Python Foundation - The Complete Python Programming Course [Part 2] | Samir Phuyal | Skillshare

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Python Foundation - The Complete Python Programming Course [Part 2]

teacher avatar Samir Phuyal, Python Developer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

12 Lessons (43m)
    • 1. Class Introduction

    • 2. Data Types

    • 3. Variables


    • 5. Escape Characters and Multi line Strings

    • 6. F string

    • 7. Taking inputs

    • 8. Arithmetic operators

    • 9. Comparison Operator

    • 10. Assignment Operator

    • 11. Built in methods for strings

    • 12. Built in functions for Numbers

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About This Class

This is part two of 'The Complete Python Programming Course' that covers everything you need to know to become an expert python programmer while building several fun projects with real-world use cases in python.Ā In this part twoof 'The Complete Python Programming Course'. You will learn about theĀ fundamental concept of programming in python.

What are the requirements?

  • A computer with a python interpreter installed

What am I going to get from this class?

  • You will learn about theĀ data types in python
  • Know what variables are
  • Learn about the importance of commenting code
  • Learn about String data type
  • Learn to interpolate strings
  • Take inputs from the user
  • Learn about various operators in python
  • Learn about built-in methods and functions

What is the target audience?

  • Beginner in programming
  • Newbie to python
  • Someone starting out with python

The number one reason I decided to uploadĀ the entire course part by part becauseĀ almost nobody completes hundreds of hours of boring gigantic courseĀ so, I divided it into several parts of usually 20-60 minutes each so that you can get all the python knowledge you need step by step at a time so that you can complete the course unlike the boring big courses.

The next part will be about learning the list in python. In the time you are checking this class, the next part of the class might have been already uploaded so check out my profile to go through the next class.

Meet Your Teacher

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Samir Phuyal

Python Developer


Hi, I am Samir!

I am a full-stack web developer with a specialization in python for the backend. I have been using python for web development, web scraping, automation scripts and more for more than 3 years and now I have built up a strong python programming foundation and I am currently teaching python technologies in online platforms. 

