Public Relations: How to Be a Government/PIO Spokesperson | TJ Walker | Skillshare

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Public Relations: How to Be a Government/PIO Spokesperson

teacher avatar TJ Walker, Public Speaking and Media Training Expert

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

52 Lessons (1h 38m)
    • 1. How to Be a Government Spokesperson Promo

    • 2. How to Be a Government Spokesperson Intro

    • 3. How to Look Your Best on TV Overview

    • 4. How to Apply Makeup for TV Interviews

    • 5. How to Sit for TV Interviews

    • 6. How to Smile for TV Interviews

    • 7. How to Use Your Eyes During a TV Interview

    • 8. How to Move Your Head for Video Interviews

    • 9. How to Move Your Body for TV Interviews

    • 10. How to Move Your Hands for TV Interviews

    • 11. How to Sit in Your Chair for TV Interviews

    • 12. How to Stand for TV Interviews

    • 13. How to Dress for TV Interviews

    • 14. Video Record and See Your Improvement 2

    • 15. How to Be a Government Spokesperson Message

    • 16. How to Frame a Media Message

    • 17. A Media Message Answers all Basic Questions

    • 18. Media Messages Must be Interesting to Reporters

    • 19. Media Messages Must Resonate with Media Audience

    • 20. Your Media Message Needs to Benefit You

    • 21. Three is the Perfect Number of Media Messages

    • 22. Media Messages using a Venn Diagram

    • 23. Have a Positive Media Message

    • 24. How to Answer Questions in a Media Interview Overview

    • 25. How to Be a Government Spokesperson Answering Questions

    • 26. Answer One Question at a Time

    • 27. Keep Your Media Messages Simple, Simple

    • 28. Do Not Repeat Negative Words from a Reporter

    • 29. Tell Reporters 'I Don't Know'

    • 30. Always Be Moving toward Your Message Points

    • 31. Give Brief Answers to Tough Questions

    • 32. Re Write the Reporter's Questions in Media Interviews

    • 33. Aim for All Three Messages In Every Answer

    • 34. Don't Add One more thing at the End of the Interview

    • 35. Don't try to Control the Interview

    • 36. How to Be a Government Spokesperson Sound Bites

    • 37. What is a Sound Bite Overview

    • 38. Sound Bites Bold Action Words

    • 39. Sound Bites Reporters Love Cliches

    • 40. Sound Bites Emotion

    • 41. Sound Bites Give Specific Examples

    • 42. Sound Bites Absolutes

    • 43. Sound Bites Attacks

    • 44. How to be a Government Spokesperson Conclusion

    • 45. Sound Bite Tools Humor

    • 46. Sound Bite Tools Rhetorical Questions

    • 47. Sound Bite Tools Pop Culture References

    • 48. Three Easiest Sound Bite Tools

    • 49. Reflections on Sound Bites

    • 50. The 5 Outcomes of Every Media Interview

    • 51. Sound Bite Homework

    • 52. How to Be a Government Spokesperson Video Homework

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About This Class

Public Relations. Imagine yourself fielding reporters' tough questions at a heated press conference, and you appear perfectly confident, authoritative and on message. You can get the exact messages and quotes you want about your government agency into the news media.

How to be a Government Spokesperson

In this "How to be a Government Spokesperson" Public Relations course you will learn how to communicate to the media effectively as a representative of a government agency or bureau. The media hold government agencies and government officials to a higher level of accountability. As a government spokesperson, you will face greater skepticism and even hostility from the news media.

This course will teach you four main skills:

1. How to look comfortable, confident and relaxed anytime you go on TV or in front of a camera.

2. How to shape a three-part, thirty second media message for each interview.

3. How to answer reporters' questions in a strategic, focused manner.

4. How to package your messages with sound bites so that you will know in advance exactly what quotes of yours will appear in the final story.

You will learn the fundamentals of how to be a Public Relations spokesperson by the end of this course.

TJ Walker has been a government spokesperson while working as the director of communications for the Florida Department of Banking and Finance and as a press aid to Members of the US Congress.

Enroll in this Public Relations course today.

There is a 100% Money-Back Guarantee for this Public Relations course. And the instructor also provides an enhanced guarantee.

"5 Stars! Thank you for a very well organized course. It will be easy to find the points or topics I might want to read or see again as a refresher. You have very practical tips along with good explanations for the how-to's." Udemy student Paula Wethington

What others say:

“TJ Walker's single-minded devotion to presentation has made him the #1 expert for executives seeking guidance on speaking to the public and media." Bob Bowdon, Anchor/Reporter, Bloomberg Television

“TJ Walker is the leading media trainer in the world." Stu Miller, Viacom News Producer

(TJ Walker's Media Training Worldwide) “The world's leading presentation and media training firm."Gregg Jarrett, Fox News Channel Anchor

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

TJ Walker

Public Speaking and Media Training Expert


TJ Walker is the founder of Media Training Worldwide and has been conducting public speaking training workshops and seminars since 1984. Walker has trained Presidents of countries, Prime Ministers, Nobel Peace Prize winners, Super Bowl winners, US Senators, Miss Universes and Members of Parliament .

Walker has more than 100,000 online course enrollments and more than 100,000 online students.

His book, "Secret to Foolproof Presentations" was a USA Today # 1 Bestseller, as well as a Wall Street Journal, and Business Week Bestseller.

Walker is also the author of "Media Training AZ" and "Media Training Success."

In 2009, Walker set the Guinness Book of World Records for Most Talk Radio Appearances ever in a 24 hour period.

