Python A-Z: Learn Python Programming By Building Projects | Shubham Sarda | Skillshare

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Python A-Z: Learn Python Programming By Building Projects

teacher avatar Shubham Sarda, Python Developer

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

79 Lessons (7h 47m)
    • 1. Course Introduction

      3:27
    • 2. Is Python A Bubble Or Real Deal?

      6:12
    • 3. Installing Python on Windows

      5:27
    • 4. Python 3.8 Version Update

      0:51
    • 5. Different Methods To Execute Python Codes

      6:59
    • 6. Python help() - Python Documentation

      3:48
    • 7. Variables and Python Memory Management

      4:20
    • 8. Datatypes in Python

      7:44
    • 9. Sequences in Python

      12:33
    • 10. Installing IDE (Integrated Development Environment)

      7:55
    • 11. Sets, Dictionary

      6:48
    • 12. Literals and Identifiers

      4:56
    • 13. Reserve Words - You Cann't Use Them!

      1:34
    • 14. Operators: Arithmetic, Assignment

      8:12
    • 15. Operators: Unary Minus, Relational, Logical, Boolean

      8:52
    • 16. Understanding Escape Characters

      6:22
    • 17. Introduction to Input and Output Statements

      1:57
    • 18. Output Statements

      11:40
    • 19. Input Statements

      4:25
    • 20. Python Built-in Functions and Built-in Module

      7:34
    • 21. Conditionals: If, If ... Else and Indentation

      5:38
    • 22. Conditionals: If ... Else Statements With Operators

      9:39
    • 23. Conditionals: if... elif ... else Statements + Nested if Statements

      3:35
    • 24. While Loop

      9:15
    • 25. For Loops - Part 1

      3:27
    • 26. For Loops - Part 2

      5:57
    • 27. Break and Continue Statements

      6:34
    • 28. Comments and Doc Strings

      4:59
    • 29. Diving Deep With "Strings"

      12:56
    • 30. Diving Deep - List

      11:15
    • 31. Diving Deep - Tuples

      6:51
    • 32. Diving Deep - Dictionaries

      7:52
    • 33. Indexing, Slicing, Negative Indexing

      10:11
    • 34. What are Functions?

      4:20
    • 35. Parameters, Arguments, Return

      7:35
    • 36. Formal and Actual Arguments (arg, *arg, **karg)

      8:38
    • 37. Local and Global Variables

      3:38
    • 38. Introduction to Object Oriented Programming (OOP)

      9:10
    • 39. Classes and Objects in Python (OOP)

      9:28
    • 40. Understanding init() Method and 'self ' Parameter

      9:54
    • 41. Solving Task: OOPS

      7:33
    • 42. Defining Multiple Constructors in Python?

      4:40
    • 43. Encapsulation

      8:51
    • 44. Public And Private Methods

      4:45
    • 45. Inheritance

      4:04
    • 46. Getter and Setter

      8:45
    • 47. Creating And Importing Module

      6:09
    • 48. Creating User Defined Module

      5:20
    • 49. Multiple Inheritance

      5:21
    • 50. Understanding super() Function [Part 1]

      2:24
    • 51. Understanding super() Function [Part 2]

      4:02
    • 52. Python Naming Convention (Classes, Variables, Functions, Methods ...)

      2:59
    • 53. Composition

      8:26
    • 54. Aggregation

      4:45
    • 55. Abstract Classes

      6:06
    • 56. Discussing Over import And from

      1:59
    • 57. Operator Overloading [Part 1]

      5:58
    • 58. Operator Overloading [Part 2]

      5:03
    • 59. Errors - Types of Errors!

      6:19
    • 60. Exceptions

      4:01
    • 61. Exceptions Handling Introduction

      2:29
    • 62. Exceptions Handling

      8:31
    • 63. Try, Except, Else And Finally

      3:29
    • 64. Raising Exception

      3:54
    • 65. Creating User Defined Exception

      3:07
    • 66. if name == main

      4:53
    • 67. Creating Text File And Write Content

      7:55
    • 68. Appending Files | Solving Example - File Handling

      3:46
    • 69. How To Read Content From A File

      8:24
    • 70. pip - PyPI for Managing Python packages

      9:15
    • 71. What is OpenCV?

      3:44
    • 72. OpenCV Face Detection With Python

      7:34
    • 73. Detecting 'Elon Musk' And 'Mark Zuckerberg' Faces

      2:33
    • 74. Detecting Faces Of All Images In The Folder

      6:19
    • 75. PyPi - Pytube Introduction

      1:50
    • 76. Video Downloader - Part 1

      5:39
    • 77. Video Downloader - Part 2

      6:54
    • 78. Complete Playlist Downloader

      3:00
    • 79. Thank You For Being Here!

      0:27
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About This Class

Welcome to Python Programming A-Z, One single course to start your Python Journey from Beginner Step-by-Step, This course touches each and every important concept of Python with it's latest version Python 3.7,

Throughout the course we will explore the most important Python Programming Language Features -

  • Basics of Python Programming - Expressions, Variables and Printing Output

  • Python Operators - Python Assignment Operator, Relational and Logical Operators, Short Circuit Operators

  • Python Conditionals and If Statement

  • Methods - Parameters, Arguments and Return Values

  • Complete Object Oriented Programming - Class, Objects

  • OOPS - Encapsulation, Inheritance and Abstract Class.

  • Python Data Structures In-depth - List, Set, Dictionary and Tuples

  • Conditionals - If Else Statement, Nested If Else

  • Loops - For Loop, While Loop in Python, Break and Continue

  • Mutability - Immutability of Python Basic Types.

  • Builtin And User-Defined Modules

  • Errors And Exception Handling - try, except, else and finally.

  • Custom Exception - Raising Exception, Creating and Raising a Custom Exception.

After completing this course you will be ready to work as Intern, Fresher or Freelancer and you will also be able to implement everything yourself! Most importantly you will be ready to divide deep with big available scope with Python. 

Enroll now and I will make sure you learn best about Python

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Shubham Sarda

Python Developer

Teacher

Hey there!

I've created Complete Roadmap to become a Developer with different projects, specifically for the SkillShare audience. 

With this roadmap we will start with Python Programming, learn about basics, important concepts and solve some real life problems by building projects. Once we are ready with Python, its time to gain more experience with different field projects in Automation, Data Analysis, GUI Programming and Web Development. 

Here is Complete Python Programming - 
Python A-Z: Learn Python Programming By Building Projects
Python Programming - Advanced Concepts