See full profile

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1. Class Introduction: Hello and welcome to this class. I'm super excited that do you decided to join in this class? And this is the part two of the entire the Complete Fighting Programming Course series. And in this part two of the class you learn about the fundamentals off fighting programming and now the number one reason I decided to upload the entire course part by part, is because almost nobody completes hundreds off hours of boardings again the courses. So I decided to divide it into the part off. Usually 22 60 minute is so that you can get all the vital is you need step by step at a time so that you can complete the course on like with the boring, because is now the complete fighting programming course Cities covers everything you need to know to become in export fighting programmer while building several fund projects with real world use cases. Plus, practicing what you have learned along the way. Now in this confident cities, you're going to learn off ones of different topics. But in this particular glass, you learn about the foundation off the beytin programming. So you learn about taking input from the user different drivers that the dives escape sequences stinging population useful by then, operators lost building functions and methods and how to begin With this class you lead a bite, an interpreter plus accorded a installed on a system and in obvious class, we have already set up our development environment. So if you have not watched that class, or if you have not set up a development environment E eight now I could come in going to a PBS art of the class so that you can learn to set up that the plumbing environment exactly seem like mine. But you can use whatever you before, right? And one thing I want to say that we sure to check out other classes in the series and because we have a lot to cover here and will cover it, stop big part by part. So on she have come today, this class I become in going to the next one so you can keep taking my profile on excuse you and get notified while I release new classes. And one very important thing I'm in detail is that feel free to do is keep any of the class topic that you are already family with because I met this complexity is flexible enough to jump around that different topics that interest you. So, for example, if you're already familiar with setting up development environment, you can simply skip this class and move to the next one. So a national for this in class introduction and I'll see you in the coming videos. 2. Data Types: All right, everybody, welcome to this brand new six, and And in this video, we're going to discuss about data types and the structure in Brighton. Now, data types are the balance in programming that we can use wilding some operation while quoting. So there are different data types in the structure inviting. And we're going to look, it's off them in this envelope, Abu in the slide. So the faster dive in programming is I string. Now, this thing is just like a word. And to use a string, we have to enclose a sentence word or later inside a single quotation mark are double quotation marks is you can see here now, in programming, there are numeric data types two and invite. And there are two type off numeric data types. The 1st 1 is in deserts now, indeed, just at the numbers without an intestinal point. So numbers like under t 65 doesn't have any decimal point after it. So it is an invisible in Brighton Now, what if it does have decimal points, then it is called his foot. So now we know that if number doesn't have any bismol point, then it is indeed za. But if it does have decimal point, then it is called Is floats in fightin nowadays, another that adapts and fightin that is called his bullion spell. Lose Willian Ballew concerts off two men values on Lee to values that it's true in falls Now, Boolean values can be burial full while doing some courting operations. For example, if you want to exude some court, if this is too ah, if this is false, then do not execute this so we can use 1,000,000,000 in this way. Now also you is data dives in more detail on using it in coming videos, so don't worry about it if you can't understand it now. Well, exporting is that perhaps in more detail in later videos, too. And now there's another that lie structure that I want to discuss in fightin. So that is a list now at least, is in order collection off values in his Ballew is separated by comma, and it can content that is like the strings in deserve floors, billions everything, and it has to be enclosed inside the square bracket. Now we'll also be learning more about, least in the coming videos, so don't worry about it. If you don't understand it right now, now in the section, we're going to only discuss about these five data types and structures. But there are other that adapts and structure in Brighton, and I won't release them one by one year so that you can get an idea of what did I Structures are there in Brighton, so in other that I structure that is very used inviting is or dictionary now, dictionaries keep elevator separated by a comma. Unlike least, dictionary is enclosed in a college brasses. And then there is a great ally structure inviting, called are to Paul's. Now two balls are enclosed in a small bracket on like least which are enclosed in a square bracket, and another for nominal differences between list and to police that the values in the two pearls cannot be tensed. But values in the least can be modified, and we're going to understand what it actually means in the coming video. So don't worry about it now, and there's intended I structure called a said Now cities a collection off the unique values it cannot contain or w get balloon in itself. And it is also English in a college brass is just like a dictionary embarked on like dictionary. It doesn't have give a loom, and in the 16 were fundamentally discuss about the strings in disaster floors, billions and list. But we are also going to explore dictionary Stupples and saves in the separate section. So I appear excited. In the next video we're going to discuss about arrivals. 