Walker has also served as a forme... See full profile

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1. How to Be a Government Spokesperson Promo: Are you a government spokesperson? Or would you like to be a government spokesperson? Let's face it, If you worked for the government and reporters are asking you questions, you could have a crisis every day you could be pounded. There could be an assumption that you're a liar. It's a tough, tough job. I'm T. J. Walker. I've been a government spokesperson in state government and for a member of the United States Congress and I have also trained spokespeople for governments all over the world. This course is going to teach you how to look your best. Sound your best any time you're on camera, how to shape a message, how to answer questions and get the exact quotes you want in the story. Sign up today. 2. How to Be a Government Spokesperson Intro : being a government spokesperson could be a challenging and rewarding job. You have the ability to reach millions, sometimes tens of millions, hundreds of millions of people with important messages that can drastically improve their lives or even save their lives. But there's a downside to because reporters, who might normally be polite, deferential to people in the business community see you as an open target. If you work for the government, there's often the assumption that you're a liar. You're obfuscating, you're hiding, you're doing something nefarious, and people on the Internet are going to dissect your every move and accuse you of doing something evil or for selfish purposes. So it's a tough job being a spokesperson for any government agency, any government official. But someone has to do it. I've been there. I know what it's like. I've been his press secretary and spokesperson for various politicians, campaigns and in government offices, and it is challenging. This course is going to teach you how to make the best of it. Specifically, how to look your best come across composed, comfortable, confident, relaxed even when an angry press corps is yelling, screaming at you, accusing you of lying accusing you of doing cover all sorts of things. You can still look comfortable, confident, poised, relaxed. That's the first goal. The second goal is knowing how to shape a message. How do you go from a complex subject? I mean, let's face that everything in government is complex because you're having to create policies that affect your entire community or state or country. So it's by definition complex. You've got to narrow your message down to a focused, clear cut, simple three part message, something that can be said in 30 seconds. The third goal is how to answer questions in an interview. A lot of reporters think that all people in government, all government spokespeople dodge questions, obfuscate and dance around the issue. You can't do that. You can't fit into the caricature. Well, I'm glad you asked me that jib, but what's really important here today and then, and I It's the question that doesn't work that makes you look like a fool, and that puts a bullseye on you for reporters to attack you and vilify you. So there is an art answering questions in such a way that the reporter feel somewhat satisfied. And yet you still get the message you want across, but that's what gets across. That's what we're after in this course. The fourth goal, the final goal. The most important goal is helping you get the exact quotes you want in the story, not dodging tough bullets, not controlling the interview, not getting the reporter toe like you. All those concepts are, frankly, a complete, utter waste of time. In my view, you need to look at this as a process defined as what are the results? What are the actual quotes that we got from our side from our spokesperson in this story? Now, if you are for government, you're not gonna be happy with every news story, and anyone who guarantees you otherwise is trying to trick you. But what you can do, what is a realistic goal is for you to get the quotes you want in that store. I'd much rather have a story where there are nine people trashing me and vilifying me, and I'm saying why what our government agency is doing is the right thing, then the have a story where there 10 people attacking me, and then a statement from the reporters saying a spokesperson for the office of such and such T. J. Walker refused to comment. That's not what you want, and by the way, I'm a big believer. You should never, ever, ever say no comment. There are times when you can't comment. Certainly there's lawsuits pending litigation when you can't come in. But you don't literally ever have to say no comment or I can't comment. You can always say we'd be happy to inform the public on that once it's worked its way through the courts, Sister, something in a positive way. We'll go over all that in the course in the lesson on how to answer questions. Those of the goals for this course, let's hop in. 3. How to Look Your Best on TV Overview: So what's more important when it comes to dealing with the media style versus substance? Folks? It's a old, tiresome debate. The reality is you always have tohave boat, so it's not enough to have a good message. Have good answers. Have good sound bites. If there's video involved, you have to look your best to. So don't listen to anyone who says Media trainers just all care about how to look good. It's really about substance that is complete, utter baloney. You have to have both, if you doubt, may think of it this way. If someone is applying to work for your desperate for a new assistant and they give you the perfect resume, its everything you're looking for, they're just what you need for your industry. It's just what you're looking for in your job. Their resume is perfect, but their cover letter has misspellings. No periods, no commas, no capital letters. What do you do with that person's application? I suspect you're going to throw it away now. On the other hand, what's going to happen if someone applies to you? They've got a perfect, perfect cover letter. It says everything you wanted here. The papers nice. The grammar that's spelling punch. Everything's perfect, but they've never had a single job for more than two months in their life, and everything is in the fast food industry and you're not in the fast food industry. What are you going to do with their application again? I suspect you're going to put that in the circular file because in that case, their styles great. But there's no substance. In the first case, they had the substance, but no style. You always have to have both. That's why it's critically important before you do any interview on television or video that you know how to look your best and sound your best. Because if you have a perfect message, But all of a sudden you look like this and you are sounding like a robot in stiff and looking scared and nervous. No one's gonna remember anything you said. All they're going to remember is out nervous. You look how scared you love, how awful you sounded. So that's why I need you to spend some time going through this part of the play list, looking at all of the videos on every aspect of how to look your best and sound your best on video because of even one thing is way off. No one's gonna remember what you know. If I'm doing the whole interview like this for the whole video like this, my credibility is gonna be destroyed. Gives you're gonna be thinking, What's up with that guys in a wind tunnel? Does he think he's cute? Is he trying to be styled? All these things were going to be going on in your head. That's why it's not that you have to be perfect or be one set way. But you can't be distracting when you're doing video interviews. So that's what this part of the playlist video serious will teach you. 4. How to Apply Makeup for TV Interviews: So here's the big picture. When it comes to make up, everybody else on TV is wearing makeup. So if you go on TV and you're not wearing makeup, you're gonna be the one who stands out. It's like going to a costume party and you're wearing a normal business suit. It's going to stand at it in the wrong wet. So here's what I'd recommend. And my advice is primarily for men. I'm going to suggest that most women have some experience with makeup, even though they don't wear makeup daily for men. The main thing you need is a little bit of powder on your face. You need powder to take away the shot. I already have some on. But just by putting powder on you go up to the forehead of your hair is thinning at all. It's not gonna make you look like you have thicker hair. It's just going to minimize the attention there because you're not gonna happen much shine . So put the makeup, the powder up to your hairline. I put it all over, put on your ear so they don't especially on the nose. Now I have some dark circles under my eyes. I've already put Cem Foundation makeup on you. Can you get that at any drugstore? You just want something that is the same color as your skin. Now I have this mosaic powder. It's a mixture of colors. That way it doesn't make me look darker than I am or later than I am, because you don't want to have a bunch of powder on and it's a nice tan. And then people see this line where the tan stops and your pale skin starts. So don't try to give yourself an extra tan. Give yourself plenty of powder under the eyes. If you have any dark circles and blotches, there can cover up some of the five oclock shadow, and that's really all you need most of the time. This is especially handy if you're on location. You're at a conference and a TV camera wants to. TV reporter wants to interview you If a TV crews coming to your office, they're not going to bring a makeup crew for you. It's your job to make yourself look your best, so you don't have to go out and hire fancy makeup crew just because a TV crews coming to your office, but I would recommend never going on TV without at least some part of you can get this for a few bucks at any drugstore. We're not talking about trip to Hollywood to get something really fancy. Anytime a TV station our TV network offers to do you make up? Yes, I would definitely take them up on it. Here's the keep. If it's done well, you're not going to look like you're wearing makeup. You'll simply have a neater, cleaner appearance and any imperfections you have or not magnified. The problem with not wearing makeup is you can look perfectly fine in person, but on TV, every freckle will get much larger. Every little cut on your skin if you have a shaving cut is going to be exposed. Circles that really don't look that dark in life in real life are going to be magnified and look much deeper and darker on camera. So that's why it's important to have makeup on every single time you do a video interview, I wear makeup, I would say 98% of the time when I'm doing videos here with you. It's a rare exception of I'm out in the field or I'm doing something on location and a great idea jumps out at me, Assure out, still do one. But if it's a controlled situation, you know it's coming. I would recommend that you put on makeup now. Advice to women I would say if you normally have any kind of rouge, minimize that because it will stand out mawr on video. Also, if you have any kind of lip gloss, the glossing this is going to dominate. If that's the image you want, that's fine. But just realize if it's too glossy or to read, that may be the number one thing people notice on screen. Otherwise your normal makeup should be fine. 5. How to Sit for TV Interviews: So, for starters, how do you sit when your own television? Everyone says, Oh, be relaxed. Be comfortable. Okay. Let me just sort of sit back and look relaxed. What do you notice now? If you're being honest and fair and heard about my feelings, you're probably noticing. Who is this fat guy with about three chins? Everyone looks they're worse. And that the camera were down lower. You'd see what looks like a gigantic belly. So everyone looks their worst sitting back relaxed. Now, another thing people do that looks awful. Is they set up perfectly straight. Hi. My name is T. J Walker. I help people look relaxed and comfortable on television. Do you see how awful that looks? I look stiff is a board that way? So you don't ever wanna have a so called perfect posture With the book balancing on your head. The best way to sit on TV is to hold yourself upon Lean forward about 15 degrees into the camera. Now, do you see three chins? Everyone looks better this way. Now it's not a particularly natural pose. I'm gonna go sideways. You can see this is not really a natural way of sitting, but on TV, you look your best. Now the camera is closer to your head rather than your belly. Now