasons that you experienced a cognitive distortion deep down in your core beliefs is that your belief is I absolutely need my friend to accept me. If she doesn't, this proves that no one likes me. This is the root cause of the issue. This is the root of the issue in these scenarios, R E B T will teach you that you need to give up your need for approval. What This will do is eliminate the fear that you have a rejection but also eliminate your fear of any interpersonal interaction. Now you can start to see why this is so helpful. It gets to the root of the issue. You see a simple solution, drawing upon accepting yourself unconditionally, which I will talk about later and allowing unconditional acceptance of others and their imperfections and accepting how life is with the challenges, its ups and downs. And it's an unfairness at times brings relief. It can even change deeply held beliefs. R E B T gets to the core problems and replaces those beliefs that cause emotional problems or distorted thinking patterns. This makes it very effective and empowering. 9. Appropriate VS Innapropriate Behaviors: in our e b. T. We used techniques that differentiate between appropriate negative emotions and inappropriate negative emotions. When we experience an appropriate negative emotions, we experience anxiety, anger, depression. When we experience appropriate negative emotions, we experienced sadness, concern or sorrow. You see the appropriate negative emotions are less severe and less and magnitude. You can see the difference here when you use our A B T. You differentiate between the two, whereas the other basic therapies in the content of behavioral therapy do not. It is important to understand the difference, because sadness, for example, is okay. If you just experienced the death in the family or lost a job, it is normal, healthy and appropriate to feel sadness. If you didn't, that would cause concern. But it is when the sadness turns into a long lasting depression that interrupts the rest of your life, that is when it needs to be managed. That is when it becomes problematic and in the context of our A B T inappropriate. Additionally, some popular cognitive behavioral therapies view some anger as a healthy and appropriate behavior, but an r e b t it tells us the anger is not ever appropriate. The reason being is that anger is condemning and commanding. We want to stay away from that in our A B T because it usually results in negative consequences such as violence or outbursts, etcetera. When we experience anger, we may think to ourselves my coworkers must treat me well or else they can burn Well, this is not helpful in our e b t. As it places unrealistic demands on others. Others can always make you feel bad if they're rude or mean because you can't control how they treat you. And most likely, you would react in a similar way. Even when anger is not that extreme, The goal of our E B T is to help individuals to practice alternatives to anger. 10. Accept Yourself Regardless: already, BT allows us to have a great tool for anyone who struggles with self esteem issues that sets it apart from other cognitive behavioral therapies. What it does is teaches us how toe have unconditional self acceptance, sometimes abbreviated as us A. Rather than raiding ourselves. Many therapies that air cognitive behavioral focus on trying to increase self esteem by teaching clients to gain awareness of their positive attributes and characteristics while at the same time diminishing the negative ones because there is really no safeguard to prevent one from experiencing low self esteem. So just when one fails to react to his or her expectations, this includes failing the exam in school or when comparing oneself to others on social media. And those who do have self esteem problems are so preoccupied on proving their worth. Helping clients increase their self esteem by highlighting positive qualities still does not prevent them from proving themselves in certain situations in which they may fall short or continue to fall short and perpetuates the feelings brought on by this lack of self worth. But with unconditional self acceptance, you accept yourself as an imperfectly human. This is a realistic view. It is more rational, someone who has value. And this doesn't change regardless. If you do fail in situations or regardless of how others feel about you or treat you, you accept yourself, regardless of what people may or may not think of you. And already, BTU would give up trying to create value or a steam oneself in a certain way. Instead, the client would be urged to gain unconditional self acceptance regardless of their traits , personal characteristics or behaviors that have typically lead to rating oneself as worthy or unworthy. This is a defining difference in our e B T and a valuable distinction. In the next video, I will discuss more about unconditional self acceptance. 11. Unconditional Self Acceptance: in this video, I will be covering unconditional self acceptance. Now, the basis of effectively using our A B T is that clients need to first have unconditional self acceptance. Unconditional self acceptance is really an alternative to self esteem and more appropriate for R E B T. The reason being again is that self esteem is gained through looking at the plus side of your attributes or qualities and characteristics. When you try to bolster your self esteem by looking at your positive attributes, it doesn't help you when you do fall short or fail when you don't reach your expectations in our e b. T, we use unconditional self acceptance as a way to accept our flaws and use constructive means. When we do fail, when you have unconditional self acceptance, you separate yourself from your qualities and realize you're not perfect, but still accept yourself. In this mindset. Your happiness is not based on your qualities and not based on your characteristics. When you do fail, it won't throw you into a bout of depression. But having unconditional self acceptance will help you to accept that you are not perfect, but we'll continue to try to be better. Interesting research on a similar topic was found by Alan Marlette that has made a great impact on a relapse prevention strategies for those who struggle with addiction and substance abuse. He found that individuals who lapsed in other words, those who were trying to recover from an addiction and slipped or gave in to their drinker drug and had a greater amount of grief following actually had a greater likelihood of falling back into the same destructive pattern of addiction, otherwise a full blown relapse. The truth is that the greater amount of grief and guilt we feel often propels us not away from the problematic behavior, but into it even more. But those that are more positive about their lapses or slips or mistakes and viewed it as a stepping stone instead of a stumbling block actually progress farther and have more success . Similarly, with life, whatever challenges you may have, you will and can perform well. But you need to keep in mind that you also make mistakes. When you succeed, you should take pride in it, but when you don't succeed, you don't beat yourself up about it. To the point of despair. This is really important to help others to understand. When you do something that you shouldn't have, you can criticize your actions. But remember, don't punish yourself. Don't make it personal in our A b T. We don't make it personal. You pick yourself up and move on. This is what unconditional self acceptances realize that you fail without being a failure. You can act in a bad way without being a bad person. You would see mistakes. Just is a mistake, something to learn from. You unconditionally accept yourself as a human with faults but also with successes. This in itself is irrational because it is true. In already BT, we also want our clients toe have unconditional other acceptance. It is accepting others in a way that you evaluate their behavior what they dio, but not them