3. Variables: All right, everybody, welcome to this lecture and we're going to learn about Ba revels in this letter. So let us he started by creating a new file in year. You can see there is the option to get a new file. Click on it and I'm going to name its to arrival. Start time now inside, this fan will write a court for this later. First let us understand what better I will actually is so revel. It's something that the stores bellum. And to make it clear, let me write this Index five arrival. Let me write. It's in tax. Yeah, this statement here is a bear ever in the name of this parable is a person and it is destroying a ballot zone. Now this equal to sign a sense the ballot zone to the name person. And when the biting interpreter runs, discord, it will locate are certainly space in the memory to restore this balloon zone. And you can difference this value using the bevel person. So they're self revel walks and honestly saying the ba revel. We can call that wherever for later use. For example, if you want to print this bear ever Or if you want to print the bell of this forever in the screen, we just have to type sprint in the rebel name. So in this case person and now if I save it Indrani population control all end, you can see our value for the arrival portion has been printed here. Now keep it in mind that we can only call the Bella forever if the rebel is already assigned. So, for example, if you try to call ah Ba revel in that is not defined. Let's call it is save it and call it You will get a near swing. Name is is not defined. So whenever we tried to call on arrival, we must make sure we have a signed it before here. You can see that way storing I string Ballew inside this forever What we canister all kind of value in the driver. For example, Little store the boat here and let's do that by using. But yeah, and it will be a number. So let's say 1990 in little spin the but here, revel again, save it and run it. Now you can see this body of arrival is also get printed and this can get a little machine that told me no. So let us clear the output. Repressing this, I can hear. Similarly, we can restore different data types like marks that really store afloat. Let's say 15 9.6. So this way we organised toe different data types in a better level. Now we can also restore our bullion balloon a big rival. Let's say we're going to store off Revel called Likes Computer and said its value to to and you can call its balloon again by using a printed statement and difference ing. It's prevalent. Save it and call it again. Now this trip Bellew gets printed. Similarly, we can also story least value year. That's a We're going to store a list of subjects here, so let's call it subject, and it started list by a square bracket Here. Let's say the fourth subject is a match. They can't be social, hardly held and so on. And now, once again, let us call this subject least wherever. So let us difference it by using printed statement again and call the subjects forever. Save it and run it. Now you can see that least gets printed to now while defending by rebel, there is a couple of thing that you need to know. The first thing is your bedevil name should be descriptive. What I mean with that is that whatever you were trying to store in that bedevil, you must name that ba revel clearly so that you can understand it. For example, if you notice in the body of a river, we are calling it burst. Here we could also call it B y, but that doesn't make any sense because if another person its record, then they will get confused by what this B y means. So it's always a commander took make accord more descriptive, so let us see. But it back in. Another thing you might notice is that in all these rival were using lower case for defending wherever using lower casing. The most arrival is a convincing for writing the arrival, and in Brighton, it is all based on the state to use on the score between the words. If you have multiple wars in a benevolent So, for example, in this marks the arrival. If you want to a store max up tin, then instead of marks obtained without any spaces. We could do that Bain on the school year. And if you try to remove this on a score and just started by putting my space on it, for example, Marks obtained, and now then our bite. An interpreter won't be able to understand this arrival, so it is all based. So the state to using on the school year to separate different words. Now let me put it back. And another thing to keep in mind is that in Piketon you cannot a study of arrival name with a number. What do I mean by that? For example, in this portion forever, if you type on number in front of fit numbers are symbols in front off it. You will get in your as you can see, because the rebel name cannot be, start with number are or the symbols. So while is sending a bear, I will make sure it doesn't contain number it first, but you can use the number in and they revel between are after these words, and there's also one convincer for defending constants bearable. What I mean by Constand is that the ballad that never changes are defined. His constant for example, the bell off by here it is always going to be 3.14 in it will nonsense in our programs. In this case, we can sense this by rival case to upper case, for example. Now it should be called B I in capital letters because and it isn't convincing for writing or constant values. So in the future, if you're going to assign Sumba revels, that will be constant and will not since in the program later. Then it is better to use a capital later to write out the rival name. So that's it about their Evan. And we're going to use these conventions and the style of writing the revel. So now thank you for what's English you in the next lecture. 