everyone has a stronger jawline, so you'll simply look more confident, more authoritative this way, and you'll look thinner to, even if you don't have a few extra pounds like I do. If you sit back relaxed. Even if you're perfectly fit, you will look heavier and sort of Roli poli. So I'm not making any judgments about the qualities of people of varying weights. Goodness knows I'm overweight myself. I'm just saying. In general, most people like to look their best on TV and holding yourself up high leaning forward 15 degrees into the camera will help you do just that. 6. How to Smile for TV Interviews: So what do you do with your face during a TV interview? Now that seems like a silly question to a lot of people. What do you know what I do with my face? I'm listening to someone. I'm listening. Here's the problem. If you are on a video interview, a TV interview, you may be introduced by the reporter hosted, but some sort of public affairs show, talk show and the cameras on you. But the problem is for most of us when we're listening to someone or face goes blank. So if someone is introducing me next up, Ladies and gentlemen, we have a world class media trainer to the stars. They're saying all these good things about me and here's what they see. Tell me how this makes you feel. Is that impressive? Most people would say no, that I look don't bored, boring, uninterested Many, many bad things happen because unfortunately, a blank look on TV looks worse than it does in real life. It sort of brings you down that makes you look duller and like you're just not interested in being there and certainly like you're not having a good day, so you don't want to do that. Here's my recommendation. You need a little bit of a smile on your face. I don't mean a gigantic TV of Angeles smile, and I don't mean a frozen smile. I just mean a little bit of a smile. Here I am going to intentionally smile a little while listening. Get not sure I get it. It's just a little bit of you. Don't even have to show any teeth If you don't want to, A little bit of a smile will make you look more relaxed. It will make you look more comfortable now. Here's the trick. Here's what's counterintuitive. If you have a little bit of a smile on your face, it will not look like a smile. You will simply look more relaxed. We're comfortable and more confident now here's the really tricky part. If it is some sort of crisis, there's bad news. You obviously don't know unify people were injured today. You don't want to have a big smile on your face. Obviously, that can rub people the wrong way. Make it seem as though you're being frivolous. That's not what I'm suggesting. What I am suggesting is just the slightest bit of upward turn what feels like a slight smile on your face. Even during bad news in a crisis, situation will not look like a smile. You will simply look more relaxed, more comfortable and more confident. 7. How to Use Your Eyes During a TV Interview: when you're on television or any sort of video, your eyes really tell us, and your eyes can either help you or be distracting. So, for example, if I'm doing this the whole time, Hi, I'm T. J Walker and very trustworthy. I'd like you to send all of your kid's college education money to my hedge fund Off shore. I look literally shifty eyed. You don't want to do that. The best thing to Dio when you're on camera is to simply look not necessarily at the camera but at the reporter. Look at one person. That's the best thing to do. If there's no reporter around, you're making your own YouTube videos. Will, by all means, look at the camera. But what you don't want to dio It's like the reporter. Look at the camera. Look at the reporter. Look at the camera. You will do literally shifty eye. If you're in a TV studio and there's a monitor, a round of television screen may show you. And here's what happens. You're looking at the monitor. Think Oh, my ties, looking just right. And let me get rid of that slight wrinkle. I can't actually see my eyes moving now. By the time my eyes move over over to the screen, I can't see any movement. But to you watching it obviously looks horrible. So my recommendation Simply look at the reporter of the whole time. If there is no report, then and only then look at the camera. Do not have your eyes shifting around. Now. If you're in a panel discussion, what can happen is you're trying to make everyone feel included and you're doing this and you look like the top of a water sprinkler with your head going around. I would recommend look at one person for 2030 seconds or so. Then go to another person. You'll look steadier, much more confident. The eyes are really important. Out here is the other thing that gets people in trouble. You're ask the tough questions. Ah, that's a good question. I'm glad you asked me that. If I look up on TV, I look like I'm just gonna make up stuff. Start lying. Most of us when we're thinking we're trying to recall information, we do Look up. I would recommend try to maintain eye contact with a reporter or the camera. There's no reporter around. If you have to look away, look down for a second. You look more thoughtful, reflective. When you look up, it's more like, Oh, please, God, send me an answer. You don't want to do that. 8. How to Move Your Head for Video Interviews: My name is T. J. Walker at Media Training Worldwide. We help people communicate effectively to the news media and other audiences. Do you see what's wrong with that? I might have had a good message, but nothing was moving. Nothing was moving, but my lips my head was frozen. If you want to be an effective communicator on video, not just TV interviews but any video interview, you have to move your head. Now. If you doubt me, watch your favorite newscaster tonight and hit mute. You're going to see their head moving to left to the right Back up. Eyebrows were moving. Eyes are bigger, smaller. There's simply a lot of movement. There's expression, all human beings, when they're comfortable when they're relaxed, especially if they're talking about something. They have an interest in their head moves. So it's not enough to simply have the right message. You have got to look natural in the process now. The problem, of course, is people say, Well, act natural. If you're doing an interview and you're scared, the natural thing is to freeze your head and try to remember that message and get that message just right, so telling you to simply act natural doesn't really help. You're going tohave to practice the way you look natural. When you're not scared, that means moving your head. And if you have to consciously think about it and practice it before you do your interview , that's fine. If you have to think about in the middle of the interview or the beginning of the interview to get it going, that's fine, too. But you cannot have your head simply frozen. It's not about keeping your head perfectly straight. Sometimes people say, Oh, TJ, I see my head is cocked one way I don't want to do that So they're consciously keeping their head strip. No, everybody's had is one side or the other. Occasionally, it's not a problem. If you're had to lean one side or the other is long is it doesn't stay in any one spot too long. You need movement with your head, with your face, with your eyes and eyebrows. 9. How to Move Your Body for TV Interviews: in order to really look comfortable on TV after move your whole body. Now I don't mean you have to be like Richard Simmons and get out of your chair and run around the studio. But I mean, from the waist up, while you're doing a seated interview, you need to move. Look forward sometimes backward to the side. If you're perfectly straight the whole time, even if your head is moving, your face is really you're going to look literally stiff and uncomfortable. So it's not that you'd want toe be like a grandfather clock going the same way. It's nothing consistent. It's just when you want to make a point and your Vatikai BBA LEAN FORWARD. If you're shocked dealing backward, there's a full range to your body. You're not frozen. Your not stiff get shouldn't be distracting in any way, but people overcompensate by stiffening up by being frozen. You don't want that If your hands are moving, your face is moving. Your head is moving. Your body should be moving a little too, because that's what people do when they're communicating and talking and they're engaged and they're passionate about their subject. Their body moves if you doubt me? Find Oprah on the own channel watcher with the mute button on and you're gonna find it's not just her lips moving. It's not just her hands moving or ahead. Move it. Her whole body is moving. I don't care who your favorite communicator is. It could be Rush Limbaugh, all anyone that you really admires. A communicator. When you find them speaking and they're on video, they're communicating with their whole body. It's not just their mouth, and it's not just their lips or time of their whole body is moving. 10. How to Move Your Hands for TV Interviews: So you're about to do a TV interview. What do you do with these? It's one of the first questions I get. People somehow have the mistaken notion that if you wanna look professional, confident, you have to freeze your hands. Sit on your hands immobilizing by holding a pencil or pen. Nothing could be further from the truth. Now it's at the end of the world if you don't move your hands. But in my experience, and I've worked with more than 10,000 plants from six continents, when people they're comfortable and confident their hands move. Now in theory, is it possible to move your hands over your face and be gesturing wildly and distracting? That's possible, but it's extremely rare. I've never in fact, had a client who gestured so wildly that it was district. Oh, you see it on sitcoms and movies. But I don't actually find that to be true in real life. Not what I do find true is people freezing their hands, and I'm holding it a little bit higher than normal for the camera range. They freeze their hands, they phrased their arms that freeze their shoulders. Next thing you know, their vocal cords get kind of frozen to get this kind of high on T. J. Walker. I'm very happy to be here today. Everything about them seems frozen, So my recommendation is, Do not hold your hands in your lap. In fact gesture. Move your hands when you move your hands, you'll come across more comfortable or confident relaxed, and it warms up your whole body. Your face moves more. Your vocal chords will move. Mawr. You will come across conversational people won't come up to you after the interview and say , Wow, I really like the way you move your hands. It's not going to hit them at a rational level, but at the gut level, you're going to come across as much more confidence. So do not try to freeze your hands when you're talking on TV. Instead, you want to move your hands as long as they're not above your chin, which most people don't dio. And maybe you're not going in a way out here to one side. But if you keep them under your chin, no wider than your shoulders and to sort of the middle of your torso, even if it's not picked up on the cameras right now, You don't see my hands moving, but my body is moving a little more. My voice sounds conversational, in part because my hands were moving. 