Python Projects - 
Python Project - Building Twitter Bot With Python and Tweepy
Python GUI Programming - Build a Desktop Application with Tkinter and SQLit... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Course Introduction: Hey guys, we're going to bite on. It was a complete bite and development course for beginners. In the scores will be talking about everything from very basics toward ones and clear but to become a bite earlier or bite honest the score. So start and covered topics like variable function. Statement place. Kloof sets addition Aires input output classes, libraries and their handling file handling a lot more thing. Soon be covering everything from very basics, and at then we'll be also talking about small projects and how you can implement them in your day to day life. So this is one complete back course that will help you to lay the foundation as a developer or as a programmer. So if you're a complete beginner, this is a must have course you understand each and every concept from very beginning on. Remember, this is not a 40 our course that you are not going to complete. We have kept the schools short and simple, so you are able to achieve and keep your goals quite realistic. You still have thought and want to know for whom. Discourses for discourses, for students who want to start development or programming discourses for employees who want to shift from one language to another language on discourses for people who want to lay their foundation for programming or development. So, basically discourses for anyone who want to start programming and want to understand the concept on breach at advanced level, where he can judge which concepto grass, which framework to work with or Richfield to enter. Bitlis, a big language which has multiple career. And this is the right course to layer foundation. And once you enroll in the scores will be getting video materials all the only and resources that are really important different community links that you should join online and also quizzes an assignment so you can start from very basic and complete whole course in a simple manner. 2016 was good. 2017 was amazing in 2018 was better soap. Eitan is growing at a really fast speed. Make sure you don't miss the train in 2019. And don't worry, you don't have to rush with time. This is a self paced scores, so there is no deadline. You have to follow your own their sibling. You have to follow your own timetable, and you can achieve the course in the real time manner on one of the most important thing programming and development. I like a building foundation. You have to keep your routes. You have to keep your lower livers at a stronger point, so you have to understand and grabs concept. At the initial stage, you might start developing big APS. You might start developing big website, but you have to be confident with the concept on. This is the course, which will help you to grabs the concept off fight on. And one thing I need to tell you fight on is easy, but you still need to follow work. Ethics. Have some motivation on our discipline to follow the course. It takes time. It takes effort on it takes attention to detail. So this is the right time to start. Make your 2019 count in your calendar. Let us start 2019 with bite and programming and roll into the scores, and I'm really excited to see you inside 2. Is Python A Bubble Or Real Deal?: Hey, guys, welcome to a new video myself, trouble on and this really the stock about fighting. So it's being two years that fighters hype is spreading like fire. It's now where industry as well as university universities, has adopted fighting as their first language. So it's a very please see language on now. Vital is first language for all the first year student, so you can understand the impact that fighting is delivering or student. Not only this fighting is now the most popular, as well as faster screen programming language for two consecutive years. In 2017 Stack Overflow releases a report regarding this and now followed again for 2018 isn't so. You can understand the impact that fighting is delivering or the lives off programmer. One thing I need to talk about fighting is the first choice for all the newbie who are starting their programming career. So now you can judge the hype that fighting is created in the past two years earlier, Java PHP these were the most common programming language for a newbie or student to approach C and C plus plus was considered as their first language on day one Belgium or these high level language that a speech being Java. But now fighting is taking that position also. So who is using fightin except the programmers who is using fightin? So fighting is now famous on most popular among so fan genius mathematician data is scientists Accountant network. Ingenious. Everyone is using fighting like hell they're using for automation and slices they're using for ABS. Not more thing is going on, So let me distribute this point. We need to focus on two things isn't a bubble that will burst after a few years because it was just the hype that has created Or it is the real deal that why these people are using. So if I need to distribute them into two points, my first question will be what we can do with fightin. And the second will be why the language is so popular. So the first thing that I need to talk about us, what we can human biting. So there are several programming language, and you can think what you can do with other programming language. You might want to go into detail analysts. You want to go into a machine learning E. I all you want to do some automation or create some the labs. Or maybe I'm a while application or stop application, or you want to make a career into testing or hacking. You think about so many things that you want to do. You might choose different languages for all these thing, but with fighting, you can do that. So Bitlis majorly majorly popular because offered flexibility on the development into community. So these are other things that I want to convey that you can do almost everything in a good specific manner on. There are several frameworks that you can implement. There are several libraries on. You might think that is fighting your first choice. Maybe biting can your initial choice, and then you can upgrade with other languages, but you can start anything with biting. The second question on the second out that I was having his wife fighter is so popular, so I need to divide the reasons in tow. Do the first thing is it is very easy with beginners on. Also, it can solve complex problems in less time, with fewer lines off court. If I take an example off groups, if I take an example of extraction. If I take an example off creating a script for automation each and everything can be done with your lines off court and beytin. So sometimes fighting. Use only one tent off lines for creating a project. So you gonna understand why the high is still there in industry. And the next reason that I always think off is it's high level. It is always prepared with cross platform. It has huge community on the ecosystem, so that high level I means time and memory management with cross platform. I mean, how will it perform in Windows? Macklin next home, same on has a huge community. So if you have any doubt, if you have any requirement, you can jump onto a stab. Overflow. Get up big bucket and you can see how open source project and how other people are devoting and delivering towards a community. 14. The last thing is large ecosystem, so the past 20 years fighting libraries on the frameworks are so well developed that you can do anything so whatever you want to go might have been done by several other people. So if you stuck anywhere, you can radically use their source on you can speed up your process off developing other things. So this is one of the crucial method. You have tons off libraries. You have tons off framework to speed up your process. And it's not a bad thing. It's one off. The best thing. Do you realize and understand how to process your development in a fast pace? This is one of the media reason that why people are connecting with fightin, the community is huge on. They are really supportive towards each and everything. So now I hope you understand that the multipurpose uses off fighter and also being a bigger friendly language help. I tend to be one of the most hyped and most popular language, and the last thing that I want to mention is the Sami fighting. The Clippers usually get approx 1 20 k in us and also good chord, chord, salary and other parts of the world. And you know the hype off machine learning on all the latest technologies, all our depending on fighting. So don't miss out fight, and it'll be growing fast for 2019. And the other thing I need to mention before ending this video is it's not a bubble if communities working if ecosystem is walking towards the language towards its fruit. It's not about because there are frameworks that get regular updates. There are frameworks around new libraries if they are getting updated. If they are walking towards the community, then it's not about her ex. Really. So you want to join the really don't miss on fighting? 3. Installing Python on Windows: in this lecture Willman strolling Fight on in our window system. So do follow that. All you have to do is such about bite on in Google and you will get the official website ling and the cost result and then dis click on the absolutely and you will be redirected towards Star Official website on now you will have few options here that is about section download section documentation, community success stories, news anyone's so these are really important taps on. You can get a lot of information about bite on here so you can explore them later. At this kind of time, we need to focus on two things. The 1st 1 is the shell. So this is an online shell on which you can do some quick basic fight, including on it is free to use and you don't need to do anything. Just come on python, not org, and you can start using it with your basic quite on court. The second thing that we need to focus is down corruption. So it is easy to down or just hold over the Donald option and you will have an option to downward bite on, which is the latest version by phone book quasi will automatically recognize your requirement. That is, they will automatically check your operating system on. We'll give you the leader's words in down Norling on if you want to download something else . If you want to download like you want to download for certain bits, all you want to down or some previous words in all you have to do is just so hurt over this and there's click on Windows on You will get all the options regarding the previous down roars and status from 2.0, too late distortion. If I scroll along a bit, you will get all the information here. You can see a 2.0 version that was released in 2001. Just call a bit up on you can see it's 3.7 point one worsen and how you need to install the latest wasn and also just make sure you download this executable in stroller. Select the folder in which you want to download. I would prefer the mean right on in the downward option and then click on Save. Now the download is done and let us perform sometimes that we are beating from several ages for every software. How you need to make sure that you click on this particular section That is our fight on 3.7 to park, so it will reduce one step in the further lectures on. You don't have to do that manually in the intersection. He just make sure you click or add quite on 3.7 to your part. And also this is the current part. We're bite on his downloading. I would prefer to change this. So in slow going inside, so many folders I would make sure to install aired and my C drive directly. So let me perform that task also, Here I am on my Seagrave Let me create a new folder with the name off Fight on one status done. I would prefer to customize this installation on Just make sure you have all the default setting. These are some packages which you need to install. And they would be quite useful on how you need toe Mr for all users. And also you need to change the whole my new four letter off, fightin that I have created hair, of course, fight on 37 So that is the latest version on this. Help us to recognize the words in number. So that issues when you have different type of projects. So you might have a project that you're working with 2.7. You might have a project that you're working with 3.7, so you have to control Different wasn't off fight on and these type of file name help us to divide that section on. You can easily run 2.7 whenever you require, and you can also play with 3.7 whenever you require. So at this point of time, I have my bite and full Alan Seagrave and then by 10 37 and then just click on Install that the basic stuff we do. So no installation istan already after is just close here on to inject that we have done with bite on installation or you actively search about bite on on. You can see I have a fight on 3.7 available. Also, you can see I have different Alps on. One important thing is my Ideally, we need to talk about them, and we also need to talk about how to write our first school and how to execute a bite and program. So the next lecture we were doing that one basic thing. You need to do this. Just click on the steaks topped up by a bite on three Bond seven. And here you can see you have installed. Bite on and let us perform some hard ass scare. You know what is five plus wife? It just performed by tone and see the result. Now we have a python interpreter. Really? That means it is working. You can also see the bite on version on. You can see these three arrows. That means you are into pilot on interpreter. I hope that you understand how to install Piketon in your windows system and also how to verify that in the next lecture, let us talk about how to execute fight on files using command, prompt using. Ideally, maybe creating a script on will be understanding more 4. Python 3.8 Version Update: Now, before moving forward, let me interrupt you and give you an update in a minute. Right on recently released their version 3.8. So basically it's 3.7, plus few new and ones featured. Now, if you visit by tone dot org and check out different dollars order, you will have options to download 3.8 you can download three pointed. It is going to work exactly fine as 3.7. So in short, you can download any Western off 3.7. Any Virgin off three point did what are going to work? Fine. All the steps are same. Install Ishan process are same projects will be same. Everything is going toe work exactly the way it is. Now let us continue and get back to our lecture. 5. Different Methods To Execute Python Codes: in this little let's talk about how to execute a biting program. So in the previous video I talked about like if it serves about bite on, we get several type of options. When is the next stop? After we have, then ideally, then we have some model documents. So what? All these are. So let me clarify that there are a few different options by which you can run your point and commands. The 1st 1 is fighting. Come on, nine minnows. That is the exact option that we tried in the only election. So just click here. So this is the windows that is by default, given by bite on on. You can run all the courts here. That is some basic goods because once you start working on big files, once you start working with different libraries, we'll be moving towards the file system will be moving towards the editor. That is, I ve system on that will help us to simplify our file system. So this is the pilot in command line windows. You can perform some basic tasks like let me write my first Korea. So if I want to write print hello word or are you is Just give me Prince statement and you can see it's just printed on. If I just want to do some basic calculation maybe three plus five on you can understand that this is the basic command line problem which is used toe do some basic fight on stuff at this point of time, this is the basic medium by which you can do some basic fight on courting. The second thing is quite on. Ideally, that is, they have provided us a graphic window, which is quite easy, and it defined with different colors on. I hate it because the background is white and as a programmer, as a developer, something that is white, you will hate it. And I'm sure once you start working with bite on with any language and you start walking with editor, that is I d. You will start loving the black color. Oh, let me search Fight on here and you can see this ideally option. Just click on the option and you will see something like this. This is our fight on cell, which is quite similar to what we were doing with the previous command window on how you can also perform the same step if you want Blueprint. Hello world. Let me I doubt. And now you can see the color difference. This is the important thing that you need to keep in mind. All the I ds make our life easier. They define everything, were different colors and also they help us to complete some things. So if I write print again and you can see they have given me several options regarding my value regarding the separation and all the things we were talking about in new lectures. But at this point of time, you have to understand why on ideally like this is important. So if I just want to write hello world again or something like hell only or hello, students. Now you can see it clearly defines different thing and this will help us to perform task in a better manner. The next option is directly from system from, so if you are working on windows, you might have command prompt on. If you are on Mac, you might have the terminal. So all you have to do is just do cmd on. Just open this particular command problem on here. You can write Fight on on this will now enter into your shell mood that despite on shell more and you will also see the bite on virgin. And if you want to exit at any point of time, only after type is exit on, then open and closing mantises. And similarly, if you want to exit from your vitamins, so you have to perform the same on that would do your task on. If you want to save this task or kill the stars, that is your choice. You can also try Quit on. That would also do the same strip. So these are some basic method that you can do is the 1st 1 is your bite and come online window. The 2nd 1 is the beytin. Ideally, which is the graphic window on the Koran is your CMD. Now, if you will have a bite and file that ends were dot by at that point of time, only your command trump will be useful. Let me give you an example. Let me open my note pad. Hanyang. No developer Corden note bad. I'm just doing that so you can understand. And if you have any court and you have got fire file. And if you want to run, I need project. Any application? At that point of time, you're CMD it will be useful. Let me create a basic fire file on then we can perform. So in the spy file, let me. Right. So this is the basic code that I've ridden on. Now I have to save it as dark buyer. So all actualize Let me see it somewhere. So now I just created my door fire file. That is my first start by in which I have something to print on. If I want to run this particular file, I can only do that with my system. From that is my cmd on. If you are a Mac user, you can use your dominant. So open your terminals. That is your come on from on your deck Stop! You can use your control shift and then the right key and click on open command windows here and you can see I have my clothes in my deck Stop folder. Now all I have to do is try Fight own. Then the final game that is four. Start by our click enter. So here you can see I have the takes. This is our dark by pile which I have mentioned in my first start by So this is how you run your dot p y that is your python file. So now I hope you understand how to run your first project or how to write a course. Come on on. There is one last unimportant method that no one usually mentioned. That is your online chill. The shells are really important If you want to solve any problem if you are into competition online so the shell work exactly the same. Like you are working on your next stop. So the only different is you cannot create files. You cannot download application libraries here, but you can perform similar steps if you want to print something here. So let me print dishes online. Chill on Grundy, screamin and you can see that's working exactly fine like on my next stop. So I hope you understand how to execute a bite and file your daughter pie file and how to use your ideally your command from to run your bite and gold hand. I hope now you understand how to print Hello world So all you have to do is try print open plan to seize your quotation symbol than the text that you want to brain again. Your quotation symbol and in the closing parentis is on. Now you can print something in your beytin shell, so that's the task that you have to perform now, and I hope you understand this in the next. Later, let's talk more about bite on. 6. Python help() - Python Documentation: now in this literature stock about him. So as a developer, as a programmer, the one thing that I want to teach you wise is how to sustain and how to understand things by our own. So after completing the schools, you might need some help, maybe with new features off white on maybe new functionality, maybe with doors in four point all. And also the second important thing is how to read documentation. So if you start reading documentation or if you know how to read documentation, how to understand documentation, you can excel in any language, any frame well, so these two are really important. The 1st 1 is help, and the 2nd 1 is documentation. So the fightin official says that is the ideally that I am talking about. I hated because of its white background, but this one good thing about it, it can provide you some good information regarding documentation on also help. So just type the command help, and then the open and closing parentis is here. You can see that it is the fighting three point seven's help utility on. Now, if you want to understand the topics, all your produces just tried topics and you will get all the topics that are related to fight on on. You might need to understand. So for a dimmable Waas, let me take a topic like list. We're just really important. You can see I got all the information regarding list, maybe some example. Maybe our definition on something that is related to list. You might not understand this, but you need to understand that there is a help section with bite on on. You can get all the information. So once you complete the list section, just try to do help on then again type list and then understand that if you can perform these type off steps on, also, check that if you understand what is happening here. So this will help you to define that How well you are going with quiet on how well you understand help and how will you know that? Open. So the help section covers a lot of thing with example with notes, with result on also the operations with that particular thing, that is the particle a topic. So her I type just the list time. I got a lot of information. The next thing I need to talk about is white on documentation. So all you have to do is just going to help and click on my iPhone documentation. So Python has really good documentation with this particular I really and you get a lot of information, a lot off topic, their definition, their meanings. Example on. You can see there plainly off topics, and you cannot cover each and every Top it. But if you need help off any new feature and in new library or something that you are not able to understand, you can just jump onto this documentation, and you can get a lot of information from the official bite one. So if I just try to get information regarding date and time, and you can see I got a simple example that is related to date and time, this documentation might not be useful now. But once there is a major change with Pyatt on, distraught recommendation will help you to improve the changes that you are suffering my form fight on 2.72 By country, there was some drastic changes, maybe not with the Syntex, but how you handle files. How do some basic stuff so that was changed on with the help of documentation. You can understand. So my media emit this lecture wants to make you understand that there is a help option on there is something like documentation. So the other Saul for this lecture to in the next one. 7. Variables and Python Memory Management: Hey, guys, welcome back to a new lecture in this lecture. We have to talk about where you balls, but before that, let us take an example off our earlier max classes. So when you were in eight or 10 to standard, you have to solve a math problem so you might have used X Y said on you might have you speak you are. So we used some wire identifiers to follow our problems. Similarly, we have to use variables to follow different type of problems on variables are really important to understand data types. So before jumping onto any heavy word or before jumping on trying to do any big task, you need to understand variables. So in programming, languages like C Java are any other programming language. The concept off variable is connected with memory location, so in other languages are variable is imagined as store walks. So it is like a container. So if I take an example off addition support, I need to do five plus six. So what I was doing, like five plus six on, then simply an ender. But what if I take variable, stored them into a boxes and then try to perform. Let me take an example and make you more comfortable. So if I take X equals 25 and then why equals 26 and then I can try to perform addition with X and Y Now X has the value off five. Why has the value off six and I can try to perform addition between them. So here, X and by Arla Variables. So there is a container which has a value off five recorded as X on. There is a container which has a value off six. We call it as why now you might be thinking if I take said on keep the value of said as five that will be pointing towards the same container toe which exist pointing, Yeah, they will be pointing towards the same container. They just perform this example also let me take Exit is five and now let me try to get memory address off X and they're both of them. So I just need to type I D. And then here I need to give the value between the apprentices off the variable off, which I need to find out the location. So if I give X you can see this is the memory location. And if I try to do same thing for there, hey will get the same address. And if I tried to perform same thing with why you might see some different results. So let us to that also, here you can see X and there have seem address. Where is why it has different address. Let me try to do one more thing. Let us try to perform two plus three and store it in some different variable and try to find out that address. So let me take example Off P equals two on q equals two. Three. And then we might try to do our equals. Two b plus que onda spring are. And now let us take the address that is the memory address for our here you can see our X, and they all have same address. That means there is a container which stores the value of five on. If any very will have to seem exact value, it will point towards that particular container. I hope this point was clear because it is really important. This shows the efficiency off fight on because Piper is a memory efficient language. And now if I try to give our different value, so said what will happen toe the memory location. So if I does that equals to seven hair and then try to find out the memory location, Off said, you will see our different address. So that's our memory location changes according to the value on the variables. I hope you understand this particular point. The next thing is if I directly want to find the address off five so you can see how the memory location is located. So this point was really important for you to understand the management off memory with Bite On in the next lecture will be talking about data types and fight on. 8. Datatypes in Python: in this lecture will be talking about data types. So our data type represent the type of data that will be stored in a variable or in our memory. So, for example, when we were trying to perform some basic addition subtraction using our variables, we were trying to give values in the form off in teachers. So suppose I take their seven here. I have given their ah, when you off in teacher. And if I take why as five, that means I have store five, which is an anti jer value to Why so here the gator type that have stored in the variable or in our memory is in Asia. So when you talk about different type of data us that we can school and if I take an example off big websites like Google, Twitter, Facebook or London, or if you are going to work as a Abdullah bar, if you're going to work as the application the river, you need to understand this point. So here on Google, if I serve something, I give a data in the form off string. That means it can be a number. It can be some words. It can be combinations, off numbers, words, anything. So here I am giving an input off string. That is what it is. Easy for Google to understand and differentiate water search on. If I go for single page off Twitter here, you can see they have name and phone number. That means name will obviously have a data type, both string that can be mixed off characters as well as the numbers. And if I talk about full numbers, it has to be indigenous. So that is why data types are so important on here. You can see there might be some restrictions for who number. So here, if I try to