personally. So throughout this course, keep that in mind. You will be focused on the behavior, not the person. This is important because our expectations of other people were not properly put into perspective can greatly impact how we feel about ourselves when we are let down 12. Hijacking the Brain: science has shown that when we are experiencing strong emotions, the limbic system the part of the brain that is primitive and developed before rational thought starts to override our thinking. When we're in the heat of emotion, we often do not think clearly. One thing you will learn and counseling is that when emotions are high, rational thinking is low. Neuroscientists have called this process is hijacking or the hijacking of the brain. The amygdala, for example, which is part of the limbic system, has powerful potential, and it also has been called the Fear Center because one of this hyperactive, such as when we're experiencing strong emotions such as anxiety, we're not thinking clearly and the higher functioning part of the brain, the prefrontal cortex that keeps this limbic system in check is often suppressed. We're in the heat of emotion, but how do we release the brain from the limits systems grasp? We use it. We think we analyze, we contemplate. This is what I have told my clients. When struggling with addiction, such as a craving or anxiety, the brain is hijacked, and the way to release it from the limit systems grasp is to get the higher functioning brain more involved. Our govt is particularly attractive because you get the prefrontal cortex of the brain warrant involved in the process to keep the limbic system in check when we rationally think and think rationally were no longer so caught up. Unhelpful emotional states. If we're honest with ourselves, we may find that we have a rational thoughts going on in our lines constantly. You may find that when you're trying to understand the underlying thought processes, beliefs or expectations that you have about certain events in your life, you find that your underlying beliefs and what you have told yourself was largely irrational, meaning not logical or not even sensible are not backed by evidence. We must be perfect. We cannot fail. We tell ourselves we must be accepted in every situation. We must be approved and accepted by everyone and so forth. These air common beliefs and statements that we have and the basis of real attitudes that always result in us falling short. It contributes to low self esteem results and anxieties about the future makes us tense and feel unworthy because this type of demand thinking, forceful thinking and perfectionism, results and failure. We cannot control what other people think of us, and we cannot be perfect all the time because we're humans. We must change our thinking. We need to change our beliefs. Therefore, you should know that the court notion of our A B T and to use it properly is based on the assertion that human emotions and behaviors are generated by beliefs and thoughts, not by the events themselves. Keep that in mind. It is the reaction to events that bring us grief, not the event themselves. And when we change our thinking about events, we feel better on our behavior again is more positive and constructive. Even when we do fail, we will still accept ourselves and move forward. 13. Types of Irrational Thinking: in this video, I will talk about the impacts of irrational thinking according to our a b. T. There are three main characteristics of irrational thinking that negatively affect the claim. First, irrational thinking gets in the way of allowing someone to progress and achieve their goals . And they have in life, because irrational thinking causes extreme emotions that interfere, causes distress and immobilizes the client. This works against one who was seeking progression. It also feeds behaviors that are harmful to one's self harmful to others and life in general. Secondly, irrational thinking also distorts reality. Our view is distorted. Our view is not accurately represented and what is actually happening. Additionally, our view would not be supported by evidence when we're actually think it gives us a misrepresentation of reality. Thirdly, irrational thinking contributes to us, evaluating ourselves and others or life in general in an illogical way. So just a recap. Rational thinking limits us, creates barriers. It distorts reality for us and causes us to also evaluate ourselves or others or life in general in an illogical way. So you can see that when talking to clients. This is why we use the term self defeating we wouldn't want to use the term irrational because of the stigma attached. But instead, when meeting with clients to focus on how their beliefs negatively affect their lives by limiting their progression, distorting their reality and their perception of themselves, that is why they feel so low. That is why they are under distress. Attached to this video is a document that you can print off and use an altar if you wish. It can remind you of thes three characterizations that stem from irrational thinking. 14. Types of Disturbance: with our E B. T. The theory holds that humans disturb themselves. When you read a guide to rational living, you will find disturbance as something Albert Ellis often uses, a term that he often uses. What this really means is that defeat or distress is really caused by an individual's own thinking and beliefs. As mentioned in the video, prior, irrational thinking needs to self defeat or, in other words, clients holding themselves back, creating a barrier or immobilizing them so it becomes difficult to progress in our e B. T. It is called ego Disturbance, or by having irrational beliefs that affects the client's emotional comfort or physical comfort, which is called Discomfort Disturbance. So here we will have both terms that I will discuss ego disturbance and discomfort, disturbance and oftentimes the to overlap. For example, clients will the same time thinking rationally about themselves, such as I must gain approval from everyone. This belief is irrational because you can't control how others will perceive you. Not every single person will like or approve of you. It is unrealistic, but this belief will impact us through discomfort disturbance because it pushes the client to not be in situations where he or she could risk not being approved by others. As a result, they will often be affected by ego disturbance because it affects how they fill in view themselves as someone that must be approved by everyone. If not, they will become distressed if someone doesn't prove of them. You see ICO disturbance conflicts with a client self image. This means holding onto demands of one south. This also includes the common beliefs and statements such as I must never fail or I must always do Well. As mentioned, this creates anxiety about oneself because it gives the perception that one gains personal worth through the unrealistic expectations one has of him or herself. This will usually result in avoidance behaviour where the individual avoid situations to relieve this anxiety were disapproval, failure to meet expectations or the fear of falling short may occur where ego disturbances about oneself, discomfort, disturbance results from the demands of others. But let's look at discomfort disturbance a bit more. There are actually two types of discomfort disturbance. They are low frustration, tolerance and low discomfort, tolerance, low frustration. Tolerance comes from demanding frustrating situations not happen to us, and that we try to avoid the frustration. This means having the belief that I can't stand when these things happen, and we really wish that things be as we want them to. If things become frustrating, we can't stand. Whereas low discomfort tolerance comes from demands that we should not experience physical discomfort are emotional discomfort. For example, the belief I should always be happy all the time, where I must not experience any pain or pain