QGIS Cartography | Scott Lussier | Skillshare

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QGIS Cartography

teacher avatar Scott Lussier

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

44 Lessons (4h 2m)
    • 1. Skillkshare Intro

    • 2. Skillshare Project Explanation

    • 3. Labeling Basics

    • 4. Labeling Text Properties

    • 5. Label Formatting

    • 6. Label Buffers

    • 7. Labels Backgrounds

    • 8. Label Shadows

    • 9. Labeling Callouts (Leader Lines)

    • 10. Labels Placement

    • 11. Labels Rendering

    • 12. Labeling Over Orthophotos

    • 13. Fine Tuning Labels

    • 14. Styling Single Points Lines and Polygons

    • 15. Styling Categorical Data

    • 16. Styling Graduated Data

    • 17. Shapeburst Fill

    • 18. Texture Fills

    • 19. Inverted Polygons

    • 20. Advanced Lines

    • 21. XYZ Tile Basemaps

    • 22. Getting OSM Data from the OSM Website

    • 23. Getting OSM Data with Overpass Turbo

    • 24. Rule Based Symbology

    • 25. Rule Based Labeling

    • 26. Bringing in Mapbox Baselayers (an Introduction)

    • 27. Natural Earth Data

    • 28. Setting Up a Page Layout

    • 29. Layout Templates

    • 30. Creating Map Grids (Lat & Long Graticules)

    • 31. Inset or Overview Maps

    • 32. Global Overview Maps

    • 33. Adding a Legend

    • 34. Adding Text to a Layout

    • 35. Adding Pictures to a Layout

    • 36. Coastal Glow Effect

    • 37. Concentric Water Lines (Equally Spaced)

    • 38. Concentric Water Lines (Variably Spaced)

    • 39. Halftone Coastal Fill Pattern

    • 40. Getting Elevation DEM Data from USDA NRCS

    • 41. Creating Contour Lines from DEMs (in Feet and Meters)

    • 42. Labelling Contour Lines

    • 43. Drop Shadowing Polygon Features

    • 44. Course Resources

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About This Class

In this course you will learn how to use the cartographic features of QGIS to create beautiful maps. We will cover the basics and then roll onwards to more advanced features. GIS analysis is all about telling stories with data. By improving your cartographic skills, your effectiveness in delivering complex spatial information will be greatly enhanced.

For your convenience, and so you can follow along with me if you like, the data that I use in the Video Tutorials from Nantucket is provided in the Resources section, as well as other useful resources such as Layout Templates and QML style files. 

The course is intended for those who have a basic familiarity with QGIS that are looking to level up their map visualization skills. Beginners that are new to QGIS will do fine. You should have QGIS installed on your machine prior to beginning. This class uses Version 3.16, but any 3.x version will work. 