4. Comments: Hello, everyone in this lecture, I quickly wanted to go through the comments in Python. Now in programming Comment is used to describe about the court. And let's understand how to do that in Payton. Now, for example, in this line one you can see where it's sending Abello off June string to the arrival person. And now we can describe what is happening here using comment. So let us do that. And in the first line, I'm going to type assigning value two room forever. Now, if you only leave it like this stain will get any girl. Let me. So it Actually it is showing us this syntax, either because by ton currently white and doesn't recognize it is a comment, you know, to make it a comment in fightin we have to put in has sign before it. So let me show you what I mean. So if you type has sent before it now this line off court has became a comment, and this land of court will be ignored by our interpreter. Let me show you what I meant. So if I turn this court again, you can see we're not getting me that anymore. and this comment is also not a bearing in our output. So that's what comment is used for. And we can move this comment here in the line, too. And again the people scored and this court will be the same, and there will be no difference in the output. And in B escort, there's an easy way to write a comment. So let us see how I can do that. For example, we're going to write printing wherever ballads now in Bs scored. If you just placed control plus forwards last, they need to lord a medically comment that line off court. And if you went toe on comment that plan, of course, then we just have to place it again. Now I hope you have understood that we should use coming to describe what our court is doing. But there are other use cases of comments to. For example, if you want to taste sort in parts of our court, then you can also comment our code so that it won't run when our program runs. For example, we have not used our ballot by here, so we can commend it. A person control plus forward slash in it will be commented. So this way we can also comment. Our cord and committing are according is especially useful. While debugging on record now, debugging is a fancy term for finding and sorting programming errors. So we can also use our comment for the working partners and explaining what our court is doing. And I obviously commend you to coming down your court when you were studying, because it will help you when you are building complex fighting program. So that's it for this later. Let's see when the next one. 5. Escape Characters and Multi line Strings: All right, everybody, in this lecture, we're going to learn about escape sequences. So let's quickly create our file for this lecture. I'm going to call it escape sequence that by and let's understand what it actually means. Suppose we have a printed statement here. That Prince, this pain belongs to Joan. Suppose we have a printed statement here that says this pain belongs to Joan. So if we run this program mia by pressing control old in it our post that balloon now for making things easier, I'm going toe move. These are put tap toe the right so that we can see it probably. And I'm going to double this file export area. But now let's since this is statement to something that says this is Joan Spain. Now, this is statement also has one apostrophe area, and if you just copy the system meant and best it inside this is string. Let's see what happens. So I'm going to run this program and again, seeing we're getting and seen decks it out here. So what is actually happening here? Let's understand it by looking at the scored. So as you can see you when we started this palm trees and mark. Then our bite. An interpreter finds the nearest a poster of him. Macchia. So our bite an interpreter finds this supposed to be Mark, and it will understand that this is the end off the string and after it doesn't recognize these characters. That's why it is showing syntax, either. And there's a couple off way that we can solve this problem force twenties. We can actually change the system to start from Kardashian Mark. So let's send it to Courtis in Mark, save it and run it again. Now it is displaying that they put stuff in clearly here. But let's say we don't want to change our apostrophe toe. Kardashian Marken wanted to put it back. Now that's where escape sequences come now. Escape sequence all those us to displace home special characters. For example, if you want to display this apostrophe here, then we can use escape sequence, and this index off escape sequence looks like this. So we have our backwards last year, and whatever character we're going to display, we'll go here. So if you want to display in a post, Irving apostrophe will go here. So let's use this escape character. Yeah, if we put any skip director here, then let's run scored and let's see what we get. As you can see, our core gear successfully interpreted and he does not sauce. The warning is all there, and now they are a few of the escape characters that you can use. For example, there is a skip character for quotation marks, and there's also a skip character for New line. So to use that you have to type backwards, last and and and let's see what it does. So I'm going to type backwards, last in N Save it and let's run this program and you can see our quarters is starting from the new lands. So that's what these end escape