is awful and should be avoided always at all costs. Again. This includes emotional and physical pain. You can see why this perception is harmful. This can lead to the use of drugs or impulsivity to manage uncomfortable feeling situations and discomfort instead of approaching life and accepting life as it ISS with some discomfort, some pain, which is a more realistic view. In the next video, we will focus more on R E. B T is a view of discomfort, disturbance and how it contributes to problems 15. Discomfort Disturbance: discomfort disturbance can lead to problems that include avoiding situations, discomfort, anxiety, worrying about situations, negativity, procrastination, impulsivity that I mentioned before and secondary disturbances. In this video, I will be covering these problems that were created from discomfort disturbance first avoidance. This comfort disturbance leads to avoiding the event or situation that is believed to be too difficult or hard to bear. We often seek to avoid situations we know are uncomfortable, and this is self defeating, because when we avoid situations, it further aggravates and increases our anxiety because avoidance feeds anxiety. So next time when we have a similar situation, such as a work party or speaking in front of a large group, for example, our anxiety about it has increased discomfort. Anxiety is where we start to film anxiety when we hold the perception that our happiness, comfort or our life is threatened when it really is not. Anxiety is useful if we're being chased by a bear, for example, because it gets us to move quickly or if there is an immediate threat. But modern day anxiety and over worry is usually not that severe and needs to be managed again. Avoidance of doing things avoidance of situations often feeds these feelings. Discomfort disturbance can also result in a lot of worrying. Worrying about things that would be awful are bad. Often the things we tend to worry about never happened. The negativity is another result of discomfort. Disturbance. This is a problem that results from being too distressed over the unfairness in life or setbacks or failings. This often results when making comparisons to others and their situations. The belief life isn't fair or this is how it should be often contribute to negativity. Then procrastination often results from discomfort. Disturbance to procrastination is where we postponed difficult tasks or things we'll find unpleasant. As already mentioned in the previous video, short range enjoyment, impulsivity and the seeking it of immediate pleasure to avoid pain or discomfort often results. Then again, impulsivity is another way to deal with discomfort. Disturbance. Here we can see that we might give in to our vices, such as drugs, alcohol, tobacco to alleviate our current discomfort level or make it less painful. Here. We give in to our current situation and do not think in the long term. Then secondary disturbance is a bit unique compared to the others because it is a problem that results from a problem. What this means is that secondary disturbance is often having anxiety about anxiety or frustration about being frustrated. As you can see, discomfort disturbance can result in the symptoms that are detrimental to our well being and are self defeating. 16. Core Beliefs: Now we get to the core beliefs, core beliefs or what underlies what we think about ourselves in specific situations. They explain the way we react to situations or events in our lives. They're the beliefs we hold about how we must conduct ourselves, how we must gain approval, for example, or why we avoid pain at all costs. Our core beliefs have been called our subconscious Rules that we Live by Albert Ellis identified several core beliefs that underlie are unhelpful, negative emotional states and behaviors. So we won't be looking at the core beliefs that lead to helpful negative emotions because we don't need to bother with those. We do need to understand our core beliefs that leads to unnecessary suffering, lead to unhelpful behaviours and negative emotional states. The core beliefs that lead to unhelpful, negative emotions and behaviors, Ellis tells us, includes the need to have love and approval from those closest to us and to avoid disapproval from others. The belief that we must succeed in achieving all that we do. We must never make mistakes. The core belief that people who do not behave in right way should be punished and pay for it the core belief that things in our lives should be the way that we want them to be, and the belief that our happiness is caused by the things that are out of our control, the core belief that we must worry about things that could be unpleasant or frightening. The core belief that we must avoid life's unpleasantness or anything that is too difficult or challenging for us. The core belief that we must depend on someone that is stronger than ourselves, the core belief that problems are caused from the events in our past, the need to feel unhappy when others air sad or upset the core belief that I shouldn't be feeling discomfort or pain and should avoid them at all costs and the core belief that if there are no solution of problems, it is intolerable. You can see why this results in unhelpful emotions and reactions that becomes self defeating. Another thing to notice is that these beliefs do have an element of truth to them. That is how they become so powerful and convincing to us. For example, we want those closest around us toe love us. That is a good thing, but must they or I want to have success, don't we? But we must also accept that we can make mistakes and fall short. Also, we want to avoid pain. Don't way. Yes, but we must also realize that painful situations and accidents happen. It is how these beliefs are worded. They are stated as demands. They contain words such as must should or we need. So you can see why these lead to unnecessary suffering. When we have these demands placed on us, anything other than 100% success or perfection can lead to unhelpful emotions and behaviors . So in the next video we will discuss evaluative beliefs because this will help us to understand these musts and demands we place on ourselves. Ari Beattie tells us that there are four types of evaluative beliefs that help us to determine if they are dysfunctional. I will be covering these in the next video 17. Types of Evaluative Belief: In this video, I will be discussing the four types of evaluative belief the four types of evaluative belief are demanding this awful izing discomfort, intolerance and people rating first demanding this. Ellis holds that this is what most of our core beliefs fall under this evaluative belief, demanding This is how we hold onto unconditional should or must. We should do this, or we must do that. This must not happen to me. Sometimes we often say to ourselves, These are all examples of demanding this. And as you saw the list in the previous video, most of our core beliefs that lead to unhealthy negative emotions and behaviors contain these words demanding. This tells us that certain things must be adhered. Teoh. If not, then we experience anxiety, extreme worry or other problematic emotions. Ellis proposed that there are three basic demands. The demands about oneself, the demands about others and the demands about the world. When we have demands about ourself, it leads to ego disturbance. Remember, ego disturbance creates anxiety when we hold expectations about ourselves and affects our self image demands about other people or the world. The second and third basic demand usually leads to discomfort disturbance as an example for the demands of others in the world. We can see in the core belief he shouldn't have done that or life shouldn't be that way. This leads to us. Avoiding people that have upset us causes us anxiety, be around them or negative about life in general. Next, awful izing happens when we exaggerate the consequences. These consequences could be in the past or future or