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1. Skillkshare Intro: Hello, welcome to QGIS cartography. My name is Scott Lucy or your instructor for this course, put together this course for people to learn QGIS, the wonderful open source GIS program, and use it a lot in my work. I am a university instructor at a University in Boston. I've been teaching intro to GIS for well probably a dozen years or so. And like most people started off learning Esri, ArcMap, and ArcGIS Pro and have switched over to Q just primarily for my work. I also do some consulting work for utilities, drinking water systems, electric companies, things like that. So I've used QGIS in ArcMap extensively throughout my career. And I just, I love QGIS, I love the cartography into things. And I wanted to put together a video series where you can learn this wonderful open-source tool. Love QGIS, I love everything about it, the community. And you probably do too if you're here. And I'm glad that you're in the course. And I'm going to teach you some tips and tricks about cartography that I've learned over the years. Some very basic things and onto some of the more complicated things that I've picked up from, from a lot of different people. And all the things that I've learned, put it all in one place. So you have one course available to you to learn this stuff. So, thank you very much for considering this and look forward to seeing you in class. All right, thanks. 3. Labeling Basics: Labeling a common cartographic task in QGIS. We're going to do, do some labeling here. We're going to learn all about different ways to label and how to make them look pretty and make them actually just kinda disappear and be part of the map, which is really our ultimate goal to convey information without jumping out at you. So we're gonna, we're gonna go over a lot of things. We're going to start with the basics right now. Later on down the road, we're going to get into more of the details of rule-based labeling and tweaking them to just write. But let's just start with the basics. Run through all the basics first, make sure we have all this down. What I like to, what we have here is the light houses, three lighthouses on the island of Nantucket. And we're going to label them, going to put the name of the lighthouse onto the map, right? And oftentimes what I like to do before I start to label something is I look at the attribute table. So I'm going to right-click the lighthouses layer. Click open attribute table. And I have all the information here about my three lighthouses, sand KD like great point, Lincoln brand point light. Now. So what I'm going to do is label them by name. So I'm going to use this name column, the right and the name field. But it's always good to go in here and check and make sure sometimes you're not really sure what those column headings are called and it can be a little confusing sometimes. So I like to just go in and check it first, just kind of a habit. You know, there may be some sort of code. And you, maybe you want to learn how to do the name and then the code later on. And we'll maybe, you know, you want to just decide in which field the US you go in here and so we're going to use name. That's really all I need to know at this point. So we'll close that out and go back to my layer properties and back the labels. And I'm going to hit single labels. Keep this simple. And now we have some more choices. Here are quite a few more choices that the most important thing you need to know is this value here and set that to name. If you pull down all the, the triangle here we have, all of these are the column names in the table we just looked at. And I know that I'm going to use the name field, which kinda makes sense, but not always the case. And it gives us a text sample based on some of the other settings we have in here. So for this, for now, let's just, just get this, get this up on the map and see what it looks like. Oftentimes you do that. Hit, hit. Okay, and here we go. We have now labeled our lighthouses. Not the best labeling job here. You know, the, the there's overlapping which is no good. I don't like the font. I don't like the look, you know, the location. A lot of things I don't like about it, but but that's just a basic how do you get a label up? Just make sure you use that name attribute field, and then we'll tweak it from there. 4. Labeling Text Properties: Okay, continuing on, we've got our lighthouses labeled with just a simple, easy name label stuck on there. And let's look at some of the other options we have to improve on this. We go back to our labels here, right-click to the layer properties or double-click, and back to the labels field or the label section. And we're going to look into the text properties. So this is where I can kinda change this text and that shows you what you're, what the changes you're making here. So right now the default font is the MS shell. Dig to really boring. If I right-click the downdraft arrow here, you can see I've got a lot more More Options. So what's, what's find something, something funky? Let's go with Trajan and pro. So as you can see here, the text sample, It's showing me the new font that I've added. Let's make it a little bit bigger just so we can see it. And you know, if we want to change the color, we can change the color here with this down, picking the Down Arrow, drop-down arrow here. And to change the color, I've got my recent colors that I've used are some standard colors that queue just gives you. Let's say I want to do some sort of a purple. I'm going to click the outer ring first. And then I get these purples here. I'm going to use kind of a dark purple Smoke on the Water and and apply. Okay, and you can see what's happened. I've got the purple font. It's larger, it's just to the font that we chose. And those are the main text properties that we can do here. So if I want to slide down the opacity of the going to fade away a little bit, kind of fade into the blue. And that's the, that's the basics of your text property to move on to the formatting next. 5. Label Formatting: All right, Next we're gonna move on to label formatting. So let's double-click our Rodin ticket lighthouses. And we're going to dig into this second section here underneath the text of formatting tab. Actually I'm gonna, I'm gonna go change this font on like this. And what sort of a something with uppercase and lowercase that are obvious. Let's go with this Sitka for clarity. So, and I'm going to double-click, I'm gonna make that a little bit bigger. I get an 18 just so we can see it better. So here we have great point like saying Katie height, seen Katie headlight and brand point-like in Let's do some formatting. So Formatting tab again, the type case you can see right now this is no change, but that's exactly what's in the attribute table is going to show up. If we want to go all uppercase, it all uppercase and apply, it, changes everything to uppercase and lowercase. Apply. Okay, let's, let's stick it, stick it back to no change or attribute tables. Pretty good. And let's say we want to spread out this the, the, the font is too tightly packed. And the spacing section, we can add a number. And we're going to use five. So five between each letter of five spaces between each letter and five spaces between each word. And we'll hit apply and everything gets spread out. So if you have like a big space and you kinda want to fill that up or it's water. You might often do this just a state name. You might want to cover the whole state, whatever is appropriate. We'll dig into that more for getting the proper balance and everything. But that. That's how you might spread that out with the, with the letter. So let's make it 1010, just see what happens, right? So you might, you might want to spread out even more. Let's just leave it there. Your texts orientation typically are always going to use horizontal, but you can use vertical. It's going to send it up and down. I've never felt like I've ever used that. But it's there if you need it. The blend mode we'll get into later. This is more sort of Illustrator print screen stuff, which I'll explain those later. I will stick to the basics right now. As for the rap on character, actually apply that wrap on character. So I say, I have this great point light here and I want light to be on the second, second row here. What I can do is tell it that anytime I see it sees a space, do a carriage return. So I'm going to, I'm going to click on here on the rap on character, hit the space, hit Apply. And all of my labels, whenever it sees a space between the two words, it gives it a carriage return. And that's great. But maybe I just kinda want to set that even more precisely. And I want just, I want to say great point on one line and then light on the second line, right? So I'm going to get rid of that carriage. Return dot-dot-dot space there on the rap on character. Hit apply and it should go delete. So we put it back to normal. So let's say I want a light on the second round. What I, on the second row, what I need to do is go into my attribute table. So let's right-click Nantucket lighthouses attribute table. I'm going to start an edit session. Toggle the editing mode and let's use the Great point light here. What I'm gonna do is put a, any character really, but I'm going to use the pound sign because I don't really use that for anything else. So it's kind of an odd character. I'm going to make this great point light, pound sign light, great, great point pound sign light. Now it doesn't look right. And you know, you're, you're making a permanent change to your attribute table. But if we know that this field is always just going to be used for labeling, that's, that's okay, you'll do it. So let's save that change. And you can see it says great point pound sign light. So that's no good. But if we go into the properties and we go to the rap on text, rep on character. We're going to enter that pound sign in there and it's going to see that pound sign and no, That's when I do the carriage return. That's what I wrap it. So I'm going to hit apply. And you can see that light has now moved on. It's seen that pound sign and moved it down. So that is we use that a lot. Sometimes you just want to you've got the space in that one area and you need you need, it's too long. You kinda need to get it to stack a little bit more. You're more room vertically, then you do have horizontally. You're going to use a trick like that. So for the alignment, let's use right, left, centre. And this is just like any word processing function. We'll just use center and hit Apply. And you can see it's centered the, the text here. If we want to change the line height, it spreads out that carriage return and just gives you some ways to fill up space and kinda get those texts features, those Label Features exactly how you want them. If you want to get into, if you have numbers and you want to use the decimal places you can, you can mess with that here. But that's about it for your, for your formatting. 6. Label Buffers: All right, continuing on with our labeling basics, let's talk about buffers. Buffers are a little clouds around the label characters. And oftentimes we want to do that to kinda let it sit by itself, soften things up, almost blend in better, it just looks better. So let's, let's do some blending here. Let's do some buffering. So the sand Katie had light here. Let's look at this. This is I've turned on the the bathymetry depth of water depth contour lines and you know, it's okay. But it's a little bit chunky, little bit, a little bit harsh. We can, we can improve that a little bit by using a buffer and kind of puffing up the blue around those, those purple letters. So what we're gonna do is go to layer properties as usual, angle to our buffers. And right now everything's grayed out. We just have to check this box and hit Draw text buffers and enter the size. I'm going to make some crazy just for illustration purposes. So i'm, I'm using a size five millimeter buffer and color white. And hit Apply. And we've got this god awful buffer around each letter which says, All right, let's, okay. Let's step that down to a one. And we say, okay, that's okay, that's better. But really it, it's still kinda ugly. It's still a little bit psychedelic. And the better, a better way to do this is to use the buffer that matches the color that's behind it. So to do that, we're going to go to the color bar here, use the dropdown. And I'm going to use pick color. And it's going to give me this little eyedropper tool. And I'm going to go over this blue area or any, any blue area that I want to use. Click on that. It's going to grab that color right underneath it and then hit, Apply and hit Okay. So now you can see that, that blends in a little bit. If you look more closely, you can see that there's a gap there between the two, between the letter and the contour line. Let's bump that up a little bit to a three to make it a little more obvious, you can see what is going to happen here. That's ugly. But when we do it on here, the sand Katie has a lot more visible smoke, a lot more readable. Now you have other issues. You know, this looks pretty good, right? And, you know, you've got some breaks, Deborah, it's obvious that the reason is it's because of the texts. And but you've got this branch point later we hear. So you're going to have to deal with that later because you really don't want to do that. What I you know, if I just had one and it was white, Let's change it back to white. And well, actually that my background colors a little bit of an off-white sort of a linen. Let's pick that. Grab that coward hit. Okay? And you can see that the brand point light now kind of blends in nicely here, kinda covers everything. But it doesn't look good over the water. So you gotta, you gotta play with this later. Of course, these don't look good. And it all depends on what you're doing. But you know, using a buffer properly is use the color that's behind it. You know, these white clouds around it. You see a lot and it's a little jarring. So try to use the color that's underneath and then change it back in itinerary now just because it's bugging me to pick color apply. Okay. Oh, I feel better. All right. That's, that's the buffer tool on on labels. 7. Labels Backgrounds: All, let's move on to backgrounds. The next section here and basic labeling. So we've got buffers, mass, and backgrounds here. So let's hit again, everything's gray until you get started, hit the draw background. And it turns it on. What we've got. Here is this set to a rectangle background, so it's going to place something behind the text. Let's hit Apply. And you can see that white box has appeared. So we can play around with that. We can make it any color we want. Let's go with some sort of a green and a red box around it. And apply. You can see I can make all sorts of changes with that background if I want. Maybe I might want to just kind of brings that text out a little bit and draws your attention to it. And we can buffer this out a little bit if we increase the, the x and the y size, Let's do two. We can see what happens in tech sample above. You know, that makes it look a little bit better. Of course, we're on top of the actual lighthouse symbol. So that's a problem, but we can deal with that. And that's the basics of it. So we can, you know, we've got a rectangle. We can use an ellipse if you want some sort of a circular, kinda looks like Seinfeld or an SVG symbol. And to find that we would go to this, let's say I want to use a recycling sign, maybe a big Lighthouse, whatever you want, you can put it in there. You can enter in a scalable vector graphic in adobe Illustrator or Inkscape. You can, you can create things there. You can also use marker symbols. So if we had, let's say, a road symbol, if we went to a road shield like they have here that, you know, the interstate shield, we could put that put a number on at 95 or root 1 wherever it might be and that will make that shield underneath there. All right. So Excuse me. Maybe a hospital or some. So obviously I'm just playing around here, but lots of different options and things you can do with the background. Tab here. 8. Label Shadows: Next one in our basic labeling is the shadows feature. This is one that makes you look like a real superstar and it's really pretty easy to do. So let's go to our properties and go to the shadow tab here, and click on the drop, drop shadow. And you can see up here we've got this nice shadow coming in into the northwest. And it's almost like it's sending the light sources down on the bottom right, you know, dropping a shadow or without said applies. You can see that on the map. You can see that, oh boy, that just makes it lift off the map. And it gives you a nice effect and it's really pretty easy to do. We can change where that, that artificial sun is coming from if we use this offset tool here and we can either diode in, you know, I'd probably knowing where am I. I'm in the South. I mean, I mean the Northern Hemisphere. So the sun is South to me. Probably want to put it up there so the shadow is cast in a way. A shadow might actually be casted place on the earth. But, you know, that's, that's how you do. It's really, really easy. If we want to increase the size and send it up. We'll use this, this offset here. So let's set this to, let's set it to five hit Apply. You can see that it's almost like it's detects is higher now, but now it's starting to look. It doesn't look like it's a shadow. It's almost looking like a mistake. So I think five is too much. Let's go back to that. Now that kinda looks better. A little bit blurry. We can play around with the blurriness. They're back to our labels. The Bohr radius is set to 1.5. Let's set that to 0.5 and see what happens. Gets a lot crisper. Of course this, now this doesn't really look like a diffuse light shadow. So I probably would stick with one probably what I think is probably best. So we'll put that there. And we can play with the opacity. I've turned that up a little bit. So it's more in more direct so you can see it. If I wanted to make it colored, I could, I could turn it green. I think black is always, almost always your best bet. It's just more natural, so let's just go back to black so it doesn't bother me. But that's the shadow. Very easy to do. Play around a little bit, but really helps give your labels some height. And a kind of a true look to it. Just nice, neat, little easy effect. 9. Labeling Callouts (Leader Lines): Let's look at call-outs, a way to symbolize your data by drawing a line from the feature on the map, whether it's usually the point where I guess it could be a polygon and then the labels off somewhere else and there's a line connecting them. Let's call a call out. So Let's go into our labeled data and I've got this, these three call I called them peaks. They are just purple dots is called them. Hills, peaks, whatever. And label we're going to label them by their name. And let's make a sort of a purple text so it matches. And then we're going to go to the call-out section. And we're going to hit Draw call-outs. And we're going to use this simple black line. Let's call it that for illustration purposes. And we have simple lines or Manhattan lines gives you a little, little angle. And we can set the anchor point. Where does that line connect on the map? You know, bottom left, bottom right. Just go stick with closest point. So we have name, read the leader line closest point, and we hit Okay. And our labels are right on top of the points. Okay? Not exactly what we want, right? We want those leader lines. In order to move those leader lines, we need to use this tool, the tool ABC with the arrow. So you click on that and try to click on the text. And normally you get a green box around it. But the first time you do it, it's going to ask you for a unique value. And our unique value we have, our name is unique so we can use that just needs to be all the same. I mean, all the every every record needs to be a unique value so that you know the name of them as all unique. So we'll hit Okay. And now when I click on it, I get the green box around it. And I can click and I get that that leader line that call out and I can move them and put them wherever I want, right? So that gives you a functionality where it is placed that wherever you want and the wind is going to connect. Let's look at the Manhattan line. While we're here. Go back to the properties. We'll just switch this to Manhattan lines and hit Okay, and it's just giving me an angle. Alright, so it comes off at an angle and gives a little more, squares it off. Well, that move more. I don't know. Depending on the look you're going for, it really doesn't matter. So that's how you do call out so that, you know, it's not hard to use this ABC with the arrow moves a label or diagram button, just make sure the first time you do it, set it on a unique value. And that's where it stores the data as to where it's moving in. That's how it connects. Call it value. 10. Labels Placement: Let's look at the placement choices we have in our labeling engine. Well, that's why I created this peaks demo. I've got Mount Doom and the Matterhorn here. And let's go just sample fake data. But let's label them by a single label. We'll call that. We got, we're going to use the name field and we're going to use the placement. We're going to go into placement settings here. So let's pull this in so we can kind of see, Let's just symbolize it. Apply hit. Okay, and we've got the Matterhorn and Mount Doom here with focus. Both. And I'll just stick with the Matterhorn actually, let's get rid. Hold on. Let me clear some space. Okay. There we go. So Matterhorn to mark Duke Mount Doom. Our placement is where the label is going to fall on the point. We can say cartographic or around the point doesn't really do much, but we know if we start to add a distance in here, spreads it out. So let's go with 10 and moves it even further away. The placement settings, you know, really the important part is a priority. In terms of higher law, which ones are going to dominate over other ones? Have two waves come together and you have this priority set to high on the Mount Doom and the labels for the roads, the Mount Doom will show because it's set to a higher priority. So the things that are important to you and your cartography, things you want to show, set the priority to high and it will win out in the clashes. And we go to so that that's important to priority, but also we set the mode to offset from point. And we tell it to go in the upper right or the upper left, see what happens when they change. They start to label all of them. We label the upper-right, upper-left to wherever, lower right. And hit Apply and it'll search. So now my symbols are pretty large, but we can offset them to what's had a pretty fierce offset, x and y. And apply that and it starts to spread it out a little bit more if we start adding x and y values and you can push them out even further. Honestly, the whole placement, you know, you're gonna get impromptu, get more advanced pretty quickly. We get down to the rule based labeling and, you know, kind of fine tuning it with the adding and the x and y value. And that's what I do. I don't really use this placement much. And you can't if you wanted just a quick map, but generally if you're doing any serious cartography work, you're going to want, really want more fine control over your place of values and this just isn't going to give it to you. So, you know, you, you can't do it. But really you're going to want to place them using the use the fine tuning labels lesson. And in the same section, you'll see it. And you can use all these different points, but save yourself some time and aggravation. Get used to using the fine tuning labels and the this move button over here. And it's going to save you a lot of time. So, you know, but hey, go in, try them out. See what happens if the pi button valgus had probably not worth it. I mean that the priority matters. So you have something that you want to dominate, use the priority, but in terms of modes built automatically place your point. But it's really not that important to be honest. 