give some characters, it will give me an editor. So now this field has a data type off in teacher on it can verify according toe, the input that I'm giving now, let us understand that that I have seen detail. Fighting has two types of data types. The 1st 1 is building later types, and the 2nd 1 is user defined data types, building data drives. That means fighting has pre defying. They have some functionalities, they have some restrictions and they have their own rules. So mostly if you're doing basics off quite on. It is really sufficient to understand 1,000,000,000 data types. But if you are jumping with algorithm, if you're jumping with data structure, you will understand the user defined data types for now will be in the sounding building later lives. Now the building data types out of five types. The 1st 1 Islam 2nd 1 is dramatic. Third on a sequence. Fourth is sick and fifties mapping, which is also known as fisheries. So if I talk about none, let me give you an example. In other languages, like C or Java, it is call Esnal. So here, if I want to create a variable, but I don't want to give any value toe that particle of very well I can give it does none. Let me take an example with ex hand If I give it as none. Make sure you have a capital. And on if I pressed enter, you can see the value off extra winner. And if I want to check that particular value, I just want to print X, and you can see I don't get any result on if I try to take X as five now on If I print X, you can see the result This five The second building function. I want to talk about this nomadic type. It is already break down into three parts, which is in float and complex. So if you have studied basic mathematics, I guess you are really know in teacher flute and complex. If you don't know, don't worry. So if I take an example here again, I take it as 50. Here we have assigned the value toe A as 50 which is the imp Egypt. And if I take a second, very will be on, give it as a value off 50.5. Here I have provided this particular variable as a float value and if I take a Newbery will see and provide a value off 50 plus five g here you will understand that this particular value is complex value. So if you want to check the type at any point of time, all you have to do is just type Andi, give the variable name here I will be taken a and then let me be. And then let me take. See? Now you're gonna understand that if I take an example with a I have a value off. And if I did example with B, I have a value of float. Never taken example off. See, I have a value off complex. There is 1/4 category with numeric type that is known as Julian Ah, here in Baton, it is known as pool in Java and C are in any different language. It is known as Polian so, which basically have a value off. True or false fighting internally represent True as one on false A zero these two and forced merely used to compare different conditions on. If a certain condition is true, then the particular task will be performed on. If the surgeon condition is false, then the task can be stopped. So for now, if I take an example here after every time we fill some fields on Facebook and we click on sign up, Facebook might give an editor because it goes through various condition on if all the required conditions are so destroyed, then when laid, allow us to move forward. But if any off the condition is not satisfied, it replies, falls. And if all the conditions are satisfied, it replies. True. So at this point of time they compared each and every feel with the requirement on If I do this particular sign up, you can see I got enner But every feel all the feels it will give us true signals and a dramatically past They just performs some task in a cell. So if here I try to compare a on supposedly if is created and five And if I try to print this particular value off it what do you think it has a value of? True? That means 10 is greater than five, of course. And if I take another example and I kept these values and vice versa more and tried toe print again, you can see it printed as squalls. So mainly these two and falls are useful companion. So once you try to understand that if ISS why Lou these statements are really important. Let me take a simple example. So if I take a stint on Bs 20 and if suppose I try to compare them So this is a condition operator, we'll be talking about this in later section. But for now I have taken Easton ps 20 on if iss listing be, then we night. Togo home something. So here I want to perform. Like if this particular case happens, I want to bring hello on. If this doesn't happen, I want tobe brain. Now you can see our condition. Waas If is list in 20 will be bringing hello Else will be printing okay for now it was less than 20 so they have given a true signal on it Waas passed so mainly these type of conditions are usedto compare between different situations. Andi, I talked about Facebook. There are several example which I also include. That means once you are comfortable with the conditional operators and all other things, you will be really using these type of thing In the next lecture The stock about sequence and fight on which include string less trouble range a lot more 9. Sequences in Python: now in this unit, a stock about sequences in bite on. So there are full meter tape that we should talk Hostess string second ist list. Third is trouble and forth is read so strength as the name suggests and I have already talked about it, and string is a representation by a group of characters. So you can either keep string with a single quotation mark, or you can keep string with a double quotation marks. What I mean by that. So if I want to store string and a variable so the previous example We were taking the table name as X y Zach. But for a variable name, you can take any name. There are no restrictions apart that you cannot use capital letters. Also, if you want to define two words like I am defining my name, I'm using under school to define these tours, you cannot use spaces between their valuable names. So for this example, I'm taking the name, my other school name as my very well name. And if I want to store strength, that is my name. I can either store as sure here I'm using single condition mark and if I try to print it out simply So suppose I try to do that? My name and you can see the stream got printed on. If I try to do the same using double quotation marks, that is also value. So if I do it again, uh, here you can see it. Give us terrorism. So my mission in waas toe Make understand. You can either use double quotation marks or single quotation while, but make sure you make a habit. If you are using single condition. Mark, make sure you use single quotation marks at all the places. And if you are making your habit as trouble condition, Mom tried to use it at all the places. So string, please, Really important part for everything. Well, homing lot off stuff was string in the string section, but let me give a try. So if you want to print any variable using the print common or you after Lewis. Five. The print Command on in slow, giving the condition smart. Like previously we were doing while printing string, you just tragically need to give the variable name. So here, if I give the variable name as my under school name and you can see I caught my reason. And if I do the same with the string I can do with a friend on, I can just give the double quotation marks on printed here. While printing a variable, you have to pass the value. And while bringing anything is your value should be a string on de Gier or anything else. The second sequence data type is list, so listen beytin are similar. Toe Aires. In any other language, it can be See your Java. So let's represent a group off element. The main difference between a list and area is that list can store different type of elements so it can store string. It can store and feature, can store float so it can store different type of data. Right. Where is our? I have a restriction off storing different data types. If you have created an arian, a C language, George, our language. If you are storing in T. J, you have to store only indigenous. But with this this is not the case. Also, lists can grow dynamically in memory, but areas are fixed. Size on day cannot grow at runtime. So if I want to increase the size off list. I can do that at any point of time, so let us take an example off listening. Understand it in a better manner. Select medical valuable name on. I might take it as my list and we initiate. The less or you could do is open a bracket and then you have to give you value. So if I'm giving string as the my first value or like to do is give the value. And if I want to give a second milieu than I have to use a coma, as I have said in the definition, let's represent group off elements. So if I want to add a new element supposedly in Asia, that is five on if I won't go out of float. Also, 6.3 on that is sufficient for now. And if I want to close this list, I just need to use closing records. One stack is done Presenter on. You can see this is my list is ready. And if I tried toe print this particular list, let me use my print command on parentis is I just need to give variable name and thats done so they're in my list. I have three elements. One is string that a sugar second is in there despite and 30 is 6 20 that this floor now you can perform a lot off task with list and list are really important. It was. Whenever you try to collect anything, that is some answers. Some feel so form. Anything is. List is really important because you can take many answers and you can add them into a single element on you have just one variable, and you can store a lot many values. How I think that it is the right moment for you to understand the numbering system and the address off all the different type of data dive that we're using. So if I talk about zero at any point of time, if I say give me the zero element, that is zero element, that means I want the first element. So if I print the zero element off this list, let me take print on If I give serial element. So how you take you open a bracket, you give which element you warn, and then you close the bracket and if I press enter, you can see zero element means I got sure. If I say give me the first element, that means I will get five. If I say give me the second element, that means it will give me 6.3. So if I take an example with this again on If I take my list and open a bracket on, put the value off second, What do you think? What you're going to get? Zero shoe bomb oneness five and 2nd 1 is 6.3. Yeah, we want 6.3. So that's how it is divided. So it was basically for any programming language, and you might have seen different type off means over this, So programmers are really obsessed with zero. So it's an important point for you to understand the fundamentals the next day. The light that we want to talk about. A Stupples sort. Couples are similar to list. Their troubles contain Group off element, which can be off different types like spring and teacher floor or any other different type on their separated by commas. But enlist for use brackets portables will be using parentis is where's list can be modified. So if I created a list there are only three elements. I can add 1/4 element at any point of time. But if I create a double have added only three elements. I cannot change that. So let us understand trouble also. So if I take an example and if I create all very well that is baby on, I want to initiate the topper. All I could do is open. The parentis is on. I need to give value That is an in teacher on What if I give the second value as string so I can give a second value as unwired on Let me give up hold value as maybe intentionally you then aan den the four tell you again as strength So maybe learning Onda, close the trouble. All I have to do is use closing Prentice's on display sender So we have created a double and now we cannot change this particular double. That is it is unusable. If I bring the stubble, you can see record on value on now If I tried to extract the value of this trouble maybe for zero position all I have to do is bring We're dp on private zero position. You can see I got the value off 15. That means if you want to extract any individual element, all your pretty eyes give the address. That means the reference point. The first reference going to zero, then one than two. And then three. I tried to extract value, which is not available. Maybe I try toe extract a value of four that is TP and then gave al us for you can see I got an error that the couple index is out of range. So our current range is 0123 on. If I tried to enter a four, it is out of range like I'm perform different tasks or doubles, which will be understanding and later section the last one that I want to talk about this range. So supposedly you want to play the 1 to 10. What I going to go? You bring one, then two, then three, then four. Or you might take some loops. That is Ugo computer instruction that from one brain toe. And so that's how you can do so at this point of time, we'll be using range. So if I take it variable, that is our on. If I want to describe a range I need to give a command that is range and then open and close the brackets on. Now here I want to specify from which point I need to start. The second thing I need to pass is still which variable I need to go through. On the third thing is what is the gap I knew too mundane. So supposedly I need to start from one on which point I need to go to a spin then will not be included. It will be going till namely so one will be included till line. And then what is the gap I need to maintain? So if I if the gap is one, just don't Nico and anything you just need to close. But if the gap is more than 11 is the by default value. But if the cap is to all your today's give you so now all the values in our is from range one token, which has a gap off to that means one, then three, then five, then seven. So likewise. So now our our has this particular range. Now what I need to do is I want to print this particular value. But if I try to print are directly, it will be just the range I need to get the value of this range so that we'll lose that are inside this particular range are one than three on so on. So what I can do is I can convert this are into list. So all amber lose just make que and then convert this are you list and then I want to bring this que and you can see I got a list that is 13579 So at this point of time, you might have understand that how you can work on if I want to try directly Instead of taking a new variable, I can just perform it here. What I can do is I might take our is very able. I can directly put a list and then inside the list, I can give a range. And inside that green, I might give the value that if I want to just print from 1 to 10 so one will be the Defour gap. I can just give one group in and let me complete my list on this is the list of five leader on. Now I just need to print that Hey Will. So that's how you can do and play with range. Range is really important. Why going to loops? It produced a lot of wall on. This is the best thing off. Bite on because if you play with, see if you play with Joe I p play with C plus. Plus, this is the most biggest headache thing to go and do inside loops. But drinks also a lot of problem. So in the next lecture we were talking about sits and also talking about this Neri's, which we also known as mapping. 10. Installing IDE (Integrated Development Environment): Now let us talk about ID's. So what are they why we used them? Why they are not going to work with come online window or shell or why we are not using just know back to go. So there are a lot of question on I will be answering all of them in this video. So what is I really So ideas actually integrated the weapon environment. It is basically advanced version off. Ex editor. We can add packages. We can customize it. According toa What language you are working. We can our terminal so you can just write your court at the top shelf on at the bottom shell. You can just run your good on. We can also add file management system so on the side by you can see all the files on which you're walking. You can also and degrade them with was in control system that this kid get have on. You can also connect with them, so there are not of ideas that are only available in the market. You might have heard off atom bracket by charm. Sublime takes a lot more, so there are different ID's like my job that is specifically for fightin, but there is a problem with my junk that they close off RAM. Its size is quite big, Andi. People don't prefer at the beginning off programming, but as a big dinner, I will be recommending you Adam before downloading atom on setting it up for our beytin environment. Let us talk about advantages off ID's. So ideas help us to write course in a faster manner, so they differentiate and highlights in text in different colors. And also they help us to focus more on our programming on according purpose, like to have their own file system so you don't have to. Was it different for less on your computer, you can just statically check out your fights, your all files on which you're working on your sidebar. You don't have to worry too much about errors about your spelling mistakes or about your space is your tabs. All will be taken care by the I DS. Also, you can start different packages to customize ideas according to whichever language you're walking. We'll be using Atom, and then we've been strolling some packages regarding Fight On on Adam so our Adam will be customized to write courts for python on. Also, ideas help us to auto complete some sentences, and they surely help you toe code Maurin a faster manner on reduced distraction. So these are some advantages. Authorities. You get being stall libraries. You get a lot of people in pools. You get different type of plug ins using text are highlighted on you have your own console on. There are some ideas that are specifically for our particular language, like I talked about by John. So after this video, you will be comfortable with ID's Now, before we anything else, Let us install our first strategy that is Adam. So to follow that all your clues just wasn't Google, right? Adam Andi, Open the force link that is the official website off Adam Atoms or I'll on you can see the website on. I would really recommend at on for Bittner's. It help you to set up environment very easily on you can call, and you can do well very efficiently. Now, without creating any further delay. Just click on download option on install your first I D On. It might take a few minutes. It's Brooks 1 39 nb So my Donald is complete. Let's move forward. Words stand astonishing processes. Now here is our atom there just to some set up on, then get started. We need because surmise it on. Install some packages according to fight an environment while you have to do is vocal packages. And here you might find an option regarding sittings for you on just going to install packages and team. Here you've been store packages according to bite one, so you produce this search about python on you will get a lot off packages. Now you can see there is auto complete bite own. There is a vital tool on there are some more bite on packages regarding Linder regarding debugging. So at this point of time, you don't have to install all but I would recommend to install for or to complete, fight on and then buy condos these boats are installing. I will also check about file icons since it's really helpful for diatonic will show I can for bite on. If you're using any ceases or it's steaming pile. It has some different icons, so it really defined staple pile, and also I'm starting this one and the other package that I would recommend is peppy eso fighting auto peppy package said automatically for maximum fight in court toe confirm Toe kept its style guy so it uses the high court style utility through the mine. What part of your good needs to be formatted So basically helping before Matal court in a better manner so biting hasem for making rule. So this will help you go for that. So it is also installed. This I guess we haven't strong four packages on, I guess. As a signal, these four will be sufficient. But if you start working with Jang or any other framework or any big project you can use either by item, because it has a lot off, like really slot off packages preinstalled and it is specifically for bite on. Or you can stall a lot more application on Adam. But then the leadoff atom will be already equal Dubai item. So at this point of time, we're using Adam for biting because off the big by Thomas quite heavy. Where is Adam is quite light in comparison to buy from, so let's see if all our packages are stored. You can see I have auto complete file icons fighting or so peppy on fighting does at this point of time, I have my four packages done and there are some cool packages that are already pre installed. That's great. Now let me start working on my first find. For example, that is my first or P one. Let's see here you can see the editor experience is totally changed. I can divide pains that as I can work on two fires continously one will be on my right and left. I can also open 1/3 file and work on three files. Continously compared them. And you can see the icon that I have that first start by Have icon off, fight on on one thing. I need to install its terminal so I can use my CMD and this editor Excel and I don't have to work on any other command line from this will be great for now on, you have an idea about ideas. Now the last thing I want to do is just going to packages Search for one more package that is my dominant just installed this terminal plus or you can also install this idea terminal . So these both are great. I have tried them. It means strong, this one and that is done. So let me close this on Goto my phone start by open my terminal on. All I have to do is fight on the poor. Start by on a parent's command. You can see my result. That's all for this lecture, my mean iwas to make your hair off ideas high to use them. Why do you stem advantages on to make you comfortable with command line ID's and all the methods by which you can run your pile and pile the next lecture? Let us work something more interesting with bite on. 11. Sets, Dictionary: in this little er, the stock about sets. So a citizen, another collection off elements, much like the sets and mathematics. So if I talk about list, we have created a list maybe three elements list on. If I talk about the address often elemental, five times zero, that is zero element off the rest. I will get the exact element. If I type zero agreement off for trouble, I will get that particular double. But ever try to get these type off elements two sets. It will not be possible once we create A said. The order is not maintain. So. If I tried to get the zero element off first element, that would not be possible because insects there is no order. If I had taken a limit. If I Arden limit and I said then it can burn in order to order one or zero, there is many possibility. So if I create a certain tried toe, are different values. Oh, maybe if you were indeed use Cruise to stand on, if I try to print this particular set, you can see I got these values as it is. So I got the exact same order, but What if I try to create a big sit? That means I had more elements. Maybe 10 maybe five, or maybe any number on. Then try to create this and on. Let me try to print this one so we will get a better understanding. Here. You can see my result is probably different. The order which I've given. So I gave 10 8 77 26 5 on. The result is quite different. On what if I try to get the particular zero element for this set on and then try to experiment. So let me take zero element. You can see I gotta and are that's it. Object there. Start support. And next thing. So you know that it is not possible toe Index. Anything in said that means the zero element can be anything. And we cannot maintain an order with this particle is said. And if you want to convert any listing to sit so we can do that, let me create a list on a different type of numbers. Let me try to print it said so either what I can do is create a very well and try to convert it with the help offset and passed my very well. Now that it has a set which is all the element off this list What? We print this one. So you will understand this. You can see I've got a result off certain which are spend 56 and seven on the order can change if I try to print three or four times or if I try to add moon number off elements Now we can also perform sometimes Taubate assert to remove a set which will be doing in a later section. Now the final thing that I want to talk all this stationary it is really, really important he acquired as mapping did I? So to understand that the study you have to realize the realization Eri So in traditionally there is a word and there is a meaning seem follows with our own missionary which will follow in a fightin. So if you visualize an additionally you have a home and then you have a meaning Andi seem follows with all the letters You have different letters that are organized an alphabetic manner. If you want to go with you will get the A and then the meaning So that's artworks. Same for loose fit our mapping that is stationary to suppose they create traditionally so to create. Additionally, I need to give up enable name and then you Scully rackets traditionally works according Toa key value pair. So as I said, there is a word there is a meaning. So you opened this particular college brackets. Now you have to give a word on a meaning that is a key on a value. So let me take an example. I give ah kee as spin and then to give her well, do I need to use colon on give the value for 10? I might give value as unwired and then toe another key and we'll do. I use comma Let medic airs 11 and then again our value as learning how you can see 1/2 create traditionally little press center. Now if we want to bring this up, I can get the key value pair again. So I have 10 as unwired 11 Islami. What if I want to extract any particular data? That means I want zero bigger. So all you have to do is go with the print options, give the on hair Ugo as zero. So what you have got? We have got an error because it is defined with key value pair. So all I have to give us if I need to get any value there is no 0123 We have a key so we can directly face that. So if I want to print any value all after this the and then give the name of that particular value So our values spin And 11 if I want to bring that particular value off 10 All I have to do is give the value of 10 on Enter here. You can see I have got the value off. Then let me perform something else. Maybe I create additionally with the name off B I on Then give the value name as one If I can create something like Rule number Oh, and name off student. So one on this is the one is the rule number on name issue. Then I can create another element with two and then the name is Irish. I can create a number three name is John three elements on if I need to print this particular complete. Additionally, all appetizers spring this one. But if I want to print any particular item, that is, if I want to print any particular Kiva Libre have toe sprained the and then I have to under this particular value. So this can be 50. This can be doing this Can be three what you have given. They are also good value off her one that is the key. Very loose tree. I Oh, sorry. It's the I on that. You do that. I got the value of John to that traditionally work. It is really important for you to understand, ish Mary, because we create lot off sequence and if you are going to work on the build up in the dictionary is really, really important, because only additionally is the one that follows something like apart off JavaScript, which will be really useful. So in the next electoral of the stock of all collectors 12. Literals and Identifiers: welcome to a new lecturing this literally the stock about literalists and identify IRS. So these two are basic common terms on their really important. So whenever you are doing some project or if, whenever you are doing or creating some application, you might get stuck with others on. If you go on, stab off lower any other website that are going to provide your solution, you will get stuck with the stump school Littles and Island Device. Let us stop about them. So here I take an example. Um, if I take a as 15 hair, if I want to talk about what is 15 mortars A than you might guess that is variable name on 15. Is the value off that particular? Very well. So we are assigning We are giving that particular value doobie. So in Piketon as programming TEM, this 15 is a constant value that we are providing toe A So this 15 is known as little's on here It is known as identify. I know it's so variable but we call it us Identify why? Because with help off, despite tickler dumb, we can identify our particle of value that is the value off here. So if someone asked you what is a you can call it as variable. You can call it as identify on if someone asked you what is 15. You can call it as value for that particular variable or you can call it as little. Now there are three types of needed to one is new Marik second Willis bullion and turban is string. Let us speak an example. So if I talk about new magic litters we have Inti Joe's float exam decimal awful binary and complex. And if I talk about billions, you know there is true and there is force And if I talk about string, we know what has changed. So it has to a small example with little So you get comfortable so hair if I do equals to 15 which means identify is equals to 15 Notice little So that does only Marika little on If I do as v equals toe 5.3 that is afloat little. And if I print the value of B, you can see I accord 5.3 What if I provide a binary value? 