in the present. When we awful eyes, we see consequences as the most awful and the worst thing that can happen. An awful izing. We often will see the words such as awful terrible or horrible. If we do not get an A in class, life will be awful, for example, or if I make a mistake at work, it would be horrible. These are beliefs that fall under awful izing. The funny thing about them is that the more we worry about something, the less able we usually are to perform well. You can see where this is also self defeating. Now discomfort. Intolerance is the next evaluative belief. You may recall in a previous video, when we have low discomfort tolerance, it comes from the belief that we should not experience any physical discomfort or emotional discomfort, such as I should always be happy or, unless not experience any pain. When it comes to discomfort intolerance, we are intolerant to discomfort. As the name suggests. When we have this belief, we avoid situations, procrastinate, etcetera than in people. Rating. We continually raid ourselves, evaluate ourselves or someone else, and when we do so, we value are worth based on our rating. For example, we evaluate our traits and characteristics or those of others if we did a bad thing than we are a bad person. For example, if someone cut us off in traffic, they did a bad thing. They must be about person or the belief. I forgot to prepare that report for work. Today. I am such a stupid person. You can see why this evaluative belief becomes problematic. It leads the depression feeling down or leads to anger. It will also tell us if we are affected by ego disturbance. It was good to know that an R E B t demanding this is usually or has traditionally been viewed as the main type of irrational thinking. That is why most core beliefs fall under demanding this. The reason being is that usually, for example, you rate yourself poorly. If you have high demands of yourself and fail, there always seems to be a demand at the core of the issue. In the next video, I will cover how already BT proposes, we think based on the rules we set. 18. The Way We Think: in our DBT. It is important to know how we think and understand our underlying core beliefs because we all have rules and usually subconscious rules that really determine how we behave and act in life. The way we react to events largely stems from the rules we set for ourselves and the more demanding it is, such as we cannot fail no matter what, for example, usually results in greater problems. So we need to keep in mind that the way we react in life largely depends on the way we consciously think about events based on subconscious rules that underlie that. So let's examine this a bit further. Let's say that a person has a rule. I must be accepted by everyone. If I don't, it will be unbearable. This is a core belief that will lead them to have anxiety and social situations because of the great demand placed on any possibility of someone not liking them becomes unbearable. This results in avoiding any or all situations where other people are present, where he could risk not being approved. It also will result in depression or low self esteem in already beauty. We are really focused on helping individuals understand their underlying rules, otherwise known as core beliefs. This will involve examining the inferences and evaluations that one has. Inferences are guesses about what we believe is happening to us will happen or has happened to us in the past. They are guesses that we see is fact. We don't spend too much time about inferences and Ari BT because an r E b t they aren't significant enough for us. They only help us to understand our evaluations of life and its events. But when it comes to evaluations, those air more significantly observed and used in the RTB T perspective evaluations can work at the conscious level, but also at the subconscious level. Evaluations that are irrational operate in one of the four types of irrational beliefs that was mentioned earlier, demanding this awful ization, discomfort, intolerance and self rating. In the next video, we will come to understand the main differences as we evaluate the rational and irrational beliefs 19. Flexible and Not Extreme: in this section will be covering the characteristics of rational belief. Albert Ellis believe that rational beliefs are flexible and not extreme. On the other side, the irrational beliefs he found them to be rigid and extreme. Let's take a look at how irrational belief is flexible. The rational belief which would be flexible. Might be. I want my new roommates alike me. But if he doesn't life goes on than in the same situation of wanting to roommate toe like you. Let's look at an irrational belief, which could be I want my new roommate toe like me so he must. Our life will be miserable. You can see that with this belief. It is rigid and extreme because you are saying your roommate must like you, which is inflexible and rigid. And if he doesn't like you, your life will be miserable, which is the extreme part. Now the rational belief is flexible in the way that you can assert what you want. You want your new roommate toe like you. All of us probably would, But you also realize and acknowledge that he does not have to, because you do not have to get what you want now imagine if you have this rational belief. It is not extreme because you do see it can be a negative event, rooming with someone that perhaps doesn't like you. But you can also acknowledge that life goes on and you can deal with it. The reality of it is, is that your new roommate has the choice to like You are not like you. That's a fact. He does not have to like you remember, Ari bt employees that we must have unconditional acceptance of others. They need to be free to Fila's. They will, so is very helpful to remember this irrational beliefs are not extreme, while irrational beliefs are typically extreme. 20. True or False: Now we know that a rational belief is true while an irrational belief is false. Let's look at the examples we used earlier. Again. I want my new roommate toe like me. But if he doesn't, life goes on. Does this sound true? If we break it down into the two parts, we can see it better. I want my new roommate toe like me. That is the first part. Is there anything false in this statement? No. Because we are expressing that we would like your new roommate to like you. This is really what? Your desire. Nothing false about this. You are expressing what you prefer. It is true because you probably have a lot of reasons why you want to roommate toe like you . Such as it will be easier for the both of you to help each other out while keeping the apartment clean maintained. And you will have a new friend, whatever it might be. So this first part of your belief is true. Nothing is false here. Then we get to the second part. But if he doesn't, life goes on here. You are accepting the possibility that he may not like you, which is true. Your roommate liking you are not liking you are both possibilities. But you are also acknowledging that life will go on, which is not only constructive and positive, but also true. Life will go on. Now let's compare that phrase to the irrational one. I want my new roommate toe like me. So he must. Our life will be miserable. The first part is true again. You're expressing that you want your new roommate toe like you. But then the second part is he must or life will be miserable. Here we can see the word must again. Any words that are absolute should trigger this and show us that is not a true statement and most likely irrational. But also ask yourself what is the evidence that life will be miserable? There really isn't any. If you do not get along with your roommate, that doesn't mean your whole life will be miserable. Stating life in general will be miserable because of a roommate. Does not like you is obviously false. What is most likely to happen? We just may not get a new friend. We may not have a new friend. We may not be able to help each other out as much as we like. Teoh, etcetera. This is where we see and determine which statement is true and which is false. Another way to find out if this belief is true or false is to look at the sensibility of it . Is it sensible or insensible? Sensible Means doesn't make sense. Let's again look at the rational statement again. I want my roommate toe like me. But if he doesn't, life goes on. This is sensible because you are showing there isn't a connection between what you desire and what you need to get. You want to roommate toe like you. But if he doesn't use state life goes on, you are showing his free will his choice in this irrational statement. I want my new roommate toe like me. So he must. Our life will be miserable. Does this make sense here? It doesn't make sense because you are stating that there is a connection with what your desire and what you need to get. You want your new roommate toe like you. So we must. This is not a true statement. So it fails the test. We put it up to scrutiny. 