Quilling: Intro to Paper Quilled Shapes and Designs | Callie Mac Design | Skillshare

Quilling: Intro to Paper Quilled Shapes and Designs

Callie Mac Design, Handmade in Portland, OR

Quilling: Intro to Paper Quilled Shapes and Designs

Callie Mac Design, Handmade in Portland, OR

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8 Lessons (39m)
    • 1. Project Sneak Peek

    • 2. What Is Paper Quilling?

    • 3. Quilling Materials

    • 4. Basic Filler Shapes

    • 5. Work Time!

    • 6. Bonus Shapes!

    • 7. Arranging Your Design

    • 8. Finishing Touches

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About This Class

This class is a perfect start for beginner quillers! Get your twirl on with your slot tool and learn all of the shapes that are integral to paper quilling. We will be reviewing the tools needed for this craft, the twirling technique, 6 basic shapes and how to arrange these shapes into a design. This is a beginner class and we will just be working with single strips of paper, however, I will have another class with more advanced techniques once you are comfortable with these! After learning our basic shapes, I will be arranging them into a cactus design for a finished masterpiece!


Quilling tool

Paper strips

Meet Your Teacher

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Callie Mac Design

Handmade in Portland, OR


Hi All! I am Callie, the artist behind Callie Mac Design. I love all things DIY and craft-related though I specialize in wood burning (pyrography) and weaving. You can always find me in my studio trying something new! At this point I have tried resin art, wood burning, paper quilling, cement and mixed media, weaving, macrame... you name it, I probably have tried it.

When I am not creating in my studio, I enjoy teaching in person and online. During weekdays, I work in education as a school counselor. My goal is to help others find in life what art has been for me: a place for stress-free experimentation, making and learning from mistakes, and finding pride and confidence in one's ideas and achievements.

Visit my shop at Callie Mac Design and follow me on Instagram @calliema... See full profile