11. Labels Rendering: Let's look at our rendering options in our label property. The next the next set of options that we have. Here we have our Nantucket minor roads labeled with a curved label right on top of the of the line. And it looks pretty good, right? We are we've got some duplicates here, which is a bit of a mess and things or things aren't bad. More we zoom in on the better it is that we zoom out. We start to kinda get random labels showing up and that's no good. So what can we do with all of that? Let's start with these duplicates. Like let's look at Parker line here. I've got Parker lane shown twice for each segment, we can go into our rendering properties in the Layer Properties and go down to this merge connected lines to avoid duplicate labels. This will take anything that has Parker lane and they're, if they're connected, it will treat it as one line for labeling. So we'll hit apply there. And you see that Parker Lane has now become 11 segment, which is, which is what we want. So that checkbox is one, you'll probably hit a lot. We can hit Go the other way. Label every part of a multipart series. It starts at every segment and fair ground road. It shows in that's not usually we don't want that, but we do want them merge. Cabot Lodge award, you look at labels. This is what we expect to see when we're looking at a map. So that's pretty good. We're getting better here, but we still have issues in terms of our scale. Like if I'm here, I'm at one to 16 thousand, right? I've got some random labels. I don't know which one's which were why it's choosing. Some are not the other. If I zoom in, it looks pretty good. Merit one to 4 thousand. This looks pretty well because I've got room for my labels to draw, right? So they're not clashing with each other and other lines. So this works pretty well. So when I'm zoomed in, This looks good. If I, if I made my font little smaller size, it might work better. But at this label with this dataset, about wonder for 1000 is fine. 18 thousand is probably the limit, right? I don't really want to label anything here because this is just a mess. All right, so let's set at 128 thousand and say that's our limit. Once we get, once we zoom in V over 12, 8 thousand, and we go a little higher, we're going to turn those labels off. You only want the US to draw when we're zoomed in where it's appropriate. So let's go to these rendering Properties. Click on scale dependent visibility. And we're going to use this plus and minus these two boxes here. In the top is your top-level. Put an 8 thousand there in the bottom, we're going to put 0 in and hit Apply. And Okay, and what do we have an 8 thousand. I'm not seeing anything. Right at 16 thousand, I'm not seeing anything at 4000. That's when they show up really actually, it shows up at like one to 7,999. They still show up if I go up to one to 8 thousand. All right, that's the point where it stops showing up as what you typed in. So this is a good idea to do at this point. I'm like turn scale dependency on my, my major roads. We could do that go to rendering. We're going to add in street name rendering. Scale dependent visibility would go Eight 1002. I don't know what's just make something up 25 thousand and hit. Okay, and now if I scroll in, my major roads aren't going to be on this. This is the minor road being shown. But the roll out, the major ones are going to be shown. I get past 25000 and they disappear because they would start to look messy. So we can dial in that, you know, where they appear in, where they show with the rendering. So, you know, two main parts of the, of the rendering, scale dependent visibility and the emerging that the lines, so it only labels, treats it as one line, are very useful. There's other tweaks in there, but those are the two that you're going to use most of the time. 12. Labeling Over Orthophotos: Labels over ortho is a common problem in cartography. Let's look at that, how we can create a better label over our aerial photographs that we know it's a typical base layer in our cartography and it's a tricky thing to put labels on. So let's figure that out. So let's put up an ortho photo. We're going to add an XYZ tile here, the big virtual earth layer. If you haven't seen that Western go check that out. But now we have our aerial photos and some, some minor streets. Mater streets here underneath are the black lines there. And let's say we have to label these, right? So we're gonna go to our minor roads and click on Labels, single label, we're going to use street names. Perfects are already set there. And let's just be got a 12 black, 0.12 black font. This is what we get. I, I can't make any sense that is, it can't read that. This is, this is usually what you get right out of the box. So what's, what's play with that a little bit. So our first instinct would be to put a halo around it, right? Common trick, we know how to use halos now. Buffers, so let's click on buffer, draw text buffer, you get a white, a 100 percent buffer. Let's see what that looks like. Still a bit jarring. That's ugly. Not crazy about that. It's better I can read them at least, but we're going to do much better. Let's keep going. So why don't we, maybe we'll switch that around. Maybe we'll use a black halo and white text. So let's try that. Z for. That does force. And that's better, right? That the Halo kinda blends in with the background a little bit. And it's, it's better, still not good enough. But not too bad. So let's keep going. You know, I think maybe that black background, that black buffer, we calm that down a little bit, use it sort of a gray. Apply that and that's not very good. But let's work with that a little bit. Let's try to blend that in. And we can, we can do that. So let's go to our buffer. And if we use the blend mode of multiply, it's going to take the pixels in the in and the halo where the buffer and the pixels that are underneath it and multiply together, smashing together and give you something better. So hit Apply. And now we're getting somewhere, right? You can see, yeah, it's the white, but it just works better. I can read it, It's CRISPR. And I really kinda like that pretty well. Another thing I can do is kind of blur that a little bit. So I'm going to go into my draw effects at the yellow star. And we've already got to set the border, but typically this is what it would start with. So we start on source. We're choose Gaussian Blur and use a border strength of about 10 and leave the opacity where it is for now. And try that and apply that. And that comes down even more, right? It's really quite nice, I think. And I think that the white is a bit much. So what's we can change that if we go to texts and maybe we use a gray kind of matches the roads a little bit. Tan gray. Apply that. Right now. Now we've gotten somewhere. We're also, you know, the the wish you put the text right on top of the line, not outside of it. So that's a placement function. Hit placement. We're going to choose curves, so it kind of follows the lines a little bit better. And I'm going to click on the line and then get rid of above the line and hit Apply. And that'll drop it right down onto our lines. Now I'm probably going to just turn that line right off the black line underneath of the Maya roads. I think at this scale, you don't really need it. It, it works pretty well. So I'll go to symbology and simple line and stroke style, no pen. And that will get rid of it. But it'll leave the labels there. So you can see we've got nice labels right on the line, you know, blending, right? And like, you know, you you see this, you see a road. I mean, you see the, the aerial photograph, it looks good. And then you can pick out the roads if you want them. You may have to play with your sizes a little bit depending on the scale you want to show them, you know, and you can darken them up, lighten them up. But the, the, the halo effect with the multiply function and then the, the, the blurring of that even further really just makes it blend right in and kinda what you want, right? So, you know, you can change the font, you can change the colors as you see fit if you wanted to come out a little bit more, but if you want them to hide, this is a good way to label your ortho. 13. Fine Tuning Labels: All right, Let's find tune our labels. We talked about labeling in earlier sections and how to label and how to place them in certain spots in the QGIS will automatically put things where it thinks they belong with this just isn't good enough, right? We need to kind of adjust things like the labels we have here are not, they're not good enough if we're precisely labeling things which we do in cartography lot, we just need to put things exactly where we want them. And you know, in ArcGIS for familiar ArcGIS use annotations and convert to annotations and it kinda pins it down on the paper and you can fine tune things from there and do the same thing here in QGIS. Just a little bit of a different process and I'll show you that real quickly. It's not difficult. So what we're gonna do is we're going to edit our lighthouses layer. So we're going to start an edit session. Hit the pencil here. We're going to go into my attribute table. I'm going to add two columns, two fields here. And by which QGIS uses, need to understand anything beyond just follow these steps and you'll get there. So we're going to, we're going to start a new, create a new field. I'm going to call it x. And we're going to set the type to decimal number real. You can leave these the same and create another column. Call it y. Same thing, decimal number real, 10 and three is fine. Okay? And then stop editing, save it, then you're good. So just create an X and a Y column in your whatever field you want to, whatever layer you want to adjust. So we'll get rid of that. And now let's look at the labeling properties of Nantucket lighthouses. And for the placement. These you have this data defined section. You have the x and the y. And we're going to set this x. Just, you know, you don't really need to understand this. Just do this every time. This is what I do and it works great. So you just hit X, you go to this field type and x match X with X and do the same y with y. And that will mean that the changes will be placed in that column. You'll never really need to deal with it, but it's there. And hit okay. Now, you can use this button here, this ABC with the arrow. And you click on that. And now I can grab that and move it around and place this exactly where I want it. And that really makes life easier. So that's sort of a, an annotation, an ArcGIS annotation feature, but uses a lot right towards the end, where I want to get my labels just right. I'll add that x and y column. It takes about 30 seconds. And then I can adjust things exactly how I want them. So there it is. Fine tuning your labels. 14. Styling Single Points Lines and Polygons: All right, We're going to move on to symbology. Now we're going to talk about different ways to style things. Starting very simply in the moving on to more complicated. If you're familiar with QGIS, you probably, you may know this already, but I want to start at the beginning and just kinda work my way all the way through. So let's start with styling simple symbols. No, move on to lines and then polygons starting with the point here we have Nantucket and we have the lighthouses in red, these single dots, single points. We have roads. The black layers are the major roads in your etiquette. And these green layers are the minor roads kinda more than neighborhood roads and things. And then we have some hydrology, some lakes as well. So we'll be using this for most of this symbology section. So let's look at the lighthouses first. So as I like to do, go to the attribute table and see what we've got. We've got three of them, right? They're all showing on the screen. They've got names, they've gotta control feature. Use, kind of a simple dataset that we're going to use. And right now we just have a simple red point to symbolize them in. But let's try to improve that a little bit. If we right-click lighthouses were double-click, we get to the Symbology tab and you can click on that. Here on the left and up top we have what? The first dropdown at the top is single symbol. We're going to get into these as we go forward, we're going to start with simple symbol, single symbol. So right now we just have a red dot. We can go down and change that very easily by using one of the presets. I want a green diamond. Hit Apply. You can see that they've changed the green diamonds. There is a size feature if we want to make that, make it a 10 and hit Apply, it gets a lot larger or more smaller. So the size up and down, pretty easy to do. Rotate the symbol and said we want to rotate that 45 degrees. Hit apply, it, turns it into a square because it's rotated 45 degrees. But again, very simple, very easy to do. There are lots of different symbols preloaded in QGIS. Lot of them shown here. You can also bring your own in your own SVG files that gets into more advanced stuff, which we will talk about later. But how to, how to bring in samir own symbol sets. But it's really pretty easy. So that's, that's up the points right up top we have the marker so we can change things globally. And then if we want to get a little more specific, forgot to mention the color to, we can change the color with the color wheel to dial in any exact color we want. So we can use the color that will go and grab any color on your screen. And let's go with that blue there and turns it to that. Because I caught the either do that again. So color. Pick color. Let's try this. Gold here. Boom, any anything you see on your screen, the little eyedropper, we'll go and grab that color and stick it in there. Hit apply, it turns gold. Set this back to 0. Actually, let's make them. These fancy drop shadow effect kind of gives you the lighthouse look and feel. So that, so let's go back to the red dot now had applied. So this is the simple marker. If we want to dial it in a little bit more, we click on the simple marker that the second level in the second layer down. And I can now kinda manipulate that the, the features of that specific data. If I want to make this a green outline, I can do that or a yellow inside. You can see the preview here. It will adjust as necessary, right? So we can, we can put that in any way we want. We have other SVG symbols down here that we could use and do whatever we want we can get we can get pretty complicated with this if we if we want to, because her to build things. So if I hit this bar, that will add another, another layer. So I just added a simple symbol marker here. And you can see that this is the, the marker you're going to get when you're done. Let's say I put an arrow and I want to make that arrow bigger. Dial that up. And I can, I can start to design my own custom symbols this way by kind of stacking different different layers. Okay? So you know, you could, you could make a, assemble something and put an X on it or put a number on it. Does a lot with dots and I'll put a white one on it. Things like that. So you can, you can dial in exactly what your marker will be. If you want to change the order of them. Let's say I want to move this red dot underneath this triangle and just drop it down and now it shows underneath. So, you know, and then once you, once you do that, you save it. Save it in your system. Save it off to another file if you want to use it in another project or something. But you can take that symbol and save it off and use it again. So that's, that's single symbols. Let's look at line work. Let's start with the major roads here, the black. So we'll double-click the roads. What do we have here? Single symbol again, black line of a certain width. We can increase the width. We have various other line work that we can put in. Same ideas apply color, width. If we go down to the next level, the simple layer, we can add different layers. So I'm going to put another, let's make this a, the top one red. Let's us use that read, write. And you can see I have like a red, a red line with a black outline is really the the black part is underneath it. If I want to make the whole thing bigger, I go to the top level, this line level, and this will increase them both together. If I want to just increase or decrease one part of it, I just select it down where it's indented here. So it might make, make that line a little thinner. So I've made this compound line, I guess, by putting two lines and stacking them on top of each other. So that's, that's line work. Really kinda same as the symbols polygons. Let's look at those. So let's use our reds, red line there. What's used? Nantucket hydrology. I'm gonna double-click that. Again. I've got the top-level is the fill. I've got the simple fill underneath. I can add another layer and change that color. It's going to put the green on top. And I can add, again, kinda make different different features that way. So I've turned them all green so I can, I can manipulate those just as easily. You can do other things with these polygons and we're going to get into those later, like shapers fills and using textures and other things like that. But I just want to show you the basics of how you changed layers and change colors and change the o, not only the, the, you know, we have the fill here. For a polygon. We have the, you know, the, the outer edge and the color. So we have your pointer make the outer edge red and the inner, the inner line. I'll say gray. So you've got a gray fill, red stroke just like Illustrator or other, you know, other products. You have. The outline edge and the inside part. So when the stroke width I can make that, that line thicker. If I wanted to. I could easily put a dotted lines for that. I couldn't make horizontal dashes, lots of different ways you can create a, you know, a symbol. Now this is a master would never put somebody who's out there, but that's, you know, everything you want to do. You can't. This offset will push your parts of the object and offset them to the x and y up and down or left or right. And you can see I'm moving that the blue is moving up and the x is going to the right as I adjust these. So if I hit Apply, you can see it. It starts to skew them one way or the other. Sometimes you use it to kind of show some depth, give you a 3D effect to it, but not used that much. You can use the bevel style, the miter, or the round doesn't really do that much. Or we can use Notepad if we don't want to have any All set of segments 0, just use no pen. And that's how that works. Now play around that you'll get used to it. So that is polygon symbology in a nutshell. 15. Styling Categorical Data: All right, how do we stop categorical data getting a little more complicated now we talked about single, single symbols in simple ways to symbolize data. Let's dig a little deeper. We'll start with points. And let's look at, let's look at our attribute table again, here we have three lighthouses shown on our map. And we want to symbolize these a little bit differently if they're yes, I wanted to show as green if there no, I want them to show as red. Okay. And whether or not they have a control system on them. So I know that control is the column that upon which I want to do my color choices, right? So try to look in there, keep that in mind. And I'm going to go into the intricate link and the lighthouses by double-clicking. And up top, we know we, we use single symbol. In the last section, we're going to go to categorize symbol. And we have our red diamond that we're using. But this value field here, this is the key. Now this gets into sort of the deeper database aspects of QGIS. And it's great and you know that you always need to understand your data. But, you know, the symbolization works with that. So we looked at our attribute table and we saw that control is what we wanted to. We're going to click Control and nothing happens. Okay, so what is going on here? We need to shrink this up. We need to hit this Classified button. The Classified button will take all the values that I have in that, that column, that field, and put them up here. And if we just hit Apply, you will see that the two that have a control structure are these two. They are blue and this one is yellow. So it has automatically set a color for us and made that determination. So we're part of the way there. They always give you this all other values. If that, if there's any blank fields, like records in that field that would cover them with this purple color. Oftentimes, if my data is nice and clean and I understand that, I'm just going to turn that right off and really need it. So now I have yes. Has blue and yellow is no. No, not that I don't again, I don't really I don't like that. Doesn't really make intuitive sense. If I'm going to, you know, yes or no, I'm gonna go with a green and a red. So to change that particular value, I'm going to double-click it on the actual symbol here. And I'm going to just, I have this preset one. I'm going to use that I could dial it in like we talked about in the last section and make it exactly what I want. But let's, let's just go with a simple red diamond. Okay, so now if I hit Apply, oh, you know what, I wanted those to be greened in nice. So let's go back. I can either find a green diamond or I could just change the color here and make it green. I'm going to go with this one. Okay, Apply. And now they're green, good. And then this yellow one, I want to make that a red diamond. I'm just going to use the presets. Okay, Apply. And there we go. So we've, we've made a varying display symbology for yes or no. If I added a, a legend, we'll get into legends later. It will tell you which ones are yes and which ones are known. You can explain that out better. But that's how you use categorical data with point values. Let's do the same with these minor roads. So let's work with those. So let's look at our attribute table as I like to do. And let's go by road type. So this road type, I've got a four or 56 now I imagine that's something to do with size. Not only show, but it's a good, easy value for us, remember, so at road type, RD TY P0 is what we're going to use. So let's double-click that single symbol. We're going to change that to categorize based on what did we just say road type. And nothing happens. I'm going to hit classify. And here we go, 456 and all others. So let's just apply that. See what happens. You can see I've got the different colors showing up now. So I've got some of the, mostly the orange, purple and blues at six and the five. The four Joel tougher to see. So let's, we can, then, we can choose a random color pattern if we wanted to. Say, let's go with different shades of red and puts in a red spectrum. A lot of other, other ones you can do with purples. Lovely. But let's dial this in a little more specifically. All I'm gonna do is just double-click on them. And let's just go with it. We could do this by line weight or we could do it by color. Let's go with line weight. Let's just use a simple black line for all of them. And let's, let me go back. I'm going to increase the width on the five. I'm going to exaggerate this, make this too. I'm going to make the six is four and this is really going to be ugly, But proves the point. So we'll hit Okay, Apply and we'll zoom in on this so you can see the six roads are thicker. If we wanted to. Let's change the color a little bit to make it a little more obvious, Let's make it a dark blue. So those are, those are blue. And the fives are thicker and the fours are red. So here are some of the force and they will, they will draw in this order shown here. Now we can do the same thing. I'm going to go back to put this back as a single symbol because it's just ugly. Let's just make it a gray. And what we're gonna do is we can do the same thing with polygons, the hydrology. Let's look for a good field to. So we've got polygon codes here of some varying numbers. 24600 Sousa. So we'll double-click categorized, polygon code. Classify, get rid of that and hit Okay, so now we've got whatever this code is. It could be freshwater, saltwater, marshlands, quaking bogs, like all sorts, sorts of different things. But you can see the base on that particular code we have symbolized them differently. So same thing works with polygons, and that's how you work with categorical data. 16. Styling Graduated Data: Okay, Moving on, we're gonna talk about graduated data and we've finished up with categorical data and how things. The important part is picked up field and know what the fields there are. No, it'll give you a chloropleth map. A graduated color map will give you based on the values it gets down to the next level of complexity. Little more specific. This is if you take a GIS class in university, you would talk about things like this. But in terms of just being able to display the information, we're going to, we're going to use Nantucket hydrology here that the rivers and lakes and symbolize it using a graduated color scheme. So same as kind of like the categorical data, we're going to choose graduated. And the important thing we have to deal with is the field value. In this case, I'm going to use the shape, the areas shape, which you see, the shape of the area. How big are each of the different pods? You can see we have lots of different ponds here on Nantucket, small ones and big ones. And let's we want to shade the big lakes dark and the smaller ones. A lighter, lighter color. So let's use, you know, just sort of a, a deep red. And again, we have to hit the Classified button. We could get into, you know, you don't want to get into all of these. You can have you wanted to. This is in GIS classes, what we talk about. It's a lot, but your map will change based on how you use this. Let's use Jencks snack, natural breaks. And we've, you know, or just hit classify and it will use whatever you want. But it will give you your values. And the values of a 148 square meters would meet this map is in meters to 20000 square meters is this light color and then the big, the big lakes or goes all the way down to this dark red. So let's hit Apply and see if that worked out. So you know that the biggest lake here on the island that is that deep red, the smaller ones. You can see our sort of this light, just a light pink. And so that has worked out Right? The larger ones are dark colors, the small ones are light colors. So that's how we use graduated graduated colors. And we can, we can play around a lot with this. I can make 10 different classes if I wanted to. Here are all the different values that it's using. In reality, you don't want to use more than usually like five to seven colors or eyes can't really discern on a screen the differences there. Are these two colors different. So, you know, seven tops, you know, five is a lot better. I can't really tell the difference between the dark reds that are right next to each other. So you understand that we can make, we can add a lot of different shades in here if we want to. What we usually don't want to, and it'll automatically set these to where you want them. This is kind of nice, pretty breaks. It kinda breaks everything by numbers, DO nice round numbers. So that's yeah, I mean we could, if there is another column in there that we wanted to use shape, length, we could, we could apply that as well. You kinda have to know your data a little bit. And that's now looking at the length around the length of the line that circles the lake. This one's a little bit further. So that's EPT. So that's graduated symbols. 