11. How to Sit in Your Chair for TV Interviews: for tips on have sit for a TV interview. My recommendation is if you're in a swivel chair, be careful because it looks like you're doing the hokey pokey. You do not want to move from the waist down. If you have a choice of not sitting in a chair that swivels, try to avoid one of those if it'll possible. Now, if you have an arm rest, I would recommend not leaning on the arm rest. Once you do that, you've immobilized yourself and you're much less expressive and you don't move as well. I'd also recommend you not sit on all the way back and lean against the back of the chair. You do that again. Your head shrivels double shins appear and you sort of shrink. You wanna hold yourself up high. Lean forward about 15 degrees into the camera. Sit on the front 2/3 of the chair. Don't lean on the arm. Rest. Don't lean on the back. The best thing to do. Don't cross your legs feet flat on the floor, or you can have ankle over ankle and feet back. That way, you're leaning forward. You're holding yourself up high, and it's a neat, clean appearance 12. How to Stand for TV Interviews: If you're doing a standing interview for TV here, some dues adults do not stand with your hands. Sort of held together. Fig leaf position in front of you. It will look like you have to go to the bathroom. Do not hold your hands behind yourself. It looks as though you are handcuffed. You've been arrested in your about to be taken off to prison. So, people So what do you do? What do I do with my hands? The thing to do with your hands is what you do all day long. When you talk, you move your hands perhaps not as high as this, but you still move your hands. If you're listening to someone, my advice have your fingertips almost touching. And then when you start to talk, move your hands as you normally do. The other bit of advice Do not stand with your feet shoulder width apart because without realizing it, you could be nervous and rock back and forth. You're much better off one foot forward, one foot back This way You really can't rock sideways. If you rock a little bit front and back, it will be much less noticeable to the camera 13. How to Dress for TV Interviews: So what's the best way to dress if you're going to be on television? The main rule of thumb is you don't want to distract your audience or confused them. You want them to focus on your message. And Teoh, they're looking at what you're wearing to figure out the let make sense with who this person is now. Since most of my clients are business people who were suits, I wear a suit. If you are of on God Artist, you don't want to wear something that looks like a conservative business suit. Do you wanna have something really colorful and interesting? I also work with dairy farmers. If you're dairy farmer, you don't want to wear a suit. You wanna wear jeans, work pants and something that's appropriate for what it is you do. The main thing is, you don't want to confuse people Now. There are some rules of the white is typically too bright for the camera because it simply becomes the brightest thing on the screen. So you could just see this is now the greatest thing on this. I want your face to be the brightest thing on the screen. This vital A is not a white shirt. It's a off white, and it can appear on some screens to be almost white. That's okay. You want to avoid White? I would avoid bright red red conduce. Oh, it's called bleeding. You move and it's still pick slating over here, bright stripes and patterns can pixel ate, jump around and be distracting. Now this suit has a pinstripe, but it's so subtle and so dark it doesn't really distract. So I think that's okay. This tie is somewhat muted now. It's not the most interesting time. Nothing of what I'm wearing is gonna win fashion awards for the most part, But that's the point. I'm not trying to win fashion awards. I'm trying to get people to focus on my message. So whatever you're wearing, keep that a month. Now that relates to jewelry is well, if you have so many interesting bracelets and rings, people will focus on that general rule of thumb for men. You know one ring and the only other jewelry I have are tough legs and a watch that's not going to confuse or distract anyone. If you're a woman, perhaps one ring on each hand, but we have more than that, people are going to start focusing on your rings. And if you have colorful necklaces and broaches, people can ignore what you're saying and focus on your jewelry. Do you want that now? These air general rules of thumb that I believe will help you most the time in most situations, but they're always counter examples. Madeleine Albright, known for always having a big, colorful broach on her dress, didn't seem to hurt her career. She became the first female secretary of state of the United States, so there are always ways of breaking the rules and still being successful. But first you should at least know the rules. 14. Video Record and See Your Improvement 2: Now that I've showed you all the basics of how to look your best and come across comfortable and relaxed, I want you to again pick up your cell phone with a video recorder or a webcam or any device that will record you in a video format. And I want you just to talk about who you are, your business and whatever it is you're trying to promote, it could be getting a job for yourself. I want you to capture yourself on video. Now here's the key again. Don't just focus on the fact that you don't like your voice or you don't like your hands. I want you to really pinpoint anything. You did better this time better than the first time you did it earlier. In this course, focus on your strengths and where you're improving. That's how you learn any skill. You don't teach a small child to walk by. Say how you fell down. You'll never walk. You build on the string, so I want you to really take note as to what you liked better this time 15. How to Be a Government Spokesperson Message: When you are a government spokesperson and you're trying to come up with your message, you always have to look at things from the standpoint of what are you trying to communicate ? What is the media interested in and what do the citizens care about? You have to factory in all of those things. And the problem a lot of government spokespeople have is they don't factor in all of those . They just focus on what they want to talk about. So, for example, if the head of your agency is under indictment for theft or for stealing something and a reporter calls you up and wants to talk about that, you can't just say the number one concern of this agency is protecting the consumers, right? Teoh, get a good loan on the No, you can't dodge a question like that. You can't just force what you want to talk about in a vacuum. If you have a message that you know isn't of interest to the reporter, throw it away. It's garbage. You're not going to get away with it, so you've got to really give a lot of thought to the message. The most important part of any interview of any press statement of any press conference is what is your message? If you have a weak message, then you congestion er the right way. Have the right makeup on have great sound bites. It's not going to matter. The message is the fundamental keystone of the whole interview and the whole media exercise . So you've got to make sure you have a strong message. I'm gonna walk you through all the elements you need for any successful media message. Do realize again, as I mentioned throughout reporters hold you to a much higher standard. If you are someone in the private sector, you're a computer consultant and they ask you questions about you know who your competitors . Let's see your quarterly results. If you fudge that a little, they're likely just to go on. But if you're a government agency and you're taking tax dollars and the reporter ask you exactly how much was spent on that snow cleanup last month, you've got to have an exact answer and you can't waffle. You can't say, kind of maybe sorta, you've got to be precise, so realize the standards are much higher. The media's holding you, too, much greater accountability than they are to someone of the private sector. Someone and a nonprofit someone of NGO. They can get a pass. Sometimes you can't. That's why you have to really, really give thought to exactly the best message for this topic. Now let's hop right into the exercises on messaging. 16. How to Frame a Media Message: So what is a medium message, and why should anyone have one? When I say a media message, what I mean is everything that you have to communicate on a particular subject, that you can boil down to a 32nd message, something you can say with just three points. That doesn't mean that's all that's gonna come out of your mouth in an interview. Let's step back for a minute. Reporters get to pick the topic unless it's your press conference that you've called reporters pick the topic for the media interview, but you get to pick your message. What you think is most important now. General way of thinking about this is what would you say to the reporter if they said you wouldn't let you write the first paragraph of this story? We're gonna give you a free 32nd commercial to say whatever you want on this topic now reporters. We're not going to do that, But if they did, what would you say? It's a great mental exercise to help you frame what's most important. As Mark Twain once said, I'm sorry I wrote you a long letter. I didn't have time to write you a short letter and actually takes more time, more intellect to think about what is most important to boil it down to your most important points. Ah, lot of people erroneously believe this is about dumbing it down for the media. There's nothing dumb about it. It's about you looking at every idea you could say on this subject, whether it's 50 60 70 80 ideas and then putting them in priority and figuring out what are your top three messages. Because this is what you'll come back to again and again in the interview. Not that you're going to ignore other questions and just say your message, but you've got to have a sense of what is most important to you. And that's what the next videos in this playlist, Syria's will cover the all the elements you need to know and to think about when you're coming up with your media message. 17. A Media Message Answers all Basic Questions: when you're coming up with the media message, the first thing you gotta ask yourself is one of the basic questions that I just know the reporters going to ask about this topic now we can't read a reporter's mind. We can't brainstorm on every possible question because their unlimited number of theoretical questions that could be asked by a reporter on any topic at any time. But if you already know the specific topic, you probably know the basic who, what, When, where, Why questions reporters going to ask? So when you're coming up with your media message, Ah, good media message answers. The basic questions with we know we're coming doesn't mean every possible question. But if the topic of discussion is you've had an explosion at your factory and five people are missing, you know, the reporter's gonna ask, what caused the explosion is the danger over who's missing and our people safe. And you just know those questions air coming. So you have to plan accordingly. A good media message answers the basic questions. You know, we're coming on that topic 18. Media Messages Must be Interesting to Reporters: When you're coming up with a good media message, you have to ask yourself, Will the news media find this message interesting and relevant? If the answer is no, it, by definition is not a good media message for any sort of edited interview because they're just going to throw that away. This is a fundamental fact that Ah, lot of people just don't realize. They think they can say, Well, you know, our marketing department six months ago came up with a research study that said, Safety is our number one message. Well, if the issue of the day is that there was an explosion Inter plant and several people are injured and 2 may be killed, you cannot just come out at a press conference or an interview and just say, safety is our number. One concern is that reporters were going to say that is complete baloney. They want to know about this particular issue. How did this happen? What are you going to do to solve this? What you gonna do to make sure this doesn't that? But again, are people in danger? So you cannot try to shoehorn some message into an interview into an edited meaty interview . If you know a reporter is going to find that idea, that message uninterested. So this is one of the criteria points you use went coming up with your message. If you can't say confidently that you believe this message is going to be interesting to the reporter, then you should, by definition scratch it off your list. It's not a good media message. 19. Media Messages Must Resonate with Media Audience: when testy. Immediate message. You have to ask yourself, Is this message going to be relevant and interesting to the readers, viewers, listeners of this media outlet? Because there can be times when you have a message, it's important to you. The reporter finds it fascinating, but the audience of this publication or this medial it simply finds it un interesting case in point. Many, many years ago, I worked with a number of politicians who ran for office on the message that they weren't taking PAC money. They were not taking special interest political action committee money in their bid for Congress. This was an important message to the politician, and it was a fascinating message to political reporters. Political reporters found this interesting fastening they wrote column after column after column on this topic. Sounds like a great message, right? Guess what? The readers, viewers, listeners of these media outlets didn't care. The voters did not care about PAC money because they didn't know what Pac money waas or they did. They didn't care. So guess what happened to every one of those candidates. They all lost their bid for public office. Their message did not resonate so remember, it's never enough to have a message that's interesting to you. It's not enough to have a message that reporters will find interesting. You have to focus on the ultimate audience, the ultimate audience, the readers, viewers, listeners of that media outlet. If it's not an interesting, relevant message for them, it, by definition is not a good media message. 