21. Constructive or Unconstructive: in this video, we'll be discussing constructive or un constructive type of beliefs now, having a rational belief. We usually result in constructive consequences when we are more rationally thinking we're more realistic and the consequences usually are more positive. If we look at the same belief, I want my roommate toe like me. But if he doesn't life goes on. How is that constructive? That is constructive because accepting the truth. The sensibility of this statement allows you to move on if your roommate doesn't like you. For example, if your roommate ends up not liking you and loses their temperature for no justifiable reason, you will not become anxious about it, which is the emotional consequence. You will most likely open up a dialogue with your roommate or talk to them, which is the behavioral consequence, which can lead to understanding each other. And future outbursts are less likely to happen through this understanding. You will also be more likely to think that when your new roommate is upset about something , it may not even be about you or have to do with you. When we look at the irrational belief, it is largely un constructive because when we say things like he must or life will be miserable. Your belief of this will be thrown into situations like the one we just mentioned. If he yells at you, we can again look at the consequences that will most likely follow. It will spark anxiety because you are imagining life as a whole being miserable when this happens. Typically you'll have similar behavioral consequences, such as avoiding your new roommate or trying to really get accepted from him in a desperate way or continually thinking that your roommate really did get upset with you instead of being upset with someone else or something else. And it really may have nothing to do with you. You see this results in anxiety, depression, low self, fourth and again, these air consequences that are unhealthy and a negative emotion, whereas irrational belief, would only result in concern, which is constructive. In the next video, I'll describe how to understand these statements with an intellectual and a motive understanding. This will enable clients to acquire new, rational and helpful constructive alternatives to an irrational belief 22. Intellectual and Emotive Understanding: as mentioned, when we follow this pattern of identifying the unhealthy negative belief and change it to its rational equivalent instead of anxiety or other negative emotional states, we will feel concern. Instead of depression, we may feel sadness. Instead of guilt, we may feel remorse. Albert Ellis has distinguished two types of understanding their intellectual understanding and a motive. Understanding. This comes into play when a person is trying to change the irrational belief to its rational equivalent. Using the irrational example again, I want my new roommate toe like me, so he must. Our life will be miserable when you acknowledge that this belief is irrational, that it is rigid, or that it doesn't make sense that it is false and un constructive and that your rational alternative I want my roommate toe like me. But if he doesn't, life goes on is rational because it is flexible and more sensible, true and constructive. So that's good. But what you may find is that we can identify the irrational statement and even change it to its rational alternative. But when it comes to doing so, sometimes we're stuck in the intellectual understanding and not in the emotive understanding So when we understand intellectually that these irrational beliefs need to be changed and we have an alternative to replace them with, you may even think to yourself. This is all in my head. And if that's the case, sometimes your feelings are inconsistent with the rational belief, because you need to understand the rational statement in a motive. Understanding, too. Without it, your intellect will say that this rational statement is a rational statement. But your emotions might say, but it still hurts. Here again, it sparks anxious feelings and therefore connect inconsistent to irrational belief we're trying to acquire and use as a replacement. So while you understand the intellectual reason why you're irrational, belief is irrational and you make the necessary changes and then examine your rational belief and understand that the new rational alternative is rational. This understanding will not have much of an impact on you unless your understanding is also a motive. This is a large reason why those that use our A B T failed to get the optimal results. Just replacing in irrational belief with its alternative rational belief is not enough. In some cases, if you do not understand it emotionally, you need to feel, think and act in ways that are consistent with the rational belief. This is where the power of our TBT comes in. Therefore, feeling concerned and not anxious about your roommate not liking you would be the most proper motive response. So how would you do this? You have your rational belief in your mind. But if events still hurt you while you're wrestling with adopting a new, helpful and rational belief, it helps to react to the uncomfortable. Are unfortunate event in a more positive, constructive and true non extreme way. Remember, these were the characteristics of rational beliefs. Sometimes changing our core beliefs are a bit more difficult. So we need to get our whole self on board if we struggle to fully acquire that are rational beliefs. So how do we do that? Well, taking the same example, you would do that by opening up dialogue about why your new roommate yelled at you. Even if you don't want Teoh. This is how someone who isn't seeking acceptance would act. So ask yourself. How would someone with a more rational belief act Once you find your answer, Go do it. Pretending has always been an effective way to get your emotions on board. If you're in a bad mood, start to smile, pretend you're happy, and what you'll find is that you start to become happier. If you want to love, someone, starts serving them, and then you will find that you really start to love them. If you want to not be offended by remarks, act as if you weren't and you'll find that you no longer are when we talk about our A B T and about replacing our rational thoughts, beliefs and attitudes with the rational equivalent that is all good and well. But sometimes it takes some effort to allow our emotions to catch up to what we know to be true and to start acting like it. Even when we replace our irrational thought with the rational thought, we still need to act in accordance with that rational, fucked as another example. If we have an irrational belief, if I don't sleep at night, I won't be able to function at all. Most likely, you will be able to function. If you don't sleep well, it one night you will most likely be tired or a bit groggy So what do you do to change this irrational belief to its rational equivalent, such