20 variable. Oh, let us do that also. So how you can see I have provided 53 as the value in binary dance to see And if I tried toe prints See, I get the value in numeric that this decimal dumb. If I also try for exert decimal and offer, you will get some same result Let us perform the hex A decimal one. So here, if I take be on if I provide the value in Hexi Decimal on. If I print this particle overvalue be, you can see I got a value off 2306 it on that is like actual value. And if I also try this with complex or awful, you'll get reserved saying we'll take for bullion since we're going to take true or false on that has to be seen with string also Now I hope you understand what is literal the night enterprise on. If I take a simple thing, I'll maybe let me take a variable name as Sam on make it as 50,000. If I ask you what is little what is identify on what is equal doing here So her in this example The variable name is cell that is our Sandri on. Hence this name san is identified. If I talk about this particle a symbol that is the equal to symbol, the symbol stores are little value into variable. That is the symbol help you to store 50,000 inside salary. So if you call sadly that a cell at any point of time, you will get the result. As with the Taliban, So this is known as operator because it is performing an operation operation off assigning a value toe. Oh, very evil. The 13 I want probable is 50,000. So here, 50,000 is this value that is stored in variable and hence it is known as little so instead of 50,000. If I have taken something in points, that would be, ah, fluting point little here I have taken in teacher So it will be in teacher literal. That is the part off numerical. Now I hope you understand Waters identify or this little on what is equal struggling here in the next week. Taylor This talk about reserved words. So there are some words that you cannot use before your variables for your class name are maybe at any point of time, you cannot use them because they are pre defined worlds with fight on 13. Reserve Words - You Cann't Use Them!: in this quickly Children to stalk about some reserve work that you cannot use as naming propose. You cannot use them as your method name are your class name your variable name or any burials. So, for example, there are approx 33 words that you cannot use. I will provide you list but for example, the force word is on. So if I take on as variable and if I assign a value off, then you can see I get us intake center. But if I use maybe indeedy that is Andy and then provide the value same value on it, waas possible to get there. And if I print that particular value and you can see I got to desert. So these type off reserve terms that is reserved keywords. I cannot use them as my variable name or class name or different time off names. So there are 33 words with the leaders of great off fighting 3.7 on. I guess these are sufficient word. And once you start programming with python, you will already get used to it like you cannot use to as your variable name on you cannot assign this value So I got a syntax error that I cannot assign a value to a keyword. Because Prue is a key word. Same well before falls. I cannot use four else except, finally, so that our 33 words and basically you cannot use the's word for your name in Barbara's. 14. Operators: Arithmetic, Assignment: welcome back to our new lecture in this, like Children to stock about operators and fight on. So the general purpose off a program is to accept some data for forms of operation and give the result so viable homing some operation, we might store data. We might do some calculation we might, to some compassion. We might apply some condition and they'll provide the result. So the next question is how to perform operations on our later. For example, when a programmer wants to R two number, Maybe he just wanted to add X in y, so that can be done with help off plus status. The PLO symbol on this symbol performs the addition operation. Certain symbols are known as operators, so let us now understand different type of operators on how to utilize them. So if I need to divide them operators in tow type, we have automatic operator. We have assignment operators. We have unity minus operator relational operators on logical operators. On the last one is boudin operators. So these are the type off operators on. We can understand it one by one. So as you know, with automatic, you already understand it can be something related to O plus minus. That is addition subtraction. Maybe some multiplication division on something related to that. So let us perform that and get understanding off automatic operators. So whoever partakes simply take two numbers, maybe A s 10 and Bs five. So that would be easy for us on if I want topo home, some operation, maybe a plus B. So all I do is I less told them in a separate variable or directly print them so I can do that. E plus p on here I got my reserve. And if I tried to perform subtraction, I can do the same. I will do a minus B and that's done. We got the result. And what if we want to pry or someone application? Let us do that a multiply like B and they just get the reserve. Okay, that words easy. But whatever you want to go there Division, let us perform the same here. If you notice we're getting two point. Oh, on for all the results we were getting exact in Asia. But here we are getting answers as food. That is because if you divide something, we get our result in two flute manner. It can't be some different value if I have taken not the exact terms like 10 and Fights, because they are equally divisible are let me take you values equals to 12 and then B equals to five and then perform the same for oil and fight. So let us do that. And now you can see her again. Gotta float value, which is two point for. So that is the reason. Whenever you try to divide something, you will get your answer into floor. But what if I want that in tow? Intentionally So either I can can work that into indeed a using I NT function, Or either I can use the floor division matter. So while dividing, I can use thestrals slash and then be on. If I print that, you can see I got the flu function, which is, if I have answer off 2.42 point 62 point A, I will get the result off the floor value. That is, if it is 2.8, I will get the value off to. So it is in value now, and the two things that I want to talk about this model s operator and the exponent operator. So what is more? Delis, operator letter stoop that also, if I have a and I use model is on but be I get a desert off to but basically give you the remainder. So here I have toe in soft. Well, if I had, he s 13 on. If I tried to perform the same, I would have got the result. As three, you can see I got three. That's because model is operator returns the remainder after division. So the last thing that we need to talk about with automatic operator is exponent operator. When I want Toto something with powers, you use exponent operator to suppose you want to go a cube off to So what you're going to do, you might use a and then you can go as to multiply by two months time. My toe. That's great. Now you can also print that on you will get the correct answer for sure on we got it. But what if you need to do toe the power off 10 or are some bigger number You cannot write to multiply by 2 10 times, so in sort off that what we can do is we can take to the double a strict sign and the power that we want to give. If I need to give the power off Cuba, I can do that on head. Then I can print with the basically, If I want to give the power off, then I can do the same. I can just use a So I hope you understand the exponent operator. Now we're done with automatic operators. We need to talk about assignment operators. So these operators are useful to store the right side value into left side. Valuable. So as I talked about that also, this is the right side value and these are storing in tow. Left side, Well, you, that is the variable. So they can be used to perform simple automatic operation like addition, subtraction and also store the values into variable. So the 1st 1 that I need to talk about his equals two. So if I take an example here, let me take a value off existent. And why, as 20 in basic word assignment operators store the value from left side to really was so hair. If I use some automatic operator along with assignment operator. How we can get some reserves like if I digs it as X plus y here I'm using. Plus, that is the addition symbol as automatic operator on equal to symbol as assignment operator on. If I print this particular said, you will get the result off 30. What if I need to perform addition with then itself and then stole the value? So what I'm saying is I need to perform said equals to say plus X So how can I do that in short term? That means if I'm taking this here, said Value is now 30 and expel Houston. So the result will be, of course, 40. So let me bring that so we can remember what I was trying to go. I was trying to boost their plus why, in simple terms. So here, if I need to store this value instead itself, what I have to do is there equals +20 plus X. So what I can do is I can use the shark card that is sent less equals two X, So this will perform the same as their request. Does it play sex hair? If I now ring said You will get the same result as 40. We have done this for addition on what if I need to perform as 30. Close to zip minus X are same thing. I need to do that. What I can do is Zed minus equals two X on. If I bring the value of their, you will get the same thing. That is the subtraction off eggs. Now there are a few things that you can go. You can also perform for division modelers explain and also for floor division Andi they would walk for seem so if I take example with division. So that means it is going to be 30 calls to said Divide by X, that is performed. That on gets me Brain said. You get three Bondo, just 30 divide by then you get in that school, you can play with that. I hope by now you understand what is automatic operator? What is operator? What is assignment operator In the next lecture, we're talking about unity minus operator Relational Return. Logical operator on Boolean operators 15. Operators: Unary Minus, Relational, Logical, Boolean: now consuming from our previous lecture, Venuto talk about unity minus operator. So the unity minus Sokratis denoted by the symbol miners. When this operator issues before our variable, its value is negated. That means at the very well. Well, Lewis positive it would be converted into negative. And why soars up? So let's take an example. Let me take a very well as in and give it a value off 10. And if I try to use this unity minus operator, that means I would use a minus operator. That is a minor symbol with the end on. If I print that, you can see I got a minus 10. So that was something basic on. If I need to performs Weiss worser if I have him on the value is minus 20. And if I tried toe print minus him, that is the negative off em, I would get 20. That is, that means the negative negative becomes a positive and be or 20. So this was something basic, and you can utilize that on some programs. Next thing I need to talk about this relational operator. So with that term relational, we can assume that it is used to compare two quantities are being awesome Relation between two quantities or two variables We can understand whether to wear lose are saying one can be a bigger well you want can be some smaller value We can compare them or we can use some condition to understand if that particular condition is true or false so too well, use can be compared with help off relational operators. So let us do that. So here, for example, if I take a s and have let a steak be as 15 for a while And if I need to perform some relational operators, the force when I want to perform is a greater than be so if I take a very with a C on. If I perform relational operator like is created and be now if the condition is right, that means you're going to get a true. As a result, If the condition is strong, we are going to get a false Let me print my very well see you can see regard a result off force That mist is not greater than be I tried to perform is created an equal Toby. And if I try to print the result. You can see it again, gives me false results. That means is neither greater or equal, Toby. But what if if I try to go oppose it? If I check if is listing, be here on print the desert along with see, you can see that it's true. That means 10 is less than 15. That is obvious, and we got the result. That's true On if I try to do is less than equals Toby, we'll be getting our true itself. So let me do that and bring out the value off. See, you can see I got the truth. Now, if you need to compare the value off to, we cannot use a single equal. So that means if I need to check if is equals to be, I cannot do that with the help off Single equals two. It means it will assign the value offbeat away. What I need to do is I need to use double equals two and then compare. So if I take the value into C and trying toe print out with C so this will give me a result off. What's that means is not equals Toby for now checking out the value and then check that again. So if I do equals to 10 on, be equal student for a while. And if I try to perform the same thing that is a equal streak was to be. That means we are comparing if is equals to be on. If I print out this particular value that a c you can see it s true. That means the value off is equals to the value be And the last relation operator is not equals two. So at her A and B are equal Whatever. I try to compare them if they are not equal. So if I try to compare them the not symbol that is exclamation mark on, then print out the value off. See, you can see we are getting pause here. I was saying that is not equals, Toby, but in real life is equals to be because both are 10. But port I was stating that is not equals to be so That is strong is equals to be I hope not understand relational operators. Next, we need to talk about logical operators. So with Tom, logically we can assume we need to perform some logical function, so they are not three. Type one is, And then are they not? In simple words, there usedto compare the condition so on means if all the conditions are successful, then we are going to get through or means anyone condition should be fulfilled on we'll get a true not is used when we want to convert from a group of wars and four sukru. So let me take an example that medic x as 100 on day. Why, as 200 Andi, that has 300 now if at any point of time I want to use relation between them on, apply to relation at a time on, then compare them. At that point off time, I need to use logical operation. So some what I need to perform that said is created an X on I also need to perform then is created and wire. So if this case is true, then I can do some something us. But how I'm going to do these two separate us At this point of time, we need to check both cases on if any off them is wrong, we cannot proceed. So then we use on That means these both cases should be true. And then we can proceed on here. If I do that, it is true. So if I perform them individually, that means if I go and that is greater than X, it is true if I tried to booze, that is greater than why it is true. That means these both cases were true. Then we can get this true option if anyone off them was wrong, you will get that for us. Let me do that on if I used why is created in sick, which is wrong Because 200 is less than 300. And if I see this false because this condition is wrong now let us talk about or so or means from these two cases, one should be true. That means if one is true, one is false. It is okay. I would perform the same line with our So I need to use or and then why is created in day you can see what a result off. True, because from these two cases, at least one should be correct. Here there is greater than X is correct. Where is why is created? And there is false. So when we take or it means at peace, one case should be correct on for an both The cases should be correct. Now we need took off about not operator. So just give our diverse result So if we have something as true, it will give us false So let me try out if that is created an X So I call that they're discredited An ex brother True on if I try out not and then there is greater than X I got a false because it just reverse Izzard If you check regard city is greater than X which is true on not off True is false So just reverse out the result The last operator We need to talk about this bullion So as you know, bull is true and falls So this basically is a combination off logical operator on assignment operator. So if I take a value off a as true Andi B s false Now if I try to perform seem logical operators that is, and or and not you can Priore and play with that. And if I do A and that means true and true, I will get a true because there is true on is true. And if I try to do a and B that means is true bees false When we use and both should be true I get a false because both are not true. If I do a or B, that means at least one should be true Hair is true And if I do that, we gotta true. And if I want to do that with not so I know is true If I do not a lot of us So that was Boolean operator. I hope you understand that. So that's all for operators. It was plenty, but it was really informative. And the next lectures will be talking about input. Output on will be a start working with I D. That is our atom. So see you in the next week 16. Understanding Escape Characters: we'll come back when you lecture in the selector. Let us talk about something different. So we need to talk about some important characters we need to talk about Some escape characters in strings So this lecturers force escape characters and all the other important characters. So if I take an example off a string so let me take a variable as my name Let me add a stream So you have I tried toe add my own name And if I tried toe pray that I can get the result easily But have you ever thought fear? Trying to take string Always single character that is I try to get my name Alicia Bomb Oh, are we have tried to take single lines But what if I need toe are multiple lines to my string Let me try out So here I take a string as my under school string on If I try to add long strings all I have to do is long And then I need to add back slash So once I do that And if I enter now I cannot more characters So this long string And here I can add some sample texts And if I also need one more line on after two issues, pack slash again on I can add more sample next on. Once I'm satisfied, I don't want to add more lines. All I have to do is use the quotation toe and my string on that strong. If I try to pray this my string Now you can see our hard multiple lines off string, but all are into seem result. So I have road three lines offspring. But I got same result as long, simple dext. More simple. Next. So that was a single string line, so that was a single string line. But I wrote it into three lines. What if I need to get actual lines? That is three lines off string and then printed as three lines to let me take another string on a good as another? If I want to leave a line, all after do is used back slash, and that means it will leave a line while printing, so I use another than I need to devour line. I can see a new line again. I want to leave a line on. Then I can say another line. That's my closing string. And if I print that, you can see I have another than new line than another. So after and I used space that Waas printed here on again here that Waas printed here. So that means if I need to leave a line, I need to use slash and if I want to just leave a line. But I don't want to print that. I need to use just backslash now. Let us take some real example and do the fun. What if I need to take some directory address? Let me create a new variables on here. Stole my direct creators that air sea drive Andi, I need toe, get it toe down lower fuller. And then I need to put it into know Jesse apples. It would do that. And if I tried toe print this particular directory, you will be shocked to see that there is some mistake here. You can see I printed See the dollar on D now slash on is dumb as escape character. So they left a new line and then or gs. So here, if I want to skip this, all I have to do is use double slash, so That means if I use double slash, it would be a printed as slash on. If I print my directly now, you can see I printed correctly. Soto. Avoid the functionality off slash and I have to use double slash toe indicate my interpreter that I'm not using slash and same follows with different functionalities. Suppose I need to use some quotation marks inside my string. Let me take a new string. Suppose I want to write something like John said on then hello to me. So her my mainstream waas John said hello to me. But if I need to use this quotation, that would give me entered at this point of time. So here I cannot use to quotation marks in a single string. If I need to use them all, I have to do issues. A backslash So Labrador's out a backslash. That means it would give a reference to our fight on interpreter that don't consider it as the ending condition. Now if I do that, there is no error. And if I tried toe bring my new string, you can see John said that the quotation mark Hello to me. What if you can say that I should use single string instead of double. Yeah, you can do that and you will get no error. So if I do that and then print Yeah, that is absolutely fine. But what if I'm using single quotation marks on? I want to use that condition mark inside my string. Also suppose take example as my pen. And if I just want to write as show homes, Ben So you can see I cannot use this particular slash and it would give me an error if I want to do that. All I have to use is back slash and then I can use quotation. Ma, if I do that, I got no order on, then I can print that. You can see that's walking. So these are escape characters who have slash for new line. We have double slash to display a single slash We have slash quotation marks. Despair single code. We have slashed double quotation mark. That means to display our double court. We have backslash and that is for new line. And we also have some other like back slash B for backspace. Backslash are for enter and then vnt for horizontal tab and vertical tab. So these are really useful on you should keep them in mind. 17. Introduction to Input and Output Statements: Hey, guys, welcome back to our new video industry duty to stalk about input and output so the pope goes off creating an application. Are creating a software is to get some data for my user, do some processing and given up would let us take and basic example off a calculator in a capita. We give some instruction as a less data, maybe seven plus five. So we give some instruction regarding the addition on. We give some data that they're seven and five. So all the process on the application runs on import. Andi have to deliver some dessert that is known as output. So it means that our first for we need to learn about how to give input to our program are how to take input from the user on. Then we can use our own function. We can use their own logics through some processing and then how to get open. So these two are really important process and the processing part that is the middle part. We'll be learning about that. 12. The process you will learn about functions. You learn about models. You learn about how to write script. So all these things are that middle part. But for that we need to understand how to take input on how to deliver output. So embroiled in Porto, a computer on our program or any application fighting you Some statements and that statement is called as input on for providing output. We know we're using print. So we have tried about print. Hello, Will on you already know the basic how to print up or the question. What about the grass statement now, before dealing more time. So let's get started with our input and output statement first will be in assigning about output. Statement will be understanding how go go formatting will be understanding how to deliver different output results And then we're talking about import statement. So from the next lecture will be start playing with print on import 18. Output Statements: Welcome back, guys. Now, in this video, let us understand about print statement. So it is really important for us to understand how we are going to deliver output. So for a while, let us take the easiest example on Let me print Hello. So her with the statement, only there are not offering things. And we need to understand that. So for now you're the source. Spring Hello, world on discuss more so if you see here, I have call a function, bring now what exactly a function is. So function is basically accord that is already written on can be used several times whenever we call it. So Python has some building function that is, they have only dated and some cord and they're only available. All we need to do is call them. We can also write our own function that we're going to do and function section For now, you just need to understand that print is, ah building function on whenever we call a function. That means whenever we try to execute a function here. If I write print, that means I'm calling a function that is praying function. I need to pass some argument so that in court that I give to this particular function here . If I'm giving an import, that is Ah, Hello, World import. This is the argument for this particular function. So that means print is a function. Hello. World is argument now Argument can be off String off in teacher off object whatever we want to display onscreen. So there are different arguments that you can pass to a function depending totally on the function. So each function is different. They have their own court. They have their own usability. Now, whenever we call the prin function on, give the argument that is Hello world by turn Interpreter Take this particular I argument Process it on, give the result So if I just press enter you can see I've got the result But you might be thinking that it is showing exactly the same Whatever we are entering, what is the process? It is to it. So if I pass maybe are variable are simple variable Just to show you guys 50 you can see it just displaying the exact same basil. What? What if I pass a multiplication? Maybe I pass 15 to 60. You can see it process and given output. Or I can try toe take two or three variables. May be X equals 25 Why equals to 60? And then I want to give some process toe prints statement. That is my print function. So if I do that, you can see it took the argument and just process it on. Give us the reserve. Now the second thing I want to understand is whatever we want to claim. Several things, maybe a string, maybe a in Asia in a single line. So here what we're doing is you are pending. Hello, world then we are printing an in teacher. Then we are trying to claim some variable. But what if I need to do something in a single line? Maybe I want to multiply and give a statement. So, for example, let me take the sprint statement. Maybe I want to print on a string that is my application off five into six on I wanted Then show the result off. Five. Multiply by six. So do that. What we can uses concatenation. So if I do that on if I had a coma after my string statement to give the second element that is the second argument. And if I process here, that is X into why there is my Fife Indo 60 actually. So what it will print is so it will print the string That is my multiplication off five and 60 and then also it will print exe into while. So if I print in tow, you can say printed multiplication off five and 60 is then the results space that is by de for and in the result off exit away. And also we can use plus symbol toe contact in eight. Seemed you tonight. So at this point of time, this was string on. This is some variable staff include in teacher so they are totally different data time. So if I want to print seem deterred by what I can do is I can use a plus symbol. Let me show you. And then I had a plus ember and then you can add second string. That is word. And here you can see I got to my result. But now in this returned I'm not having a space. So what I can do is I can add a space after Oh, that is in Hello I can add a space before World War I can add argument between both off them with spaces. So let us try that also. Now you can see our result off Hello world. So you can play with this because concatenation is really important. But if I go back to a previous print statement that IHS multiplication off five and 60 is X into Why so here I'm already mentioning five and 60 Whatever. I just want to carry that X here and my hair and then X and wires. So that would be totally variable dependent. And I can use that court as many times as I want. I just need to change the value off X and y so for that we need to use formatting. So let me follow that. So you are Today's just right to a string. Now, wherever you want to add a particular brand new, all you have to do is just made them with index. So here I want to add five. That is the value of X. So what I can do is I need to act colleague races and give the index off zero on here. I need to add the second value. That is off. Why one That is the index rail your one and is now I need to give the result. So it will be to that zero index one index to index. Now, after a string, I need to add a keyword that this format on here in the upper I need to give the values off . 