20. Your Media Message Needs to Benefit You: There's one element of your media message that often goes overlooked, and that is something that helps you. I mean, you are spending your time with this reporter for this interview, so you should get something out of it now. The popular perception, especially among reporters, is that people go too far in this, and they plug the name of their book every two seconds that are obnoxious about it. In my experience, for most people most of the time, the far bigger problem is they're so focused on the reporter making the reporter happy. Do you have enough information to answer your question that they forget to actually have a message that promotes their own business, their own cause, their own organization? So don't forget about that Now. You need to have a message that helps you. That is also of interest to the reporter and of interest to the audience. But don't forget toe. Have something about yourself. You can't simply be responding to questions and being reactive to the reporter and giving the reporter a tutorial the whole time. Then it's not a win win situation. You want the reporter to feel like he or she won because you're giving them great ideas, great insights, great information. But you need to feel that you have one, too, and that comes from you getting a positive message about what it is you're doing. 21. Three is the Perfect Number of Media Messages: when you're coming up with your media message, you've got to write them all down, preferably put him on a computer screen, hold them up to scrutiny. But then you've got to put them in priority. Think of it is your top three or your gold bronze silver medal of messages. Think of it as your very best because you could come up with 50 messages on a topic of interest of this report. 100 messages. If you try to communicate 50 messages, chances are the reporter will pick the three that are the least important to you that don't even make sense outside the context of the other 47. That didn't get into the story. So you've got to use your intellect, your intelligence, your knowledge of the subject matter to put your messages in priority. This is your judgment. So much of being a great media communicator has nothing to do with having a voice a certain way or smiling. A. Certainly it's about using your judgment, and you need to use your judgment to figure out what are your top three messages. So do not forget that come up with your top three. You need to have written down on a single sheet of paper, a note card, computer screen or your iPhone you need to have a strong sense of, exactly not a handful. Are you no fewer than 10? But I mean exactly three messages. Fewer than that. It just seems repetitive. It's not interesting enough. More than three messages. Chances are you're not going to get some of those in the final story, so that's why three really is the perfect number. 22. Media Messages using a Venn Diagram: sometimes the best way to think of your media messages with a then diagram. Here's what I would recommend here is you. Here's every possible message you could say on a particular topic. There may be 50 or 100 messages. Next. You've got a look at the reporter. That's an R for reporter. Here's all the different messages they find interesting in a particular subject area where they're interviewing you. Finally, you've got to come up with what the audiences interested there's the A for audience. Think of all the messages they are interested in on a particular topic. And what you've got to do is be very, very careful at not putting out a message that is, for example, over here. Some people have a message that their corporate message we are always about safety. That's not something that reporter finds interesting. It's not going to get into the story. We don't take PAC money. Well, that's not something the audience cares about. You've got to look at what is in this sweet spot, what's just in that area there of messages that you find important reporters find interesting and that your public, the audience of that media outlet will find interesting, important and relevant. It takes a lot of work and effort sometimes to find this sweet spot. The tendency is to either go too far, one extreme of what you want that isn't of interest to the other or to go too far into an extreme of what a reporter wants. That doesn't help your cause. So think of the Ben diagram that will be immensely helpful to you in coming up with your own media message. 23. Have a Positive Media Message: when you're coming up with the media message, it's critically important that you have something positive to say, and I don't mean sugarcoating things or distorting things. But if there's a natural disaster and people have been hard, a flood talk about how you proactively reached out to authorities. Talk about how you're actively reaching and rescuing people. Don't just talk about the doom and gloom again. Not saying sugarcoat things, but you need to have some positive message. Whether it's a crisis issue are just a general profile of your business or about your latest book. Have a positive message because if you do say something negative, there's a good chance that overwhelms your whole message that dominates. Reporters do like things where there's controversy. If you're attacking someone, even if it's yourself, that can quite often dominate the message. So please be sure that at least part of your message is profoundly positive. Otherwise, you run the risk of being just completely surrounded by negativity. 24. How to Answer Questions in a Media Interview Overview: So how do you answer questions in a media interview? Now, at first blush, that seems like a silly question. Because you've been answering questions your whole life. Here's the problem. When you're talking to a reporter, it's not a normal conversation. Well, why is that? Because when you talk to a family member, a business colleague, an executive teacher, you're in control the whole context. You can see when the conversation begins. When there's a middle. When there's an end, you can understand and see if someone's getting it. You can reference up and you said five minutes ago and see if the person understands it. That's the way you've been talking your whole life. All of that is completely different when you're talking to reporters, cause a reporter can talk to you for five minutes, 50 minutes, five days and pull 15 word phrase out of what you said. Put in a story. Blow it up and it's the front page of The New York Times. So not only can reporters quote you out of context, they have to quote you out of context. They're quoting you out of the context of the entire conversation they had with you. So because of that, everything you dio when you're in a conversation with a reporter has to be different from a normal conversation. I'm gonna give you some tips in the next 10 or so videos in this playlist on how to answer questions in an interview. It is completely unlike the normal way of answering questions in normal conversations. 25. How to Be a Government Spokesperson Answering Questions: you got a message. That's great, But you can't just trot out your message. If you're Tom Cruise or some Hollywood celebrity and really famous, yes, you can come out, hold a press conference, read your statement, said. That's it. No questions today, and you could get away with it, at least for a little while. You cannot get away with that. As a public official, as a spokesperson for a public official, you're being paid for by tax dollars and governments. In a democracy, there is a presumption of transparency. You've got to be able to answer questions. A CEO, a private sector consultant executive, can get away with a lot as faras, dodging certain questions slithering away. But reporters love to say to a politician, You're dodging the question. Don't dodge the question. You're being a weasel here. They love to point out when reporters there, when political figures dodge questions when spokesperson's Dodge questions. So you know it's coming, so you're going to have to answer questions. But I want to give you some tips here, some strategies to answer in a way that doesn't hurt you. They're gonna be tough questions that assume you and everyone in the agency is somehow corrupt, nefarious, doing things to harm people. There is a presumption among some of the media that anybody who would even work for government is evil tainted communist or fascist or something awful. And the tendency is to want to defend yourself and be defensive. Anytime you're defending in the media you're losing. You have to simply state your answers in a completely positive context. Even if the question has incredibly negative context, I'll give you tips on how to do this. But do you remember you're gonna have to answer questions. The key for the tough, nasty questions, the unfair question of the brutal questions You'll get all of those you have to answer briefly, blandly, and then you have to move to the message points you care about the most. That's the skill we're gonna work on now. 26. Answer One Question at a Time: when you're being interviewed, sometimes reporters will ask you several questions. Is it this or that? Or what about that? Maybe they're trying to rattle you, but sometimes they're just thinking out loud. So they may have asked you three or even four questions all at once. Don't try to be the college professor and say, Well, let me take your fourth question first in your third question. Second, don't make the mistake of choosing the most intellectually challenging question or the most interesting question. What you need to dio is to listen all the questions very strategically and ask yourself which one of these questions helps me get back to one of my three message points as quickly as possible and then answer just that question. You're not telling the reporter you're not answering the others. You're not trying to control the reporter at all. What you're simply doing is making a choice and doing something you're supposed to be doing . Answering the reporter's question and something you're supposed to be doing. Getting back to your message points. The reporter can't accuse you of dodging questions if you answered one of his her questions , ideally, you've said something so interesting in your answer that relates to your message. The reporter now wants to ask Follow up questions about what you said in your message. Or maybe not. Maybe the reporter wants to go back to one of those other questions you didn't answer. That's OK, that's fair. But you need to have a strategy. Your strategy is not to simply answer. Every single question is, if you're a reference librarian, your strategy is to listen and focus on something that will help you get to your message point as quickly as possible. So answer just one question at a time. 27. Keep Your Media Messages Simple, Simple: when you're coming up with your messages for the media, it's good to remember. Keep it simple, but not because you're stupid or reporters or stupid or the audience is stupid. When you're coming up with media message, it's Cruz School that you avoid complexity. Complexity is your enemy, not because reporters air stupid. It's just that you're the expert on what you do. Reporters have to be experts on many, many things are often generalists. They may understand what you're talking about, but by the time they compress ah, half hour our conversation into a 750 words story, certain things get lost. Now this reporter may get it just right, but the editor compresses it further, and each time there's compression, something can be lost. The most effective media communicators are good, not just stringing words together and smiling and having good sound bites. But really figuring out at everything I could say on this subject. How can I focus on just a few points that are simple to understand? And no matter how they're sliced, diced, edited, reorganized, reconstituted people can still understand them. And if there's a complex in a idea and they're saying you know what? Let's leave that for the white paper for the book. The speech. It's not necessarily a good media message. So you eliminate complexity from your media message, it will increase the odds that you're happy with the final results. 