as? I hope to sleep tonight. But if I don't, I can still accomplish what I have planned. This will also help you fall asleep. So if you happen to not sleep due to a sick kid at home or whatever it may be, your rational belief is correct. But also get your a motive understanding to support it. You do this by approaching the day in accordance to your rational belief about it, you go to work, accomplished the tasks you had, write your emails, do everything you normally would, and you will find that you are more able to function. You don't completely break down. In the next section will be understanding the ABC model. This becomes invaluable when you talk about identifying irrational beliefs and replacing them. 23. ABCDE Model: has covered in the last video and motive in our TBT means what is relative to your emotions . Like many other therapies, this model includes our emotions. It asserts that when people have negative life events, they typically have emotional consequences about it. We may not initially be aware of our thoughts and beliefs, but they do have a very strong impact on us and how we behave in a particular situation. This is what brings us to the ABC model. The ABC model is helpful when understanding in more detail the process of how thoughts, behaviors and attitudes become problematic. The A stands for activating event. This is where something happens. This is the event itself. This could be a loss of a job. A close friend dies or acquiring an unexpected illness. For example, this can really be any negative event that usually has an impact on us. It can also be falling short in some area, such as failing a test, not performing well in a presentation or having a friend avoid you. These types of activating events have something to do with your expectations of what you want. You wanted to succeed on that test. You didn't want to lose your job, your friend or fall short, then be is the beliefs. It includes the thoughts and attitudes about the A. The activating event. The beliefs that follow the A can either be rational or irrational, meaning that the beliefs can either be consistent with the event. For example, if you fall short and do not pass a test in college, your life will not end. But you will be better prepared for the next one. But if the irrational thought follows, it will be self defeating. You may think that you must do well on all tests, and if you don't, you are a failure in all areas of life. Something to keep in mind is that the beliefs can be general, such as everyone must like me when the belief is more in general, the person having that belief has a tendency to hold on to that belief to situations where adversity occurs. This means whenever the individual is in a social situation, a college or at work, he or she will become quite sensitive to other comments or mannerisms from others. He looked at me weird. What a jerk, or she ignored me this proves no one likes me, for example, or the belief everyone must like me makes one to being extra nice to people whom he or she encounters that has not yet shown disapproval. Then see is the consequence the emotions that follow. If you feel a test, you may feel matter upset. These emotions and behaviors of feeling this way are the result of an activating event, plus the belief of the attitude about it. So a plus B equals C sees the emotions that follow or the behavioral consequence. If a friend snapped at you, the way you react and Phil is the consequence, then D is where the effective therapy comes in. This is where we debate and dispute the rational beliefs. This is where we identify that they are irrational and, if they are, then weaken, dispute them as being irrational. When we do this, we also want to have clients adapt rational beliefs that has a positive impact on their feelings and behaviour auras, Albert Ellis puts it on their cognitive, emotional and behavioral responses. During this stage, you will emphatically challenge the irrational beliefs than e are effective beliefs. This is where we replace the old, ineffective, unhelpful or irrational beliefs with rational, helpful and effective beliefs. And then we will start to see how it leads to different consequences. This is where new emotions and behaviors can be created from replacing a rational beliefs with rational ones. This results in helpful and constructive beliefs and rational alternatives. People can change how they fill these air, the emotional consequences following inactivated event. People can also change what they dio the behavioral consequences. Well, some might wonder, Why not just change the activating event? Sometimes you can, but many times you can't. You can't control when a friend dies, when the weather ruined your plans for a picnic or how others perceive you. These are some things that are out of your control, So what are you? BT Does is focuses on beliefs about these events. And, yes, it is always possible to change your beliefs to strengthen the acquisition of irrational belief. You would want to a motive Lee support your rational belief by acting in accordance to it. Attached to this video is a document that you can use for yourself or with a client to help you conceptualize the ABC model. This should be helpful as a visually to go through the elements with a client through this sequence, 24. You Have Control: as mentioned before the situations you might be placed in, or the negative life experiences you may have gone through or go through that seem overwhelming, negative and harmful. Do not in itself cause how you feel or how you behave. It is your beliefs about them and your expectations about how they should be. This is how are LGBT operates. The spirit of our A B t is that people themselves do not upset you. You make yourself upset by the expectations you have about people or about yourself. The thoughts and beliefs that many of us have when we meet someone new is I want this personal like me If they don't, this proves that I can't make any friends. We all have beliefs in our mind that are very similar and make us upset. If our own expectations of others are not met, we must be like we often tell ourselves, or deep down you may find that you have expectations that everybody we meet must like us. So what does this dio? It sets us up for failure because not everyone will like us or be overly fond of us. We can't have everybody feel that way about us. It's not realistic. But remember, with the concept of unconditional self acceptance, we accept ourselves, even if someone else doesn't. And with the other concept of our a b t unconditional others acceptance. We accept others choices. It does not have to be negatively affecting us if they choose not to like us. The truth is that people do not make you happy. You make yourself happy. Since you have control over your beliefs, you are able to change them and more positive emotions and behaviors will follow these events. When you realize this, the ari BT becomes a very empowering and helpful and useful. This is why the A B C's are important to understand. When the activating event happens, our beliefs about it produces the outcome. So in the next section we will look more closely at D and E because this is where relief from unnecessary suffering really begins. This is where we change and this is where change happens 25. Intro to Cognitive Distortions: in cognitive behavioral therapy there what counselors and therapists often call cognitive distortions. Cognitive distortions are the ways that our mind convinces us of something that really isn't true. Hence their distorted or distortions because it has inaccuracies, and they tend to reinforce negative thinking or trigger unhelpful emotions or behaviors. For example, they tell us something that sounds rational and accurate, but it really isn't and keeps us from feeling bad or discouraged about ourselves or life in general. A cognitive distortion could be I wasn't invited to the party. This proves that no one likes me. This is a cognitive