17. Shapeburst Fill: Let's look at shape burst. Phil's, this is a neat trick that you can do with polygons, especially things like water, I like to do it or old maps for you have, you know, they used to do this on old cartography maps a lot. And it's a nice look in feature. So let's make this pond here look better. So I'm gonna double-click on that. And our typical system here we've got the main level. And then we're going to, we're going to drop down a layer to get more complicated and hit the simple fill. So the symbol layer type, we're going to go with shape burst. Phil. And I get this, these new sets of options here. Let's just hit apply and see what happens. So you can see already we're getting somewhere like this is kind of a nice fade. Gives a kind of almost like a depth of field to it. And it's using, the outer edge is this dark blue and the inner edge is white. Let's mess with these a little bit. Just to make it really obvious what's going on here. So the two colors, we're going to use a red and let's use green. Hit Apply. So green is in the middle and it fades off to the edges with the reds. And this is happening all over. But that looks a little odd Still, right? I got doesn't look all that natural. We could surely change the colors up. If we wanted to. Do that, we could use like a, a blue and maybe a lighter blue and hit Apply. Now that, that looks more natural, I added just a depth element to it that we might like. But we can also finally tune how this is displayed. What I like to do is use this set distance. So now it's set to five and you got the same color as the only thing I've done is gone from the whole shape to the offset distance it's going to measure from the edge of the, of the polygon. Apply. And so now we've got, we've got this, we've got a, you know, a little bit of a fade inside and just kinda helps accentuate the edge a little bit, but still makes it look a lot more like just like a lake. I can change that distance. I can make that 14 kind of set the width of that of that, of that fade. And then also, you know, I could use this blur strength slider. Put that halfway hit Apply. You can see it just helps fade it a little bit more, stretches it out on the edge, and again gives it a nice little depth field to it. So that is shapers film. Kind of a neat trick for polygons that I like. 18. Texture Fills: Let's look at texture fills. Now. Nice way to spice up your, your polygons and give a good sort of texture feel, kind of more artistic know, are really starting to get somewhere with the cartography. Let's texture up this landform here. Right now it's just a simple white works. You know, it's very, very simple, good backdrop, but let's, let's make it a little more artistic. So what we're gonna do is use a texture fill. So I'm going to right-click a double-click on the layer properties for the Nantucket boundary, which is my land, the white part here. I'm going to go to next layer down symbol layer type and choose the raster image fill. And I'm going to get a new set of choices here in the and this is what you do here is you have to tell the computer which image, which view JPEG file to use in order to, to show it, it's going to draw that, you know what, that texture piece as the white. And to locate that you have to use this little button here. Kinda not really intuitive. You don't really know what that is, but you know, your select the file there. I have a big file of textures that I use regularly, and I'm going to pick one of those she was going to use this paper. Paper to here. I'm going to click Open in that loads up that file, tells it where to go here on my on my computer. And then when I hit apply, and what it does is adds that tech, that texture on there. Now you can see this one has a white background or a white edge to it. So this one doesn't really work that well. So let's find one that is a little bit better. We'll go back here to the selection. Let's use this nice purple watercolor just for, for fun. And click on that. Sometimes it's a little bit of a resource hog, so we might suit on your computer a little bit, and that's fine. So just be conscious and careful about where you click. Some of these files are pretty large, like this JPEG here. And once that loads up, I hit Apply and I got this nice watercolor background. And you can do a lot of things like that. Here's like a blueprint. What I do is I gather up these textures as I find them and for future use. So sometimes I'll buy them for $5 and go online and get a download of nice big files. Understand the resources. I don't know it. So down my computer a little bit to use. But it's a nice way to add some, some sizzle to your, to your background textures. Right? So you can see you got a little bit, a little bit of paper, a look behind there. And it really, really easy to do just tell the computer, you know, save that image file in a place where you know where it is. Tell the computer where to go by hitting this three dots here and set the path. And it will, it'll go. And, you know, if I want to use some opacity here, I can lighten it up a little bit, slide that down, and some other, some other details here as well. But generally you don't really need to touch those. So that's textures pretty easy. 19. Inverted Polygons: Here's a quick video on inverted fills. So right now we have Nantucket. We have the Nantucket boundary in white here. The land, everything around it is, it looks like water and we know that it's an island, so it must be water. But in reality, in this project, if I go to my Properties, my, my background color. So at the background is all water. So we can see that it is just a background. It's not really actually at the watercolor. So if I wanted to do something without water and change the, change the color there. But if I wanted to go to another level in, make it very detailed and added some sort of a texture fill or some other stippling or a complicated fill pattern. I can't really do it in my, in my properties. Like, yeah, I can choose colors here. And that's nice, but I can't really dial in exactly what I want. So what I would do in this situation is use an inverted fill. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to copy. Next. I want even copy, I'm just going to do it. So instead of right now, the white colors, the inside of this polygon, I'm going to double-click that instead of single symbol, I'm going to use inverted polygons as my first choice. And everything looks the same. We've got the same the same type of choices that we had if we just use a symbol, simple fill. But what I'm gonna do is use, we use purple just for illustration purposes at that. And what it does is it instead of, instead of shading the inside of the polygon, shading the outside of the polygon. So it is using, now it's dropping on the background, is that blue? And then everything on the outside of the polygon is what's colored. So, but now I can use this. I have all my cartographic fill patterns available to me and I can get really detailed with all that water stuff. Lets, you know where we can maybe add some, some dot patterns or things like that. We can start to get a little more, little more, little more crazy. And if we wanted to, a lot of times we'll duplicate a layer. And what I'm gonna do is just turn this back to a simple single symbol. Just a white fill. And I'll say gray fill close enough. And that is now filling in on top of where it was before. So you can see we've got one more little, lot more choices here. So if we use the inverted polygon fill feature. 20. Advanced Lines: All right, Let's look at some advanced line work that we might wanna do. Dotted lines or marker lines or arrows, things like that. Some, you know, kind of more advanced symbology options. Let's use Nantucket major roads just for illustration purposes. So I double-clicked Nantucket major roads. I've got some dotted lines here, and I've got it, I got some arrows here. I've got some patents are some cat trails. You know, lots of different things. So you can grab one of the pre-made dotted lines. So let's, let's use that and you know, kinda change that around a little bit too. If I want to make it red, I can, I can do that. That's actually a marker line. Let's use this and code that read and apply. Okay, and you can see the major roads are now a dotted line. If this was like a path or something might be a good way to symbolize it. Or I could set a county or state bounding box of a municipality that would work. So feel free to use the existing symbols. Sometimes they work, sometimes they don't want, if you want to get more complicated, again, dropped down into the next level. And you have this here, custom dashed pattern. And if I click on that, it says every two millimeters put a space. So let's, let's play with that a little bit. I'm going to make that every five millimeters. Hit Okay, and hit Apply. It's going to spread those dots out so I can very easily finally tune the path that I want. If I wanted to make that, you know, some kind of a brown or something. Oh, a note on the color wheel here. So you use the outer ring first and say I wanted a blue click the blue first and then go inside the triangle and you can fine tune it from there. So I want to browse mug over here and hit Okay, applied. You can see that that path is now turned, turn brown and, you know, that kind of fades into the background a little bit more. So sometimes you just, you don't want it to be overpowering is light it up, spread it out. So it kind of fades back a little bit or the other way you want to draw it out more. Make it more to focus your attention. Maybe put a black edge around it. Like we did with we can add another layer. And now it'll have a black line. We can use the custom dashed pattern and really kinda get very specific. The way we symbolize these things, right? So well that save, save it if you like it, save the style here, it'll put it in there, in, in your symbol palette, so you'll always have it for the next time. So that's, that's the, the line work. Cancel out of that. Let's just put this back to just a single line. So we will use just this gray line. So there we go. If we're going to do the same thing with polygons as well. If I hit Nantucket hydrology, let's say I want to make this pond little more funky around the edges. I don't really see any dotted line edges, right? So in order to get that, I need to kinda build it the way I like it. So I'm going to go down to simple fill. I'm going to add another layer. And I'm going to make the inside transparent when I click the drop-down transparent fill. And now for this outline, I'm going to use this dotted line here. And it gives me a dotted line that I can use and hit. Okay, and you can barely see that. Let's make that much bigger. Thicken that up. So you can see I've got the dotted line around that. Ron all my my inland lakes there. So that's how you do work with dotted lines with polygons. If we want to do a marker symbol. Let's add another and transparent that. Let's get rid of this one. And to go, Sorry about that. I'm going to add another go and there we go. Okay. Simple fill, outline markers, marker line under, under the similarity type for this blue one set of a simple fill. So you kind of nesting things. Use marker line and it gives you options now or I can set where the red dots are going to be on every vertex or certain interval. I can do it like that. I can do it on the central point. You can play around that's usually going to use something like that. The set your own intervals are on. Every vertex may or may not work for you. But and you can start to offset things a little bit. And this is a way to make this, we'll get into more advanced layers later. So what watercolor effects you kinda will randomly generate dot sizes and it'll give you a kind of a Skype stippled look. You have an old pen. You know, this kinda just looks like Christmas lights here, but that's the marker, the marker symbol. If you add a, another layer here and go to the symbol layer type and change it there. All right, so there's, there's a few ways to hook, to pull off these different, these different ways to symbolize things. Whether it's the markers, the little symbols of things, or whether it's the hash, dot-dot-dot dotted lines. You could also do the arrows, right? So let's look at that. Let's use major roads for that. And so we dropped down a layer to get a little more complicated instead of simple line, We're gonna go to arrow. And we have different arrow choices here. This is a blue one. With the arrow. It's just a plain one we could do halfway or top or the bottom that the width. You can play with all the different options here with the how far. The point is. You can curb them. So you can see it's added a bunch of arrows at each vertex. Generally used when you put it in a line that you just want the output to point to something and you're using it more as a graphic feature, right within your map. But that's it. So it's just instead of the symbol layer type, instead of just simple line or marker or hashed, we're going to use arrow and set the settings. I don't honestly don't use that much, but it's there if you need it, right. There is Advanced advanced lines. 21. XYZ Tile Basemaps: All right, let's talk about base maps. These days. Base maps are easily put into your computer, you know, streamed from another server somewhere and in a background image will show up whether it's an aerial photograph or, you know, OpenStreetMap data or all sorts of different, different things. You can get other places to stream in your data. You can't really make changes to it, but you can use it as a layer in your map, kinda usually as a background layer and put your data on top of it. And it really helps enhance your data. And you can do a lot with it really quickly. And just by adding it, as we ArcMap does a good job of this and have a button, you click it, you have choices, you pick one, but you can only pick what they give you. So q just gives you a lot more options. You could do a few more steps to get there. But I'm going to show you that you just have to do it once and you have all sorts of base maps to use in the future. So what we're gonna do is go to Plugins and the Python console. And this Python console comes up and you have a place where you can typically cut and paste your Python code into here. And it will run that and do its thing. So learning Python is a whole nother thing. I encourage you to do it, but we're not going to get any of that. We're just going to cut and paste, which is, I think a lot of, a lot of what coding is these days anyways, learning how to cut and paste and we've things together. But anyway, so what you do is you go to this website, I'll give you this link in the resources section. And this is some, some a Python script that was written by class Carlson, who's a great QGIS teacher, Swedish unbelief. But I've learned a lot from him. And this gives you the connections where you can go and gather your data. So you don't really need to know all this stuff, but you could go in and edit, add new services and new base maps if you're familiar with this, or if you ever get to that point. Good for you. But we're just going to hit Control a to copy it all. Control C to copy. Then we're done with that part. Then we're gonna go into my Python console and go down here where we have three, the three hours or three greater than, greater than signs and hit Control V. And it dumps it all in to that Python console. So that's okay. Don't really see anything has changed yet. What we need to do now is hit this green Run command. I'm going to click on that. And again, not sure that anything has happened. What we need to do is look in our browser panel. So up here, if you don't have your browser panel open already, you may. You can right-click up here and it'll give you all the different panels you can have open. I'm going to click on the browser panel and we have a lot of options. Great way to save your where you are. You know, common data files are. In this case now we see this XYZ file. And let's expand that down. So now we have all these, all these have been added and they're now gonna stay in our browser panel until we upgrade our software. You have to do this again, but it doesn't take very long. And let's, let's go with stamen toner light. And it'll just get rid of this simple double-click. And now we have data for Nantucket. It's being streamed into a vector tile. You will talk about Mapbox in another section and how this all works, but it's a great way to bring data into your, into your project. So that's with watercolors. We have satellite imagery, terrain data and not that there's much in Cape Cod, Massachusetts and ocean layer as we ocean layer. So you still need to give proper due and follow the copyright restrictions and everything. But, you know, now have a nice slick base map that is available to you and many others. So I encourage you to play with those, figure out what you like. And and you're off and running with the XYZ tile base maps. 22. Getting OSM Data from the OSM Website: Let's look at OpenStreetMap data and how to get that so you can bring it into your maps and use that OpenStreetMap data for your, for your Carter cartographic masterpieces. So let's look at the OpenStreetMap website first, OpenStreetMap.org. Go there, set up an account, really just an email. And they just want to know who you are, what data you're downloading. If you're making any changes to the database, who you are, why you're doing it, things like that just kinda keeps everyone honest, which is a good thing. So it keeps track of your stats, how many, how many edits you make, and you know everything you're doing in here. So, so that's first thing you do if you don't have an open stream of account yet, do that first. If once you have that, you can then start to export things. So let's, let's move down to our filename Nantucket and look at this area on the East Coast of Nantucket. This is a nice little village. Cute little houses, delightful. And let's say we want to get these buildings and these polygons and everything else in here. So we zoom into where we want. We hit the Export button and it exported everything on that page. And you've got in your Downloads now some called map.get OsM. And that is grabbed all of those files. So if we go into QGIS and load up that data, the quick OSM plug-in, if you haven't done that, go to Plugins and the search bar type in quick. And you'll see quick OSM. You'll get this page here. Install takes about three seconds. And then you'll have this green magnifying glass here or in your vector drop-down quick OsM and click on that and you get to this page. You click on this OSM file, you locate that file. It's in my downloads folder number 4. And what's just show everything that we just pulled in. And there it is all done and it's pulled in. All the Scots at data that we know the area that we were zoom into. Let's look at this folder or the attribute table. You know, there's a lot there, so it's a little messy. You know, you could figure this out. You could use your rule base, you know, labeling and rule-based symbology to pull out what you needed. But it's really kind of simple. A better way. We also have the lines and points as well. And you can do that if you want some real quick. But let's try a better way. If you go to this quick OSM, plug in again and go to, go to quick query. And kinda use these, this wizard here. So the key you want to say, and let's say we want to get all the buildings on Nantucket, right? So let's say let's do bars, amenities value equals bars, bar, okay, in and we put in Nantucket. And and that's it. Run the query. They weren't gonna do. It's gonna go to OpenStreetMap, grab all that information and bring it here and the way we missed it, or it only showing one by the other ones are called pubs. This is the it's not labeled. Let's use, let's use all buildings instead. Let's try this again. Show how easy it is. So key building value of all it gives you all the values of yes in etiquette. Run. And so a little bit longer. So it's going to more data and just the bars every building. And it will do its thing. This is also pulling out points and lines and polygons and everything else. So now we have all the buildings in the intricate, right? And building equals yes, in the etiquette. Which is a nice, you know, sometimes you want that for a little bit of a base layer and I can turn them all just a gray fill if I want or I could add a shadow. We want to know how to do a little shadow to make it kind of bring it up a little bit of a 3D effect. Then you layer in your, your roads right now are starting to get somewhere. It was really easy to just grab all those all those road I mean, all of those those buildings like, you know, when you're zoomed out at this scale, doesn't really matter. You can barely see them. But if, you know my inset map or just certain scales, those buildings are great. Or if you need data for roads for some in Missouri. And you don't want to go to the Missouri State website, GIS website, just go to OpenStreetMap, grab everything from that county and pull them in this way. And you kind of just pulling what you want. And then you have a separate file for each one. We also have the points as well. Some people put them in his points. So that's the good and the bad about OpenStreetMap. You've got the whole world you can deal with. But it's not always that good. Quality wise. So you said you have got to check it, make sure it works for you. But that's a quick way to pull data out of OpenStreetMap in. Get it into your ear, I recommend the quick OSM plug-in. More than the website. There are other ways as well, but and if you really want to get more complicated, you use the overpass turbo system. This is more advanced stuff, a little bit of code you got to manipulate advanced class. We can get into this, but where you can really kind of specificly dial in exactly what you want. And of course, websites that work right now. But if you, once you master this one of the overpass turbo and see what you can do with that. But that's the next step. All right, OpenStreetMap. 