28. Do Not Repeat Negative Words from a Reporter: Are you a crook? Do you beat your spouse? Well, no. Another crook. No, I don't beat myself. No, that's not how you ever want to answer a question from a reporter. Do not repeat the negative words embedded in the reporter's question. Now, reporter cannot literally put words in your mouth, but if you repeat the words in their question, you're essentially giving them that power. But they're not the one messing up. It's you. They're not the one doing anything inappropriate. It's you do not repeat the negative words that are embedded in a question. Are you a crook? I'm proud of the fact that I've always operated my business with the highest level of integrity and honesty and transparency. The reporter cannot accuse me and dodging the question, but I did not use the reporter's words. I answered the question, and I used my own words. Do not repeat the negative words of a reporter 29. Tell Reporters 'I Don't Know': I don't know. Those three magical words can save you a hole on a trouble in your media career. If you use them effectively now, the problem many people have is they rested. Question. They don't know the answer, but they don't want to seem dumb or ill informed. So they guess, or they make up something. If you do that in your wrong, you have perhaps destroyed your credibility with a reporter. If the reporter puts the information that's erroneous in the media outlet, you've harm the reporters reputation, so don't guess. Now if it's something that you don't know and you think you could easily find out and you're not on live TV, then I would say the report. I don't know it. I know who does know. I can find out and call you back in five minutes or 1/2 on hour or by four o'clock today and then do so now that the reporter asked you a hypothetical question. Well, if the economy continues to get worse, do you see yourself going bankrupt in two years? Nobody really knows the future. Therefore, it's not wrong or dishonest to say I don't know. Now you don't want to say, I don't know if you really do know the answer and you're just trying to dodge because then you're lying and a lot of reporters can figure that out that plus it's wrong to lie, So don't use it as just a cover if you don't want to talk about something. But if you genuinely don't know, don't be afraid to say I don't know. Here's the thing. What gets people into trouble is they say, I don't know when they do it like this I don't know. They looked embarrassed. They looked ashamed. They look scared, and that's when the reporter feels, Ah, now I've got something. Let me dig deeper and deeper and deeper. That's what gets you into trouble. Plus, if you just said I don't know, awkward pause and silence, then the reporter thinks something interesting here. Perhaps I've got to dig deeper. Here's the key, say, I don't know. And then without a single trace of looking guilty or ashamed or embarrassed on your face bridge to something you do know that is relevant to the topic again. The key is it has to be relevant to the topic this way when you say you don't know? It doesn't become memorable. It doesn't stand out your messages. What's going to stand out? So don't guess. Don't give wrong information. Don't uses a cover, But don't be afraid to say I don't know. 30. Always Be Moving toward Your Message Points: when you're in a media interview, every time you're asked a question, you've got to think what road I want to go down. One road goes to this database where you have hundreds, perhaps thousands, of ideas you could share with this reporter. Because you've been in this field for months, years, sometimes decades. The other road goes to your message points. I need you to think about not taking the road to all your data, but instead going to that road that gets you to your message more. Now. This doesn't mean you're simply going to ignore the question and go right to a message point. How the reporter thinking, That's president. Answer my question. That's not it. It does mean, though, that you're not going to simply ignore your message points and go on and on on on more details that might be intelligent, interesting, but have nothing to do with your message. 31. Give Brief Answers to Tough Questions: when you are asked a tough question or for that matter, and easy question that doesn't have anything to do with the message once you really care about the trick is to answer the question as briefly as possible and as blandly as possible , and then try to bridge to your message points. So it's not about dodging questions. You cannot dodge questions a reporter. Otherwise they will hate you, and they will go out of their way to make you look bad. So it's not about dodging questions, but you can answer your questions briefly. You may remember one time when Joe Biden ran for president back in 7 4008 and he was asked a very long winded question from Brian Williams, essentially saying, Can you assure the American people you have the discipline to stay focused and not talk too long? But Brian Williams est in a long, long way. Joe Biden simply said Yes, that was it. It was brief. It got his point across. Everyone laughed. So sometimes it really is a matter of a simple yes or no answer Now. It's not that every one of your answers is supposed to be brief. It's fine to go on and on as long as it's on your message points. And your message points are interesting to the reporter. So it's not that every answer needs to be clipped in five seconds long. But when you are asked a question that doesn't take you right to one of your message points , that's when you need to answer briefly and blandly. 32. Re Write the Reporter's Questions in Media Interviews: the biggest tip of all. When it comes to answering questions in an interview, you have to develop the skill of listening to that question carefully and then rewriting the question to make it an easy question or a neutral question for you. This is not the same as dodging questions, but me again. State. I am not advising you to simply ignore the question and say what you want. Reporters will not go for that, and they will punish you if you try to do that. So it's not about ignoring questions. But would you do have to do is listen to that question, kind of hold it up to the light, look at it and figure out what is this person really asking? Because sometimes reporters gonna ask questions that seem very harsh negative, and there's no way of answering it without putting yourself on the defense. It you do not want to do that. Any time you're defending with the media, you are losing. You never want to defend. You simply want to state what you're doing. That's good. So what do I mean by rewriting the question? For example, when I go to a foreign country and I'm training a president or a prime minister. Political reporters of that country may come to me and said, T. J, don't you feel guilty and ashamed about teaching people how to lie and spin off escape? Well, that sounds like a tough question, doesn't it? How do I answer that question? I don't want to say, Well, I don't teach people to lie, because if they pull that quote, that kind of sounds like I'm a professional lying teacher. I don't want to say I don't feel guilty about being a media trainer because that they pull that quote of I don't feel guilty. That kind of sounds like I'm a exotic dancer or something like that I don't want to be associated with. So how do I answer that question? Because I do want to answer the question. I do not want to appear as though I'm dodging questions, but before I do that, I have to really get to the nub of this question. What is it about? I don't feel guilty. I don't teach people a lot. What is this person really ask you? Then I just simply rewrite the question to T. J. How do you feel about being a media trainer? Well, now it's the easiest question in the world. I feel great to be in a profession where I helped leaders communicate to the rest of the world about the good things their organizations are doing now. The reporter might not love that answer, but there's no part of my answer that the reporter can use and quote to make me look bad or stupid or negative or defensive. And the reporter cannot honestly or ethically claim that I dodged the question or I refused to answer the question. So this, of all the skills about answering questions, is the hardest. It's also the most important, and it's something that if you really focus on it, you can get better and better. This is also why you want to practice your interviews on video again and again and again because it doesn't come naturally. So what you've got to Dio is really build at scale home, that skill of listening to questions, not dodging them but rewriting them until they become neutral or easy questions. Once you've done that, the answers themselves air quite easy. 33. Aim for All Three Messages In Every Answer: when you are in a media interview, you need to aim for all three message points in every single answer. Now let me say that again because people hear that and they say, Oh, I should aim for all three message points at some point the interview and try maybe to kind of hit one message if it's convenient in every answer at some point in the interview. No, that's not what I said. I am saying you need to aim for all three messages in every single answer of your interview . Now, this doesn't mean that you say word for word the same way. Same order, same examples. It's not that I want you to sound like a broken record. No, that's gonna make you sound like amateur hour. But I do want you to bridge back to your themes again and again and again. Different word order, different order of messages, different wording, different examples, different levels of abstraction. But still, at some conceptual level, I want you to reach back to your three message points in every single answer. Now, this feels awkward. I understand that it feels phony. It feels contrived. Well, guess what you're trying to be contrived. You're trying to contrive the messages you want into the final story. Now this only works if you have good messages and you've gotten rid of anything that isn't automatically interesting to reporters. But if you have good messages and you hit them again and again and you have different examples different case studies, different wording, different sound bites for it, you simply increase the odds of the message you want getting into the final story. Because if you just hit your message points once and you have 47 other messages come out of your mouth. At the end of the interview, the reporter looks down at the notes or the footage, and you now have a three and 57 chance there's going be a three and 50 chance of getting what you want in the final story. Do you like those odds? I don't like the odds of three and 50 but if you hit your messages again and again and again, each one of your message points has been hit a dozen times, and only a few other message points have been hit. I like those odds because now there's a huge possibility that the messages you care about get into the final store. Keep in mind this is something you do for edited mediator and most media interviews are edited. Unless you're on live TV, live radio. Even then, another reporter can be looking at it and pulling out soundbites. So these days anything can be edited. So you have to keep that in mind. This is not public speaking. One on what? If you do this in a speech or a panel discussion, people will think you're crazy. People will think you've lost your mind. This is not about public speaking. This is specifically about talking in a media interview. Now is there a chance a reporter will catch on and say, Well, you're repeating yourself again. If you have good messages and there what you think are most important, chances are the reporter will actually appreciate it and say, Hey, I've got it. Thanks. I gotta go. The interview can simply and of all the things to do in in media interviews, this is far away. One of the hardest. It takes practice. It feels awkward, feels embarrassing. I'll tell you what. Doesn't feel embarrassing, though that is looking at that story on the Web page later that day or tomorrow or in a newspaper that clip on a TV broadcast, and it's the exact message you decided you wanted before the interview ever happened. That feels great. 