distortion, namely generalization, where we take from a specific event and make it generalized that no one likes me. This can lead to depression and, of course, other negative emotions. Cognitive distortions are at the center of kind of behavioral therapy, and so they are relevant to us in our A B T. As R E. B. T. Is a type of cognitive behavioral therapy as well. Cognitive distortions, air also helpful toe identify irrational beliefs by labelling it in the example just shared . That was the carton of distortion of generalization. So in this section you will see how Ari Bt can be effective using the carnage, distortions, toe, identify, label and then replace 26. Debating and Effective Beliefs: In this video, I will be covering more in depth the D and E, the debating stage and effective belief stage, because this is where we really need to focus to get results. So let's look at the DNE debating and effective beliefs and how new emotions and behaviors can be created. We know what happens by replacing the irrational belief with irrational one. This tape. This takes place in the process of identifying the unhelpful belief, debating it or challenging at sometimes deeply held believes. Even so, I'm deeply held beliefs, spring pain and grief because they're about how you should be, how the world should be, how those around you should be and how your overall expectations about your experiences are . But when you challenge these beliefs by debating and disputing them, it becomes easier to replace them with new ones, which is in step e that bring relief. What you should keep in mind, though, is that you should emphatically debate and dispute the irrational beliefs you have identified and to help your clients to emphatically debate them. It should take some effort to debate these beliefs, these irrational beliefs. Okay, we have identified an irrational belief and want to replace it with a rational belief. Let's review the A B. C's Again. A. Represents the activating event or the event itself that leads to be, which represents the belief again, the belief can be rational or irrational. Then you have see which is the consequence. This results in healthy negative emotions or unhealthy negative emotions. Then you have DNE. This is when you have identified the emotion or behaviour as unhealthy. So let's talk about a real life situation for practice. Let's look at this example where a friend does not text you back. This is the activating event. Let's say your belief about this event that follows is that you've done something wrong. I've done something wrong, you might say, and come to the conclusion that no one likes me. Then what would be the consequence? The consequence from this belief you hold about this event is that you have become depressed and upset. But is this depression and being upset helpful? No, it is not. Remember, an R e B T anger and depression is something we're seeking to eliminate. It is not helpful. Concern is okay, but anger and depression in the spirit of our A B T is not so. This falls under the inappropriate emotion or behaviour. So we know we have a problem here, don't we? So what do we do now? We determine that we need to debate and challenged this belief that led to the feelings of depression and anger. So here in stage D, we debate the belief by examining the evidence. Is it rational or logical? If a friend doesn't text you back right away, does this really mean and really result in proving that no one likes you? When we are honest with ourselves? We will find that this statement does not hold upto a logical causation, meaning that when a friend doesn't texture back, there is not enough evidence or any evidence to show that it proves no one likes you first . You can understand why this is a cognitive distortion. It is an over generalization. It is a single event that has generalized to all situations. Surely there are some people who like you see, this doesn't hold up. So what I like to do here is to use the jury instructions in criminal cases. If you are going to incriminate yourself for example. First, give yourself a trial. Being on a U. S. Jury myself, you are instructed that you cannot find the defendant guilty until we are convinced beyond a reasonable doubt that he or she committed the crime. This means that there is no room for doubt. If there is doubt after examining all the evidence, we cannot convict them of their guilt. In civil cases, they have a similar meaning in the phrase use preponderance of the evidence. You see, you need strong proof to convict yourself. So the weight of the evidence is against you. In the statement, one person not texting you back does not result in no one liking you because you won't find any evidence of causation. Secondly, this is also an over generalization statement applying this toe all situations. So the weight of the evidence is against you. In this statement, one person not texting you back does not result in no unlike in you because you won't find any evidence of causation. Secondly, this is also on over generalizing statement applying this to all situations. In fact, when examined, the evidence goes against this, doesn't it? What is most likely in this scenario The most likely explanation is that your friend got busy. That's why they didn't texture back or they left their phone in their car. Was it work in Can't text now was driving or even was meaning to texture back, but got distracted and simply forgot not because they hate you. The weight of the evidence is against this irrational statement. Now, once you have examined the evidence and debated the belief, you know, of course will replace it with the effective and helpful belief. This is where you will replace your original, non helpful or irrational belief with a helpful and rational one. You will adopt rational, constructive and helpful belief. As mentioned in the previous videos. This will change the consequences. So let's look at the same belief I've done something wrong. This proves no one likes me. Let's change it to my friend is probably busy or distracted myself. Worth and happiness does not depend on him texting me back. Now, in this next slide, we will have the same event. A friend is not text you back, but the belief about it changes. The belief in thoughts is that my friend is probably busier, distracted myself worth and happiness does not depend on him. Texting me back has covered before. You can see that this belief is more constructive, but it is also more realistic and provides a more realistic explanation. Therefore, the consequence that follows is that you are content. You are not bothered. This shows the impact that realistic beliefs have. They lead to constructive feelings in E. You can also tell yourself about what you prefer but not need, such as. I prefer my friend to text me back, but most likely he is busy or distracted. This example shows us how the same situation can be interpreted differently in scenario one . The result was being depressed and upset While how we reacted differently in scenario, two leads to being more content because the beliefs and thoughts about the situation changed to be more accurate. When our thoughts and beliefs about a situation changes are consequences change? This is the spirit of our A B T. This is why we must learn to interpret and evaluate situations in a constructive way attached to this video's a worksheet to help you with your clients to examine the evidence and debate the irrational beliefs 27. Adopting New Beliefs: Now that you have debated and challenge your negative beliefs, you can now begin to replace them with rational and helpful beliefs. We will look at the previous examples used to help us replace those with more helpful and rational alternatives. Let's look at the awful izing and catastrophe izing example. The awful izing example given before was my friend hasn't texted me back. She is a horrible person again. This is awful izing or catastrophe izing because it includes the words horrible. So let's