23. Getting OSM Data with Overpass Turbo: Let's learn how to gather data from the overpass turbo from the quick OSM plugin. It's a useful tool. When we go to the quick OSM plug in the green magnifying glass icon here. And we go to Query and hit this overpass turbo button. And that will bring us to happen to be there wherever you were at last. You can zoom to any, any part of the world. We're going to stick with Nantucket. That's what we're hopefully comfortable with now what I'm going to zoom to get Nantucket in the middle of my screen. It's going to grab everything on the screen there. And over here I've got some code. And this is how you selectively search things. So, you know, it's a little, little bit tricky, but once you figure it out, It's very logical and you could figure out, you know, you can do it. You can save these queries and this is what I do. And I'll provide you with this one if you want to use it. Put it in the resources section, you can just grab it and paste it in there. But what it does is it goes into the natural, the OpenStreetMap data, and it grabs just specific thing. So in this case it's going to grab the boundary anytime it says boundary equals administrative. But no, the way in the relation or building equals yes or natural water. And sometimes you need ways and sometimes you need nodes and relations. Typically you just need the way and that'll be fine. But in this case, I'm going to grab administrative boundaries, buildings, water, weapons, secondary roads, primary roads, highways, railways, different, there are different types of highways. There's many different labels in there to grab the coastline and natural peaks. It's handy to use this wizard. This sort of helps you out, Let's say you wanted to look for bars and build a query like it would be amenity equal bar. And it gives you that code. So that's maybe what you want, but that's, you know, that was your just helps you structure or the the code that you need. So start with the code that I gave you. You'll soon learn, you'll play with it. You're not going to hurt anything, grab it, run it. If it kicks it back. You've got issues but, you know, you know, grab the code that you like when you when you find the code that you like and it grabs the things that you want, you can save it to your OpenStreetMap account. You can say about it wasn't about org or you can save it locally. I out save it on my OSM account that way it's in the cloud NAT. I can always get to it. I found the save locally. It doesn't always work and have to rebuild it. Not that it takes that long once you figured it out, but it seems to work better on when you save to OSM.org. So this code will grab a whole bunch of stuff and go into OpenStreetMap and grab what it needs and pull it off. And let's demonstrate that. So I'm going to hit run. And it's going to go in and process. And it says, it's a lot of data you sure you want to do this? No. Computer needs to be pretty good to handle at all, but I hit Okay, and then everything that's highlighted is what it grabbed. Alright. So you can kind of go in and see if it's exactly what you want. Now I'm going to hit Export and I'm going to save it and download it as a GeoJSON file. And it's going to dump it into my Downloads folder. So this is the 11th time I've done this. Remember what that number is? So we're going to use export 11 dot GeoJSON. You can get rid of that and we're done. Let's go back to q. And let's enter, Let's bring all that data in from the overpass turbo and see what we've got. So I'm going to go to my data manager, make sure I'm on vector data. And I'm going to go find it and go to my Downloads folder, and it's GeoJSON 11. And I'm gonna hit Add. And it gives me points, lines, and polygons. And I do this in one at a time. Just, I don't know, like to take my time. But let's just start with click on the points and hit Okay, now it's added points. And I'm going to add again lines, okay? Again, polygons, 14 thousand records hit Okay. And Close. And now look what I've got. Remember before we did this with OpenStreetMap and it was difficult to get all those buildings in there. And I've got buildings for everything that was in my my box, my bounding box, the box. I've also got lines that are being covered, tough to see there. Let's make these darker so we can see them. There we go. And the green, the green dots. Less obvious but there are no, here's one here, there, there, there and there. So now we've got this massive amount of data. Let's look at it in the attribute table. Here is the polygon attribute table, 14 thousand records and a whole bunch of columns with a whole bunch of messy data. And that's what turbo pass OSM will do a light to grab specific things within OpenStreetMap at a specific area that you're, that you're bounding boxes in and dump it into these massive, these massive attribute tables. So it's a great tool to really use it. You need to learn rule-based labeling and rule-based symbology, which is in the next lecture. 24. Rule Based Symbology: Okay, Let's use rule-based symbology. We've done our last lecture. We got the data off of the OpenStreetMap with turbo pass in the quick OSM plug-in. And let's what's makes them sensitive. As a recap, we have these massive attribute tables pulled out of OpenStreetMap. Beautiful thing we can grab data from anywhere around the world. Pretty much everything that's there we just grabbed about for Nantucket. Let's, let's grab these. Let's work with some polygons. We'll start there. So what I'm gonna do is go to Properties and symbology and then choose rule-based polygons. And this is what I get. So we have 11 rule and it's just a basic pink fill right here. What's click on here under, underneath rule, it says that intuitive, but that's where your quick and we're going to call this building's, I'm going to symbolize my buildings. And I'm going to hit this, this, even know what that's called. The Google that, that, that symbol and go find the the information in my attribute table. Now remember we have this massive attribute table, it, so you kinda need to know your attribute table and how OpenStreetMap is designed into more you use it, you'll, you'll get used to this. But if you want to symbolize x, Let's go look at if you want to symbolize your buildings. Again, all this is always a good thing to do. Go on your attribute table and figure it out. What for things called buildings. What do we got here? No, we have a building layer. Who or you're going to miss it. Okay, did and this is the this is the trouble building, right? So here we go. We have a building column, we have some yeses, sort that. So a bunch of yeses. So those polygons are the buildings and has some other information, the address and city and stuff like that. But I just want it all I care about is whether it's a building are not. Right. And that's what this yes. Does. So when someone went and OpenStreetMap encoded as a building, it's telling me it's a building. So that's what we can use to symbolize all these Sony Building equals yes. So like I said, rule-based symbology, click Record here underneath rule, we'll call this building's. Click on this funky symbol. And we need to find buildings now that we kind of know. And so building will double-click that. I'm going to click equal times it gets it twice. And then I like to hit all unique just to make sure I'm in the right place. Double-click yes. And it gives me a preview of one that's a good sign, tells me that it likes it and I'm gonna hit Okay? And then now I have my symbology information and I'm going to pick a gray fell. Okay, and hit Apply. And now we are at, our buildings, are symbolize gray probably thinking, okay, that's, that's great big deal. So what, we've done that before, right? Well, let's keep going. Let's look at the hydrology that we grabbed, the lakes and ponds. We already have that that label, but let's say we, we didn't have that. And I want to use the OpenStreetMap version of the lakes and ponds. What I'm gonna do is go back to my symbology, hit this green plus sign. I'm going to add another rule. And recall this water. Hit the the expression StringBuilder. And my fields are, in this case, it's natural equals water. So natural and it can be a little confusing because you have water. The water equals yes, but in this case, natural equals all unique water. Okay. And let's put a nice blue so we know it's water. It okay, hit Apply. There we go. Now we've got our water layers under this big giant polygon field or layer. Okay, So what? And we could do parks, or we could do it for symbols, for points as well. Let's go to the point symbol. Rule-based. Add a double-click in there. Stringbuilder. We go natural equals peak, peak. And we're going to make that a triangle. Bump that up a little bit so we can see it easily. And that's great. Let's make another one. Let's call it, let's go. So that's fine. Let's leave that there. And hit Apply. And Okay, and now we've got our peaks and our point symbols. What are the points symbols? Do we have here? We have these hills. I think mostly that's it. Not much for the, for the pigs, but we can do it with lines as well. Let's remember from the overpass turbo query I had all the different names of the roads. Let's, let's go in and look at that. Look at our attribute table. And we've got administrative levels might work. Let's see. Golf cart paths, Highway highway, residential, highway service. Let's go with highway. Like a rule. So rule-based labeling, residential. Well, the expression, highway, vehicles residential, let's make it a gray line. Y. Ok. And you can see most of the roads on Nantucket are residential, but we could do the same with the term my major roads off. You can do the same with the major roads and have an entire symbol set for all the roads. Here is the beautiful thing. I can take. This property. Style, could save style. Save it in my etiquette roads Q ML styles folder. And I won't do it as well. I'll do it. I'll do it No man, demo. So no later than I can do it later. And folder is already set and hit. Okay, and then I can go. And all that symbology for all the roads and the hydrology, the lakes, and the different types of roads, and all of that symbology that I've saved. I can use anywhere in the world. I could zoom to Rome, download a chunk of Rome with the overpass turbo. Add that style onto to the files I've just downloaded and all of that symbology is going to, going to jump right on there. So it is incredibly powerful. It is a little bit tricky, as you saw to understand the attribute table and to know which feet, which columns, which fields are what you want. You know, there's a lot of stuff in here that doesn't really matter. I just want to nulls, but you find the columns that have text in them. And think about it a little bit. And once you, once you get it right, once, save it as that style, and then you got it, and then you can use that certain style or whatever. So takes a little bit to get your KML styles right. I'm going to give you some UML styles that I've done. Put it in the resources folder. So you can start with those. You can edit off of those. See how you like them. Make the adjustments, save it, Save As, you know, just name it something else, score. Save it wherever you want it, right, and start to create a library of KML styles that you can that will latch on to any bit of OpenStreetMap data. And it's a pretty powerful way to do it. A little bit complicated with the attribute table, but once you get it right, you're golden. So powerful stuff. Rule-based labeling, rule based symbology. And that's it. Go for it. 25. Rule Based Labeling: Okay, we've got our data from OpenStreetMap, turbo overpass, and we've done some rule-based symbology. We can do the same thing with the labels, rule base labeling. So let's label these peaks that we pulled off of the large point dataset and we label them. So we'll double-click to get the properties or go to labels. And we click on the the type. I'm going to have a rule-based labeling and get rid of those is what I had before. And we'll start a new rule. So we're going to hit the green plus sign. And we're going to call this peak name. And we will use the expression builder. Go to files, fields and values. And natural equals pq. All unique peak, okay? And we have all of our labeling functionality that we have in regular QGIS. Simpler way that we weren't before. Now we can go to value, I'm gonna go to Name, and I'm going to pick a text. And this is all stuff that we know how to do. Just for illustration purposes. I'll make this red and change the font is so shows up over and hit Apply. And Okay, and it's using that rule to label these peaks, right? Not all of them have names, so that's what we have there. So it's the same exact, exact process. If we had many other different points, there doesn't seem to be many points in this. But if we had lighthouse points, we can say, okay, pull out the White House is label those. Pull out the schools label those if we wanted to, change those in. Again, the beauty of it is I could go grab data from Sweden, pull that data down for turbo overpass. Pull out the saved style file that I've saved for this. And it's going to style up that data exactly like you do it here because it's using the same, same format in the columns. So that's, that's the beauty of it again, the battery tables are pretty massive. But once you figure out the tricks and how it's structured, and when you use natural equals water or natural equals pq, things like that, you know, you just have to get it once, get it right, once, save it. The style file right here. So save it as your label style file. And you can just keep adding those and you're good to go. All right, So we're able based rule-based labels are the same as rule-based symbology. Extremely helpful when you're using OpenStreetMap data. Like we are here. 26. Bringing in Mapbox Baselayers (an Introduction): Let's look at Mapbox. Mapbox interesting company, sort of a competitor to Ezri. They, they take a different spin on data and they do a lot of things. I don't use everything that they provide, their tiling services in their movement data in their car, automobile route guidance systems as I've I I use it more visits for the base maps that I like to fire in a vector tile services into My Maps and I'll show you that. So, you know, Mapbox.com, sign up for a free account. That's what I have. And we'll use I don't get charged for my usage levels and you probably won't either if you're a sole person is making maps every now and then, if he starts to become a business, then you know, you may have to figure out the licensing options, but really for its use, I don't have to pay anything for her. What I get here is pretty pretty great. So if you go to the studio tab here, you, this is where I like to do that, the cartography stuff. And what we have here is the style section. And I have many different styles here, a couple of pages worth of styles, and let me show you a style here. This is a Mapbox style, the treasure style. And here is Virgin Islands, Here's Puerto Rico. You know, it's kind of piracy map. We've got nice labels. It's just, you know, fanciful, right? This is all based on OpenStreetMap data. This is the base for all this. It looks crazy. It looks like just art. But if you zoom in to anywhere on the Earth, the OpenStreetMap data starts to come up and you see, I've got the Winn-Dixie, right? So clearly this is not simply an artist's rendition. This is real data, okay? We have all sorts of new ones. This is the pencil map. Enjoy this one. Sort of a pencil, pencil line drawing. I've, I've played around with this as you can see. If I zoom in here to the city kinda looks like pencil lines and pencil outlines of buildings. You know, kind of a parchment background. And another one I've been playing around with world map, sort of an older style, this concentric water lines. You know, kinda, kinda nice cartography, right? And the beauty of it all. Most importantly, is it's the whole world, right? So I style up one area and I can go to, I don't know, let's go to Rome. And that OpenStreetMap data as being fired in and symbolized. Based on what is. What is in there? So what about, let's, how about this one called standard? This is kinda like circa 6, 8 or 70s. Roadmap. Kind of a neat, neat look to it. So tremendous amount of variability. You even have, you know, blueprint maps, right? Or area or this, or this isn't even the Spiderman map. As you can see, you can, you can kinda go crazy with the cartography elements on this. And this is a whole, another whole nother game. We're not gonna get into that in this course. Maybe might become another course by all by itself, but it uses a whole different system. A lot more JavaScript, CSS, more complicated, but once you get it right, it looks great on this one's tilted. Here we go. So you have satellite imagery to the Bahamas, various satellites. So it's great way to feed through satellite imagery and other data. And they have lots of other layers that you can put in roads. Mapbox provides all this base layer information. It's OpenStreetMap data is where they get it. And but, you know, but symmetry and satellites and contours and hillshades and roads, and restaurants, everything that's an OpenStreetMap. They, they port into this and you can go and grab it and symbolize that field. So, you know, and to change things, let's find a simpler layer here. There's one I'm working on for Block Island, off of Rhode Island. You know, if I want to change these the color of these roads, I can go to the components and click on the roads and turn the green. Turned blue, whatever you want in changes that throughout the whole world, right? So and then I can publish that. I can share this. I can, you know, if I hit Share and I go to a browser, says copy that, go to a new tab, paste. And now at that website here is that that style of data, right? In a web link. Pretty cool. So learning how to do all this, like I said, is pretty lot, there's a lot to it. It's a whole, I think was a whole separate class and how to do that type of cartography, which I know may come out with the Someday, I don't know. But the beauty of it is you can grab a lot of other people's stuff, they'll make it publicly available. That's what I did. For most, for almost all of these styles, I'm going to put a list of those of resources where you can go grab them yourself in our course here. And you can get these and then you copy them. Started to make your changes. And you can make the change yourself. And the beauty of it is. And let's say I want this world map style for, you know, as an example. And I hit Share. I go to if I go to third party and I copy this integration URL. Okay? It's grabbing what all I think I've done here. Now you need to get a token. So when you set up your account, you'll get a token. And you know, you enter your token in. So it knows it's you and it's your account. So they know where to where to go to get the stuff. But you know that there are good instructions on how to set that up. But I've copied that, that link, okay, has a WMD TS link. So what I'm gonna do if I go to my QGIS, you go into the browser and you have your WM TS link here, and I right-click, got a new connection. I'll call it. I'm just going to call this test. And in that URL, I hit that link that I just copied from Mapbox. Hit Okay, and now I have that test, that background layer here. I double-click on that and we have that layer loaded in. Now. This is pretty amazing because now the whole world is mapped in this style, which is cool. The different, The problem is I can't really change these. I don't have the control that I do in QGIS. Otherwise, like I can't really, I can't get rid of these labels. I can go back into Mapbox, delete them out of my Map Box account, republish it, and then wait a little bit until it catches up. And then those next, if I login here tomorrow though, if I did that, those labels will be gone. So, you know, there are ways to do it. But it's a little trickier and it's almost like you take a lot more time doing all the symbolization and getting everything just right and using it as a base map and then taking that Basemap and, and we have it for everything else. And then you add your labels in QGIS on top of it. And you know, you just the base map things that you're never really going to touch. You know, you do in Mapbox and then the detail work. You do it in QGIS and they work well together that way. And, and you can really map out water cool stuff this way using, using Mapbox. And you know, that's next level stuff that's, you know, cartography, advanced cartography. And actually let me, let me get into that a little bit. Just, you know, you have your components layer. This is a newer feature. And you know, you can you can choose your water and and change everything there. You can also go into the actual layers themselves and turn things on and off. This natural parks is off right now when I click on it and they click on the eyeball to turn things on and off specific things and click around on the map that tells me what I just clicked on. So all these layers, I just clicked on and I can say, oh yeah, land use. I could play with that. The components start to lock things. So it gets a little and it gets a little, little match. You can find the components over here as well. And you know, like I said, bigger, bigger, bigger fish here to deal with. But, you know, it can be a little complicated. But you can start to integrate the stuff into your websites and stool out more. And I just love the cartographic aspects of it and being able to symbolize the world in one shot. So that's Mapbox in a nutshell. Just want to give you a demo of that and encourage you to, to learn it because they are an up-and-coming company. They are there the real deal. So, you know, think about it like we have our XYZ layers, which would bring in these tiles of stuff that we can't change. But with the Mapbox system, I can I can make those, I can tweak them, make them what they want, what I want. Same thing with Azure. I can bring in a lot of base layers, but I can't, I can't change it. I can't turn labels on and off. It can't turn to the water, you know, a lighter shade of blue if I want to change that, but I can do that and Mapbox and my style and then publish that and pull that into QGIS and make it exactly what I want. So it gives you a whole another layer of power and leveraging that OpenStreetMap data and the internet. So, so there it is anyway, so that's good. Mapbox, love it. 27. Natural Earth Data: Let's look at Natural Earth data. Natural r theta.com. It is a public domain data set available at one to ten million, one hundred fifty million, and one to a 110 million scales. And what natural earth does is it gives us great base maps for small-scale maps. When we're looking at large portions of the earth. There's a lot of lot of data out there on the web. It is all over the place. Not sure Earth is kind of combines it all into great data set that is super useful for cartographers like us. And it will greatly, you know, it's exactly what you need often, finito, a world map, good look and world map, raster dataset or some country boundaries, things like that. Use natural arc data. It is free for everybody who has volunteer created out of the nicest effort that, you know, the North American Cartographic Information Society or out of the cartographers. And the world. Put it, put it together. It's free to use it on anything. And it's great that way. In order to use it, go to get the data button, the green one here. And we have the three levels of data, depending on what you're doing. And you can dial in to what you're looking for. So if you're looking for the raster datasets, so let's say the one to 10 million resume, you know, zooming in a little bit to say like regional areas and England or southeast OF US or Europe or things like that. This works well, so it gives you a little snippet preview of what the data set will look like. So this is a giant raster file and high resolution, 26 thousand by 10,800 pixels, high and low resolution. And you got to play with it, download the ones that you like. What I do is I'll download them and have them all in a folder. So I have them on my hard drive and I don't have to download them every time. A little simpler. But it's nice because you have like the shaded relief. If you want a grayscale map and you want to layer your data over it. It kind of hides in the back. So got some nice terrain and hill shading and it looks really good. Or just, just want the ocean and you want to overlay your country data. On top of that, you can just use this ocean bottom and see how it's just some different tints. Hypsometric tints, or more than natural or through a couple different styles there. So you choose what, which one you like and you can use different scales as well. And so the 150 million, you get more, you can use a darker, earthy tone, you get more grays. You know, this is great to throw underneath your as your base layer that you can build on top of. You can't change these colors all that easily. So you mean you can, but typically you just leave me alone and let them, they're beautiful as they are done by real cartographic professionals. So there are really good stuff. So those are the rasters or use those a lot. We also have cultural and physical data in here. So, you know, countries and then the admin 0, which is typically the country level. And then admin one goes down a level and, you know, in the US that would be the states admin to would be counties edit through the town's things like that. Populated places, point data, right? If you want to label cities, you would use that boundary lines offshore as well. Depending on what you're doing or airports, ports, urban areas. So there's some, some good stuff here. Time zones. They're not everything, but often it's exactly what you need. So that's the cultural. We also have physical more than natural matching things, coastlines, miner islands, reefs, rivers and lakes. That's a nice one. Lakes and reservoirs are natural or artificial lakes physical labels, so areas, labels that you can use to label your, your rasters, you may download that and the beauty of it is, And these, these boundaries, the coastlines and lands on a line. They are right up with those rasters. So you can zoom a little bit and it's going to be exactly what you want. It's going to line up with the country boundaries and everything's going to work together. So oftentimes you'll go get other data from somewhere else. Have we got another country gate set made by somebody else? It will not line up exactly with what you need. So it's nice to just stick with the Natural Earth data. It's a smaller scale stuff, but like I said, almost exactly what you need a lot so, so that you don't dig through this. Whenever you can use this data at all. It works well. It's consistent. If you wanted to download some of it. This natural earth Quickstart, download, it's 227 megabytes, so it's a bit of a monster. But it gives you all of the important major things in the end these datasets. So you could download it as a shape file or SQLite or geo package all about the same size. Really big. And it's a good way to just get started and to, you know, if you just want to download it a bunch of data and then put all that data into your, into your QGIS file. You are, you can't and you're ready to go and it's pretty easy. So yeah, they can, they keep this updated? The volunteers and the nicest people. Great organization will do a whole separate lesson on them and what they do, but not your data. No, it love it, love it. It's good stuff. Certainly a cartographers friend for certain. 