34. Don't Add One more thing at the End of the Interview: Oh, and one more thing about answering questions in interviews don't come up with one more thing at the end of the interview. A lot of psychological research shows that the most powerful message you ever leave is your first impression. But this last impression is the second most powerful, and sometimes a reporter will say anything you want to add. Anything we forgot to ask and people say, Oh, yeah, this is one other thing. Now they're off message in It can become the most powerful thing that the reporter remembers and writes about talks about. So remember, this is not a normal conversation and normal conversations. We want our friends, colleagues, associates to think we're this fascinating, interesting person. Sure, we want reporters to think that about us, too. But you have to be more discipline if you set something that's really interesting as the last thing out of your mouth that's completely different from anything else, you said. Different from your messages. You can't be surprised if that's the only thing that gets quoted, so you've got to maintain the discipline of the reporter, ask you anything you want to add anything I forgot to ask you you need to go back to your messages. Say them again. Say them as if you're saying them for the very first time again. I don't mean memorized. I don't mean the same order. I don't mean word for word, but hit your same three messages again one last time. It that reporter asked you anything you want to add. Anything you forgot to ask. Hit your messages again. Don't come up with something new. Otherwise you run the risk of stepping on your own message. 35. Don't try to Control the Interview: Here's the final thoughts on how to answer questions in an interview. People come to me all the time and they say, Teach it Please teach me how to control the interview. I want to control the interview and I always say, Why? Why do you want to do that? That's really hard. I've never been able to control an interview in my life. I've never been able to control a reporter in my life. That's difficult. That's hard. But here's the good news. The Onley thing you have to dio is learn how to control your own mouth. I've yet to see a reporter so powerful, so influential, that they get up in middle of the interview, come around to your side of the table and force your mouth to go up and down and say things you don't want to say. Now I have a rule with reporters. I don't tell them how to ask questions. Not that they asked me, and they don't get to tell me how to answer questions. Those are the ground rules. As long as you understand that you're gonna be in great shape, realized people get into trouble, they harm themselves. Sometimes they destroy their own careers, not because of the questions that come out, but because of the answers. Remember, there's no such thing as a stupid question of being questioned. A tough question. There is such a thing as a stupid answer, So learn to control the one thing that will help you the most or hurt you the most your own mouth. 36. How to Be a Government Spokesperson Sound Bites: If a private sector individual spokesperson says something to reporter and it's a quote or a sound bite and it's awful or goofy, you're weird. It's often forgotten the next day, but when someone in government has a sound bite and it's really bad, it can live on forever. The president is not a crook. I did not have sexual relations with that woman. Certain quotes, we all remember that come out of government officials and their spokespersons and press conferences and interviews, and they can still make you cringe decades later. So remember, the spotlight is much brighter on you because you're in government. You affect a lot more people. Private sector corporation. It affects their citizens. If it's a small company, it doesn't affect that many of their customers. But do you affect everybody? Therefore, it's going to get a lot more media attention, and that's why it's critically important that you plan your quotes in advance, not just your messages. Everybody does that. You absolutely have to plan your sound bites for every single interview. If you ever do an interview and you haven't written out the sound bites in advance that you want to see in the story or hear on radio or watch on TV or video, you have not planned properly. If you ever let any political official in your organization or any appointed official do an interview and you don't have message points and sound bites written out in advance, you are not prepared. You are asking for trouble. So now I'm going to go through all the elements of what you need to plan your quotes so that it's what you wanted. The story and you don't accidentally get quoted on soundbites that come out of your mouth. Unplanned. Let's hop in. 37. What is a Sound Bite Overview: The good is is you may know how to look your best for the camera. Create a good message. Answer. Questions Stay on message all day long. The bad news is none of that matters If you cant speak in sound bites on message. So what is a sound bite? It's literally a bite out of your sound that a reporter puts into a story, a TV, a radio broadcast, a video or audio on the Web. It could be a quote if it's ending up in a text story, newspaper or a website. Wide. Reporters use eight or 10 words out of something we said and throw away the other 1000 words. If we had an interview for 10 or 15 minutes because they don't have enough room to put all 1000 words unless it's a live show or a full transcript, they have to edit things down. They have to make judgments about what to put in, what to put out. So how do we know that well, before we figure out what makes it quote or a sound, But then I use those terms interchangeably. You've got to really figure out what's the reporter trying to do they're trying to make some idea that they're writing about talking about more understandable to their audience, then the reporters simply laying out the facts. They want something to make it mawr interesting, more memorable than the reporter just laying out the facts in a tech story or talking hit. So that's why they need to quote you are other experts. They're looking for a way summing it up, putting some opinion, some analysis, some flavor into the story. So that's what a soundbite ISS. It's not the headline. Its not necessarily what is the most important point, but it is something that's gonna be the spice of the story. Make it interesting, put some sizzle into it, make it more interesting and more memorable. That's what the reporter needs. We know what we need. We need to get our message in the story. So here's what I found in working with executives, political leaders, business leaders all over the world. For 30 decades, I've worked with people in six continents. Every language and what I found is what gets quoted is remarkably consistent around the world. Styles may differ. Subject matter can differ highbrow versus lowbrow media outlet like and differ, but the actual sentence structure of what gets quoted is remarkably consistent. I'm going to share with you what these speech patterns are in the following videos, and the goal is that you look at the speech patterns. Then you look at your message. You mix and match, and you make sure you have sound bites. You have good quotes for each one of your messages so that you never, ever, ever go into a media interview. Unless you have not only messages but messages packaged with soundbites so that you know in advance your messages will be quoted. Here's how to do it. Keep watching the videos. 38. Sound Bites Bold Action Words: one sound bite element reporters can that resist is bold, action oriented language Any time you use bold language thrashing, destroyed, demolished. When you use bold, action oriented language, reporters get aroused. They find it interesting, fascinating, and they want to quote you want because often they can't be seen using bold, action oriented language or someone could accuse them of being biased are unfair. But if you use bold, action oriented language, leapfrog catapulted words like this. Make your message mawr. Quotable. Does that mean everything out of your mouth should be a bold, action oriented work? No, It means if you do who use bold, action oriented language, you will be quoted. 39. Sound Bites Reporters Love Cliches: reporters love quoting experts using cliches. Now we're all taught in high school, English class or whatever. Language is your language of choice, not to write in cliches. And yet reporters love quoting experts, business leaders, political leaders using cliches. Well, why is that? It's because cliches our more memorable ways of making a point. They're often more colorful. They're more vivid there, more visual. So realize you're not the writer of this story of your being interviewed. If you want to be quoted on message, one of your tools is to state your message using a cliche. You're not gonna be penalized for using cliches because you're not the writer. I will remember a politician I worked for many many years ago in Florida, in charge of regulating the securities firms in the state. So when a boiler room operation was caught selling phony oil wells telling people at dinnertime sent $5000 you'll double your investment in three weeks. It was his job to tell him his message. Waas, too, Consumers chances are this is an illegally registered securities offer, and you may lose your principal. Do not send your money. That was his message, but that's not a sound bite. His sound bite. Waas. If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is a simple cliche. And yet it got him quoted in all the major newspapers every two months for 20 years in office. So don't be afraid to use cliches. You don't have to use cliches, but they do work. 40. Sound Bites Emotion: another sound bite speech pattern is emotion. Any time you start a sentence with love, hate, afraid, nervous reporters, their ears prick up and they get very excited. They love quoting experts, talking about their emotions. Reporters, air storytellers and every great story. Every great drama has emotion, and yet reporters were supposed to be objective, neutral. They're not supposed to share their emotions. That's why when you use your emotions, when you say something with any emotion during an interview, there's an excellent chance you will be quoted. So keep that in mind. Remember, there's no such thing as a good sound. Bite on a bad sound bite in the abstract. It's on Lee. Good. It's on the message you decided in advance you wanted. 41. Sound Bites Give Specific Examples: If you want reporters to quote you on your message, give them a specific example. Examples. Air. Quotable. It will make any message you have Turn into a sound bite if you give a specific, vivid example. Don't say people say Jane Smithers, 89 years old, who lives on Elm Street, called 900 be really specific of a specific concrete example. Reporters could deal with abstractions. National International trends. If you could talk about the particular example, you will make your message come alive and be much more quotable. 42. Sound Bites Absolutes: reporters love quoting experts using absolutes. Anytime you start a sentence with never, always must have to, it increases your odds of getting quoted reporters, air trying to bring clarity to their viewers, readers, listeners. So when you are set up is an authority figure, and you state something with absolute certainty. It brings clarity to that article, that story and puts all the pieces together. So if it works for you, make sure it's on your message. If it works for you, state something with an absolute and that will increase your odds of getting quoted on message. 