01 and two. So zero will be my ex. Now one will be my wife and their stew. Well, you will be My X and Y was the video and just understand. So if I do that here, what happened is I have taken a string on wherever I want to add. A number that is our variable or a value that is not in my control have given them my next value. So there's five instead of Fife, I have given the index value of zero Now to format that index value. I have passed eggs, so this is zero will be replaced by X. Now, the second value that was here is 60. So have used I next. Well, you walk one, now 60 will be replaced by why the hurting is my next value off to that would be replaced by this logic off X into. Why now? This wasn't about so you have to take care about these values. So if I try to mess with these numb brings, I can actually change dessert. Let me show you. So instead of zero if I write one hair on set off one If I ride zero here on, if I do the result, you can see the positions I change. So her zero was X. So after position off 05 sprinted on the index value off one waas 60. So at the position off one sixties printer So you can do a lot of fun with this Now there is one more method which is also really important on. If you are some student off see Java, you will already know that. So let us perform that on. We're trying to execute seem statement, so you will be comfortable. So what if instead, off using this index system, we can try to use our model s statement or more jealous matter. So if I need to print hello with my name I can do that with printing Hello and then con coordinating it with variable. That is my underscore name. Since these both are off string type, so I will get a result. But what if there are several times so maybe Hello. My name is Sean and then there will be some more ticks. So what I can do is maybe I can try out. Then I can try my valuable name. That is name. Then I can try out the further takes that I want to our you can see I have Hello. Sociable will complete this course. But this is going really complicated if I want to add several down. So it would be quite confusing with the name off variables and spaces. So for that, we can use the family matter off see in Java which is using modern lists. So if I take example here on use Hello and the model ISS and ISS So this model is and this means this is a string with this particular model is on. If I want to format and define which string is this? All I have to do is add a model a symbol and then write the variable name. So if I do that and you can see I got Hello show. Now there can be many strings. So if I just try to rule Hello. Show Bumble completely scores. That would be quite easy. Now all our producers Hello, then my model is is that is my string on after completing the string while after the fine is my available which I'm including with this particular statement and you can see a Gortari's er now there can be many more results, many more variable. Staten might need toe included in the Sprint statement. Let me give you one more example with flu, because floor makes a lot off pain. So if I take a number on, give it a value upon toe three and in some points and if I try to print float at any point of time, I have to do some permitting. And if I play with Prince Statement and say the value is now if I'm using float, I need to use moralists f how to print that all over after uses modelers and then the variable name that is no, I find you can see I got the value. But what if I need to get only two decimal points on? I just want to ignore or leather. So one thing I can do is if I converted in tow in Teacher I will just get 123 But if I use formatting mattered, I can do that So her I'll have to do is now with this morning less, I need to add 0.2 and then f on that it's done all this same. If I do that, I just get to decimal points. Also, if I want to print new values at a time, I can try that. Also, I have known that is 14 point. I can also take one more variable, give it a value off 1 50 and then try to print these both values in my print statement so fast I need to print my float values so I can do is model list and point to f on digital Luso alive to use this model s t on. Once a string is complete modelers. Now I have to create a couple on in this trouble. I need to pass my first value. That is my float that is my num And then the second value That is my mom. You can see I have got that. So print this really big print is really interesting on you can play a lot of thing when we try to do some project. When we try to do some exercise, we'll be utilizing these things on. You have to do a lot of tasks. So this is really interesting. Don't forget you try this on your system, you 19. Input Statements: Welcome back, guys. And I'm back on my pipes and come online willows. So now let us talk about input. Statement. We have talked about how to display desert. We have talked about output straight men using print and we have also done some formatting . But now we need to understand how to take input from users. So beytin provide are built in import function. So this function can take values from keyboard on returning industry. So let me take an example. If I take a variable, maybe my name as usual. Andi used the input function that is import on. Then the parentis is and I click ender. Now here you can see this Courser is asking something. It is waiting for me to give import on. If I give import a shovel and press enter now the value that have entered is assigned toe variable my name. And if I want to print that all our to do is bring my video and you can see I got the result. So what is happening here is I took them put That import is now assigned to my variable because I stole that particular import. Maybe I need to print something because it was quite blank. Andi, I was not aware because when I used my import mattered. We get no idea what I need to go after enter. So I need to enter some value, maybe shoe bomb again, and then it get followed. So what I can do is I can write a statement that enter your name. So for that all, you have to do this No call input function, and then you can pass an argument. So here what? I can passes. What is your name? And if I do that now, whatever value I ender will be stored and my name variable. And it would be quite easy for you to understand because I gotta indication that what is your name now? I know that I have toe enter something on. If I do that, it's there. I never print the variable mining. You will get tourism. So this is quite important for you to understand the importance. But these results are always industry. So if I ask each now, I need to encourage whoever put 20. And if I try to print age now but we need to check what is the type of this on. If I check that, you can see it's string so if I'm entering a number, it should be in Teacher. I can do that. Also electric clear of the screen and just follow that with India part. So her thing is on. If I entered 20 on Dried Apprentice each now the reserve is in string. I can use type function and then passed a very well. So it is a string on What if I need to convert this into our in teacher For that I can use typecasting matter. You know that I have end. I have flute. There are different type of functions that are really well. And if I passed this particle a variable in that function it will be converted into Indonesia. So what I can do is I can use a new variable that is int age on here. I can use my in function and inside that I can pass my old variable. That is my age. And if I do that here in my invariable my age is in tow in teacher And if I tried to check its type, we'll get the confirmation. But I think it's too long. So what you can do is you can just take a judge. You can take the import and what you can do is just statically past this whole thing in tow in function as a barometer. If I did that so this whole thing would be converted into a teacher. So whatever we're going toe put inside this What is your age in put it would be converted as I ever present I gave my age on If I tried toe print this, I get a 20. If I try to take its type, I get aimed. So that's how you can decrease the line off court. Now you know how to take import how to convert them. That is how I cast them. Using function off end, using functional float on, you can convert from string to float our photo in teacher whatever you want. So in the next lecture, let us do something more with fight on 20. Python Built-in Functions and Built-in Module: Hey, guys, welcome back to a new lecture in this lecture. We are going to talk about building functions on building more news. So, as you know, as a programmer, you are not going to write each and every court each and everything by yourself. There are some predate and things. There are frittered and functional. These that has already been done. That means most of thing that you are going to do from day to day life from day to day programming small things so you don't have to write your court every time. There are some things that are already being done on They are done in the home or functions . So a function is something that if there is a code that is used again and again that can be used again in future on it has to be saved. So in pseudo frightening that court every time. What you can do this, you can save the school on that a function and all you have to do is just call that function whenever you want to use it. So instead of writing that cold again, you just need to call that particle a function. So there are two type of function. One is building function. So the day to day activity that we're going to do with fight on basics are already totally dependent on building functions. So there are fighting creators who have done that and to use these function, all you have to do is just tried the function name. The 2nd 1 is user defined function. So the function that we right in our code, while scripting while creating algorithms while programming are doing anything while developing an application. So there are some function that we're going to reuse many times. So we call them user defined function, so that we are going to cover and function model will be creating our own function. At this point of time, we need to understand 1,000,000,000 bunk in. So you already know this portable open statement. So this sprint statement help us to print things that we are going to give as argument. So argument is something that I'm going to give this particular function. So whenever I call a function, I need to give it something that something is argument. So if I print now now we have only dogged about print as a function. There are different type of function that be a molded cropped about. We have talked about input, so the import function is really useful to get stuff and store it into a variable we have talked about in flowed typecasting. So these type of functions are really useful, but there are a lot more functions and how to get them. So to understand all the different type of functions that are available, all you have to do is going to bite on dot org that is the official website off fight on going to box and head, you can choose the version that you are using. We are currently using the latest one that is 3.7 point one on currently, 3.8 is in developed countries, and once you select your worsen, just click onto library reference. Here you can select building functions. Now you can get all the list off functions on if you want any definition. If you want any example, just click on that particular function. So if I need to use any function if I need to give a try to a function, all I have to do is click on that particle of function. So I've played on Max. Now, if I read about this function, you will already able to understand its functionality. That is what it is going to do. So I just read. And if I call the Max function, it will return the largest item that are available in the argument. Well, people homing that. But what if I don't want to mess with this particular website? So what you can do is just right Directory that is D I r open parentheses than under school and under school, Right, Bill in on doubles under school and then closing parent is is And if you click enter, you will get the list off all the functions. It is easy for you going to stand on fight on website on. You can also do that on by Tom Sell. If I want to give her try to Max, that is Max on head. I need to Bassem arguments. Let me give arguments as 5 55 10 something like that and in fact, like enter, it returns me the highest value. That is 90 in this particular case. And if I want to check more building functions, I can use that I might use Lent who check out the lint off of variable are relent often object. I might use some print that you already know. I can use power that this POW this function help us to do, like if I need to do to race to the power off till I can just pass them. So if I just try out the power function that its power and if I pass to and then you will get the result if there's 10 to 4, that is due to the power off 10. So these are building function, and they are really, really grateful, and they're already stored in our interpreter. But what if there are some functionalities that are already available on it on? We can just download them and use. Or there are some models if you want to use. So models are basically big bunch off court on they're not functions their big bunch off court that have their own functionalities. So if I install a modern model can have their own 2030 functions, Soto have a model only aka Lew is important, so there is already one downloaded modern, which is known as Matt on. If I want to add it into our court into our program, all I have to use is in port and then the morning name. Since its name is Matt, I can use that math. And now this particular model is added into our court. And if I want to perform something with related module with its functionality, I can do that. So let me clear this out and start with Morning off, Matt. So here, on the clear screen, I just need to import map which is already into my system, not to use this mortal all you have to write. It's Matt and then door. And now you can use its functions. So there are different functions that are available. You can see here there is some sine function. There is some square function tan function, cost function, power function. So I would try to use sq rt function. So, sq, our days square root. So if I gave a value of five here and you can see I got a square root off five. And if I want to store this into a value but I can do that, I can use some valuable name and then call this particular model. And then dot Then call Ah, function whichever I want. You can get the list here on. I just need to use a skewered E and then parcel value. Maybe I just called 60. Effort printer The variable you can see. I got the value so it returns the value in Tokyo on If I want to check all the functions that are available in this mortal, all I have to do is call my directory on pass out my model on you can see I called all the names. That is all the functions name that I included in this model. So more news and functions are really important. Then we're going to move into model function, library the sections you will get to know a lot more thing. At this point of time, all you have to wonder standards. You can import more news. You can call their functions. You can give functions of value on you can get a result. I hope this lecture was helpful in the next lecture. Let us do some more stuff with bite on 21. Conditionals: If, If ... Else and Indentation: Hey guys will come to a new video industry. Delayed a stock about if statement. So if statement is used to execute a certain block off court, depending on the condition we are giving if the condition is true, we are going to perform a certain block off court on the condition is falled. We're going to perform another block off court, for example, if I take a real life scenario so I take a condition. If traffic light is equal stupid, then we are going to stop else we can go. So here you can see this is the basic condition and that's how we can use in a program. So before dealing further, let us perform our first small program related to it. Here I did a very able as equals to 18 on. Now I need to check a condition that if age is equals to 18 then I need to perform a 13 block off course I can use if statement. So all I need to do is if now I need to give my condition So her age is equal. Stoop, 18. Now here I'm using relational operator. That means I'm using double equals toe to check and compare each and 18 number, and I need to use a cooler after completing my condition on Presenter. Now here you can see the indentation, the gap between our initial line, the initial margin on the current cursor. So this is the gap of four space by default and python. That means whatever lines off court we're going to write will be inside this particular. If statement on this will be in a group, So have if the ages eating I'm going to print you are Norden Now that just try to underscore. So all I have to do is write fight on and then my find name. Don't forget to save the file. Otherwise, stay will give errors or they will not. Well, so here you can see the symbol. It's not safe. And if I click on control place else you can see that scorn Onda. We run this one, you can see the condition is true. That means the compassion off age and 18 are equal. And that's why it's gone inside the statement that is, if straight man and executed a block a whole. So now we can play with a lot of things you might play with a Saudi in traffic light on Dick. If the light is red, then we have to perform Stop Else we can go. Let me take my valuable. A slight Let me give a string that Israel. And here if light instrument then we have to stop. And now the counter fighters. If light is not right, then we can go. So who write the counterpart? All you have to do is just use pills and it has to be on the same margin off if and then press enter Now the court that we're going to write her will be inside else condition. So are you guys Print. Go. So what I'm doing is I'm checking condition. A flight is equal stroller. That means if the condition is true, I'm going to stop on the condition is false. Then this for two o'clock on will be skim. That means I'm going inside the else condition. And if I saved the file on try to execute this you can see I have a result off. Stop. Let me take more examples So it will be better for you. Let me take an example with number system So we have to take a variable and check that if the value is positive or negative. So all we have to do is dig. I've condition, check if the value is positive and then check if the value is negative. So if X is greater than zero, then we can print positive. I can also take another condition that if X is Liston zero, then we can trade Negative. So let me do this. Let me save on Try to run this. You can saves positive, but instead off taking this I can use else. So if X is great and then zero that I'm goingto bring positive else I'm going to pray. Negative. So if I run this one, it's positive. But what if I give up in put off zero? Let me test this out on this one. You can see I'm getting on negative so I have to fix this one. So if X is created an equal to zero, then it is what it So I hope now you understand if statement and it's indexed now, after completing the if an else statement I'm going to write anything here will not be included in the block off if NL's. So if I write here, as done now, this prince statement on Done has nothing to do with if else and the condition that we are providing. And if I try to run this, you will see that I'm going toe brain done every time. If I write 100 year, if I write 1000 if I write anything, it will not change the prince treatment off done because it doesn't give a damn a loader if statement. So that means the block inside the court that is the indentation is really important. In other languages. We use curly braces, but in spite on we used the colon symbol after completing a condition. And then we used the indentation to show this particular block off court is under this. If condition on here, this particular block off or is under a statement in the next lecture will be also mixing from logical operators on, we'll be using if else and Nestor NFL's. I hope you understand if statement and its index see you in the next lecture 22. Conditionals: If ... Else Statements With Operators: Hey, guys, we're come back now. Let us continue the flow off if statement. So in the previous example, we understand what is if statement and all the blocks of cold. But now let us take shootings. Two important things first is how to use logical operators along with our if statement to check different conditions at one go and chicken thing is take input from user in real time . Let me take a problem. I need to take a judge as input from the user. And then I need to check that if the user is created an 18 in less than 25 then I have to perform a 30 insert off court else. I need to go home. Something else. So let us start. So all I have to do is take a variable each and then I can use my import function and ask you there What is your age now remember, it will be stored as string because we know that import functions return us string. So if a user and US 22 that would be stored as string. So for that I need to use in function and type casted. So now my string will be converted into a teacher. And now I can use my logical operator toe check to conditions along with if statement. So if I use if now the first condition is that a should be greater than in equals 2 18 on my second condition is it should be less than on equal toe 25. Now here you can see I have used and operator, that means both the condition has to be true On if that happens, I can print. You're good to go on every a certain condition doesn't follow. What I can do is I can remove this indentation. Go to the margin off if and type else and in the else case, I can run 13 block off court. So now I've saved this particular file. You can see I have input off is and then I'm checking to conditions on. If the condition is true, I'm going with this particular print option. And if that is false, then I'm going in tow else flow. So let me bring that now it's asking me what is my age. You can see I'm good toe and if I try that again on give age off 30 you can see I'm not alone. So this was a basic program. Now I think I need to talk about nested NFL's. So what is nested? If it's so when we talk about something condition, they can followed with another condition. Like if I'm taking age off 18 and 25 I can also divide and take another if condition. Inside this particle a block like if ages 18 to 20 do then I need to perform certain tasks and from 22 group were defy. If I need to perform certain tasks so that can be follower inside this particular code, for now, I will be taking a basic example That would be really interesting for you. So let us take a number from a user and then we need to check if the number is positive or negative. If the number is positive, then we need to check that it's even number or number. So that would be much interesting and you can understand that easily. So what I happen to is take a number as I on I'm taking this as input, so I just need to use input command on November. This will be a string, so I need to convert it in the end. That is why in Asia and now one status in all I have to do is break the problem first. What I have to do is I need to check positive and negative if that this was a new project order. And even so, all I have to do is check about the positive case. So if I is greater than equals 20 then I'm going toe print positive as I'm going to pray. Negative. The second condition we need to follow is if this is a positive number, that meaning to check if this is a even number or our number. That means I need to create our inside condition in my if statement, that is the nested. If so, here, I need to create a new condition. That is, if now I need to check if I is divisible by two and given a remainder off zero so I can use model lists. So I more than two. That means the remainder is equals to zero. Then I'm good to go. That means if the remainder is zero, then the numbers. Even so, all I have to sprint that condition and is that would be of course. Or now I have saved my fine latest run. Inject this. So what I have to do is type player. They're not fine. Now you consider asking my number. Let me give five on India. It's a positive or number if I testes again and if I give then it's a positive year number . So I can see I've divided the conditions in tow to part that is the breakdown off our problem before solving any problem, break it down once I've checked my positive Negative. I further breakdown the problem I've uses Mr If statement Now you have to keep in mind that this is one block off court on this is one block off or when we entered this particular condition. This is another block off court which is inside this condition. And this is another block off court which is inside. This is condition. So you have to take care off them on. You can see the indentation here. This is the full space. These are the four space. So that means this particular print statement is inside our Nestor. If statement now, I hope you understand what is nested If statement you can also use another if statement inside this particular block on you can play with that Now we need to understand if is a lift lift lift What is that? So let me clear this out and start with a new program on Take a better example. So let us take a new condition. I have full student on If someone picks a that means I have to send them to room number one . If someone picks be, then I have to send them to room number two. If someone select the student third then after send them to room number three and four then after send them to room number hood so we can use if else if else if relative condition, not more time. So what we have to do is take a input from the user about a student name on F student named matches with all the four student available. Then we need to print a 13 rule number Else We need to say that invalid student name Let us perform that. So all we have to start with this data import that is student Now, once you take the input. You don't have to do anything since we need string as an import. Since we're playing with student name now and now, what are those? I need to check all the student name. So suppose the first Tudor name issue from 2nd 1 is John Tarnation and four twenties Johnny . So if a studious equals two So we're checking that the student name that is stolen STD is equals to shoot. Then we are providing 13 instruction and I need to check for student number two. So what I can uses else that can only at one condition. I need to check more conditions so I can use else. If that is a lift, Studi, that is their second condition on. If the second condition is John, then I need to send them to room number two. Now, I also need to check out the third condition. So I need to go with else and add a new condition. That is, if and I have a Ford Condition, which is Johnny. So all that is done. But what if there is some else? Name may be Ah ha Irish. So what? I'm going to lose. I need to give our 13 instruction to them so I can add is and that else would be so. Now if I give you a brief, I'm going to check the student name is Jewel. I'm proceeding with room number one and these old tradition would get skip on. I would just print this one. If this condition is not true, I'm going to the second condition Checker this out on. If this is true, I'm going to print a photo number two. If this is also not true, I'm going to the third condition. Check this out. If this is true, then I'm going to room number three. If this is also not true, I'm going to the fourth condition. If this is also not true, I'm going toe is so at any point of time. If any condition is true, I'm going to skip other section. That means if any condition is true, then I'm good to go and let us run this one. I need to give story name that as it gives trouble, I have instruction that proceed to room number one. Let me try this out. And if I give? Scored? Oh, I got an error. If I try again. If I give Una, I want her. That means that any of the condition is true on Go to go And I need to skip all the other conditions And all the conditions are not true that I am word to go with else condition. I hope you understand if Nestor Defense, Logical bar and also else if is if that is a lift. And also remember that indentations are really important and fight on. So you have to be careful. I hope you understand this lecture. Go to CVS growing. See you in the next lecture. 23. Conditionals: if... elif ... else Statements + Nested if Statements: So let us take a new condition. I have full student on. If someone picks a that means I have to send them to room number one. If someone picks be, then I have to send them to room number two. If someone select the student third, then after send them to room number three and four, then after send them to room number hood so we can use if else, if else if relative condition, not more time. So what we have to do is take a input from the user about a student name on F student named matches with all the four student available. Then we need to print a 13 rule number Else. We need to say that invalid student name Let us perform that. So all we have to start with Steve. A import that is student. Now, once you take the input, you don't have to do anything since we need strength as an import. Since we're playing with student name now and now, what are those? I need to check all the student name. So suppose the first Children a Meshulam. 