character does. And if you want to display our backwards last in itself, then you can do that by double backwards. Last two less. Run the school again, and now you can see this ring us back last in the Eastern Mint, and there's another thing that I wanted to. So in this lecture in for this, let me comment out it and let's begin in this new line up to now is just displaying on message in a single line. But what if we want to display string off multiple lines? For example, let's say we ever revel called messes. Now let's suppose this message very well takes multiple line office strings. And if you want to do that by the Kardashian mark and now, if you want to display multiple and messages just like it, using a cord isn't mark. Then you'll get in here and to solve this problem and display strings off multiple lines, we can do that by people courts. Let's see what it means. So instead off in closing our message in single quotation Mark, we're going to enclose it in triple quotation marks. So let's do this. So we need six credits and maxilla in between. We can best all message Now. Let's bring this message and run the scored. Now you can see our messages displaying in multiple lines, so that's how you can restore. I sing that condense multiple line. That's it for this video. Let's see when the next one 6. F string: Now, in this video, we learn about a string formatting using F E string. So let's take it out What it is, I'm going to start by getting a new file again. I'm going to call it a string formatting. Not by and now, inside this file, I'm going to kill the new Brevin that only called name, and I'll say this value to June. Now, whenever I tried to print this name into the skin, I purposely used the print function in pass its name on it and to run it. I simply around the quarters in the court, Rana. But now let's say I want to print. Hello, John. Good morning there. How would we do that? Well, we could do that by concocting eating the string. So let me show you what I mean. So we're going to join this name with a text called High Save it and run the score again and you can see that hygiene gets printed. Now there's no spaces between them and to have a space within them, we just have to put the next I space in assisting. Now they're civet again and clear of the output. Now, whenever I run scored You can see our space has input between them. Similarly, you can also write Good morning. Save it and on the score again. Now you can see another taste has been going to the name forever while printing it. And this is called a string concatenation. We're basically joining strings in Ba revels here And to do these days another approach that will take now so we'll be using the stinging population are simply put it is a festering or distinct for mating. So I'm going to delete it now to use this thing in population are FX string. All you have to do is type F and started a string. Now I understand Hello in the name of Forever and the greetings. So I'm going to type Hello Now whenever I try to display the value off this name by rival here, I can do that by opening in college process here and inside those college brasses. I can simply referred to the arrival, so I'm going to call it name and saying Good evening. I'm going to clear up this council here, save it and run the scored again. Now you can see we're getting the output. Halogen. Good evening. So there's our fisting walks and this is called a distinct formatting to now. When using every string inside this college brasses, we can put any expression nor just where I will let me show you what I mean. For example, here I'm going to create another colleague dresses and now inside this called brass is I'm going to put an expression here. I'm going to would arithmetic expression, for example, 85 into 96. I'm going to save it and even this cord. And as you can see you and the expression that were put in this caliber, assists gets evaluated in our put it to the screen. So not only we can assist the beret able using the office string. We can also put an expression inside it 7. Taking inputs: All right. Welcome, everybody. Now, in this lecture, we're going to learn how you can take input from the user. So let us get started by creating a new file called input dot by no taking good from user inviting. It's super easy. All we have to do is use the input function, and we're going to save whatever you typed in a bevel called Mrs. And after you have type something and Internet, we're going to display it into the screen, use in the print function, and we're going to use the office string that will say you have type and the message inside this caliber. Assists. Now save it Now here to run. This scored. We had to run in the terminal, Not with the help of cortana Extension that we have installed earlier because the cord on extension on Lee at once the court in read only more. But since we're taking the input from the user, we cannot work in the courtroom. Christensen. So we have to open a part or non by pressing control plus back take now, inside this terminal, I'm going to type fightin in the name of the file in this case, input dot by so you can see our quarter as well running and it is waiting for the user input. So I'm going to type Hello. And if I present, you can see it. Has I put it you have timed. Hello. But let's say we want our program to say something while taking the input and now less thing. I'll program a little bit inside the input function. I'm going toe aired a string here, Enter your message. Now I'm going to save it and run this court again. And now you can see I have got to type of here. But let's leave it now. You can see it is asking for our input. But this time it has got the masses here because we have put the string inside the input function and I