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1. Project Sneak Peek: Hi, everyone. And welcome Teoh. Basic paper quelling. I am Cowie and I am the artist and educator behind Callie Mack Design. And today we're going to have a beginner level introductory course around all of the foundations of paper quelling. So I'm going to be going over all of the different materials that you might be interested in using those that are required and then those that are extra optional. I'm gonna be going over some shapes that are really good foundations for how you build and arrange designs. And then at the end, we're going to be using all of those different shapes that we learn to make the super cute project. So we're gonna be working on this sweet little cactus, and we're going to be learning how to use these shapes to fill in, in outlined so that you end up with a project that looks kind of similar to this, and you can put it on something that you can hang in your house. You can put it on a card, you can put it on whatever you want. So we'll end up with this sweet little cactus design, and you'll also end up with the knowledge that you can carry forward of how you start to build designs that maybe don't even look like this one, So let's get started. 2. What Is Paper Quilling?: So I wanted to start with just a small introduction to what paper quelling is because I know some people have heard about it. Sometimes I hear Oh, that looks like something my grandma did. Um, but sometimes people have no idea what it is. So I wanted to give you just kind of an overview of what paperwork willing, more paper feel agree, which is another name for it is and how it's used so people feel agree. Paper quelling is a very old form of art. A lot of people used the gold edges of books and started twirling those into designs. And then you can accent furniture. You can accept books. You can accent all sorts of things with that. It's characterized by having these beautiful circle shapes within whatever divine you're making. And that's why it's called filigree, similar to the jewelry styles of, um, olden times and things like that. They really had those beautiful, interlocking circles that made other kinds of shapes. So paper filigree, your paper quelling uses that same idea. You have a lot of different shapes with those circles, and then you're manipulating the paper so that you're pinching or rolling or gluing or folding or looping, or all kinds of things to make the kinds of designs that you're hoping for. So today, when we think about our design, we're gonna be using some of those shapes. But you can also see in there some of the circles, and you want to preserve those as much as possible because that's really what makes paper quelling. Ah, beautiful form of art. Now Faber Quillin can also be super relaxing, and I find that since it's a repetitive movement, once you get the hang of it, it does get quite easy. Um, so you can start using all of the knowledge that used today, going forward to start making all kinds of new designs. Paperwork willing has recently gotten a little bit more popular, and people are using it on all sorts of different things. You can use it on little trinket boxes. You can use it on scrapbooks. You can use it on picture frames. You can use it on little wall hangings like what we're making today. You can use it on greeting cards, so there's all different ways that you can use paper quelling as an accent to whatever other thing you're making, so you could even do a mixed medium piece where you have something and then you put the paper quelling on top of it so that it has kind of this depth and texture and extra pop of color. So it's really fun as just a accent piece. It adds a little bit more detail to whatever other piece you're making, and I think you'll find today that it really is a Superfund craft, and after you get the hang of it, it really is super fun and relaxing. 3. Quilling Materials: all right, so let's talk materials. Let's go over all of the different tools that you will definitely need and then some of the tools that you can pick to see if you think you need or not. Um, the required tools, the things you most definitely will need. The one main tool that you're using is called a slot tool. Kind of looks like this. There is a slot in the middle of this metal tip right here, and these come in all different sizes, so there is a slot tool that just holds one piece of paper at a time. There's a slot tool that holds 2 to 3 pieces of paper at a time, and then there's a slot tool that holds many, many more pieces at a time. And these ones are used for layering colors and things like that. So you would use these when you're getting a little bit more advanced in terms of how you're working that paper, on what kinds of things you're doing with different colors of paper together to create designs. So this is your slot tool. You'll definitely need one of these. Okay, Next required material is glue because you'll be glowing a lot. Now I always say that you need ah, precision to glue. This will help you from getting glue everywhere. As you're trying to create your piece. You don't want to get glue all over the outline or whatever you're going to. You don't want to get glue all over your shapes, so precision tips are really helpful because then you can control the type of flow that the glue is coming out, and I also recommend using wood glue. But you can pick whatever glue you want. Wood glue just holds really fast, so you don't have to hold the shape for very long for it to start to dry. So then you can move on. Um, some glues take a really long time, so you end up having to hold them for a long time, and it just thinks the process really slow. So would glue Might, you might find helps you make that process go a little bit faster, but keep in mind, it doesn't dry clear. It is wood glue, so it drives the color of glue, so you do have to watch out for that. Clear glue is easier, because if you get it somewhere you can't really see it, but would glue does make it go faster. Okay, so you have to have one of these. You have to have one of these. Next thing you have to have is squealing strips so these can come in many different