28. Setting Up a Page Layout: All right, We've done some work now and we've got our data to where we like it. We've styled that up. Everything looks great. Now towards the end of the project, we're going to put this thing on the paper and laid out on, on paper and get it ready for printing or exporting it to a PDF or whatever it might be. So we're in our main map view here. What we're gonna do is create a new layout. So we've got a project layouts and you see there's nothing in here right now. There are no existing layouts. This is where you're going to look for your layouts in the future. We're gonna do is hit New Print Layout and we get this prompt asking us to title our layout. I like to title them with the size, right? So this one, let's say I'm going to make this an 11 by 17. And I like to include the orientation, whether it's portrait or landscape, so I know how it's going to be set up. So I'm going to hit Okay. And here it is. We have a blank piece of paper. It is not 11 by 17 yet. So we need to deal with that first. And I suggest highly suggest that this is the first thing you do soon as you hit that create, resize it. I've, I've made this mistake in the past where I have, you know, started making my map and laying things out and then it's the wrong size than then it becomes an issue later when you have to redo everything to get it to fit just right. So make sure that you change the size of your paper right away. To do that, we right-click and hit Page Properties. So this is one of the few things you do by right-clicking on the piece of paper. Most everything else is done over here to the right, but Page Properties, and this is an A4 size of not the size we want. Here are all the defaults. And I could probably pick one of those, but I like to just go to Custom and make sure I get it exactly. And I'm going to get the default is millimeters. I'm going to switch this to. And then my width is 17 and my height is 11. So we have a little bit of a bigger piece of paper here. So now that we have that setup, what I like to do next is create guides. So, you know, you go to the guides tab here. And these are things that will snap onto your parts of your map, will snap on to the guides. And again, do this upfront. It's going to save you a lot of time and aggravation later if you don't. So we're going to set up just a quick border. I'm going to hit this plus sign. It's going to put in a guide, you know, at 0 millimeters. I'm going to make this at one inch. So I'm gonna put in one, change the units to inches. And you can see up top we have a z one inch guide. I'm gonna do another one, changing the units inches, and this is 11. So we're gonna make this ten. And you can see now we've got our bottom one. That's good. And we will go. Same thing. We always do one inch. And on the left and on the right, 17, we'll back that down to 16 inches. And there we go. Now we've got our guide all set up and we can snap things in and they'll jump onto those lines and just makes our life easier to add our map. What I'm gonna do is use the Add Map, Add Map button. This kind of blank look in map here. And it snaps right on my guides if it, you know, it always should. But if it doesn't, you can. Where am I here? I'll View Snap to show a grid. We want to show a grid or grid this, you know, the it's always set to snap to guides. So if any of these red lines are always snap to it. You can also snap to these these lines here at the little dots as well that I've turned on. And don't use the grid much, merely that off. But if you want you, if you prefer using a grid, just go to View and you have your grids in your guides right there. So what we're gonna do is add the map, like I said. Click on this corner, make sure it snaps on there. And boom, there we go. So this is showing zoomed right too, where we want to be in the world and everything looks good if we want to kind of adjust the scale, the move in and out, you use the scale. The scale box here Let's say we want to, we want to zoom out a little bit. I'm going to make this number larger. 151 to a 150 thousand. And we've zoomed back. So, you know, to, to kinda zoom in and out. I like to use the scale bar and just kinda dial everything manually. You can click on this to move item content button, the one with the arrows here, and scroll your mouse in and out. Or if you click on the pointer here, the whole page will roll out. So that's a handy trick. So to use that mouse wheel to zoom in and out, but make sure if you want to do it on the map, make sure you're on the move item content button. Okay, so that's the basics of a layout. We're going to put a grid bar on next. While we're here. Let's look at some other items. We can add a scale bar, Right-click draw box. And the scale bar comes up in a standard zebra pattern. When this is selected, the item properties light up. Same thing with the main map view. Now, you have the white boxes around the edge. All of this information is attached to this window. But I'm going to click on the scale bar and I'm going to, I'm going to, let's see, I'm gonna make this miles because that's what I understand more because I'm an American. Hmm. So now it's set to 25 miles. If I want to add more white so forth. If I want to add more space over to the right, I have this right box here. I'm just going to click that up. And it goes up. In increments of 2.5 miles. So I can dial that in exactly the way I want. There are other different styles. You can use. The double box, a little fancier line ticks if you want to simplify things, one ticks down so that, you know, put that in and it automatically sets itself to where you're at. So you notice if I, if I roll a scroll in C, I change my scale. A 120 thousand, that's that scale bar automatically adjusts, which is nice. So you can kinda set it, set, set the cartography, how you like it, and you're good to go. You can go in and change the font. If you want. Something crazy. Some were more stylish. You can change the font of the numbers. You can change the size. If you want to. Change the color. Let's make it some sort of a read, write. And you can do that for the bar as well. The same idea, just the, the display, the line style, you can make it red. So and kinda dial in into however you want. If you want to make it smaller, you gotta change. The font size is you can't just shrink it. You gotta make the, do it actually in the font sizes, which are kinda like because it makes it precise. So there's your scale bar, north arrow. There's a north arrow button here, add north arrow, you click on that, draw a box and the default north arrow comes up. You have other other options here. Not quite as many as you have an Esri, but you know, there's, there's some and you can always add more. And we'll show you how to add in things in another section. But they give you, I don't know, a dozen or so that you can use. And these are scalable vector graphics so you can shrink them, you can change the color often, things like that. If you wanted to put it in like an n, there, can put a text n over it. If you want to add a title, use the text box, draw a box. And again, the main properties. Title. And click the font, change the font, change the size. Typical, typical stuff. What I like to do is hit center and middle. And that puts the title in the middle of my box. Helps me often helps me center things. If I want to center this directly, make sure I have this directly centered on the map. I'll bring it over to these guides and just make it long. And I know it's directly centered on my my window here. So there's your titles. North arrow scale bar will do a whole separate thing on legends, we can draw arrows. Loops, control Z was useful. The items property helps out as well. Let's say I wanted to lock that north arrow down and go to up here to see the North Tower hit that lock button and now I can't grab it anymore. So it's not in the way. Sometimes if things start getting in the way, lock them down and then you can move things around. If I wanted to, just the map. And I say, You know, I want to sketch this whole island down a little bit. You use the Move item content. Click there that you know the cursor doesn't change much. So it's kinda tough to tell, but just slide it down. And it'll just sometimes you just want to scooch it right in there. If I want to add a border, I will click on the pointer button, click on the main map window, and go down to the frame. And I can put a red frame in there. I can make it large. And I'll put another lecture. We'll talk about a grid and getting latitude, longitude on there and making a nice grid pattern. But that's the basics of a map way out. You know this 11 by 17 portrait. Now let's say I wanted to create another layout of a different size. What I would do is duplicate this layout first. I've learned this the hard way and say I want to do it 800, 8.5 by 11. 8.5 by 11. Hit, Okay, now I'm working on my 8.5 by 11 version, but I need to again immediately adjust the size. Right-click Page Properties. And I can go and see eggs going to letter. And you can see that the white boxes, the piece of paper, and now I need to kinda shrink everything. And then they also need to adjust my guides. Instead of 8.5 by 11, this would be 7.5. That's always a little tricky. 7.5 and 11 would bring me down to 10. 10. So I can snap that in. My scale bar automatically adjust. My north arrow is locked from unlocked out so I can move it. See I got my title bar. That's no longer centered, but I can easily snap that right back on and now it's centered again. Get rid of that arrow. And if I want to zoom all the way in, we hit the zoom full and brings me all the way into where, you know, where it is. If I want to go to one-to-one and see what it really looks like if I hold up a piece of paper, this depends on your size, your screen. You hit the, the, this one, the one to one juno a 100 percent. So this all depends on your screen and the system you're working on. So that's it, that's how you lay out the paper generally what we do is we do all the work first in and the mapView. Get it to where you want it. And then as a last step, bring it over and do weigh out the paper or glass. And then and then you're done. All right, great. 29. Layout Templates: All right, Let's talk about layout templates. We've figured out how to create a layout for a project. And that's great and set the paper size and the gods and everything in, you know, what's, but let's save those. Save them into a folder and be able to use them across multiple projects I have, you know, the typical paper sizes that I use 11 by 17 or letter. Yeah, Super be whatever it might be. I use them over and over again. So what you can do is set a layout template. So let's go to our last layout or 11 by 17. Let's figure out, let's orient ourself. So if I don't know where I'm at, I'm going to highlight that and use this set map extent to match main canvas extent. You use a lot. And here we go. So here we have our typical typical map with the layouts that we set. So we've got the guides set at one inch. We've got 11 by 17 paper and our map on it. We can also do things, I guess, a title, simple text box title. Let's make this larger, can be something, right? And we've done north arrows and scale bars, right? Things like that. The typical things we put on a map, right? So now we have this, this layout that we liked, that we're going to use a lot. What we're gonna do is just go to layout, layout, manager and save, save as template. And I have a folder in which I keep my layout. So let's call this one. This one I had just done this 11 by 17, one inch guides save that will replace it. So that is in there in the file now in my folder. And let's start a new project. So we can see what it looks like. So we can get rid of that. Save that. All right, Here we go. So we've created a brand new project. And throw quick base map on here. My XYZ tiles as rebase mountains and that nice. And they took it. And I want to use a layout. There are no layouts in my typical drop-down, right? That doesn't know where that layout is. So we're gonna go to layout manager and we are going to hit the, hit Dani or the new from tablets. We're creating a new template within our project. So we're gonna go grab that one that we saved just a second ago or that folder we have tucked away in a safe spot. And we're gonna go use that one, right? So I'm going to go hit specific and then I'm going to go find it in it. You know, it's already here in my layout templates. And by 171 inch guides hit Open and then hit Create. And it's going to ask me to rename it 11 by 17. Landscape is fine. And there we go. We have and we have our inset map from our previous previous project. But, you know, our title is here. This is the Ezri, a satellite image. So let's, let's zoom out on that. That helps. So we can get saved that, that layer. It saved the title, save the scale bar. Scale bar is doing its thing. The zoom in and out. And you can set those, the guides are set to one inch. And now you can use this, this layout from for any project at all. And yeah, you'll have a library of them. Really, it's, you know, it takes a little time to set up the guides the way you want. And, you know, but, you know, so you have one for landscape or portrait. Sometimes I'll have projects where I will use, I'll put the title down here. And something like this. You're doing a series of maps or something and you can set it up like this and then you can save this off and use this in like lower. So 11 by 17 one-inch guides, you know, lower tidal and adjust it from there. Save these templates, save them off of there. Your template file in you, you'll be good to go and just a good way to keep organized and save yourself a lot of time. There you go. Way out templates. 30. Creating Map Grids (Lat & Long Graticules): All right, In the last section we created this, this layout. We're going to use the 11 by 17 layout here. And I want to create a nice grid system around with some latitude and longitude, some graph QL bars. So the viewer can look in at the right of the map and see where it is on the earth. And it gives it a sense of reality that I think you might want in your maps, let alone a lot of nautical maps have things like this. So a nice latitude and longitude, we're going to set up a grid. So what we're gonna do is click on the main map window. And I'm going to go down here to this drop-down called grids and expand that. And I'm gonna hit this plus sign to create a new grid. So I have grid one. And that's fine. We'll just call it grid one. And I'm gonna hit Modify grad and I get this wide range of options that we're going to use. So, you know, this isn't that intuitive, you know, but we'll get through it. So what we're gonna do, kind of a trial and error and things I've learned and just kinda trust me and just do what I do it at this point until you figure it out. But what we're gonna do, first thing we're gonna do is we're going to change the, the, the coordinate reference system, the CRS to WGS 84. That's going to give everything in latitude and longitude, which is, which is what we want. So next, we're going to, we're going to call it what we're going to call this a solid grid type for some solid lines. This is the tricky part knowing your x and y. Because you're always at a different scale. And you just kinda have to just do kind of trial and error. So I've got, you know, that's debts, too many grad schools. So I'm going to reduce that by 10 by putting it. And reduce it by 10 by adding. Second will go to 0.1. I said that It's finicky. Let's try 0.1. See how that looks. So that's pretty good, right? That's about what I would expect to see on a map. Right? So dark kinda looks like it's been a cage. But we're gonna, we're gonna deal with that. So the line style is this black line here. I'm going to pick a kind of a thin gray line, transparency on that. Let's make this a little bit. That needs to be darker. And you're this all kinda depends on what your background colors and a lot, so it gets kind of trial and error. But here we go, we have some gratitude, gratitude, gratitude tools. And if you click off, you have to go back to this. That's a little annoying. So, you know, so we've said that the x and y interval, that 0.1, so that's every 0.1 degree. It's going to. Draw a line up and down. So the more, the less this number is, the more graphic tools you're going to get, the more bars you're going to get. All right, so just put in a value of 0.1, add zeros to, to kind of raise it and lower it by 10, the factor of ten. And you know, you're in pretty good shape. So the frame style, this is the border edge here. What we're gonna do, I like the zebra looks, especially if it's a nautical map. And but you can, you can do this a lot simpler. You can just do interior ticks or can't see those exterior ticks. You know, just a little bit further off into the color. Let's stick with the zebra one that's probably the most, most popular. And if i 0 or Zuber nautical. But let's go to straight zebra. You know, you can see I've got white and black here. If I want to change that to say a blue, Let's go with some stands out a little more ice read. And sometimes I'll match the color of the word if there were, if ever put a logo on here, or depending on the look, if I'm making a map of Mexico, I might use red and greens. Oranges depends, depends on what you're mapping or if you go in for a sandy nautical feel, you know, if it was for this, for Nantucket, for BCCI theme. And we put in some kind of a brownish sand type of a thing like that and changes the feel a little bit. Let's leave it there. I kinda like that. And so now we've got some bars, and now let's go down to draw coordinates. This is where it gets more interesting. You click on that and I, you can see the latitude and longitude are now labeled on the lines where they were. They come across. I like to put them well, it's up to you but you know what's moved them to the inside right now they are outside the frame. We're going to move them inside the frame. So all four, right, left, top and bottom. You're going to set this inside the frame. A little bit tedious, but not so bad. The right and the left, I like to use vertical, ascending instead of horizontal. And you can see that they are now up and down, their verticals as opposed to horizontal. We written the font. Usual drill. You can just change this to some funky. And the color we can make that red, black, whatever we want. The opacity we can dial that Apache. And so they kind of fade back a little bit. We'll leave that at a 100 percent. And that's where we're at. You know, if we want to expand that a little bit right now and has degrees in decimal degrees. We are, we can do. And where is it? It's in decimals here, the format, Let's make this like degrees minutes, seconds with suffix with Suffolk. So we have right here we have 70 degrees, 0 minutes, 0 seconds. We don't need all those, all those decimal places if the n right, a little bit, little bit confusing. Let's use this coordinate precision. Drop that down to 0 and it gives us just straight degrees minutes, seconds West, west of Greenwich, England. And that's that's how you do that. So now I might, this is where I would get this, the main stuff I would adjust from here and probably clean up the colors on this one. But, you know, it certainly gives you a nice feeling, nautical feeling that you might be looking for. So another way to give it some, skip it, some cartographic pizzazz, and also make it just seems more, more accurate and more authoritative. So there it is, There's your grid system. 31. Inset or Overview Maps: Let's create an inset map or an overview map. I've got my beautiful island of Nantucket here. And let's say I want to zoom into the downtown area which is right over here where this lighthouses, and that's kinda the focus of my map. And I want to bring your readers, the viewer's attention to that, that point and kinda show the details there. I really can't see it here. I'm just zoomed out too far. So we're going to create an inset map. In order to do that, I'm going to create a second map layer. And it's really just a duplicate. Alright, so just hanging out there. And what I'm gonna do for this, since the gets confusing when I hit the frame button to so I know that that's separate from the main map there. So, so what we have, we have basically just to separate the identical maps here. What I wanna do on the inset map now is zoom in. So let's go 10 thousand hope we catch something. You know the area a little bit here. So this is the area I want to zoom in on. This is the breakpoint area. And so it's going to want to zoom in on this area right here. I can't see that yet, but that's that's what I'm going to do. So we've set up our map instance, our map, inset map or, or our overview map. But let's make this show up on the larger map. So what we're gonna do is go to overviews and hit this ad over, add a new Overview button. And if I, you'll use this. I don't like this pink square, kinda like the red red outlines. Better. Change that to a red outline and go back. And now will show up as a red outline. What I wanna do is create this larger map, not the small amount. So let's do that again and hit overview. And now it's going to ask me the map frame. What do we want to show? Show map to. And you can see now this map inset red box has been drawn there. If you want to make it simpler, you know, go to the items, double-click this and hit, Rename it inset map. That might help. Just keep things straight. So you've got your inset map and matches this. What I would probably do is change this frame to something red. Right? So there it's red and thicken that up. So now, now they match, I think it makes more sense. You could probably draw lines to connect the squares, but that might be a little too dominating. So we're just gonna leave it like that. I think it's pretty obvious that that's an inset map. I would probably labeled this branch point or whatever this is and it's pretty obvious what's going on there. So now we have two maps. If you go back to our original map view, you can see that we still have the same exact data for both and they're showing the same way. And that's kind of a problem because we can't. When you do an inset map, usually you symbolize it excuse me, differently than your large amount because you have more room to put, you know, road labels in and more details. So let's, what we do is we style up the inset map first chart. So we're going to have to do two versions of the style. And what I'm gonna do is turn on my OpenStreetMap, which we learned about earlier. Turn off the land so I can zoom in here and you can see it now. You can see, I can see building outlines and, um, numbers of the buildings and the Coast Guard Station. And go back to our other map and hit Refresh. And we've got all of that data, right? But, you know, so the inset map looks good. The rest of the map does not. That's not what we want. What we're gonna do is select the inset map and then hit Lock layers and then locked styles four layers. And what that's going to do is nail that down. So that's not going to change. We'll go back to our main map and put it back the way we want it. This, and this is what the main map is going to look like. So when we go back to our layout and hit Refresh, only the main map changes. So that is locked in and you set that the way you want it, lock it, and then change the main map to match. So there's your inset map. We can add a scale bar on here if you wanted to or put a title in there. I might call this. This is branch point, right? Something like that. And you know, that that title is associated with this map. And there you go. And it's just a way to create an inset map. 32. Global Overview Maps: Let's make a globe inset map. We've made an inset map. And the last part about zooming into a certain area on Nantucket. Let's zoom back in and make a globe locator map, kind of a nice-looking way to do it. This used to be a little more complicated, but in the later versions of QGIS, they've made this a lot simpler with a custom projection system. You could, in the old days, you could go in and kinda build your own. Wasn't that difficult to kind of manipulate that code. But now it's kinda comes installed in QGIS. So it's nice little trick. So let's first thing I'm gonna do is change my coordinate system to a Mercator or something that shows the whole world. This is zoomed into Nantucket, kinda zooming way out wouldn't really work. So let's make that change first. And let's put a, this is a Natural Earth data set. This is another lecture about how to get this data. It's a great set. So here is kinda the Northeastern United States, Eastern Canada area in Natural Earth data. That looks great. So what's, what's used that, that way, the inset map and the globe. It's large enough that we can see it. So let's go to our layouts. We'll use our standard 11 by 17 layout. In here we are. Now what's make a globe here that shows where we are on the Earth. So what we're gonna do is add a map, draw a box, and I've got the exact same thing. Fair enough. Okay, that's fine. What we need to do is to turn this into our globe. Before I do anything though, I'm going to change this to change the name of it in my items to globe just to help me keep things straight and my my tiny brain. And what we're gonna do next is we're going to change the coordinate system of this map inset. And I'm going to use the dropdown. I have the world from space here. 