sting you put in inside. The input function will be soon while asking for the user input. So now let's step for the message here. Hello again and you can see it has outward. Did you have time? Hello again. You know, let's say we want to make a program that will take two numbers from the user and display. It's every is So let's do that now. Now, to take the first number from the user, I'm going to store it in a bevel called number one and his input function and type. Enter number one and now to let the user enter the number one we're going to provide them on next landfall it. So we're going to use an escape character, so use a backwards last, and this will provide a next line for user input. Now I'm going to do the same for number two. So I have indicated numb to wherever and also said its input toe Inter for number two and also using Skip Connect Ania Now, to get the evidence of two numbers, all you have to do is some of those numbers in the red by two. So let's do that. We're going to call it if it is equals Number one plus numb to my going toe enclosing Nisman rocket and divide right to So this is just a normal mathematical operation. We are just waiting to number in the wedding by two and you can see where they did the flow symbol. The bad single and these are called operators and we're also going to talk about this in the common video, so don't worry about it now. Now we're going to bring the evidence off those numbers into their skin. So to do that, we're going to the brain function. And I would do for mother strings in F E string in type the it is off number one, and number two is evidence. Now, inside the score, there's a small problem and I want to show you what it is by running the scored. So if I run the score here and it asked for the user to enter the number one I'm going to type for and I'm going to type seven and you can see we have got in your calling type year . So what is happening here Now? Whenever we ask for the user to input something we are restoring, it is ah, string, not a number. So instead of starting, it is a number. The input function is distorting. Whatever you should have type in a string. And in this line of court, wherever it is calculated, we are trying to air two strings which also okay, but when we try to divide it by two this is not going to happen because strings cannot be divided. Let me show you what I mean for this. I'm going to upon a bite an interpreter in the time now and I'm going to type a stream near called six and going to type another a string year called seven. I'm going to save it in a rebel called evidence. And if I didn't er in, call the ovaries. Whenever you can see, it has aged 67 because that's just area does these things together. And it is not a mathematical operation. And when you die, do divide the savories by two, you can see we get the same era. So that's what the cedar was also meaning in what we can do it now. Well, you can actually convert the whatever user input in the number one and number two into done in desert so that we can divide them by two and get actual evidence number off them. Now we're going to actually convert whatever use that have time into the Indies er so to do that, we have toe using in function that is built into the vitamin. So to do that, I'm going to copy this line and using in function year. Now I'm going to pass the input function inside off it into the same port, numb to and past input inside off it. Now I'm going to save it and run scored in the fighting terminal. So I'm going to call fightin Input? Not fine. Now it is asking for a number first number. I'm going to put it six and second number to be it. And you can see it is giving us the evidence off six. And it is 7.0. So we have It's if the functionality in that we were aiming for and one thing to notice is that we are actually converting that type of the data into the Indies area using the end building function. But this can only convert that other type off the string that actually as number inside off them. But if they type something random like words, then it will just cross because words can be turned into danger. Let me show you what I meant. So I'm going to run the school again and type a word here randomly. We're getting a value year because our fightin interpreter cannot dance later. This is string into the desert, so that's also the thing that we have to take care off. So that's it for now, and you have learned how to take user input and also convert the user input into the number necessary. 8. Arithmetic operators: All right, everybody, in this video, we're going to look what operators are. In the previous video you saw, we're adding two numbers together. Let's say two plus six. Whose did turn the bell off? Eight here. So now when we're reading this plus yah is called eight Medic Operetta and there are very step of arithmetic operators that we're going to discuss. Study. So it is called Edison Operator. There's also subtraction. Operator. Let's use it. Using six minus ah for you can seem we can do basic arithmetic operation in Britain. Interpreter directly to in our do multiply numbers in Brighton, you have to use the star symbol here just like it. And there's also division operator that is represented by us last sign and noticed one thing that we're getting off flowed back Northern Intesa. And to get an intisar instead of floor, we have to type doubles loss instead of singles last. And there's another eight medic operator in fightin that is called his remainder operator and that he wants to live remainder after that. The reason. So let's say you doubt, for example, we have seven and ah to use the remainder operator, we have to die person this symbol and less used to. So what it will do is that if you press enter, it will are poor than