forms, and you can buy them just in strips. We'll go over a couple of different types, but you could also make them. If you want. Teoh, you have to have some sort of paper shredder, paper cutter, something at home. And that might just be a lot of work. These are not terribly expensive, so they're pretty easy to just start with. They come in a lot of different sizes, and then they come in a lot of different forms. So the sizes first, this is a three millimeter with, and this is the smallest one that you'll find. It's quite dainty, and it squishes pretty easily, so if you're not used to the quilting techniques, you might not want to use this as your first time. This is the three the blue, and then this is a five, the pink. It's a little bit wider, and this is what I would recommend for a first time person. Um, it's still thin enough for narrow enough so that it doesn't stick up way off of what? You're whatever design you're making. But it does give that pop of color, and it is a little bit easier to work with. So there's a three and a five, and then here's a seven. So seven is even whiter. Works just as well as the five is just a little bit taller when you gloat, glue it down and then on top of the seven, there's also a 10. But that's quite wide, um, so that one's a little bit hard to work with. Two because it often the slot tool doesn't hold it as well. And so sometimes your circles don't end up super smooth. So these are the different sizes that you might be able to find now different types of paper. You can get paper that has a gold edge on the side, similar to what I was saying about people using those gold gold edges from the books. Um, you can get paper like that. You can get to tone paper, so when that has ones color on one side and a different color on the other side. That gives you a little bit more depth in terms of the colors that you're using. Or you can get faded paper that fades toe white, so there's solid strips, which is what we're using today with the greens. But you have a bunch of different options in terms of paper, so these air your required tools. Now there are some things that you don't necessarily need. But if you really love quelling, you could think about it, or it just might make things easier. Tweezers can really help when you place your shapes onto your final piece. If you're doing a wood piece, if you're doing cardboard, if you're doing campus. If you're doing a card, whatever it ISS, these can really help you place those shapes. You also can use a needle if you're comfortable with that, so having some sort of needle tool to kind of drop your shapes where they need to go can be helpful, or the needle or a toothpick can also help you put the glue on in places where you want the glue. After that, you have scissors, which most people have in their house. I would imagine that you could probably use those. I often end up ripping the paper that I'm using, but you can use scissors instead if you just like those clean cuts. And then there's a bunch of other tools that exist to just kind of help the process. So there's paper crimp er's, which gives you a really nice just crimped design on the paper, and that can add a little bit more texture to different designs that you're making. We're not gonna be using that one today, but it's something that is optional in case you want to continue paper willing, you also can find circle boards that help you measure the circles that you're making, so that's helpful if you're making all of the same shape or you want all of the same size of something that can really help your measurements. So there's a lot of different materials out there. There's a lot of different things you can learn how to use, but today we're only gonna be really needing your glue, your slot tool, you're strips and whatever you're gluing to. So I ended up using a wood piece like this, but you also could use a card. If you don't have something like that, um, you could use a canvas board or canvas. You could use really anything that you have that that paper will stick to. So that's something else that you'll need to think about. What do you want to put that cactus on and then make sure that tohave that handy as well. After you have all of those things, I think we're ready to get started and learning. 4. Basic Filler Shapes: way Go. We're gonna start with some basic shapes, so I have my quelling slot toll, and then I'm actually gonna be using a seven millimeter strip to show you some of these shapes just because it's gonna be easier for you to see. So I have my strips here. Now, a lot of strips tend to be kind of long, so you might need scissors or if you want Teoh, you just rip it wherever you want. That's kind of what I end up doing, so it makes it easier. But most people have scissors, so you could use that to As you start, you're gonna take a strip, you're gonna put it in that slot tool, and then you're gonna bring your slot tool all the way to the end of the paper. Okay, so this is just your basic coiling technique. Put it in the slot, bring it all the way up once you're there, I just lost it. Once you're there, you're going to start twirling, and I always toward twirled towards myself. So I'm twirling, twirling, twirling and you can see that I'm trying to layer this role on itself. I don't want it to go like that and I don't want it to go like that. I'm really trying to layer it on itself. So I go pretty fast. Once I've gotten it, I'm holding it here to anchor it. I'm holding it back here to angry it. And I am just trolling, drilling, twirling, twirling. Okay, so I've gotten to the end of that role, and you can see it. Just a nice, perfect circle in there. Now I'm going to take it off of my tool. You don't wanna pull too tight because your tool can actually get squeezed together. So you really want to make sure that your tool doesn't have too much tension on it with the paper? If you're having a hard time getting it off your tool ones, it's here. That's a really good sign that you're probably pulling a little bit too tight. Now. I just use my nail and just kind of slip it off. So this is your first shape right here, just a condensed circle. If you're gonna use this shape, it's a great