look at this and how we can dispute this belief. We would need to ask ourselves, Is it rigid or extreme? Saying your friend is a horrible person? Do toe a minor incident of not texting you back is extreme. Is this statement true? Can you really follow the rationale behind the statement? Cannot texting you back really mean that she is a terrible person? No, it can't. People who are not horrible or terrible do not text back in a timely manner to there is no way to draw this conclusion based on the rationale or evidence. Well, is it constructive? If it leads to anger as it seems to be the no, it is not having such a large demand on your friend and your expectations off him or her is counterproductive. This leads to anger, frustration at your friend and may feed depression as well. So now that we have debated and challenged it, what we would do now is replace it and adopt a non extreme, true and constructive or helpful belief we would replace it with. My friend hasn't texted me back. She is probably busy. You see, we have got rid of that horrible key word in that sentence. Next, the demand thinking statement we used earlier was I must not fail this exam today because I will not be able to accept a poor grade. Remember, demand thinking contains the words Should must or have Teoh. You would dispute this by asking, Is it too rigid or extreme? It is rigid, that's for sure. I must do something and will not be able to accept it. That is a very rigid statement. Would it be true? Most likely life will go on. Even if you say you will not be able to accept a poor grade. Is it going to haunt you for the rest of your life? most likely know. Most likely you want to pass the exam. And the worst thing that may happen if you don't, is that you'll have to work with your professor, Do some extra credit to retake the class again. Is this constructive? No, it is not. This place is a huge demand on you. Thinking you will not be able to accept a poor grade is not constructive. This raises filled with demand thinking, even if the likelihood is that you will pass. But holding this false and unhelpful belief will feed anticipatory anxiety up to the exam. Preventing you from performing well, not thinking is clear, for example, typically is a result from anxiety. And after the exam, most likely not getting the grade you want. This feeds unnecessary suffering. So we have debated and challenged this belief. So what we do now with this statement is to change it to its rational equivalent. We would change this belief to I realize passing this exam is a big deal to me. I will try my hardest. But if I do not do well, the world will not end. You see, here we have changed it to show what we prefer and that the world will not end if we don't get what we want. This statement is also not rigid. It shows flexibility. It is the most true because that is what most likely is toe happen. It is also very constructive. You will still try hard. If you do poorly, you realize you have tried your best and we'll learn from your mistake for next time. In the frustration intolerance category. This statement was, life will be too unbearable without my addiction. We could also say life will be too unbearable without my drug of choice, whether it be smoking our daily energy, drink whatever. Remember in this category your thoughts include words such as unbearable. Can't handle this or can't stand this again following the sequence. Is it rigid this belief in plays Life will not go on without the addiction. So you would dispute that this belief is too rigid. You dispute it's truthfulness because you definitely know life will go on. It may be difficult, but life goes on and life is filled with challenges. It definitely is not constructive. This is where you disputed on these grounds that it will not be helpful to you. And most likely, having a belief like this will postpone any recovery efforts and perpetuate addiction further because life without it will be unbearable. So the rational alternative to this statement can be Life will go on without my addiction. It does not determine my happiness. In the self downing category, we stated, I can never get the house to look clean. I'm a terrible life. This is where you are judging yourself, worth or rating your self worth. Based on just a couple of minor things. You will dispute this statement by seeing the error of drying and extreme conclusion. Not getting the house clean doesn't mean that you are a terrible person. It also is not true. This wouldn't hold up. This would not follow the line of reasoning. Not getting the house till it clean does not result. And being a terrible wife, how is this constructive? It isn't it all. You dispute this on this ground, too. It is not helpful or constructive because you will bring unnecessary grief and suffering to yourself by concluding you are terrible based on this minor things. So now we can replace that irrational belief with a more healthy alternative such as? I know I am trying to be better at getting the house clean. I am worthwhile. I am worthwhile because of my efforts here. It is not rigid or extreme. It is more true and is very constructive, showing a helpful attitude toward trying to be better at it. If that is, your goal is very constructive. In the other downing category, we use the statement. She didn't complete the report on time today for work. She is worthless again. You judge this person based on a standard you have set up for them, you have the belief that they must act in a certain way. You should dispute this immediately by seeing how extreme this really is. The word worthless should be a clear indicator. Is this person really worthless? If they didn't get a report completed for work, maybe they had a personal issue arise that you did not know off. Is it true? Doesn't follow the line of reasoning. Does not completing a report on time equal worthlessness? No, does not. It does not follow the line of reasoning Well is a constructive notice. Not at all. It results in anger. It is not helpful toe have the statement about someone because it will lead to anger, most likely malice for this person. But let's change this to she didn't complete the report on time for work today, but I realized no one is perfect here. You are replacing your belief with a more rational, healthy alternative and stating that you're accepting of how others can be okay Now, in the life down in category, we use the example life shouldn't be this way. You can dispute beliefs like this by seeing it is rigid. Saying what life should be is more demand, type of thinking and therefore rigid. You probably have an idea of what life should be, but must realize the truthfulness of this belief is false as well. It is not constructive because when you believe that life is out to get you, that is a certain way against what you think it should be. It isn't constructive. This can lead to depression and anger and the emotions of resentment for life in general again be accepting of your life even when things may not be going exactly as you hoped. So replace this with something such as this isn't the way I planned for it to be. But that's life. It has good and bad experiences. This is a great replacement because it isn't rigid, accepts life as good and bad and is constructed asserting that we take life as it happens, even if it contains things that we have not hoped is beneficial for us. And that's more favorable consequences. You should now have a very good understanding of our A B t to help those you work with, and we'll even find your mind catching irrational thoughts yourself. The great thing about R E B T is that it is very useful and even just gaining understanding of it helps us to see where it can help ourselves of unhelpful emotions when they hit. We can also see what the activating event ISS, what the underlying belief ISS and change it by emphatically challenging the belief and adopting a helpful, rational one. These techniques could really help anyone, and I wish you all the best