2nd 1 is John Tarnation and four twenties Johnny. So if Estili is equals to. So we are checking that the student name that is storing STD is equals to sugar. Then we are providing 13 instruction and I need to check for student number two. So what I can uses else that can only add one condition. I need to check more conditions so I can use else. If that is a lift, Studi, that is my second condition on. If the second condition is John, then I need to send them to room number two. Now, I also need to check out the third condition. So I need to go with else and add a new condition. That is, if and I have a Ford Condition, which is Johnny. So all that is done. But what if there is some else Name may be Ah ha Irish. So what I'm going to lose? I need to give our 13 instruction to them so I can add is and that else will be. So now if I give you a brief, I'm going to check that the student name is Jewel. I'm proceeding with room number one, and these all condition would get skip on. I would just print this one If this condition is not true, I'm going to the second condition Checker this out on If this is true, I'm going to print a photo number two If this is also not true, I'm going to the third condition. Check this out. If this is true then I'm going to room number three And this is also not true. I'm going to the food condition. If this is also not true, I'm going toe is so at any point of time. If any condition is true, I'm going to skip other section. That means if any condition is true then I'm good to go and let us run this one. I need to give Student named that as if I give stripper I have instruction that proceed to room number one. Let me try this out And if I give? Scored Oh, I got the error If I try again If I give Una I want her. That means if any of the condition is true I'm good to go and I need to skip all the other conditions and all the conditions are not true that I am good to go with else condition. I hope you understand if Nestor Defense, logical bar and also else if is if that is Elif. And also remember that indentations are really important and fight on. So you have to be careful. I hope you understand this lecture. Go to CVS Growing. See you in the next lecture. 24. While Loop: Hey, guys will come back for in this lecture will be talking about loops. So whenever we have any task that has quite repetitive or has to be done several time all is there any conditions which keep changing and need to be checked after every certain block off court. Then we will start using Lou. So in this video, really, we're talking about why loom so in the previous example on in the previous lecture we talked about if an else condition So when we were checking any condition on if the condition is true, then we were proceeding for us 13 block off court that is Prince Straight man, or it can be anything that is inside this inundation. And if the condition is falls, we were moving towards the ends condition. But what if I need to recheck this condition after 13 block off court or in the variable were using keeps changing. So for that we start using loops. But before thinking anything is just clean up your own mind on take the basic example of flu something that you need to do repetitive. You tried to use a certain block off court on you just run that command that I need to do this for 10 times. So for that particular thing, loop is used. This is the most basic common example. If I want to print 1 200 use a loop that print one print to print three point 4,000,000,005 Prince six and so on. So this is the most common and basic example now, before talking more, let's start with why Luke and Performer Simple example. So here I'm taking a variable x zero on. My problem is I need to print from 1 to 5. So for that I'm using Why do so do start of I Look, all you have to do is tried wine, and then you have to give up condition. So for that I'm using expressed in six. I will be explaining why, but for a moment let us take this. And as the condition ends, you school and then you will get into the indentation that is the group block. And now you have to start printing. So my problem is to print from 0 to 5. All I need to do is print the current value off X, which is zero now. I just wonder time. Excessive or what I can do is I can add one to X, then zero plus one will be one. And once this loop ends, it will jump back to this condition and check if X is less than six. If the condition is true with the jumper gain inside this particular block off core and print that the current value of X is one, it will come on this condition again on add one again. Then X will be to come back to this condition. Brain X is equal. So to add one again that will make excess three jump back to this condition on once the condition off x six. This will give false toe blue and then it will get out off the court. So for now, let us execute this and see our result. You can see it's not currently printing the value off X till five you can see, so the basic thing is in my F statement. If the condition is true, it will only do that. Ask for ones, but in loops. If the condition is true, it will execute it and then go back to check out the condition and ever removed this particular line off court to increase the value of X X will remain zero forever. That means excess less than zero. It will print the value affects, then go back to this particular condition still x zero friend, This value go back to this condition. Still there, really off x zero. Print this condition So this loop is going to be forever on. It will keep on printing this particular statement forever. If you want to try, I can show you on. Remember, if you want to disturb the infinite loop all you have to use this control plus C. That means in our terminal, whenever we are running a condition on its infinite blue are. Whenever you want to break any condition, break any core, you can use control. Let's see, let me try out. You can see it's keep on printing and let me break this condition on. Let me show you my terminal and you can see it's printed so many time I'm scrolling up. You can see that it get into infinite loop. So this is the reason that we need to be careful while using any loop because then you can get into repetitive tasks and their tusks can run for infinite time. So let me get back. My condition on what I can do is I can use X plus and then one. That was the thing. Now one more important thing, as we were using. If it is, we can also use else with my new. So this else condition will work when this particular condition is false. So here I can add something that would be executed once the loop condition is completed. Now, let me turn this. Come on. So here you can see all the conditions off while loop executed. And then we have a statement off. Luke completed wife because still five, this condition was true. And once the value of X watts six, this condition gets into full straight men, that means we'll move towards the else statement on this condition will be printed. So one thing you need to remember is if we're using else with a while, loop that his condition will be executed. Always one stop articular condition off while Lou, a stunning toe falls knowledge us perform one more example with white blue which will help you to understand this and a long time because while loop is used to bring patterns while you will be used when you try to check, condition or exhibit any screen so we'll be taking that example here. My task is route Keep taking number from user and print the some on once the user enter zero. That means my program is done. So let me take you where iwas one Islam I'm taking its value is one. I will explain you in a minute on the second. Very well. I need some, which is zero now I need to provide instruction to the user that interval you on. If you want to accept this program, press zero so we can use from statement to provide instruction and one status down. I need to use a while loop. Why? So whenever the value off number zero, that means our condition is false and our while Lupus stopped walking and we will be entering into else condition. So I'm using our condition as numb is not equals 20 That means keep adding that number induce. Um so let me get my loop. So now is not equal to zero. That means this condition is true and then I can get inside the block on if the number zero that means get into the else block. And now I need to take input from the user. This input will be the string, so I can either convert it into float or indeed, er according to your requirement Highwood Foreign deejay. Now, at this point of time, I have taken the input from the user. Now I need to add them. So are currently all the values that I'm getting from user. I will be adding that to the sun at this point of time. Some zero Now I need toe Add the value that I have taken from the user so some will be equals to some last now and now I can print the some. So every time I'm going inside the loop, I will be printing the some, so OK, so at this point of time, our conditioning scored. So let me write an else statement. If you don't want to write, you can skip that. But I'm just writing for a loop completion now review record. What is happening is I've taken a variable number as one it can Osama zero so What we need to do is we need critic and input from the user. Andi, keep doing the song now. Provided the instruction to the user that if they are going to press zero then the program will stop Until there, we need to keep inter number. Now I have taken off Lou, Check the condition that if numb is not equals 20 We are goingto drunk this true once the numb that the user enters zero That means it will add it to the some that were not effect 00 and would print the some. That is the current some on go back to the condition Now the condition will be false because number is equal to zero. So this condition is not for your It will jump it toe else Condition on our loop is completed Now let us turn this. Come on now It is asking us to enter a number Let me entertain our current psalmist. An enter 15 our current some is 25 Let me into zero So our current summers 25 on our look completed I hope you understand why Look, we can do a lot of thing with groups in the next lecture will be talking about for loops 25. For Loops - Part 1: Hey, guys will come back to a new lecture in this electoral. Let us talk about for new. So for loop is useful toe retreat over the elements off a sequence. So sequins like string less the full range and definitely so do it. Read over the items or elements inside the sequences like list rubber we use for Lou. And before understanding about for Lou, we need to understand about in So what is in keyword? Let me take an example. So you will become for they were. So whenever I have a sequence like lists and if I want to check that a particle element is inside that list I can use in. So if I bring to in a that means who is the element in is a key word and is my list So, too in a means I'm checking that if this item that is to is inside my list on if this sprint as true, that means two hours inside a And if this sprinter's false, that means to is not included. So let me run the script. Now you can check that I'm getting a true that means this particular item is inside my list . Let me try this out with my string. See if I check This is in my string. That is deep. But I need to remember that this is a string. So I need to our double quotation and let me run this one So ahead I get a true And if here I try to do some other l for way maybe d Let me try again. See, I gotta bones That means day is not inside my string shovel. Now I hope you understand about in Let's get back to our for Lou on. Try to execute a small program. So here, if I use for and then I need to use a variable I will be taking I and then I need to use in And then I need to pass the sequence from which I need to trade. So for a while, I will be taking my list. That is a on This is my condition. Now I need to use a balloon. Now I am in my indentation block. That means it will work on each and every element off a. That is my list. And then I need to do something with that So let me bring that. So if I do the simple example now here I'm taking very evil eye, which treats over the elements that are present in a So are currently there are six element that 012345 That means the first element. I've ill a trader zero that means zero. All we bring did. 10 is printed. It will go back to my attrition, Luke, and then print a second element. That is one. Then oneness printed. It will go back to my attrition loop and then print the third element that is, too. And keep falling there. Now let us bring this small program and Jekyll doubtful. So you can see in my output I have accredited toe all the elements that are present in my list on printed them. So this was the basic thing to make you understand about for in the next electoral display . With all the sequences likely, Stopfel said string on most importantly dictionaries 26. For Loops - Part 2: now, in this lecture letters use all the sequences annotate over them. So the 1st 1 is list, which we have already perform. So if I'm using for I e, that means I'm treating for all the elements inside my list. And at this point of time, I'm having six element in my list. That means I'm going for six situation that will be six loops. Same will be followed my Topol. So if I take, be here and try to run this program, you can see are going to seem dessert on. Let me clear this out and try to take. See? That means when I said, And if I print this, you can tell it's still got the same result. Let me clear this out and try to take a string that is D and meat on this one. Now you can see it has treated toe all the elements, all the item inside my string that is all the characters and then printed them separately according to our come on. So let me clear this out and now talk about the most important thing that is additionally so if I take E and trying to run the same command. You can see a good name and age. So whenever I tried toe ring or retreat or my destiny, it will only retreat through my key values. That means I just got my name and age. These two were my key values. And if I want to trade for any specific time, like I just want to treat toe values so I can use, start and then values. If I clear this one and try to run this again, you can say Gordon only values that is Shoham and 22. And if I want only keys, that is by default and I can also use keys. If I run this one again, you can see I just caught name and on. If I want both items, that means I can use items. But there is a problem when I'm using items, that means it will get key and value boot. So I need to use two variables. One will store my keys and the other one will store my values. So I will be using, except by you can use key and value as very well. You can use any name. So now what I'm doing is except by So X will take my key. That is them. And I will take my value that the show, um let me for my traditionally in a manner that you will understand easily. Traditionally is usually shaped like this, so it is more comfortable to read on. If you're from Javascript, you will be family with this scheme. Now, what I was doing is I was treating from key and value. So now I need to print key that is my ex and maybe then leave us pay so I can use and then print my value. That is done. Let me clear this up on run my script. So I got a common error that I cannot use this con captain nation that is my plus symbol. Because in my value, pair I'm having are in that is 20. Do so I will be using a coma. But it was intense to me to understand that. So in my first loop there was no other state printed name and she won. That is my key and value. And in my second loop, that is, in my second attrition. I got the center, so let me clear this up our common answered off plus simmer and run the script again. You can see I got my key on value. Then again, key and value. So it was quite easy and understandable. The next thing we need to understand this strange which is one off the most important thing . Let me clear this up and right from scratch. So four x in now I need to use range. So we already know that range can stew number from one point to another point on it will start according toe on requirement. That is, if I want to start with one. I can do that and it will end according to our requirement. And we can also define the gaps. So what? I need to use this strange And then I need to pass from where I need to start still work. But I need to go for it. Attrition. And then I need to mention the gap, which is by default is one. And you do something simple. Just bring that. So if I do that you can see a garden result from 123 and four. That means it started from one and then print. It is for range is really important. I can also try, then maybe and then can use a gap off to. And if I around us again, you can see a guard on the old numbers we can play a lot with range on. We'll be doing that fall short by doing some exercise. So my major in with this lecture wants to make you understand about the concept off for you . Now what we can do is we can also use is for this, Lou. So if I use Els an out of print statement about blue completely and if I had on this one, you can say about the results from 1 to 9 and one started, attrition is done. I was get inside my else flu. And then Luke completed a sprinted, so that was quite easy stuff on. I hope you understand about for you In the next lecture, let us talk about some important keywords about how to stop these loops. Like once a four loop Is it started? There should be some condition where our program might be satisfied on. We don't need to perform for the or maybe are Wild Loop should stop after a certain condition or we might need to add some quality test. So at that point of time, we can use two or three key words which are really important. One is Brig. One is continue in the next lecture will be talking about them. 27. Break and Continue Statements: in this lecture will be understanding about break and continue statement. So these two are simple Street meant If I talk about break, that means break is something that will stop the loop or that will get out of the blue. If you can understand brick in a simple manner, the second thing is continue. So continue is usedto actually skip one attrition from the loop. So that means if I'm using prick, that means I'm just coming out from the attrition on if I'm using continue. That means I just want to skip frustration. So let us perform so you can understand. The fourth thing is, if I'm taking for X in a, that means I'm a treating from my list. That is a on this will be giving me a result off my sequence. 012345 And if I'm taking a wild look so I start from zero. If I is less than five, I need to print and then increments value again. Goto Why? Why? Luke, Check if I is listing five that is done. That means currently value off is one check that it's less than five. Bring that increase the value if I go back and check so it will print accordingly. Let me run this one. Okay? I am doing some message. That means the result is right, but I need to differentiate. So I will add a print statement here with the line. So let me clear this all on now we should start using break. So the first thing is, what if I was searching something inside my list. So once I find that I need to stop my attrition, that means I need to stop my loop so it can have hundreds off item. And if while the attrition I was able to find my idea on third off food number are maybe 10 number of times, I should stop there. Why? I should go for 100 time or 1000 times patrician, So we'll be taking the same example. So suppose I was searching for two. Or maybe I have some tasks which is dependent on the value off too. So once too is done. I can break out from my loo. So here, what I can do is I can use my if state man if X is equal streak was true to. That means I'm able to find this particular element. Or if this element this form, I can break out from this loop so I can use break straight, man. So let me comment all these up for a while. And this one, you can see it printed zero and one. That means it started from X. Took the first attrition rented zero. That means X was not equals. Two took the second element. Printer one took the third element. And then this condition was true. That means X is equal. Streak will shoot two and then it get inside executed This break straight, man once breaks, treatment is done. It gets out of the loop. So what I should do is I should uncommon this one. Run this again So you can see that once the break State Minister had get out off the loop. We should also try this one. Why? I need to come in this one. So what I can do is using the same condition. I really break when exes equals 23 And if I run this one, okay. I just did a smaller listing. I should use I. So here I am falling the same. If X is equal street will Sue tree. I'm going to break this loop on. If not, it will continue. So if I run this come on, you can see it was able to print 012 and then the breakout from the statement. So this was one of the simpleton break statement that's used to get out from the loop. Now the second thing is continue. Let us execute that. Let me come in this out. So instead, off break. If I use continue players, I'll run the score. You can see what actually happened is 01 in 345 That means when X watts equals route to it actually escaped the loo further and just jump onto the next attrition. But remember, it will skip all the step. That means whenever X is going to be to all that step inside, the for loop will whisk him. So you need to be careful when placing this condition. And if I try something similar with while you, it would be something similar. But there will be a twist. So if I use continue here running this command, you can see I was able to print 01 toe on now, my karsa. That means it is still pending for some import output. Why? This is happening. Let me get this out. So what actually happened is it started with zero. Everything was fine. Started with one. Everything was fine, toe everything was fine. But when the value off I waas tree it actually script from everything. Now the value off is still three because it escaped the print I it escaped this inclement value. That means it was not ableto add plus one. So it wasa still three. Come back to the statement It was still three jumbled Y Lou still three go back to my loop . Still three, But it was not able to get our inclement in value, so I need to be careful. So what I can do is just take the statement and I don't know. And if I run this one, you can see I was able to print 12 then four and five. So I was you go back to the first line, that is, it incriminated the value. So it is now one check out the statement rented that. And once I was three, it skipped a prince statement jam back to my wife loop Check The condition incriminated the value of 5 to 4 on things forward with. So I need to take care about them. These two are really important and you should know how to use and where to use them. 28. Comments and Doc Strings: Welcome back to a new bill. You in this video, let's talk about strings. So we have talked about basics off strings during the lecture off data that I now let us talk about strings in detail. So before doing anything is in this video, let us understand comments, so comments are really important. As a programmer, you can make your court readable. You can add annotations on with your sore school. You can are a lot off explanation. So whenever a new quarter, whenever a new programmer is going to check, your core is going to order the accord. It will be quite easy for them to understand your poor. So there are different functions that are different matters that you might be using on. You can explain them that Okay, this particular function can do this task. So instead of going to hold or the quarter on the tester or someone who's doing audit off your cord can just simply explain with the help off. Your coming comments are also important to make some off your court, not executable. That means your core resident, you make them as coming so the interpreter will not read them on interlocked deleting them . You can just keep them while you're walking. So without creating any daily there just right are forthcoming. So all you have to do is use. Have and then you can write anything in this particular line and everything that you are going to right after the hash would be considered as coming. And also it would not be executed by fightin interpreter. So if I write, welcome to bite on tutorial. So this is a comment on if I try to run the school, you are not going to get any dessert. Let me do that. So you can see I just run my script and I'm not getting any error. And I'm also not getting any commands or instructions or anything else, so that means this line is not executed. Now, let me add a few more lines off court and try to run this command. So what I'm doing is I'm trying to our three lines run this file and then I will try to make one line is coming and then on this file again. So if I run this fine now, you can see I just got an output as line one line to line three as my reason. And if I tried to add hash for this particular print statement on save this file, run this again. You can see I just got line one Line three as my output. That means this friend statement is not executed on beytin has just give that also, the single line comments are really important for adding a notation or explanation. So I've just added a short court so you can see I just uses ah hash to write some explanation on. You can do that with your cored while you are a big no. Once you start developing experience, you will understand that d single lines, explanation or comments are really important and helpful. Now, the second type of comment is used with the help of three quotations. Far. So if I want to start this coming, I can use three quotation marks, then right, my command. And then, to end this comment, I need to use three quotation mark again. It is used for documentation and it is known as Doc String. So to initiate this, you need to use three coats and to end this, you have to use three chords, so this doc string comment is also used to add multiple lines of comment. So if I need to write multiple lines off comments, I just need to shift that three chords so I can add another line off. Good, that is, and I can add more lines so you can see all these lines are comments and they will not be executed. So this is actually used to write multiple lines off explanation for any function, metal or anything. So once you start writing a good program so you can write a documentation off that program , people call it assembly. So this is basically used for that. And you can also use hash to write multiple lines off court eso you just need to add hashed for each line. Let me clear this up on a small chord, so I'm back with my small court again. So this is my court. And if I want to change any line into my comment, all I have to do is select the particle online, now use control and then slash If I click that, that line would be converted into a comment. So if I need to do with multiple lines, all I have to do is select these multiple lines and then control and then slash All the lines will be changed into my coming. So this is one of the good practice. And once we start writing more courts and once you start falling more problems, you were understand your type of comment. So the 1st 1 a single line in the 2nd 1 is won t line dog string commend. So in the next lecture, let us perform a lot more thing with string. 