filler shape. You might use it to fill in a lot of designs that don't have a lot of room to it. You're going to put a little bit glue. You can see that precision tip really helps control that glue amount, and I'm going Teoh just well, they closed, right? Like I said before, if you are using any type of glue that doesn't dry really fast, you're probably gonna need to hold it for longer. But my wood glue already holding you can see there's not a lot of extra glue on there, and there is shape one. I call that just a condensed circle because got a nice circle, but you haven't let it expand, so you can't really see where the different lines are. You might be able to notice that in there, there's a little flap right in the middle of that circle. That's what the slot tool does. So I mentioned needles. If you have a needle and you want to toil around that that gets rid of that, you can try to just kind of push it off to the side with your tool. But that's one thing that you get with. That slap tool is just that little flap in the middle of the circle, so there's your first shape next shape we're going to start the same way. So put it on all the way to the end and slip it off. Take now. This is our starting point for a lot of shapes. So I have my my condensed circle, and I'm gonna let that circle now expand, and I can let it completely go. But if you haven't done a lot of tension is gonna go really far. If you've done too much, it won't go very far. Luckily, if it goes a little bit farther than you want, you can always just kind of rework it so that it's a little bit smaller. Okay, so this is another kind of shape. It's like a It's like an expanded circle. Okay, Okay. So I'm gonna put a little bit of glue on this one. And when I'm gluing, I'm talking glue just right here at the end. I don't need to go the whole thing. I'm just doing it right at the end. But I'm gonna hold it. Like I said, that would glue holds pretty vast, holds pretty strong. So it's about ready for me to be able to keep going. So there's our second shape. We've got a condensed circle and we've got an expanded circles. So we're gonna keep going with the's circular shapes because, like I said, this is really the starting of all of the shapes we're gonna dio. So I got my condensed, my expanded, and I'm going to go off of my expanded again. OK, so here's your next shape that you're gonna use. You're gonna pull this middle circle. That's right here. This is what you're trying to preserve all the time. You're trying to make sure that this gets preserved always. So you're gonna move this off to the side? You're just gonna look kind of like hold it and pull. And then wherever this seem is where you glued. That's where you want your pinch to be. So I'm gonna pinch this right here. You'll notice that I got a couple of different layers. But what I don't want is that one. I want to make sure that that one stays a circle. So I'm gonna pinch these type of layers right there on the seam. And there we go. I have another shape, a little to your job. Okay, so you now know three shapes You have your condensed. You're expanded a minute to your drop. We're going to keep going. So I have my expanded circle, and I'm gonna milk remember that middle part to the side and pinch right on that scene. So now I'm back at the teardrop and then gonna actually move this to the other side, right where you always want to protect that, and then I'm gonna pinch the other side. So now I have this, like, I shape nice little I, but I have that middle circle still intact right there. That's the most important part. Okay, So condensed expanded to your drop. I should All right, So I'm gonna take another strip, And this time I'm gonna take my strip, and I'm gonna more or less know where the halfway Marcus. Great. You don't need to put a little mark on there. I'm just going to because I have to remember where it is. Okay, so I'm gonna start just the same. Hold the end and go, Go, go, go, go. And and once I reach that halfway Mark, I'm going to stop. I'm going to take it off. Okay? So I just have that one circle there Now the rest of it's just plain. So I have the circle and I'm just gonna put that to the back. So it's facing the back there. I'm gonna start again. I'm gonna do the same thing, right? I always rolled towards myself because I have the best anchors with my hands there and all the way down. Still, I meet that other one, and now I have a little s curve hubs, so you can see that you have, like, two expanded circles. But they're connected now. This is a great filler, cause you can manipulate lots of different ways of how these are sized. Okay, so that's a really great filler, right? So these are basic filling shapes. I have 12345 shapes. The last thing that we're gonna need to know how to do is to create outlines. So creating outlines is one of the hardest, hardest things because you have to make sure that you're gluing it and letting it be its very dainty because you're not working with very strong paper. So as we work with an outline, I always double up, which means that I fold whatever piece of paper and using for my outline in have okay, and then this is gonna be my outline. Now, the best thing about these quelling strips is that if you have some sort of nail, you can just kind of manipulate how it goes, right. You can manipulate curves. So if we're making that cactus right, I know that my curve is gonna look kind of like that. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to make sure that the two ends are together. Now, this one is already connected, but this one over here isn't so. I'm gonna glue this side together whenever you're making your shapes, whatever design that you're making, that you really want to make sure that you're not gluing something until you're ready. You want to make sure that you are ready to glue that you have it more or less arranged before you really start going. So there we go. Not perfect, because I have included. But you can see more or less what it's gonna look like have a curve for an outline of some sort. You have different filler shapes, and then we're going to get going on how we kind of use this. So just to know that when you look at Thies killer shapes, you're gonna need a lot of these. So as you work, just make sure you're making just a lot of shapes. And then once we have all of those shapes done, we will work on putting them all together. 