Balu. One. How is it doing this calculation so good? M stay. It's six and seven. Minus six is one. So it is are putting the remainder after the wedding seven by two. And there's another operator that we're going to discuss and that is exponent Operator. So it looks like this. So what? It actually is meaning? Well, if you eat, inter will get the outward off. 16. So it is called two to the power of four. Similarly field type two to the power of three. It will are. Put the ed so they're so exponent operator walks inviting. So that's all about the Atlantic operator in Britain. And in the next video we're going to talk about combat is an operator 9. Comparison Operator: All right, guys, in this video, we're going to learn about companies and operators now. Comparison operators who turns start to bellows True are false, and it does by comparing two values. So let's see it in action. Suppose we ever to bevel called equals four and B equals six. Now we can compare. We don't end being using comparison operator. So let's say is good and then be we will get false because four is Gordon B. Is not too, so we're getting false. But if you have type is less than B, it will get us true because four is less than six. We can also take if a is equal to be or not. So to do that, we have to type a equal to equal do so double equal do, and that means a is equal to be or not. So let's take it, and you can see we get a false bell here. And if there was something equal, unless a five equals five, then you did. You don't to, and you can also compare strings, for example, yes is equal to yes. Then it should be done to. Nowadays, in other combat is an operator called is not equal to and is not equal to. Operator begins with Islamism mark followed by equal toe and is no tickle to be with sit ins. True, because four is not equal to six or you can also do Multex like to Well, it's not the girl 2 56 with all students true. But if you type something like five is not equal to five, then it should. It turns force because five is equal to FIPE and where determining whether five is not equal to find, which ultimately produces false written. So we have seen better than less than is equal to and is not a girl to operator board days , another to comprise an operator that I want to discuss in this video. So let's take them out to Let's say I want to compare to Well is less than or equal to two will. Then if you intend a we'll see we get true value because it is comparing is to be a lesson to Bill O. R. Is to Bill is equal to two billion, so this is called This is combining the is equal to operator in less than operator and same goes for greater than Article two. Operator, for example, to Will is get uddin are equal to two it is returning to because it is comparing too well is it? Will do. Well, what if we have something like 35 Easy greater than or equal due to? Well, then what do you think? It will produce your feet inter. It'll British too? Because 45 is gator than or equal to do well. In this case, it is taking whether for the fabulous, greater than all equal to two. Well, and since it is gated into well, it is eating the true value. So that's all about the compassion operator in Titan. 10. Assignment Operator: Now that you have known about athletic in companies and operator, it's time to know about assignment Operator. So too long about it, I'm going to create a BA rival called In Cities, fellow to one. And now in desisted Main, this equal to sign walks is Assignment Operator, which is ascending the bell off 12 The arrival A. And now, if you were to Isabel off a two equals it last one and printable off again. What do you think will happen? So let's run to score and you can see that we get the hell off to is an output. So when we're defending a ghost one for the first time and then we override it by defending a again and since its value to a plus one, that will say it's Pelloux to the A reasonable off a plus one. So we get developed to now. This land, of course, can be expressed with different sm and operator, so the same line off court can also be executed with the help off. A plus equals one, so the court you see right here is actually called the discord. So to taste, it lifts on the score and you can see that we get actually in the same outward is previous . So this line, of course, can be expressed to this line of court by using plus equals two off assignment operator. And similarly, you can do the same for another arthritic operator. Like a minus equals to one which will say the spell you do equals a minus one to test it out. I'm going to come in the previous scored and run it again. Now you can see we're getting about below off zero, which is correct in this sense. Now we can also combine these examined operator with another 20 operator like a multiply equals 10 r. A model s equals one r a floor division equals one are even a exponent equals one. 11. Built in methods for strings: Now that you know what bite and building functions and metres are lettuce explosive off the building methods very string and they are quite a few IT building made towards for a string and we're going to explore some of the most used one in this video. So I'm going to start by defending Unbearable called messes and said its value to the string and the world all in lower case. Now there's a 1,000,000,000 method off a string in fightin that capitalizes the first letter off those string and to use that we have to type the level name followed by dot and when you hit the door medalist, a court order medical suggest all. I have a level building maters for the string and you can explore all of them board in this video, we're going to cover some of the most used believe me towards for string. So toe capitalize the first letter off the string. We have to use