29. Diving Deep With "Strings": and this religious time deep would stream, So I will be taking too valuable and then start performing examples with them. So the first thing I'm taking is X is a variable and then adding Hello world the second, very when I'm taking is why on adding a capital hello world, since these two are string and we need to play with them. So I'm taking example with capital as well. A small letters. The first thing that we should talk about his escape character, but that we have already dog during our data type string section on. This is one of the most important thing. The second thing we need to talk about his methods. So before jumping with your question regarding what is matter. So matter is a function that is available for a given object because off the objects type, that means so if I'm taking a string string hazard zone matter if I'm taking list list has their own metals on. If I'm taking on more, do like if I'm trying to import Matt, that means Matt will have their own function and then the function will have their own metals. So let's not make things complicated. Just understand that matter is a function. So if we are using string so these method will be related to string. If we are going to use list stationary double so there will be different metals. Each object will have their own method. Let us begin with example. So let me do the simplest thing to get our lecture move forward. So I'm going to print X and y. So if I run this basic code, you can see my our port. Now we need to start using method. So to use a method on a string or on any variable, all you have to lose after that, very will add a dot and then you can see different type off metals that are available. We're using an I. D. That is atom and it has its own intelligence. So that means it will give me some commands. It will help me to select this thing. If you're using pyjama, you will also get similar lists. But if you're using any other editor or maybe note pad or may become online, you might miss this thing. So there. If I'm using X dort now, I can see different type off matters and these methods will help us to former are string so forcefully? Let me take the basic thing that is capitalized on ever used this particular matter. Remember, whenever we use any method or function, we need to use open Prentice's and closing Prentice's after that particular keyword. So here I'm using capitalized for my X and Y And if I bring the result now, you can see what it has done is it has changed my string. Now the first letter is changed into capital and rest are small. So if I have a paragraph that means if I had a lot more strings, maybe after full stop on, if I saved that and run the school again, you can see only the force characters, capital letter and restaurants more so this one is one of the most basic better. So here, let me delete this now, the second method that I need to talk about this upper and lower. So why the name itself? You can guess upper means that it might change all the string into capital letters and lower means that my change string that means all the characters in tow small letters so let us try ex dot Now I need to write upper on for a while. It me Right Lower on. Let me run this one. You can see what actually happened is now exes all capitals on why is all small letters so it just converted. All are available l four minutes into cap letters. So if I try to use capital which I'm still going to get same result the next thing I want to talk about this indexing. So if you want to get a particular character from this string, then we can use indexing. So far, you square records. And if I define zero, that is why Index position. And you must remember that indexing starts with zero. So here, if I talk about X zero, that means the zero position off this particular string. So here I am going to get a result off each and every talk about why five. So I'm going to get a result off. Guess what? Oh, let me try this one so you can see I got a result off h on. I got space. So that means space is also included in my character on if it is you is one l two l three or four and then spaces five. So I got a result as H and blank. So indexing is really important to fetch characters. But here I'm only trying to fetch single character. What if I need to fetch our sub string? That means if there is hello world, I just want Hello So how can I do that? So this is called slicing. That means I want a particle, a section off a string. So with the same open bracket you can define from which point to which one that is from based indexing position to which index sick position You want to get the sub string So if here I defined from zero do wife on may be from 0 to 3 If I defined this and run this Come on, you can see for the first variable that is X I got hello. So it started from zero Indexing position and fetch. Tell Fort Onda second is zero to third, that is survival level started from zero and exposition on fetch still second and expedition Remember, I am focusing on in exposition. So if I'm talking about 0 to 3, that means 01 and two are included where tree is not included. If I'm talking about 0 to 5, that means 01234 These positions are included and 51 is not included. So this process is called as slicing. So let me clear this up and let me start playing with more metals. So here, if I add spaces with my string maybe unknown amount off space at left, try. And if I trying to say this one on, if I want to strip them all I need to do is use a strip matter. So what do you have to lose? You start and then write the method name. So if I see like this one are my open and closing fantasies on. If I try doing this one, you can see I still got a result off. Hello. One on effort. Tryto print the same result. Without this method, you can see the result of strictly different. So this is really important. You can also try different worsens off strip. The first is Elstrom. That means left strip. And the 2nd 1 is our strip. That means right strip. So let me try boot on get the result. And if I run this one so you can see in the first Wizard the left part off space is strip on the second result. The right part is strip, so this is quite useful. The next thing I need to talk about this cautioning. So if you have a particle string, we need to check if all the characters in the available string are inorganic. We can do that in one metal or if I need to check if all characters are upper characters, that means capitalize in this particular string. We can use that. So let me just remove these on and use my simple hello world in short. And to use the questioning string or you after you do issues is and then you can see all the examples. Let me take the is floor on with the 2nd 1 I will take away valuable and let me use is upper. It could clear this up on my script again. You can see I just got through. True For both of them, that means excess all the lower characters and why has all of our characters. And if I try to change a single word that is a single character in them. These is that are going to change into falls. So I hope now you understand the cushioning thing. That is how we can judge our string, how we can check our string. The next thing I need to talk about this replacing. So while printing some bird or while displaying some words or characters we might need to replace them. So for that we can use three, please. So with this replace matter, I need to pass which character I need to replace. So here, if I replace each with s on Brent out, the result you can see edge is replaced with us. What if there are several characters that are every with So let me take you on. If we're trying to run this one, you can see all the old that are available in the string with Billy Place by s maybe I need to replace a word. Currently, they were only doing with characters. Maybe replace world with student and let me try to run this one so you can see it's not replace because we were using capital W. And if I tried to use small the blue Andhra In this one, you can see it three place so we can replace the word we can replace a character using three place matter. The next thing I need to talk about this play. And I'm really, really sure whatever project you are going to do whatever for the things you are going to do with fight on you are going to use but at some point of time. So here, let me first edit my string. So suppose there's a coma in my string on. I want to split this string into two parts with this particular comma. So all I have to do is use the spread function, and then they find the character by which I need to divide. So if I need to divide with coma, use a coma on a clear this up ground. This file, you can see I just caught a desert off. Hello and one. So this is actually a list. Okay, that's fine. But what if I need to divide with something else? Let me try with our space. Remove this on Allah space. Run this file. You can see I'm still able to get my hello and one so the result will be always in a list and I'm getting a split off Hello and world. So if I had multiple characters on, try to run this one again, you can see I'm having a result with four items on my list. So this was quite important. And the last small thing that I want to talk about because string this really big. You can try to play with number off methods. I just use some important matters. There are some hundreds off matter and you will start using them. Start realize their importance. Once you start working on any project, how do you start getting stuck on some point? So no one's going to use hundreds off method? These are some really important method remaining 100 metres you might never use or you might use once in a year. So it totally depends on what you are going to work in future the next morning that I need to talk about this multiplication. So if I need to bring something 100 times, maybe I want to bring this way 100 times. All I have to do is use my and then use my district symbol and then 100. That means I'm multiplying it 400 times. And if I print this, it's going toe print. Hello, world. 400 times two missed. I need to address space here. That would be better on I can change this one as Hello. Okay, let's run this one and I'm having here World 400 names. So that's all for string. These are some really important thing on you can do a lot more stuff with string once we started warming in project. So that's all for this lecture. See you in the next one. 30. Diving Deep - List: Hey, guys, welcome back to a new video in this video. Let us talk about list. So by the name itself, we can understand it is collection off some items which is stored in a variable on In that variable, all the items will be according toa an order. So the basic example is our grocery list. So whenever your mom tell you to bring these item, she might give you a list and they just have several item so saying follows with fight on. So we take available on that particular variable we can store multiple elements on that can be string that can be less. That can be trouble that can be our into seizure that can be afloat, and all item will be stored in a ordered manner. That means if an item is stored at GE Road position, it would remain at zero position unless and until we try to make some change. So list is an order element container. So let me take a simple list here if I take X as a variable and store some element. So here I created a sample. This So are other five elements all the imports that I'd give inside a list is an element. Hell, Shoham is an element 20 toe CSE pie tone and 55.5 these all our element. But now let us brush up some basic thing so you can store different type of data. Type inside that that means you can store topples. You can soar list whatever you want. Second thing is that indexing offer list start from zero. So the element sugar is at zero position. The element 22 is that first position on the next thing that I want to talk about this listers mutable. That means you can add more elements inside the list. You can believe some element. Maybe you want to delete this element 55.5 on our some other element, so list is mutable. That means you can edit that place at any point of time during execution off your program. So let us start with indexing. So if I want to print or certain element off a list, all after do is think a variable name with the square brackets and I need to give indexing position. So if I want to pick up CSC, I just want to give the second in the expedition. And if I do that, you can see I just caught the reason I can store them inside other variable. So if I take why and perform the same for second position and try to print why now you can see I discord the result. So this is one of the important thing. And remember, here X is a single variable which is containing these multiple elements with help off less . The next thing I want to talk about this land. So at any point of time, you want to find out, lent off this particular list. All you have to do is use the function alien. So if I do that and pass off my variable off the list, you can see I got the length off this particular illness so the length will be equal. Stood the number off elements inside that particle list. Now, the next thing that we should talk about, this matters. While talking about string. I told you that method is different for every sequence. So string has their own matter like Upper Lower, which will not be present for list list, has its own method. Maybe some pop upend insert count. There are several metals so which will not be present in string. Maybe stubble has their own matters, so methods will be different for each sequence. Now, let us try some method with our list. Let me take my variable X, add a door and then I need to add a matter. So if you're using atom, if you're using by chum, you will get the help off intelligence. So that will help you and give you an idea off. Different methods available. So this was the main reason I switched to come online. So we get the value off by your using atom on different ID's. Let me search back to my atom so I can explore number off matters on back on my atom. So all that time, all the after Lewis big X the door And now you can see a lot off matters. So this is the reason I prefer i d. Now the basic one that I want to use. Force Lee is insert with help off insert. You can add element at a certain position, so all I have to do is give the position. So if I want to add my surname at position one. Remember? I'm talking about index position. So all I have to do is get the position on give the element that I want to enter. So whatever this is going to execute, it will add my surname at first position. Let me print. Exe and run the script. You can see I got shoe bomb. Then I got a new element that the shard out, then 20 toe CSE fight on 55.5. So now the index position off the remaining element shifted with plus one on our position. One, we have a new element with this Sharda. Now let's be clear. The south and the second I need to perform is removed. Certain anyone off time. If I want to remove any element from my list, I just need to use remove mattered. And I have to just pass the element that I want to remove. So let us perform that. So here I will take X and then I'll have to pass, is removed and then passed the element which I want to remove on. Let me add up Prince treatment here. Now I'm going to print this result. I will force. Insert that forced position. Bring that. Then I will remove CSE and then printed again. Let me run this one now with the reserve You see, I added Charlotte with the force return on the second result I remove CSE. Now the third thing I want to perform is water in a list. There are several CSE So remember, whichever CSE is going toe have the Lewis in exposition will be really did first. So if I have docs here and if I tried to run this one again you can see the first CSE which was available in the list removed on the second CSE, which was every level will remain. So all you need to check is Louis in expedition on If you want to remove the last element, you can use Paul, So pork matter is really easy. So all you have to Louis, right, Bob? So this function will directly remove the last element. So if I just clear this up on run the court again, you can see the last CSC is now gone from my list. I hope these methods are easy to understand Now what if I want to delete my list So, while working with big files find walking with big functions, You might create a list, are some item and then distributes these item into different variable. And then the list is not useful. So to deliver list, all we have to use this deal. Then we have to pass the list. Name on to delete that place don't have to do is deal master listening. That's done on if, after deleting that list, if I tried toe print this, I might get an error. So let me run this. Come on, you can see I Gorder enter because the X is not defined. That means once the Lester's deleted, it is not present in our memory. That is, it does not even present in our garbage melody. And what if I just want to clear up the list? I don't want to believe the elements. So for that, all you have to do is use X, then door clear. So if you booed out, let us run this. Come on. So you can see I gotta empty list. That means it will delete all the elements inside the list. And if I used to deal, that means it would delete the whole list from our memory. The next method I want to talk about this sore. So if you have a list on that place contain all the in teachers are on the float. Then you can sort that So all you have to do is use a sort matter aan den. Let us try to print out the result. You can see I got an error because as I told you, we need to do that with impeaches our flute. Let me create a new list path off the element. Use a sword function clear the south on Run this Now you can see I got a result from ascending descending. And if I want to reverse that, I can use a reverse function is well X Doc Rivers. And if I clear this up if I bring that you can see I just got are descending to ascending. So these are really useful function the next important function. I won't talk about this happen like we were using Pope to delete the last element. What if we want to add multiple elements at the last position so we can use a pen? So with this list, all after Lewis use have been function and then I need to pass the element. So if here I passed 70 and try toe print out my list, you can see seventies added to my last position. And remember, whatever we are doing with this list will be seen. That means it has not temporary. This is the X variable. So it has added in that experience it is not just our temporary reaching its a permanent change. So, like we were using popular released last element, we can use a pento add something at the last element. The next thing I want to talk about this kind on. If I add an element like 22 it will give me the result that how many times this element is present in this particular list. And don't forget that count and entire, totally different lend to give you a number off element that is the length off the list can't give you the number of time that particular element is present. So if I'm giving 22 it is going to give me a result off one that means only one time this 22 element is present in our list So let me print that and you can see the output. It give me one. So what if I add multiple elements in this list? Maybe 22 again, then 78 10. 22 again. And if I run this come on again. You can see I got a result off three. That means this particular element is present for three times. It is really, really, really important. Toe called a women Sometimes. Maybe if I take basic example, you have a list off names off several students. So for one particular name, you might need to check that. How many students are present? So in that list, you can do that. Or maybe you want to find out duplicate. So you have item on you can check out how many duplicates are present, so you can do a lot with them. So list is really important. All you have to remember is it is ordered. It is mutable. So, yeah, this was one important section to talk about list in the next letter, let us talk about more sequences on, clear up some notes 31. Diving Deep - Tuples: in this lecture will be talking about doubles. So our chapel is a fight on sequence which we already know that it is used to store a group off elements. Same like list. The bulls are similar to list, but the main difference is doubles are immutable, whereas if I talk about list, they are ordered as well, less mutable. But the bulls are ordered, but they are immutable, so we can mortify elements off list whenever we want. And since topple is immutable, so we cannot perform operations like a pain insert, remove poor, clear Victor apple. That means we cannot insert elements inside A. But we cannot remove elements we cannot pope elements on. Also, we cannot daily elements off trouble, so that's a major difference between doubles and list. The main thing that you need to remember is they are ordered. Let's start our little so remaining thing you will be falling during our examples. By now, you already know how to create a couple. So let me take a variable E on in which I will be giving 45 values. And remember, you can pass any type of element. You can pass string. You can pass into Asia, you can pass, float, let us take a basic example. And just past few numbers hair. I have declared my double and if I printed you can see I got all the elements. And if I try to use indexing over my double so if I take zero position, I will be getting an answer off. Then the next thing I want to talk about this if I give my next fusion which not exist. So here I five past 30. You see, I got an error that it is Index later on The couple index is although fridge. So remember this is an important point on whatever. If I try to insert a new element at a certain position here, if I take zero position and if I pass an element as 50 and you will get a type better that double object does not support IDM assignment. So we cannot assign items to our top. But we can do a lot more thing. We can try out different methods that are available for trouble. But remember, we cannot remove you cannot happen. We cannot clear a lot more thing. Let me do some matters that would be helpful for us. So if I use a commenter and past 10 that means number of time. 10 is available in our trouble. So if I print enter, you can see I got a result off one. Let me create a new double. Now, this is a multi valuable in return, passing in teacher string flute as well as a list. Now if I tried to calm the value off 10 now inside, beatable, you can see now I'm getting a result off to now. Let's play with other function. Whatever. I need to get the letter portable. That simple just used alien function. And what if I need to go on? Captain 82 doubles. I have currently a I have be What if I need Tokcan? Captain ate them. Since, you know, I cannot add new content in a single couple. But what if I create a new couple, maybe see, and then try to con catenary element off a an element of B to create a new double? So that's how I can do that. That means if I need to add two elements inside my edible maybe 10 and 20 and then I want to add 13. 40. But since topple is immutable, I cannot add them. So what I did is all the new arguments that I want to add in my irritable. I just added them inside my B. So that is 30 and 40 now what it is, I can calculated them. And now I have seen. Now the next thing I can do is I can just assign the venue off, see my A So my a will have all the new values you see. That's how I can add new well used to my topper. But this is not the way that we have done with the list with the list. We can do that with a single command. Since topple is immutable, this is just the other way around. Remember, Apple's usually carry the data. We should not be edited throughout the program or throughout the run. That is why they are immutable. The next thing I want to talk about this coma. So here, if I create a new double, maybe P and Adam element as Hello now you will see whenever you find a single double, you might see a coma. Maybe you start working on some project, you will solve website like stack overflow. You will so website like get up on whenever you see a sore school which has only a single element in a double, you will find this coma don't want. It's a conventional way to tell people that this is a topper and this comma doesn't affect your good. If you want to add a secondary man, you can do that on. You can also add a coma gin. But for one element, people usually write a single comma just to show that it's suitable. Otherwise, it is hard to understand if this is a couple or people are trying to pass some values in a function or anything else. So this coma help us define our chapel for single element. Now what if I try to multiply this by five? If I bring my result what you are going to expect? A good print five times. Test a couple or one single double with five time Hello? Let me bring down you see a single double with five time as hello Now there are some functions which are every label inarguable. So all these function on all these methods are used to perform important operations on our couple. Save up before Max on my eight of you can see my eight Apple was 10 2030 and 40. I got the highest. That is 40. And if I tried to use men, you can see I got my You can also delete your double with the help of d E l function after the leading If I tried to exist my couple, you can see a garden, a matter that this name E is not defined. So now this variable does not exist and there is no memory that is a located for our very will be. That's all for this lecture. Hope this lecture Waas handful In the next lecture, let us talk about dictionaries which are really, really, really important. So see you in the next lecture. 32. Diving Deep - Dictionaries: Welcome back in this Lake Taylor, The stock about visionaries. So I hope by now you haven't understanding about fisheries. It has a key and value pair. We use cologne toe separate them. Also, it is open and close with Colliver asses. Let me write a samba Additionally here so that twice am Polish Mary are variable name is classroom on. Then I have to Ki and Mel appears one is name in which the value is Children and the other one is each in which the value is 22. Now remember, dictionaries like something a map or something in association with two values less than topples on mainly dependent on sequence. So we have zero index Then we have some value. We have one index then we have some value. Whereas in dictionaries there is no 0123 Knicks We have key and value pair so that means this is its index name and this is its value. If I talk about a simple list, suppose a list e have a value off 2030 and 40 So zero and then 20. This is like a next position and the value on similarly for dish Nitties traditionally is depend on bears and it is really important when you work on transferring or data. So now you have a key value with you. Define yourself so you can give it a name, according Toa what content I'm sending. So if I'm starting a name, I can give a name to my key. That it's a name if I'm starting is I can give name doing key that it's a age for that's important now. That second thing is that indexing is different. So during our list, all I have to do is give my index position in. Additionally, I have to give the key name you can see. I got my value and also there is no sequence for the value that are storing. So if I try to exist is I cannot accept with an index position, I have to pass it as Mikey on you can see about the value we can store different type of data. Type inside, additionally, also. So in the previous example, off double, I tried a store of value off floats string and then list inside my tubal same we can do with the addition Aires. So let me take on new dictionary. So head I'm grating on Additionally, with the name off employees, that is e M P. And then I'm passing a key as name in which I'm giving a value. I should, um second is my age as 22 Now I'm taking third as a smoke and I'm taking a value off falls a Puerto store, my height and we etch and w that is my height and weight. Now I'm passing or topple as my value off six and 75. You can actually use different data time, so you can see I have string. I haven't teacher, I have bullion have troubles now What if here I tried to exit my complete list, it would be quite easy. The second thing is, the second thing is, if I want to access any value, all have to pass is the key. So if I need to access my smoke while you all I need to pass is smoke, you can see I got my bullion value. What if I need to access this height and we'd okay, let us do that when I need to pass is the exactly off my top one? You can see, I got the response so you can play with fisheries also. The next thing is, if I try to access something that is not available maybe I passed something like 70. So I got a keyword inner, maybe a past trying to bother index value. I still go to cure later because there is nothing like in next four addition Aires, we have Kiva lose to handle that. The next thing I want to talk about this can be our move Values toe addition. Eri like double was immutable so we cannot add Les Waas Beautiful So we can easily I you are similarly like Lis. Additionally, these are also mutable. So Adam new value only after Lewis Thank you very well. And then open and closing square on all you have to pass is the key off our new element. So here, if I add salary and then I need to pass the value And if I tried to excuse my additionally Now you can see this is my last added value and then we can play with functions and matters that are able even for less. So let me take some methods. So the 1st 1 is length. So by now I hope you already know everything about land. So if I pass my variable, I got the number off elements that are every level the 2nd 1 I want to talk about escape so you can use this get mattered toe actually access a particular value of any key. So here, if I passed name you can say I just able to get this particular value the next one. You can talk about this pop So purpose usually used to remove any value. So if I do pop and then pass a value off cell, you can say I'm able to get a return off. Sadly, But if I try to print my the sherry now, you can see the value is not available inside my additionally So that's hard for what If I need to clear them all that means I want to MGM Additionally, I can use a clear function and then if I tried to access my Additionally, I got an empty this Mary. Okay, We can also use delete that this deal to remove the additionally even if it has some value , are even if it's empty, traditionally will be the leader all you have to use this deal than past available name. Now if I tried to access my Additionally you see, I got an error. So these are some important matters. And then there are some matters to access our value before accessing my elements. Let me create my additionally again because I have deleted that. So here I've created my additionally again on If I want to access only keys. All after do is use my variable and then keys. I can also use values to get out, turn off all the values that are available in my national ease. And if I want to access Porky and value pairs, I can use items. Just look fine. But I need to talk about one small thing we have talked about Addition, we have talked about deletion. We have talked about Paul. But what if I need to update and even do for a particular key? I can use dot be all after this part of India my name, then a statement. Third. And then I need to pass my key and Delaware. And if I tried to access my dumps again, you can see I got my undated name What if I tried toe over righted? It's not like update, but I over I did. So you can do that or you have to do is use your variable and just try adding exactly like you are adding a new element. So here I will be adding it like a new element. And if I tried to access items now you can see it's now updated, but it's actually overridden our previous element. I hope this lecture was helpful nationally. These are really, really important to carry data while you play with a P A's when you work on website word. So they are really important. So see you in the next lecture. 