5. Work Time!: 6. Bonus Shapes!: I'm not gonna go over some different types of shapes that you might be able to practice, although these aren't shaped that we're gonna really be using in the design that we're doing today with the cactus. So I just wanted to give you an idea of other shapes that you could make and try practicing as you try to perfect your craft. So each time I'm gonna take my strip and I'm gonna troll it like before. I'm gonna start by showing you two different ways to do hearts. So I'm just taking my full strip right now and twirling it all the way to the end. I'm gonna let it expand just like those other circles. No grand my glue. Put a little dot Hold it. Okay, so we're at the expanded circle. We're gonna do our first type of heart so similar to the teardrop, you're gonna be moving this center area out of the way and doing your first pinch and then similar to what we did with the I. We're gonna be working with the side over here, but instead of pushing out like the I, we were going to actually push in with our thumb and try to make this kind of flat. Then we're gonna take my pointer finger and my thumb of the other hand, and I'm gonna push it up. You'll notice that I'm still trying to preserve that inner circle, although with some of these shapes, that's gonna be quite hard. So if you're not totally maintaining that inner circle, that's totally fine. So that's one way that you can do a heart another way he is. You take Buster, but paper and you hold it in half doesn't need to be perfect. You just want to fold it in half and then you want the fold to be at the back. So it pinches kind of towards you like a mouth opening towards you. And to do that, you're gonna take the back one and roll it in Onley to that little crease that you made. So you're doing like a big long roll up until where you hit that crease. So that's one side of a heart. If you can see, I'm gonna do the other side matching so that the two circles touch. I'm gonna have to flip it around in order to make it come towards myself was a role. I'm gonna go all the way down again, and there we go. This type of heart really works well, when you're working with half strips, you can see my circles are pretty large right here. But it's another way that you can do Ah, heart. Next, we're gonna do a square Christ the release and glue. And we always want that first pinch to be on that scene. So I'm going to pinch their and then I'm gonna do little corners around here, so I'm gonna have to kind of measure with my hand. How long do you think that will be? Now I've got kind of 1/2 with a flat on top. I guess you could make that like a little ghost kind of figure. But if I wanna make this a square, I'm going to be continuing those corners on the side. That's what always perfect. And sometimes you don't measure well, but you get the idea. All right, so we have some hearts and a square, and let's do a triangle. I'm here. Do my first pinch going to your drop, and then you can probably figure this one out, But you're just gonna pinch those two sides right there. So you get a nice triangle. You're free to use any of these shapes in your cactus designed today. I didn't use any in mind because these are often harder to integrate in two filler shapes. But they are useful when you're creating different types of designs that you need to different shapes for um, OK, next, let's do kind of a diamond, right? So that circle kind of ended up kind of large, But for a diamond, you're gonna be basically doing two eyes. So I'm gonna do that side. It's got a little bit of the adhesive on it, so that's fine. We're under the other side of the eye, and then I'm going to basically be doing the opposite rate, and you just kind of pinch all of those together so that you have this nice little star. It's a little bit harder to see that you have this nice little star. Like I said before it, with these kinds of shapes, it's definitely harder to maintain that inner circle. So a lot of times when you use these shapes, it's not specifically for that inner circle is just around out whatever type of design you're trying to do. All right, Last ones that I want to show you our kind of open scrolling, um, shapes so kind of similar to this heart where there's not a lot of gluing or any gluing at all. It's just more of making a scroll. So I'm gonna take my long so I'm gonna take my long strip here, and I'm going to first go about halfway down. I didn't crease it. Also, not quite like that heart. Gonna go about halfway down and have it come off. Then I'm gonna take the other side and similar to the heart, the two circles. We're gonna come together, but I don't want to pinch it in the middle, so it looks kind of like this. This is called a sea scroll, and you can kind of fiddle until this looks more or less what you wanted to be like. My halves weren't super even, but I can always attach my tool, read Taurel and then go down a little bit further if I feel like I need to. Christ. So this is what a sea scroll is looking like. And you'll see that is very similar to the heart. It's just that the heart has the crease right here. And this is just in opens, girl. So there's a sea scroll and last one is super easy to use. It's just unopened scroll. So you're gonna basically be doing the same thing as an expanded circle. But when you're all the way here, you're just gonna let it kind of go in this little flap you can make kind of stick out by using your now so that you got, like, a nice little spiral. So all of these are different shapes that you can try. You don't have to feel like you use them in this design. But I wanted to show you a little bit about some other shapes that you could maybe practice as you're learning how to quilt 7. Arranging Your Design: Theo, using some things that I had on hand this would plate thing, um, kind of the outline of a flower, which I'm going to be putting one of my little condensed circles into, and then I'm going to start making my designs. So as we arrange a