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 8. If you don't have it in there, you can. Once you have it, once this is like all the latest ones I've used, you can go into your your main map view and click this button down in the bottom right and get your project properties CRS. And you can just type in world. And it'll show up or 100, 200, 38 if you wanted to, then let's do it that way. So go back to our layout and make the world from space okay, changed a little bit, but doesn't really show much. Let's zoom out. We're going to go to Move the item content and enroll my mouse wheel back and now I have a globe. Isn't that nice? Yeah, it all depends on your background and what you're going to wear. It looks best with zoom out a little bit. And so that's nice. I got this nice globe here. And I can get rid of the background if I want to. Right, kinda make it float there a little bit better, but that's, that's nice. So now I've got this nice globe. Good, and that's great. But how do we do that inset map, just like we did before. We're going to click on make sure that the globe inset map is selected. Go to overviews. I'm going to change this to the red bars which I like. And I'm going to set map frame two main map. And there you go. Now you have a globe inset map showing everything here. Now, it blends in a little bit. I may, if I went back here and kinda change this a little bit. And what I actually, where I've got to do is lock this same deal as before. Let's do this. Back, refresh, lock this layer to keep that Natural Earth data. And then I'll switch it back in my main map. Hit refresh. And that looks, that looks better because a little bit of a differentiation in the colors. So you can see what that looks like. Here you go. Global overview mounts. 33. Adding a Legend: Let's add a quick legend to our map. Here we have our Nantucket map here with the lighthouses. And let's say we want to add, add a legend. Not too difficult to get it on there. Use the add legend button here, click on it Dropbox as usual. And there it is, It appears and we have a legend. Now, this is pretty bad and this is a sure sign of a rookie mapmaker. If I saw legend like this, where I have everything on there, what we wanna do is clean up that, that, that legend that's not really what we want. So what we're gonna do is go over to the, you know, we, we highlight it, right. We've got the white boxes around it. Go to the legend items in the properties here. And I'm going to uncheck this Auto Update button. And that's going to give us a lot more control of what's going on. If you notice when I uncheck it, the buttons at the bottom, we are going to become active down here. So now I can go into kind of dial in exactly what I want. So let's just say I want just lighthouses in roads and in the land, right? What I can do is delete the ones that I don't want. So what's like the Bing Virtual Earth? It's not even showing, It's not active in our map. So I'm just going to highlight that. Click on the red minus sign here, the removed selected items from legend, and click that. Now that hasn't done anything to our main map view, which just gets it off the legend. So there's no, no concern about anything there. And what I like to do is I like to go in one-by-one and make sure you can click and shift and do multiple deletions at once. But I like to just kinda saw down here and click on the ones that I don't want. So any any entry that I don't want that I'm not using, that's not active, that may be confusing to my map. I'm going to Just delete. So the DEM. And here we go. So let's leave it here. So I've got some entries and it's looks a lot better, right? These are just the things that I want to show. So I've I've clean that up, but I still got bad names here, right. Like the Nantucket lighthouses is okay. But Nantucket major underscore roads like I gotta get rid of those underscores. So what I'm gonna do is switch over to my main map view. And I will have them over here on my, my layers. And what I'm gonna do is click on the one that I want to change, right-click it properties. And in the Source tab here, in our layer properties, you'll see right up top layer name, Nantucket major roads. I'm just going to go and get rid of those underscores. And it says displayed as Nantucket major roads. Okay. Nothing has nothing is changed. You're not changing the name of the shape file that I'm using in your system or anything. This is just how it is, how it's displayed. So you can see now that my major roads are fine. And I can do the same thing. I mean, I could even. Go right-click Rename, and then just do it that way as well. Or it can go either way. It's probably about the same either way. And I think that was about it. Lighthouses land 24 layouts change that. And then right-click, whoop, not remove, rename. Just want to put a space in there. Alright, that looks good. Now let's go back to our layout view. And if I hit Refresh, refresh button up here, they all change and didn't change all of them. So if I hit the auto update again, that brings it back to the automatic. I hit auto update and then I get rid of the ones that I don't want again. So you may have to hit that button again, the auto update, if you ever want to go back to the way it started, hit auto update. The computer will take over at everything back. And and there you go. So now that, that's, that's what you need. Now if you want to change the, you know, sort of the, the look of it, you can, you can add a title and a legend. Most true cartographers don't like to put legend. It should be pretty obvious. You can arrange symbols on the right or the left up from the left to think most people do. And it resizes to fit the contents you can add. If you want to add some columns, make it two columns. This gets a little tricky and with equal column widths, and you can split your layers. There are a lot of different functionality there. Typically I just like a single call if I can't, sometimes maybe a double column. And you can add a frame to it. You can get rid of the background layer to make it clear. If you wanna kinda let it just kind of float, I might do something like that without the frame. And just let it, let it float out there, kinda hide a little bit. So you have a lot of other, other options here for creating it just the way you want it. You can change your fonts and you can change your fonts based on Titles and you kinda little bit of a pain you have to do, you know, if you want to change the font for all of them, you have to go in and, and change them all. So let's go with a Gabriele change in there. You understand? So you just have to go through all of them and change all of them. They will start to change your, your fonts in there to match your, the font of your project in general. And that's about it. Right? Legends. 34. Adding Text to a Layout: Let's add some text, right? We have our title already. Sometimes we want to add other information, whether it be a paragraph or even a lot of written, written information, maybe a source box here, whatever it might be. Very simple and use the Add label button and it will add text on here. Draw a box. And in the main properties you have some information. And you know, let's say like this is a source. As your base. Layers, USGS, whatever it might be. Just, you know, oftentimes just want to let people know where the information came from and mass GIS, whatever it is. And that gives you a textbox. Now this is in the typical QGIS style. It's got, you know, the font is this MS shell dig too, or maybe it's DLJ, I don't even know, but it's the default QGIS font that, you know, if you see that, you know that no one really took the time to make it right. So, you know, changed that font to whatever it is you're using for your project. But for this one, let's use Calibri. And we'd want our fonts to match title, subtitles, all the other texts, texts in your, your labels. Typically you kinda wanna keep it with the same font. You want different fonts to distract from your message. And once we have that dialed in, we can then go in and change the size. Let's say we want this as 320, say 36. Easy to adjust. Make sure your white box, you're white. Bars around it. Don't cut anything off. So if I bring this in it it just cuts it off and want to make sure you have everything showing. You can use your justification. Right, left, center. I usually like to use the center in the middle. That kind of space things out a little bit, helps me make sure I've got everything in there. Change the color very easily. And that's about it. And sometimes you might even cut and paste in information, write something out and Word, and type that whole thing in there. Paste it in and resize it, maybe justify it, maybe make it on the left, and you're good to go or you could make this a subtitle. And then we'll center that and make it make it line up with the title. But it's really easy to add text. Really. Everything is there and not much to it. You can even put a background around it. If you want to kinda set it off a little bit more, whatever you wanna do. But pretty straightforward to add text. 35. Adding Pictures to a Layout: All right, let's add some pictures into our little map here. We've got Nantucket in three dots, four dots showing lighthouses. And let's say we wanted to add some pictures of these pretty lighthouses onto our our map layout helps tell our story of what we're seeing here. So I'm going to use the Add Picture button here and just draw a simple box. And that is where our picture will eventually show up. So you'll see it's highlighted, it's got the white bars there, right? White squares around it. In the item properties on the right over here we've got the SVG image or raster image. We're gonna click on raster image because these images are raster images, these pictures made up of pixels. In any event, we need to tell the computer where that image lives. So we're going to click on these three buttons here. You will navigate to wherever your pictures live on your computer. I've got a nice lighthouse one here. And lo and behold, it's that easy. You just throw it right in there. So we've got our picture in here. I can resize this however big or small I want it, it'll stay kinda locked in the aspect ratio, but the, the edges will, will adjust. So I'm going to throw on a frame here just by going to the right, you're clicking on frame. And you can see I've got this black frame around the picture now and it would, but it doesn't really line up. So if I can scooch it in, and I go too far, comes out the other side. So this is a little tricky, right? Like it. I can, I can get it right on the edge. And if I'm careful and line it up. And if you have one picture, maybe that's fine. But if you're working with more than one picture, you want them to be exactly the same size, right? So in order to kind of control this more tightly, if I click on the image and I go to position and size, I'm going to set this to inches just because I like it. I'm using inches and my brain. You know, the x and the y's is set to 11. The x and y refer to where the image is on the picture. So if I snap that right in and it's like 00 or one inch guides set to pretty much one inch in one inch. So that dials in exactly where that upper left reference point is on our, on our paper. So you can really get very specific as to where you want these things. I usually don't get down to that level, but I do use this. The width and the height down here is, let's say it's a five by seven image. So that's would be full size five by seven. And I could scoot that up to get it to line up just right. Or maybe I want to shrink that down a little bit. But the point is, I generally want to have my images lineup. And if I set these, these, the width and the height to just where I want it. That's great. And then I can click on it. Control C and Control V. Put another picture in. Now of course it's using the same picture obviously. But if I go to the three dots again, find another picture. You know, that that's where it is and they're the exact same size. Generally, what I like to do is manipulate the pictures just how I want them in something else, whether it's Photoshop or Lightroom or if you're an open source, which you probably are since you're using QGIS, GIMP, GIMP or any other image manipulation engine. I've, I've used Microsoft Office tools. Sometimes you just get real simple ones that'll just crop it to exactly the right size. You go and you put your images in their, crop them to exactly the same size. And then when you copy and paste them, you're basically copying and pasting the the border and the link. That will help you line everything up. And you'll, you'll see here that if I change these and I click on the square and I bring it up, when it gets to the bottom of the other image, it's smart enough to know, Okay, that's good and these are exactly aligned now. Alright, so I can do the same with the edges and to get it just right. So what I would probably do is crop this one down, crop them both to the same size. And they want to copy and paste them, they'd be exactly the same size, so you can use a little, a little more precision than what q just gives you if you do it in another image manipulation engine engine program, and and then copy, save those off as your final pictures to be uploaded and then, and then upload them separately. Second, alright, so that is how you add in pictures might help tell your story. 36. Coastal Glow Effect: Alright, let's create a glow effect around the island to kinda bring it off the paper a little bit. So for this, I think I'm going to change the color of my land to kinda darken that up a little bit just to, for clarity sake. Let's use a custom color here. Click on that and grab. Let's do some sort of a tan or something like that and apply it so that, that helps to separate a little bit. But we're going to create a glow effect around all of this land area. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to combine two of the effects we've talked about already, the shape burst fill and the inverted polygon to do this. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to copy this, duplicate this layer. And I'm going to rename it right away. Right-click Rename, rename layer. Let's call it, just call it glow. And right now it's just a complete duplicate, but let's symbolize it differently. So to do this, we are going to select Inverted polygons, which we'll symbolize outside of the polygon inside. And then we're going to drop down in, in the second layer, we're going to go with the shape burst fill. And we've got this gold shapers fill. But what I want is like a white, crisp white group glow around it. And I want the glow to just be around the shoreline and not out in the ocean. So I'm going to want that white to be, to be closer than fade off into nothing. And so what I'm gonna do is use the top will be white, the bottom will be transparent and that'll sell. Just pick up the blue and with set the distance. So let's try five millimeters for now. And with shapers fills, what you do a lot is try it and adjust. Throw it up there, see what happens. So we're going to hit, Apply, hit, Okay, and I'm going to turn it on now. And there we go. So we've created a nice, nice glow around it, kind of brings it off the paper in a nice way. I can adjust this if I want. Let's say we want to bring this out a little bit further. Let's make it 20 just for illustration purposes. And really brings it up. I think that's a little too much. And I think five to ten is probably best. Try ten. See what that looks like. A little bit better. Thanks. I kinda like five better. So that's a little too much. So that just subtle, right? I like that. If we want to adjust as blur strength, it will kind of soften things up even more. Let's give it a 10. That really, really softens it up in that hard edge. And I like to use a little blur on that as well. And I think that that's just a quick way to give your coastlines a nice glow. 37. Concentric Water Lines (Equally Spaced): Let's make this water lining or concentric boundaries buffers around the island, right? This is a 1901 USGS topographic map. In it. This was a common way to create the look of water. You notice that this is all that the back of the paper is just kind of a tan. But the blue concentric circles around the island gives, gives it water, kind of gives it a sense of movement. It's kind of a good look. So let's see what we can do with that. So what we're gonna do is create a series of buffers in on our map on our land. And I've covered the land darker in using, I'm using a water background. Actually, let's let's dark in that water up in the background a little bit. Let's go with something very subtle. Okay, that works. And then sort of to kind of mimic what we've got here. So now we've got this. We've got our island. We're going to draw some, some buffers around it. If we go to the processing toolbox, It's big gear here. And you get all of your tools like the Ezri toolbox and we type in buffer, you get a long series of buffer tools that you can, you can use. I've tried all of them. Some work better than others do one and we're going to use for this is the saga fixed distance buffer. So we'll pull up this tool here. And what we're going to do is set a pretty large distance. We're going to go 5,050 buffer zones. Make sure that dissolved buffers is checked and we're going to save it to a temporary file because when you're doing this, you might have to do it a few times to look about what you want. So rather than having, you know, creating a bunch of files on your hard drive, just do it to a temporary file. And then once you get it right, then save that off to where you wanted to go. So I just hit Run and let it do its thing. Ten seconds to a minute maybe, depending on your computer speed. And here we go, We're done. All right, So Wu awfully green random color that they chose. But let's fix that. Okay. So we have our buffer layers here. And r are zones in our distances. And what we're going to do is let's put the make these transparent. So I'm going to double-click on that buffer, the layer that we just created. Click on transparent fill. And we'll use a nice blue here. Pretty thin line. And 0.26 is fine. And hit Okay, and ooh, now we're getting somewhere. Still looks a little bit stereographic. But not bad. What we gotta do is kinda calms down a little bit. So what we're gonna do is go back to our buffers and I'm going to play with the transparency a little bit. Drop that down less than 50, even more. And you get something like that. And then you approximate it a, the same idea as you have here in on your map. Now these and look very similar, yeah, so this is why you can play with your distances a little bit. If you wanted to get more detailed, you could set up some file in and make them tapered more. You know, if you look at these, they tend to be almost like waves and they are tighter towards the, towards the object and they spread out all their hours are at a fixed distance. But you can, you can use variable distance and spread that a little bit. I think just doing this alone, even just kinda calm it down even more. Definitely gives you that same effect. So there I go. Water lining. 38. Concentric Water Lines (Variably Spaced): Let's make some concentric water lines or water lining as they call it, kinda of a ripple effect with parallel lines around water bodies. They get punched up as they get closer to the shore kinda gives you the, the impression of waves. It's an old style, older turn of the century topographic maps do this. We kind of looked at this with the doing it in batch during a bunch of buffers and once, but what if we want to fine tune this and do interiors and exteriors of coastlines, we can do this. So what's start with this interior lining here on this lake, here on Nantucket. Let's double-click this and we have a simple fill in here. Pretty simple. Some blue, a little bit of a blue edge around it. So we'll click on simple fill and add another layer on there. So what you're seeing is this dark blue layer on top right now, let's make this a transparent fill and give it sort of a blue line, darker blue. And if we did this, nothing would happen is the middle is empty. The outline might be a little differently. You wouldn't really see much of a difference. But what we're gonna do is we're going to change this, this, this that layer we just put on top with the Geometry Generator. So open up the geometry generator and you will have this expression box here and type in buffer parentheses, the arson geometry comma. And let's you, and then you enter your value. I'm going to go with one minus 100. Minus 100. Alright? And see what happens there. There we go. We have our waterline right inside of it. So that's the first of our lines. Let's see what happens here. Let's just measure this to see what we did about a 100100 meters or so, right? We use the a 100 minus 100. So it took that boundary of this measures in 100 meters. You know, negative 100 doesn't the buffer. The outside of the polygon will be plus 100, inside would be minus 100. And there we go. We have that interior line, so let's work off of that. So now what we're gonna do is click on this top level and hit Duplicate button. And it's gone. It's just going to draw another one on top of it. But if we just go in and change the value of this to let's say 200. Hit. Okay? Now we have another one, right? Same thing, click, Duplicate. Let's make it 300, right? And you can see it's happening on all hydrology layers, not just this one pond. Then let's, let's try 400. I've ever could fit a 400 and their double-click hydrology top level duplicate 400. And there we go. So that's how we set them to an even distance. If we wanted to kind of graduate them, we could, we could start to think about this a little bit. And let's say we know this is 0, this is minus 150. So click on that and you gotta be careful with this. They all look the same. And, you know, you've got to think about what you're doing. Kind of plan this out a little bit. This takes a little bit of time, but if you get it just right, it looks really great. So let's duplicate that. You see you hit the duplicate and nothing really changes on your screen, although one has been duplicated. So instead of 400, we're going to make this 50 and hit Apply and Okay, and now I've got one right in there. And then let's do one at 25. Top layer duplicate. And there we go. So now we have that sort of that ripple effect where it's getting more dense at the coastline. And we can play with that. And, you know, gotta go in and Sarah, and just to kinda think about the values of these and you know, how, how much density you want. And then what I would do now is save that, save that style, and use that as your basis for going forward. And we'll provide that cute that file in there for you in the resource section if you wanted to describe ours. But it's a good way to keep us, keep track of it. The thing to note though, is that this is based on this kind of scale dependent, right? So, you know, that works well at this scale. If I zoom out, it might get a little bit messy. If I zoom in really close and this may be, these may be too spaced out there based on the actual values on the earth. So you know that you may have to adjust those for every project depending on what you're trying to do. But that's okay. So that's the interior work. We can do this on the coast as well. So if I have the land here and I'm going to drop down one, go to simple fill. I'm going to add a layer. Just what I did before. Geometry Generator. I'm going to change that fill to transparent. And I want, let's use red just for some, you know, just so we can see what's going on and see the geometry generator. We got to put buffer. I'm a tree comma. Let's use 500. Just so we can see what's going on. And actually let's, let's, let's make it a 100. 