33. Indexing, Slicing, Negative Indexing: Hey, guys, indistinctly let us talk about indexing, slicing and negative annexing. So you already know indexing is something to fetch, a value for a particular position, and we already know and expedition that help us to fetch a value. By now, we also know the key in exposition. That means we use a value off key for additional ease to fetch of and do. The second thing is slicing. I hope you already know how to slice a pizza. That means taking us peace off a pizza with a list we can slice some values. Maybe I want to slice a value from Second and exposition to 15 exposition all. Maybe I want to get the value off last three. That is my last three in exposition, so I can do that on the last point. I want to talk about this negative indexing, so we have a positive index for our sequence. Like if I take example off my strength, I have a bite on string, and here I gave a positive index for P it zero for why it's 1 40 It's too, so that's for lower positive index. But there is also something like negative Knicks So the last value that is present in my string is minus one on the second last year, Louis minus two. So if I follow that, the first value P is minus six, so I need to keep in mind. It's really helpful to convert my string into rivers or to convert any off my sequence and delivers and slice some values. That means take a piece out off them. With that, I hope now you know the meaning off these thing. Let's perform their examples and do things step by step. The first thing that I want to talk about is start and instead. So if I want to slice any particular list or particular double or my strength, I have to pass these three values one of start in. Instead, let me take that for my list. So hair is my ex. And if I want to fetch a value off any index, I used zero so support. I want to get the value off my zero index. But what if I need to slice? That means I need to slice from zero and exposition toe turned exposition. So what I need to do is I need to use a colon and then pass my end off slice so that would be covered in exposition. So this is my starting position. This is my Indyk position. And then I need to pass steps. Steps are basically the gap that we need to maintain between every position. So by the fort, it's one that means So if I take zero and exposition, next will be one. Next will be to next will be three. So that is the gap I need to bus that's all. Start in and then my steps Let me print this one here. You can see I was able to slice my value, my start position, my in position and then steps. So remember the position we are passing for our end would not be included. So I got my 012 and there was not included. This looks fine. Let me tie or something more. Whatever. I don't bother this camp. I only pass out. Start and end it. People in this one you can see I got still got the same result because the default value off our gap is one. So it's not going to affect that much. But what if I need to get from a point toe end off that list. Maybe I want to start with the fourth position until the end of the list. We can do that all. We have to use this a blank space for us. Akin position. Remember to use the school. So without this colon, it would be zero and exposition. But this cologne, it's mean. It would be starting from this position, the land. So if I pass out four and then I call on that means from Fort and Exposition Building in that we print this one you can see I was ableto fetch the values from Horton Exposition till the last. Okay, let me experiment full. What if I want to get the values from zero to number fifth? We can also do that. All we have to do is just leave out the first spaces blank and then the index, will you? This looks fine. Let me print this out. Also. You can see I was able to get the values from zero. Tell my fourth in exposition. Remember, this would not be included Now, what if I need to get complete value of this list? You can also do that all we have clues past empty value what are starting as well as ending . And remember, our steps are by default. So this would be from star do in on if I don't hear I got a complete list. So that's how I slicing work. But what is the matter? Off the steps, let us pray with them whatever I need to get a gap off to. So basically, I need to maintain a gap off to between all the results. Maybe I just want zero and exposition and Second and Exposition and 14 expedition. I can still achieve that. Follow me on this one and here you can see I was able to achieve the gap off to let me try out a gap off three ignorant this one and see. I was able to maintain the gap off three. So that's how slicing work on it is really, really important. But we have only tryout with positive indexing. We should try out our negative index also. So the negative index actually is follow with the reverse order. So the last item will be minus one, then minus two minus 34 and then follow. Let me clear this up. And here, if I want to achieve the reverses, are all I have to do is possible. Minus one at the last. So this will print out my list in the reverse order. So if I print back, you can take out my list as a reverse order. You can also play with a lot more thing. But let me talk about one simple thing. I would be taking the spite on example On here. I'm getting a result off. Reverse off. Fight one. What if I need to get last three elements off my string or off my list or off my double? I can do that if we remove this one. So last three element means I need to get these three. That is h o n. So my list will be start from minus tree. I need to get that. And it would be. And that the last. So if I gave minus one so this would not be included. So I need to leave. This is a blank. And then all the strip will be one step. This looks fine. Run this one. I get it in now. Same things follows without indexing. So usually with indexing. If I pass a zero, I were beginning a B, but if I passed a minor sex with my indexing, you can see I still got the same result because heroes P and minus six is also be so we can play with negative value during our indexing Also. Now, if I talk about one more concept, you can try out godless string or couple. Also, you need to be focused while passing the starting in value. So if you're passing three as a starter, elude the ending Well, you should be greater than in the position. That means if you're passing three, the ending well, you should be above three. You cannot pass three and then one, since it will not go in reverse to go in a reverse, we use minus one. That means if I need to get a value off h b y. So my starting values three that's refine my ending value is one. This is also fine. Now if I want to take positive steps, that is emphatic. Step is one. I would go forward, but if I take step is minus one, I would go in reverse and Now let me run this one. You can see I was able to achieve the value from my list. If I try out this woods it, you can say I'm able to get the value off h nd so basically, this is unimportant concept. If you can understand this, you're slicing a sore. You can slice anything from list from double from string. So the thing is, whenever you bother, start value your ending Well, you should be greater than that if you are taking steps positive. So if I pass a value off one as a starting and if I ended at three, that's look fine, because I can take one and two with a positive step. But what if if I passed four as my starting value and then I'm passing one as my ending value, that means I cannot take step s plus one plus one as step means I'm jumping from 4 to 5. I need to take minus one to jump from 4 to 3 and three toe. Then do go. One that is going toe followed here. So if I take four and then I want the value till while so I will be taking zero as index and then minus one four. Is the value off on ending zero? That means still why it would be included on I'm taking in other words, So I'm getting a result off zero ht and by this looks fine. Let me on this one. Yeah, that's how you against future value. And that's the reason if I'm passing empty space in just minus one, that means I'm going to get a result off rivers. So that's all for this lecture, indexing, slicing and negative indexing. These trees are really, really important to fetch values from a storage. I hope. I know you understand about them. These are some really important topics, and we'll be continuing with more letters. Thank you for falling All the video still now see you in the next one with a lot more stuff 34. What are Functions?: Hey, guys, welcome back and I'm glad that you are still here. That means you have patients and you really want to learn. So from this lecture, we are starting something really important that this functions. So function is similar to program itself. So it's a group off statement within a program to perform a specific task. For example, you want to do addition, you create a function for that. And whenever you want to do a region, you just call that particular function. So there are two type of functions. First is building function, and the second marries user defined function. We have already talked about building function like print import, maximum the power, and there are a lot more on. We have already talked about it, but from this lecture will be talking about user defined function. That means how we can create our own functions and also how to do some specific tasks. What is argument, what this perimeter on, how we are going to return a value. So all these things were doing from this lecture. Now, the first thing that I want to talk about this Syntex and writing a small program or function so we can discuss some. Jardins, let me start with writing a small function toe are two numbers to define our function All have to do is use d if and then give the function name So it's a user defined function That means you can give any name except the 33 words that we have some restriction. So I will be taking my function name as some f So all you have to do is write the function name on If you have some worse that can be divided into two parts you can use an underscore and write that war. You cannot use a capital or dash So this is the naming former. So if I'm using s underscore if, let me take it simply if for now and now I need to define para meters So there are two things that you need to understand oneness, parameter and oneness argument. So whenever we're calling our function we passed some arguments on what argument we're going to pass that we need to define here that is the perimeters. Let me simplify it more so if I'm doing some off two numbers, my parameters will be take two numbers so number one and number two, That would be my Param Eter on what will be my argument. So if I'm doing five plus seven, my argument will be five. And the second argument will be seven. And my perimeter will be number one and number two. So whatever the import that I'm going to get for this particular function, that would be my para meter. So let me take two numbers for my son. Now, once you have defined all your perimeters, all you have to do is use a cool, and now you'll be inside your function. So all you have to do is take the first argument, take the second argument and add them. So what we can do is create a new very well see at both the arguments Parson to see and Princey. Or we can directly do that inside the print. Now here we have defined our function. The next thing we need to do is to call our function. So this function is not going to do anything unless and until we call it. So do call a function. All the ACLU is right. The function, name and pastor argument. So my first argument will be my first number. So it would be 10 on if I need to pass my second argument so I can pass 30 Now what you are expecting. So we are calling this particular function, so it will go into execution here. It will check all the arguments E r g one is going to get then Yergin, who is going to get 30 on Ben, come inside. The Sprint statement on are both numbers and print that now let us run this program so we can understand the execution. You can see I got a result off 40. The motive off this lecture wants to make you understand how to create a user defined function on This is just the basics. Index from the next lecture will be performing more examples. And there are not more thing that we can do with function 35. Parameters, Arguments, Return: In the previous lecture, we took off simple example and don't about basics off user defined function. Now let us do some experiment and do some real work. So here I took a rz one on a allergy toe as my argument name. So basically here I'm taking a random name. You can take any name. There is no restriction. So even if I pass here it on past be there would be no change. All I have to do is just passed in, be properly So that simply means when I'm calling this function here, this particle er 10 value will be assigned to be when we are executing on this, 40 below 30 value will be assigned Toe B and then the complete program that is the complete core. Inside this, some a function will be executed according to the value off es 10 on the B s study. The second thing is why we're calling it s perimeter. If I have a task to light or function the brain name and each so my para meter here will be named on my second pyramid. A would be h on my argument will be the name that I'm passing, so that can be sure. Um, on the second argument will be my age. And if I want to print that all after Lewis passed way name here. And the second thing is my age. Let's run this one Now you can see the result. So here barometers are name and it and my argument is shoe bomb and want to do This is one of the most confusing thing about para meters an argument. So you just need to take it simply now. Let us talk about how to return some values from a function. So we have created a function. Now what if we want to return the value? We don't want to do this print holding because function is usually called to get some result not displays are directly so there usedto closest on task Andi usually function returned these value throughout Britain. Keyword If I had a taker task to write a program toe, act two numbers and get returned from them. So what I'm going to do is write a function. Take number one that is in one Take my number two that is in tow. All have to do is take see as a variable at these two numbers. And then I will return it using just a return keyword and then passed my valuable. So that thing is going to happen is it is not going toe print anything. Whenever we are going to call this function, it will only return the value into that function only. And so print that value to store that value. We need a separate were Eamon, let me pass. Um, values here. And if I run this function now, you can see I haven't got any result because the value is carried by this function only need to store that value into a variable. So if I take a valuable numb now, the result is stored in this particle unknown variable on. If I print known now you can see I got my reserve 30. So that's how things work with return. So whenever I'm going to use our return, I need to store that value into a variable. And then, with the very well, I can do anything here. I use that variable to pray I can directly past this operation. Oh, in my redone itself. So let me do that and try to clean this up on the program, you can see I still got same result. So that means I can utilize your done in a better manner on reduced their redundancy. Okay, I hope things going well, let us do some task on understand things in a better manner. So write a program that include a function on the function accepts, do and use. Now the values can be in string or flu or any other value. So if the data type of food the values are seen, then we need Tokcan, Captain eight. Or add them. If both will lose us string, we need to con captain ate them on. If both values are in teacher, we need to add them. And if both the data types are not seen, we have to show some error or show some message to the user. I hope that's pretty clear. Now, let me clear this up on take the approach from the scratch. So we have to write a function that would basically do some off two things. It can be concatenation or addition. So I will be keeping my function name as some on going to get to import so I can use simple names. Now, once we get to import, we need to check if the data diapers. Seymour, Not so here. I'm using if condition to check if both their data types are seem on, if that is the case, I can return the value off. Their addition is What I can do is I can return a message regarding that the state of SaiPan. Or seem. Now what Apple is toe call this particular function. So just call this and we need to pass through arguments. So let me take my name first. Remember, I'm using return. So while using return, I have to store this particular function by new into a variable and then bring a or I can just use this particular value inside a brain. So let us do in a simple manner. I hope things looks easy. Let me change this one. So it would not be confusing. Let me run this one. Okay. I got my name correctly, but I have to add a space. That is fine. Let me pass to numbers. Yeah, it won't. I got my result. But what if I try to pass one string on one in teacher, Let me do that also. Now let me on this one. You can see I got a message. That data type are different. So you are. My program is working. Fine. So the motive off this lecture wants to make you understand that I can use different type of conditions, loops inside my function on how return works Exactly. So I don't need toe contain variables, too many variables to increase my code structure. So instead of doing that, I can radically use return at different stages. Also, you might be having a thought that why I'm not printing directly here, so it would have decreased my code size. But that thing is, they never be start writing long functions. It is a better practice to return thing instead off printing at that particular point because when you're going toe debug the code, it will be here difficult. If you're function is off 300 lines off court or 200 lines off court, you have to search a lot off thing. So good practice to follow just returned things Once you get the result in a particle, a function stole that in a variable and printings. So in the next lecture, if we are going to do more about functions, see you in the next one 36. Formal and Actual Arguments (arg, *arg, **karg): now in this lecture, let us take a deep type with arguments. So arguments out ofour time. The 1st 1 is positional argument. 2nd 1 is keyword argument Thoroughness before document on 4th 1 is variable length argument . So these are pretty simple on. All you have to do is understand the concepts. If you are able to understand them, you can write some pretty good functions really easily. So the 1st 1 is traditional argument. That means if I'm calling a function and I have a para meter off item and price So these are in position that while calling a function I have to past, I don't force then Price. In this example, I write a pretty simple function that is shop on. It is accepting two parameters that is item in price and then printing them. So I call this particular function. Now I have to pass them in the same sequence. So I have to pass. I don't first and then price. And if I run this function, I'm work to get the simple isn't. You see, I got my eye damage sugar and tries this 50. So that means if I try to pass these in a different order and try to run this. Come on, you can see my result of Stokely miss. Now my item is 50 and prices sugar. That means with traditional argument I have to pass them in a particular sequence To overcome this problem. We have keyword arguments. That means why calling this particular function I just defined that this is the particle of para meter for passing. That means I can define that this particular argument is for price on this particular argument is for item so I can define them while calling this particular function. So now if I run this function, you can see the result is in a proper manner. So all I have done is they find that particular keyword. So this is going to solve a lot off problem now we need to talk about is default argument. So with the fort argument, we need to mention our default. Where, Lou for a perimeter, that means I can mention a value for this particular price. So if I do that 60 and now, if I'm not passing any value for that particular price, it is going to take it as 60. So if I run this, you can see item is sugar and prizes 60. But if I try to pass any value for their and try to run this one again, you can see I record the particle of a new which have passed. That means. But before it argument, if there is a new value missing, it would take that particular default value. So maybe there is a default value for sugar at 60. And if I'm not passing any value, it will take us 60 every day. But if I'm passing a value from my side with the function, it will take my value now. Taylor, things were going well because we have two parameters and we are passing only two arguments . That means we are passing only two values. But the next thing we knew talk about this variable length argument. Now things will be changed on this is the important point that you need to understand. I'm taking a new example for very violent argument. So with this example, I'm taking student name. It's class. I know there is a difference in the spelling off class because correct spelling off class is itself a keyword, so I cannot use that. So I'm using this sealers. I'm taking name, class and Mark. So what if I need to pass Name, glass and marks? That's true that I'm using. My name is Trayvon. Classes tend and mark since 90. Okay, hit me on this one. Things are going well because our variable length is similar on Let me change something. What if I need to pass marks off three subjects? So what after do is use a district? That means I'm telling the function that there can be many values for this particular argument. So now if I passed any number of values, it would be taken into marks. So my Schumann value will be into names. My tent, that is my class, Will, you will be into class. And all the father values would be inside my marks on. If I run this one, you can see it deceived estoppel. So what actually happened is my shoe bomb value is in the name. 10 is into class and all the remaining values are into my mosque. That means I'm using my people arguments. So I'm passing three values at a time and save inside marks on. It has saved us topple. Most importantly, if any point of time I want to print that, I have to use my fall. Let me coming. This one on based is dear. On brand X, you can see what actually happened. Name is splendid. Classes sprinted and then with the help off my for loop I'm using attrition inside the double and printing them. That's good. We have now multiple arguments for a single key word that is for mosque. We have three values and you can't pass any number off values. Now the next thing I need to talk about this multiple keepers, multiple keyword means the previous example. We were mentioning arguments. I have to mention name as Chuan, then my class. And now I can also define all these value to a particular subject. I can define this as English. Nobody. It will be taken care by Marx itself, my maths and my physics. Now don't forget to add another Estrich. That means you're using multiple keepers. In the previous example, we were using multiple values. Now we're using multiple keywords so the result will not be as a couple. This result will be as additionally let me run this one. So here what actually happened is I passed my name. It is printed. I passed my class. It s sprinted now These three are sailed as stationary inside my marks. So, while printing this what actually happened? Is it printed? Mikey Soto, print my value are to print my key and value pair. I have to use a different method. But before that let me come in This one Um print here you can say about my dessert name echelon classes thing. And my marks is as this Mali In the previous example it was a stubble. So go print. My result from dictionary All after do is use my key value pair extend fire on I have to give all the items here on with my ex. I also have toe plane My wife things look good. Let me clear this out. Bring this one You can see now I have name echelon, class Stenton, all the father marks. I can also do more experiment. Maybe use a capital letter for passing my keywords on. Instead of printing my marks here, I can use my key here on just pass value. So what? I'm going to get us English than Poland and my Take me down this one. I hope the result is good named class English Mark Mats Mark on Physics Month. So this look, girls, you can do a lot more experimental. It function, I hope. No understand positional argument, keyword argument before argument and also the variable length argument. So remember to use single A strict when we are going to pass just values without these keywords. And whenever you are using these keywords, you have to use double Estrich. The result will be in trouble without keywords, and the result will be inside. Addition Eri with keywords. So that's all for this lecture. In the next lecture, we are going to talk about type off variable with the function situation. 37. Local and Global Variables: welcome back to a new lecture and I'm back on my some example. So in this letter B are going to talk about global and local very well. So all the very well that are upside any function outside any loop or outside everything and can be used globally our global very waas. That means if I have defined eggs here and I can use it anywhere, I can use that inside a function. I can use that inside any loop. So there is no restriction. That means this is a global variable and the value of X is going to remain us 10 at every place unless and until I change it. So that means exit spin on It's a global were able and I can use it anywhere Now if I take any variable inside this function may be said s 10. So this particular value is local variable. That means there is only defined inside this particular function and cannot be used anywhere is. And if I try to access it, it is going to give me an error. So let me take a simple example first. So here, if I try to do this basic son I got my result. That means my ex and my are working. So instead of doing that, some if I tried to print my ex here on in the next line If I try to print my why that means my ex and while are accessible inside this function also. But what if I take a new variable inside my function there on If I tried toe print that anywhere else it is going to give me an inner So here if I take sit as 50 and trying to principal here and also try toe print these Here let me take my dessert Let me outta line here now you can see I gotta So what actually happened as I took my exit? Why? As global variable, That means they can be acceptable from any point on my desert s local variable. So firstly, I call this particular function That means these trees statements are printed x y z Now inside our function I can exist global variable That means my x and y and also my local very with that is say now the next thing I did is printed this line And then I printed my ex in life. So these are global variable. I was able to print them, but while trying to print said I got that letter that there is not defined. That means I cannot exist. This said outside my particular function. So don't make this said as global variable All I have to do is defined set as global the simplest ways use a global keeper and then they find their as global. Now what I've done is I've declared their does global on whatever value I'm giving so that can be exist anywhere outside function. Also, let me run this command here. You can see I got my result. So the four threes desert are inside function and the next three desert are outside function on day were perfectly fine. So the motive off this lecture wants to make you understand about global and local variable . So see you in the next one. We are moving forward really well with all the fight on stuff. And I'm glad that you are continuing with your patients. And I hope you complete this course with all the concepts 38. Introduction to Object Oriented Programming (OOP): Hey, guys, welcome to a new more dune on in this model. I want to introduce a concept called object oriented programming system which we also call s groups, based on which languages like C press prints, shower fightin are created. So in this lecture, we are going to talk about some fundamental concepts off. Oops, while in the further lectures will be dive deep with each concept, the language like C Paschal. These are Corliss pro Caesar oriented programming language, since in these language a programmer usedto Caesar or a function to perform a task while developing so fear. The mean task is divided into several sub task and eat. Sub task is represented as a pro Caesar or a function, so the mean does is composed off several functions. This approach is called as pro Caesar oriented approach. And if you look at this particular figure, you will totally understand how this particular task is now divided into several sub task which is okay to follow for small programs. But when we jump on toe, big programs, big problems, big system Biggs offers. This concept cannot be used since the minimum