design, we're gonna start with our outlines. I'm gonna do a pot down here and that I'm gonna do a cactus right here. So my pot is gonna have to be about this tall. I'm going to start off by just figuring out how long I want it to be just about there, right? This is a double. So I'm going to then truth pinch, that creates part of the design. Then I'm going to go down and okay, I think that's a good link that so I'm gonna pinch there. So I'm really just measuring based on what I'm using. And I wanted to, like, angle a little bit. So I'm gonna try to pinch me think here and then and it's gonna angle back up. So hopefully that more or less makes a little pot. And once I'm there, I'm happy with what it's looking like, I think, but I'm gonna do is pinch again. And then I will put those two together and glue those two together cry. So I'm going to end up cutting or ripping right here. It's really up to you whether you like, really nice and neat cuts or not. I don't really care very much. So there is a little bit of glue. I'm gonna glue this together. Remember, with outlines ideally were using a couple of strands, cause that's how it's strong for me. So there's our hotline. I'm gonna flatten this out a little bit, so just try to straighten it out. Is not just possible if you need to, you can always re bend somewhere. But the more Ben's you have in it, the more wonky your paper gets, which sometimes doesn't look as good. So there is a good enough start to apart, and then I'm gonna do my cactus on top of that, And I already have this cactus outline made. I made the same thing that I had already done in the pink. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna glue down the outline first, but I'm not gonna glue anything else down yet, so I'm going to put a little bit of glue all along the outside. Here. This is why the precision tip is super helpful. Okay, we're is centered. Sits right about there. Presto time. You can see that there is some glue on here. I am using wood so it should blend in. But if you're using paper or something like that, that's when the toothpick might come in handy. Um, for my project. Or if you want to do yours on wood or even a colored background, it won't be too big of a deal. Okay, so now I'm doing my cactus. If you get a little bit of glue on the inside, likely it's going to get covered up by a lot of the stuff that you put in there. So, um, a lot of the shapes that you used to kind of fill out that design will probably end up covering up a lot of the glue that you might see. Okay, so I'm gonna place down that there we go, Gonna let that dry for a second, and I'm gonna glue this little guy onto the flower. The fire is gonna sit like right here on the cactus. I can put that one on there, too, because that will give me a good ideas to what I need to cover. Okay, so this is the start to my little design. Now, I thought that maybe you'd want to see what this more advanced tool could do. So I have three colors, three green right here. And I'm going Teoh put like I'm using this minute. Medium one. I'm gonna put it in my slot tool E, and I'm going to do the same. Twirled towards me. It falls out sometimes the more you have in here, sometimes that does fall out. But I'm going to try to keep it a straight as possible. E. And here we go. Great. So you have a little bit of different colors now, I might use this kind of a start to my cactus. Mm. So this is why it's helpful to never put something down immediately. Because you're gonna want to fiddle around to be like, where do I actually like this? And I think I like it there. So I'm gonna think that I'm gonna put that there, and then I'm going to start filling in with other stuff and you've probably got some other shapes that you've already made and that will help make men's designs. Right. So I'm gonna try to kind of leave this as much as possible. I would be able to glue part of that shut, but I'm just going to kind of hold it here. And once you're done with one part of a design that you really like, you can then glue it down. Right? So I'm just gonna keep filling in. I'm gonna keep doing a design, and then I'll show you what it ends up looking like afterwards. Just use those shapes to kind of fill in those little spots. Great. So, feeling things in, I'm my use some of those s curves down here, right? So I might use a couple of these and start filling in this area as well. So good luck. And I will show you what my and design looks like. Remember, don't glue until you are finished and you more or less like what it's looking like. One tip about gluing is you always want to glue in the place where the paper is the most condensed. So this middle circle don't put it there because you'll be able to see through. But you want all this outline here cause that's where there's a bunch of layers of paper. So just a tip about gluing. Put it on there, put it down and then keep going. You'll notice if you're using wood glue, that it goes pretty fast. 8. Finishing Touches: So we are finally done, and you might notice that your hands are super gluey after all. Event I know mine Do get that way. Blue ink Unjust. Be one of the more frustrating parts is probably gonna get anywhere. So feel free to go wash your hands in the middle of your project or whatever as you continue. Um, here is our final design. It's a cute little cactus, super adorable, ready to go on a bookshelf or wherever you want to put it. Um, and I hope that after today, you have a good idea of some of the shapes that you can use in the future, or some of the things that you might be able to use paper quelling for in the future. If you want to continue, feel free to post a picture of your project on the skill share project because I would love to see what you come up with. I know with paper coiling everybody's mind works in a little bit of a different way, so everyone's project is gonna look a little bit different with the different colors you're using. The different ways you're using the shapes and the different ways that you feel in, um, that cactus design. So I'd love to see feel free to post a picture. And I hope you all enjoyed this class. I hope you all enjoy quelling in the future and see you next time.