the capitalize building method and to print the capitalized message wherever we were going to wrap it inside the print function. Now save discord and run it using the owner, and you can see the first later off the halal text has been capitalized. So that's what capitalized building mentor does. And now let us explore other build in issuing mentors that will capitalize all the letters of the words in a string to upper case. So to use that mental, we have two dead, mrs dot apart save it and run the score again and you can see in the second output every leader off our world has been capitalized. But one thing to notice is that whenever we're using these building mentors by string, it is returning our newest string, meaning it is not overriding the or is no message forever. So let me show you what I mean. If I print the or is no messes by rebel here, you can see it is unaffected by the previous building methods. Now let us explore that build initiating May 3rd, I'm going to clear this art would console and coming out this print, Mrs. And if you want to change all the letters into the low case, you can use the bite on lower pill in method Similar Lydia is another building method That letters to capitalize is later off the world in a string in that building. Matori Czar Title Building method. So let us run this court here and you can see the corresponding output in this output console. And I want to sue another a string building method that letters to replace certain part off our A string with, in other words, they usually what I mean so fed up. This mess is wherever and use the building method replace. And in this building method, I want to replace the text world with our new text fighter. Please know that there's a comma between these words and now we're going to print this hour could, by wrapping it into the brain function, save it and run the scored again and against the world Ward in our taste has been replaced with a new world that is Spuyten. So this way against various shoestring building method that fighting provides you 12. Built in functions for Numbers: hello and welcome back. And in this lecture, I'm going to teach you some of the building functions that are ever level to use with numbers. So the first willing function I want to show you is ebbs. So the citizens, the absolute value off the given argument, for example, inside this edge building function, I want to pass minus three is in argument now. Notice one thing. Whatever is passed inside the building function or in other function while calling it is called his argument and we'll discuss more about it in the coming function section. So for this, if I just hate in tow it to return the absolute value off minus three So it didn't stay. And this way you can use this EBS building function to convert the negative in desert to the positive in desert. And since it is returning upolu, we can also save it inside of a rival. So let me show you what I mean. So let us define available, called Numb and ah, ascending to the value off ebbs and, uh, give minus five is argument. So if you didn't and call the number ever, you can see the value returned by this function is the story in the number revel. That's why were able to call it now moving further into the building functions for number. I want to show you another building function that you don't see the highest number in the given past arguments. So it is called Max in whatever arguments we pass inside this Max building function. For example, 1235 and the arguments are separated by a comma and I feet inter. It didn't the number five, so it it has the highest number in the given argument. Similarly, we have mean So let's test it again. And it did danced one and I want to show you another useful in building function for number that is power. So it is is the power off given argument by the past number. For example, if you give its first argument is too in second argument is three in heat Inter. You can see it, it turns it. So what it is doing is that having to and is raising its power to three. So doing 22 into two is equal to it. So if you do Paolo and, uh, do something like three legs to the power of six in the lead on its value is a three to the power off six. Now there's another handy building function that you can use with numbers that is around building for Nixon. So is the name suggests. It trounced the given number two. The Given Precision point. So, for example, if I just past 3.65 inside off it, it rounds to four. But if we wanted to Round two the two disease, we can do something like around and passed. The first argument is Steve Warren, 654 In the second argument, you can pass the precision off the decimal point. For example, if you want to sort to disease after the decimal point we can pass to is its argument. And if you didn't it drowns the bell of 3.654 and you don't the bell off 3.65 told those ways some of the useful building functions that you can use in fightin. And there's one another thing that I want to show you in this letter that is type conversant. So, for example, if we have some Bellew assuring them forever called a and later said it spell to seven. Now, since this seven is an invisible Bellew, we can actually convert it into the float by using the float building function. And if you passed the Bellew off a here into returns 7.0. So it is basically converting that type off the revelation that is in Taser into the floor and returning its balloon similar living under the same with the in building function. So since it don't the balloon, we can save it into the forever. In little scorn, bird offload into Indonesia by using in building function. So suppose we have six point T in few tinta and the call that be wherever you can see to have converted off float into Indy za.