100. And there we go, Hit OK. And you can see we're now drawing the outer buffer as well. So same, same thing. We need to repeat that process. Be very careful about it, meticulous about, you know, know what you're clicking. Make sure you quick and slow down a little bit. You know, think about those values. You may have to adjust them. You have to start over. But when you get it open, right, save it. And then maybe say like lakes scale or you know, Island scale or, you know, because if you zoom way out, It's not going to work because it's based on the actual distance. But that's how you would do it. And you just keep click Duplicate. One hundred, two hundred. I got to order. And you just keep going. And that will create those, those ripple effects, those water lining those concentric circles, either on the interior lines. If you use the minus or the extra analyzers, use a positive, make sure you're working off the right polygon and you're good to go. 39. Halftone Coastal Fill Pattern: Let's make a halftone coastal fill pattern. You know, it's kind of a old timey, antique look in water fill that you might like to put in your water areas. And similar to the buffers that we made here. And let's, let's do that. So what we're gonna do is we're going to work off of the land polygon and build our way out from there. So we're going to, as we often do, duplicate that layer. I'm going to name it, rename it, right quick. Right-click, rename layer, halftone, halftones coast. And what I'm gonna do, double-click that and I've got to simple fill in there. Now, I'm going to make this an inverted polygons. So the, all the action happens outside the polygon, inside of it. And so now the outside is going to turn yellow. What we're gonna do now is add that pattern fill, right? So you can go into this. Start with, this is the easiest way to do. It uses pattern dot, pattern, dot black pattern here. And what we'll do is it will change the colors to this dark blue. You're going to get rid of that outer edge and use the stroke style no pen to get rid of that. And let's see what we got. Nothing yet. We're going to turn it on. There we go. So here we go. We've got, we've got a, you know, a pattern. It's not quite what we're looking for. Yeah, we just want this to fill in a writer on the edges of the land. So what we're gonna do, actually going to adjust the distance and these, I want to make these horizontal, vertical and one and apply kinda gives it a little more random walk so you can play with that, see what you see what you like. I'm kinda looking for something a little more, little more random. And it's getting a little crazy. Kind of like that better. So it gives me a little bit of randomness. But you can do that by playing with these deployment pattern fill here and adjusting the horizontal, vertical, and the displacements. All right, good enough, you can play with that now, but we need to get rid of all this other stuff, right? So we'll do that with a shape burst fill. We're going to add a shape burst fill here. Underneath the main layer. I'm going to hit this, the add symbol layer. And we've got this blue block and everything now on top. And we'll change the symbol layer type to shake bursts, fill. And we've got an ugly, you can shape our CFO. Let's set the distance to five for now. And then we're going to make this. You can't just go transparent. You gotta turn it white and turn this all the way transparent. Otherwise, the blue shows droves kind of a glitch. But just do it that way. Turn a white and then turn it all the way to transparent and you're going to be fine. And what's correct? A bore strength up to kind of make that fade a little bit further. And actually five isn't enough. What's, what's go with 25 for now and see what we get and apply, okay? And here's where we're at, right? Pretty good. Looking at what kind of the cerebellum as reasonable turned me onto this in class Carlson from YouTube as well, thanks to them. But this is kind of what she has done it. And there are other examples of these halftone kinda look and patterns it yet. But, but that's, so that's kinda what we're shooting for. Buffon. As cartographers, you know, find a map, you'll like, save those images, put them in a folder, have your inspiration folder or your Pinterest or whatever it might be. And you will be referring those and you're like, jeez, I need a good water pattern. So that's what we have here. I may, you know, I kinda wanna turn the all of it a little bit bluish. So I'm going to go for light blue there. And all of this the shape versus is covering up. That's correct. So we can change the weight in the shape burst to that blue, and that should work. So you can tweak those blue's a little bit if you want to lighten those up, maybe put a texture underneath it. Give it a more old timey like, but that's, that's the gist. We are using a Fill pattern, which you can grab from your, you know, your bass symbols that Qj gives you. If you wanted to start from scratch, you could use your your point lines, symbols, point pattern fill from there and go from there if you wanted to. And designer for there. But I would just go keep it simple. Go grab the default that's in there and QGIS. And you can build yourself a halftone pattern. You go. 40. Getting Elevation DEM Data from USDA NRCS: In this segment we're going to learn how to download DMD digital elevation model data, something we do quite often in GIS and in QGIS. And we need to go get some of that LHC data so we can make hillshades and contours and things. And this is one way to go get it, one that I like to use. So I use the USDA NRCS website, geospatial data gateway. And I'll go to this Data Gateway dot NRCS dot usda.gov website. And you'll get to here and we'll put a link in the resources file in the class here. And once we are here with this green Get Data button and you go to this download system here. And what we're gonna do is zoom in and find the location of what we need. The probably that if you're looking for something on a state level, state or county level, just select the accounting as Maryland, Carroll County. Push that over what the two greater than button here. And that'll get you going now select information for that whole county and that's your your bounding area. In my case, you know, typically I'm looking for something a little bit smaller. You really want to just be gone for digital elevation model, it's a big file. You really want to zoom into what you, what exactly you're looking for. Easier to do this, go to. If you wish to change the method for selecting the order area, click here and do that. You can grab state or places, cities, bounding rectangles enter the latitude and longitude. That's kind of a pain on early does that or order by the interactive map, which is probably the easiest, that's what I like to do. So hit that last one gives you a nice map of the United States. I will scroll in with my mouse wheel to my area of interest and I could pick anything, any area I wanted. What I'm gonna do is pick my study area of Nantucket and put it right there in the middle. So now I need to select everything that I want. I'm going to hit the select area button. And then I draw a line around what I want. So make sure the box is outside of everything. You know, the elevation data. So the ocean is going to be left off there. And that's it. So it's saying, okay, this is what you're going to select, this red hit Accept area, pretty easy. And it gives you the list of available map layers that you have. So you have census data, you know, social economic housing steps by state or precipitation data and climate, temperature and easements and all sorts of good stuff. What we're after is the elevation data, this section here. I'm going to grab the three meter elevation. So I'm going to click this one. It's going to tell me that I can only use 8,192 megabytes. Let's see here. So that's not going to work. I need to zoom out a little bit. Why don't we go with the 10 meter. The file sizes. So kind of a larger area that I'm used to using, but so would do this. So we have less than 8 thousand here, megabytes hit Continue. And it tells you the format tells me that projection with an arrow that you can always change here. And then you hit Continue. Ask your e-mail into them, your email and they will send you a link to download it once it's ready, takes some time to process. And then when it's done, they send you an email with a zip file. So let's do that. Hit Continue. Gives you a review of the area you're looking for and says It's an estimator. We have a five minutes. That's fine. Sometimes less, sometimes more. And we'll just hit Place Order. So, you know, it says my order has been placed. They'll send me an email eventually. They keep it for four days and after that, that link will be deleted and then we'll have it anymore. And let's go to it's already ready. So we'll go to the geospacial data gateway. Order has been processed and it's ready for download. And here is the link down here. So 8.4 megabytes, heatmaps, you download that. Was it your downloads folder? Open, we're going to unzip that and keep it right there. And downloads queue just open up QGIS, so we'll get rid of that pencil layer back to our normal layer here. And let's open up that, that image that we have. We'll go to our open data source manager. Make sure this is set to raster data. Downloads folder. Do elevation. Choose to ten blocks, go choose all the files. Look I look for the large size files in there, the TIF files there. That's good. Let it open all those. Hit Close and there it is. Now we have our elevation data, so, you know, the values are a little bit off. We're going to need to play with those a little bit. What I'm going to do is just merge them up into one. So I'm going to grab them all shifts in how have more selected and I'm going to merge them. Raster miscellaneous merge. Here we go. We select the layers are the input layers. Select all of these NAD layers. Those are the ones we want it run. So not that big, so it will do its thing here in process. Merch finished hit Close and we should have a merge file. It's this one. So let's look at that. Summer tried. I can see it's all consistent all the way across. So all the values, the minimum and the maximum values are all are all even than the other ones had. It goes from the high to the low, high point, low point in each particular section. Now they're all the same, same value. So so there we have it, That is our digital elevation model for Nantucket. We will work with this a little bit more going forward, but that's how you go and grab it. 41. Creating Contour Lines from DEMs (in Feet and Meters): Let's create some contour values from digital elevation models. This is our digital elevation model that we got from the NRCS website in our last lesson. And you may have your own digital elevation model. And we worked with that. But this is what we have here is a bunch of pixels. This is raster data. Each of these pixels has a digital value on a grayscale along this this line, the higher values are in white, the lower values are black. And this is our digital elevation model and we're going to create contours. Contours are often used in cartography, show elevation values without overwhelming a map. They are very common in USGS topographic maps. And we're kinda used to seeing them. And rather than showing every pixel of the different color, can make your map look artificial that the topo lines are nice way to just show the elevation and the background. And especially if it's a flat area, it doesn't really overwhelmed much gives you the information without overwhelming it. And that's kinda what I want here. There's the story of Nantucket isn't high elevations. You kinda want to know how high things are, but it's not really neat. Doesn't need to be a main part of the story. If you're out west, contour lines will, there's more slope, they'll get narrower and you can definitely represent elevations and slopes and aspects and things like that. And it's good stuff. The problem is that they're not really out there much. You can't just go online and just download contour lines. And you often want to know that there's large datasets and they just don't exist. So you have to make them yourself. And you also, as a cartographer, you want to dial everything in. You want your contour lines to be either closely spaced or further spaced apart depending on your project. So you want to kind of create your own contour lines. You want them every 10 feet, 20 feet, every 50 feet, every 500 feet. If you're zoomed way back, you know, we can we can dial that in using this process. So Sewer we're gonna do is we're going to use this, this merged file here. This is our digital elevation model, this raster. And we're going, it's pretty simple. We're going to get a raster extraction contour. And as the input layer, I'm going to use that DEM, merged. The integral value is 10. This is the kinda, the important thing. This is where the variable that will set the the amount of contour lines that we're going to show. Smaller number means they're going to be a lot more lines. And we want to kind of put some thought into this. This is set to 10 elevation ELA v. This is what that column is going to be named in our new file that we create a new shape file or GeoJSON or wherever we choose it to be. And so it's going to set it to 10. And let's just hit run and see how this goes. Alright, so what do we have here? Oh, nice contour lines. This is great. Little look at this and you know, pretty good spacing. Let's click on this line here, see what this value is. 10, That's nice. Nice, nice integer. The only problem though, is, and it's not a problem if you're outside of the US, but the only problem is that is ten meters, our data is all in meters. So if you look at our coordinate system, it's in meters, everything is measured in meters, so the computer is doing its calculations in meters. Didn't really ask us if we want our feet meters in our tool there. So we have ten meters, fine if you're in Europe and you want to show your contours and meters, 10 metre increments, you're all set. If you're in the US, people expect feet. And I got a problem because you've got to show it in feet. That's what people expect. So let's do another step four in the US and using imperial, imperial units. So let's get rid of that. Remove that layer. And we need to work in feet, right? So let's go. How many feet are in a meter? Let's click Google that, right? That's what I do every time I do these projects. Have to Google it. So there's 10 feet in. We're all Cisco. 14 is the point 3, 0, 4, 8 meters, or 10 feet is 3.48 meter. So I would say I want ten-foot contour, right? And left them all that we'll click lines to draw on a 10 foot. We're going to use this 10 feet equals 3.048 as our, as our guide to do that. So let's keep that in mind. I would probably write that down on a piece of scrap paper like I did, and go back and do this again. So we've got a raster extraction contour again. Choose our DEM called merged. And instead of 10, we're going to, we're going to put 3.048. All right, so that's a 10 foot interval between contour lines, right? And still so meters, so 3, 0, 4, 8 meters. But let's hit Run. See what we get. Less than 10 writes about three times as many lines. And that makes sense, right? So let's look at what we've got here. Right? Click on this and I, what does this 21.336. What does it Meters, Right? This 10 makes sense to the shoreline. This one is 3, 0, 4, 8. And what does that equal? 10 feet, right? It's this 1.0966 double that will get at 20 feet. All right. So we've got the right lines the way we want them. The issue is I need to display them properly. I need a label field that I can use. So when I go into my merged column. Right-click and go into the attribute table. I'm sorry Mike, my contours line, contours file go into open attribute table. And I'm going to create another column. So we've got, we've got these values here and meters, 3.048, that's 10 feet, right? Double, that's 20 feet, triple, that's 30 feet. So these are nice numbers that we can work with. We're going to go and start an edit session by toggling the editing mode by clicking on this pencil. And then create a new field, this button here. And we're going to call it elevation, feet, ELB, FT. Let's leave it as a whole number. So you have to get rid of the decimals later. That's fine because we all know they're going to come back to tens and twenties you watch. And we'll hit, Okay, it's created this empty field. And that's fine. So now what you will use are opened the field calculator. We're going to open that up. And this allows me to do calculations on this column, calculations on the elevation column and dump it into the, the ELA v feet column. So to do that, we're going to use this expression box. And I like to use the fields and values, so elevation and the cellular and divide it. And we divide by 0.34.3 for a single quote on it. And we need to hit this, update the existing field and set it to elevation feet is telling it to dump it into this column. And so we're using the same value we had before. And we're going to hit, Okay, and what do we get? Let's kinda look down. Get past the 0 values. Let's scroll down to where we see 3 0, 4, 8. That equals 3 0, 4 8 meters equals 10 feet. So this is just, I go back to my scratchpad, see yet I have ten feet equals 3.048, which is what the Google told me. Right. So that makes sense. And let's look at how this looks on our, on our screens. If I click on this value here, I've got three, you know, the, the original 6.096 meters or 20 feet. So now I can take these contour lines and label them based off of, as we know how to do, single labels based on ELA, feet. Hit Okay, and we have our ten-foot contour lines. And as a double-check what I'm gonna, what I'm going to think about here is this merge file I've got minus 20, basically the shoreline to 32 meters, right? So around a 100 feet. I'm going to look around at my my white values and see, you know, I've gotten up to 90 feet here and so I'm in the ballpark just as a sanity check at the end to to show me where I got reality. I probably will do this again. It's a little bit, a little bit thick with contour lines. Think we need that many, maybe I'll set them to 20 or 25. But the same process, you just need to go into Google, get that conversion rate and use that to do multiply it and then divide it back and use that as your way and will. And there you go. Now you've got your contour labels and label them up as you see fit. 42. Labelling Contour Lines: So let's label up these contours. Contour lines usually have labels on them. Let's make these look prettier. So we've got our, you know, our Nantucket elevation data that we created from our digital elevation model, turn them into contours, converted them into feet. And now we have our lines in feet and we want to kinda label these things and make them look a little bit better. So let's do that. So if we go to our 25 foot contours, and we'll start with the symbology. And we're going to, we're going to, we're going to make different line widths based on elevation values. Typically you'll see, you know, the higher values are I have a thicker line to them. So let's use a categorized symbol. And based on the value of the elevation, and let's classify those, see what we got. And I'm going to get rid of the zeros and I want to show those. And all other, I'm going to get rid of that. So now we have our four values. And what's used, this simple brown line, you can select your color there and the color wheel or I have one saved to at some point. Turn them all to this simple brown line to get going. Now let's see what we got. All right, so now they're all Brown, okay, college getting better. But we need to distinguish those. We want the, let's say the fifties and the hundreds to be the thicker line. And let's thin down the 25s. And we'll go down to 0.26 is good. Same with the 75's, time to 0.26. And so now we have what you typically would expect to see, contour lines where you have some thicker lines and some thinner lines. We still don't know what they are, so what's labeled them real quickly? And this is how I like to do this. You throw a label on just so you can get your head around what you got and then go from there. So I'm just going to go labeled single labels based on the elevation value. I'm not going to worry about the color of the text or the placement or anything else just to see what numbers we have and if it makes sense, so this makes sense. We've got the 25s in the fifties, and that's what we want. But these, these labels are a little bit weak. We can do better than that. So let's work on the text. Let's first, let's turn the color to that brown that we just used. So that'll help make everything look consistent and help the reader. There I pick out the brown lines and the brown color of the label will go together. We put a buffer on their Ozarks. He already a buffer on there. And the texts. Let's use something a little more classic about baskerville Old Face and bump the size up to 12 and apply that seal. That works. So that's better. A little more classic, fits in with our island theme, I guess, kinda oldest, so can map. So I might want to bump that buffer up a little bit. Now that works because I've got a white background. So keep that in mind. I might wanna go with the mask otherwise. So we've got the 25, but let's, let's add feet, right? So say, I want this to say 25 feet and 50 feet. So we'll go into our labels and use the expression builder here. And I'm gonna go elevation, feet, It's already there. Use the string concatenation, then single quote, space FT. And I see a preview down here, 0 feet. That looks good. So let's take a look at that. And that's good. So we've got the 25 feet, 50 feet, looking much better. I also want to work on the placement a little bit. And we're going to set these two curves so they kinda curve around and little bit better for straight lines. So it doesn't make that much of a difference, but if, you know, but that's what we got. So now our contour lines are a little bit smoother. They're labeled each only one label per unit, which is good. And now those are the different settings you can use if you had multiple values, like, you know, every sometime you'd like 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 is thick and you go from there and well, that's that's yeah, that's, that's a good way to symbolize your, your contour values. And then what I would do is probably save this, save this style as a contour settings that I could work with in the future if I'm ever doing contour values again, I can open that saved file and it will bring me back and have a lot of those things and you still have to go in and check them and make sure it works for your project. But you know, it's a real shortcut. Save that, so you can get back to it. All right, There you go. 43. Drop Shadowing Polygon Features: All right, Let's make a pseudo 3D effect kind of bring out the island a little bit more. And I've changed my background color to white in the project properties. Just to illustrate this a little bit better. So what we're going to do is use the draw effects tool. So go click, double-click on your land layer and you have your typical layer properties symbology here. And what we're gonna do is work on the simple fill the second one in, the next layer down. And we're going to hit this draw Effects button. And then hit the gold star next to that to customize it and kinda dial things. And so what we're gonna do is use an inner shadow. And you can see what's, what's happening here. And you can leave that there. So set that as OK. And let's hit Apply. And it's okay, it's a little bit blurry. Not crazy about it. So let's sharpen that up a little bit. Click on the gold star again. And now I have some other things that I can change. Get rid of the blur radius, set that to 0 and see what happens with that. Now it's a lot more crisp. But let's say I kinda wanna, I want the shadowing that come on the bottom are on there. It'll say on the East Coast here on the right. I can I can dial that in as well with this offset bar and roll that around. And let's say we do it all the way, like the sun is to the west and you know, its weight the day and it's casting shadow a little bit like driving a more realistic hit OK and Apply. And to me that looks, that looks better, that looks more realistic. And Apply and Okay, and there you go. We might throw a base layer underneath it. But you can see how it pops out a little bit more now that it has that shadowing on there. So there is a 2D or a 2.5 D or 3D effects, 3D effect really morally 2D and a half. Really just a trick. But sometimes that's the way you want to do is just make something pop out a little bit more and draw the viewer's attention to it. And there you go. 44. Course Resources: Okay. The resources section, this is where I put all the information that I mentioned in the lessons, the sample data though, the Nantucket data that Nantucket roads and the lakes and ponds and stuff. All that good stuff. If you want to follow along, unzip this file, loaded into QGIS, and you should be good to go. Has a everything you need that I use is, is in here. I've also included other things like the Mapbox style links document, which has hyperlinks in it. So you can just click open that Word document. Click on those links is going to go right over to your Map Box account. Add that style Here, Mapbox counts. So I give you, I guess about six or so Mapbox. Mapbox designs that you can use as a basis for building your own Mapbox designs. Kinda get you started in that. It's kind of fun. I have the overpass turbo query text, which is common OSM queries into comment OSM attributes and features that you might use. And again, take that, use it, edit it as you see fit. I've also included a, a cheat sheet for OpenStreetMap. The list of the titles of the amenities and the bars and the natural equals water. If you recall back from that lesson, you have the kinda know what's in that, what's in the data and how it's structured in order to create a proper query. And this document will help you figure that out. And then we have the Python script for getting the XYZ tiles. So those base maps, this is the code. Copy it all, paste it in your Python console. There's a lesson here with that, but here's the texts you'll need in order to get those, those base maps upon to your QGIS really quickly. And then some Q ML style files like they're concentric water link water lining that we talked about. Some. So you can just load those up and you can see how I set up the, the geometry in the symbolism for the lines and get those lines all lined up. Just right. So that is all. So this is just a way for you to follow along if you want, by unzipping all the QGIS data, you really need to want to add some short, some shortcuts to get you to cartographic greatness very quickly. So good luck. Go get him.