43. Sound Bites Attacks: Do you know the number one way of getting quoted by the media? Well, if you don't, you're an idiot. No, I don't really mean that. That's just an example. It's an attack. The easiest way to ever get quoted by a reporter is to attack someone. Now, am I telling you to run around attacking people, attacking your competitors, seeming mean and vicious. Now I'm not telling you to attack anyone. I am telling you that if you do attack someone or something, you will be quoted. So you got to be very careful with this now. A lot of people say T. J. You were classy organisation where a big organization We don't talk about our competitors. We would never attack anyone. Here's the problem. You can think you're being totally positive having an interview with a reporter and then say something like, Well, sugar, like everybody else, we were slow to realize how severe the recession waas, but and then, for the next 10 minutes, everything is a positive message about your new product or service. Guess what? The only quote might be? We were slow to realize how strong the recession waas, but that's an attack I attacked myself. I attacked my own organization. It's not a mean spirited attack on someone else, but it's still an attack Unlikely to have been my message. So you have to be very careful about this because there's a chance you have AH, 100 positive messages. One attack. The attack is the only thing that gets some. Now. There may be times when you do want to attack something. If you are a medical nonprofit fighting cancer, you want to fight. Can you want to attack cancer? If you're a politician running against uncomfortable, you're going to have to attack something about the way that incumbent has been maintaining that current office. So there are times when it's completely appropriate. The key, like with all the sound by elements, is you need to decide in advance, make it plant, make it prepared, don't have it accidentally come out of your mouth 44. How to be a Government Spokesperson Conclusion: if you've gotten this far in, actually done the exercises I've asked you Do you should be in good shape to be a government spokesperson. First of all, I want to thank you for your public service. Congratulate you on taking this tough job. If you're currently a spokesperson and I just want to give you a little bit of encouragement, they're gonna be down days. You simply cannot get positives every single day. If you're a government official, I've never seen it happen. There's going to be good and bad news, but you can do your best every single day to increase the odds that your message gets into the story that your quotes get into the story. That's all you can do on a daily basis. But I do encourage you to continue to practice my number one take away. Even when you're busy and you're going to be busy in a government office, try to rehearse even if it's for two minutes just on your cell phone with video. If the head of your agency or organisation your congressional office is getting ready to do an interview, don't just talk about the interview. Record it on video for two minutes will practice. You could be in the car on the way from Capitol Hill to CNN. You can still practice on video for a minute or two and play it back. It will help a great deal, and you'll be better for it now, regardless of how long you're in public service. I think you'll look back on these times as something rewarding. Challenging intellectually interesting is great. Is the private sector is that I'm in the private sector now. There's still something thrilling and exciting about doing something for the benefit, all of society. And that's what government is about. That's what you're doing. You're about more than just selling widgets or short term profits. Your about trying to make society a better place. You have good messages and what you're doing. I hope this course has helped you figure out how to communicate more effectively. Good luck 45. Sound Bite Tools Humor: humor can be a very effective way to get your message quoted in the media. Anything humorous is by definition, a sound bite to reporters if it's tightened focused enough, But be very careful. So much of humor is really an attack on someone else. What David Letterman and Jay Leno can get away with you perhaps cannot get away with in the corporate arena or the political arena. So be very, very careful with humor because it can backfire. But do you realize if you use humor if you use sarcasm? If you say something snide to get a laugh at someone else's expense, there's an excellent chance you will be quoted. It doesn't mean it's a good quote doesn't mean it's going to be on your message. It's a potent weapon. Realize you could be an excellent corporate government affairs spokesperson your whole entire life and never used humor when dealing with the media. You may be perfectly charming, humorous person in the rest of your life, but you got to be very careful with immediate. The safest way to use humor typically is self deprecating humor that way. No one else was offended, so it is one of the tools. It is one of the sound bite elements. Use it sparingly unless it really works for you in your niche. 46. Sound Bite Tools Rhetorical Questions: what else do reporters like when figuring out what to quote rhetorical questions? Are you better off now than you were four years ago? Any time you stayed a message in a question format, it makes it more interesting for reporters. They get tired of the same old sentence structure of sub subject verb object. So stating your message in a rhetorical question format. Allowing the readers viewers, listeners to think for a second creates variety, makes it more interesting and is a great way of getting your message quoted in the final story. 47. Sound Bite Tools Pop Culture References: are you looking for the Super Bowl? The World Cup of Sound bites? Well, you found it. It's the use of pop culture references. Few tie in anything you're doing to something already well known. A movie star, popular movie, a sports team, something that is frequently in people magazine, anything Hollywood or TV related, you dramatically increase the odds of getting quoted. Now you may think this is cheesy. Silly, trite. Okay, don't use it. But just realize if you say anything that references something well known in pop culture, it could be highbrow. Culture could be the symphony. You dramatically increase your odds of getting quoted. 48. Three Easiest Sound Bite Tools: If you're watching this entire playlist, you've just watched me give you 10 specific speech patterns that make up the vast majority of quotes and sound bites and all media all over the world. Don't be intimidated by some of the humor can be difficult. Maybe you can't figure it out. The right clothes. Shet. Let me give you a short cut of these 10 categories. Three or much easier than the other seven. For starters, emotion. All you do is say how you feel about your message point that makes it emotional. That increases your odds of getting quoted. So that's an easier absolutes. Air really easy. All you have to do is put a never always a must have to in your statement, your words, your sentence about your message point that makes it more quotable. What else is really easy? Rhetorical questions? All you have to do is but the question mark hit the end of your message point that makes it quotable. So keep in mind, this is not about coming up with great literature. This is not about having a great fiction mind and being wildly creative. This is almost like paint by number. Here's your message. Hear your sound bite elements mix and match. Come up with sound bites that are on your message going to the interview, and you will be in great shape because you get quoted on your message with the quotes you created in advance. 49. Reflections on Sound Bites: if you've come this far in the playlist, serious congratulations, because you are way ahead of the game. Most people simply do not understand soundbites because they've never had it explained and simple, easy to understand terms like this of anything to deal with media relations and specifically with media training. In my opinion, the least understood part is what makes something quotable. What makes something a sound bite? And some media experts, like Peggy Noonan, just claim, Oh, you can't make it. It just has to be an inspiration that just come. That's complete, utter baloney. You can prepare and package your soundbites for your messages in the same way you can build a brick wall one of the time creating a strong foundation. Now it's important to realize there is no such thing as a good sound bite in the abstract. A lot of people are good at sound bites. The problem is, everything out of their mouth is a sound bite half the time. It's good stuff in the other half the time they've got themselves in trouble, and it just doesn't work for them. So realize a sound bite is just a tool. It's just a tool to help you get the message you want in the story. If you don't use it correctly, it can be a tool to derail your career. 50. The 5 Outcomes of Every Media Interview: If you're following on sequence with this plate list, we've now covered how to look your best. How to frame a message had answer questions and how to speak in sound bites. Keep in mind with every single interview you dio, there's five possible outcomes. Number one. You do the interview. You don't get any quote at all. Didn't help yourself. Didn't hurt yourself, but you hurt yourself to the extent that you could have built your brand and you didn't. The second option is your quoted and you're quoted saying something so ridiculously racist , sexist, foolish. You're fired, you're run out of the industry and you have to move to another continent to sell T shirts for a living. Now that doesn't happen that often, but it does happen to people. And for those who are fearful of the media, there is some legitimate reason for that People do and their careers from time to time because of one bad quote. The third option you're quoted, I wasn't particularly a message that you thought was important, but nobody's offended. Nobody's upset. They spelled your name right. They spell the name of your organization correctly and OK, so so we'll give that a C. The next option is your quoted. It's on your message. It wasn't really a sound bite that you prepared in advance wasn't a quote that you prepared , but you had a message instructed. The messages sort of grounded out. And hey, you got quoted. And it's on the message you wanted, even though you didn't really plan those words in particular. Pretty good. But there is 1/5 option, and the fifth option is you get quoted, and it's word for word. The message you decided you wanted in advance. It's word for word, the sound bite that you wrote out in advance on your sheet of paper on your computer screen . And that's the whole point of what this media training exercises online workshop is about, helping you get that fifth option every time, or at least 95% of the time. If you use the tools that we're talking about here, you can get that fifth option quoted on message That quote you want nearly every single time you deal with the media. Prepare practice, rehearse. Remember, it's not enough to have messages. You have to have your sound bites to 51. Sound Bite Homework: Okay, now it's your turn. You've got to create sound bites for your messages. You remember your messages. You had three of them 10 words or less, but those aren't quotable. You've got to figure out a way of packaging. Those using the tools I've just given you now have also given you a list in the description below. Off the 10 different categories of sound vices. A refresher. Take a look at that. Come up with your own sound bites. You want as many as possible. Just one or two. That's not enough. You want Ah, handful of soundbites for each one of your message points, ideally literally a handful. So if you have a handful for each one, that's five times three. That's 15 soundbites, so start writing and start getting ready for your interviews. 52. How to Be a Government Spokesperson Video Homework: So here's your final exercise the title together and make sure you've really mastered what we talked about. I need you to think of that specific issue you want to talk about. That relates to your government agency. Your organization. Come up with your messages. Three very specific messages. 10 words or less. I need you toe. Have half a dozen soundbites for each one of your message points, so total six for each one. That's times 3 18 soundbites. I need you to have it on a single sheet of paper. Look at it, reflect on it. Don't memorize it, but internalize it. But now I want you to interview yourself or have someone else interview you. And it could be a simple as putting the cell phone on you, recording yourself or a webcam and put yourself through a grilling, a tough, tough press conference. Ask yourself the tough questions or have someone else ask you tough questions and practice What we talked about here today answer the questions briefly, blandly but factually and honestly. Bridge to your message points hit not one, not two, with all three message points in every answer. Sprinkle soundbites throughout the interview and make darn sure you don't have any soundbites Come out of your mouth that are off message. Because if you have one off message that is condemning yourself or single? Sure, we were slow initially to understand the severity of Ebola, but and then you're back onto great messages and great sound bites. All one message. Guess what? The only quoting the entire story will be. We were slow to initially assess the threat of Ebola boat. That's an attack which is in a sound, which is a sound bite to attack on our organization. So you got to be careful that you're not doing that. So that's the exercise. Now put it all together, captured on video. If you're not completely happy, do it again. Recorded again. Critique it again. Don't stop until you're completely satisfied with every aspect of style Substance, how you look, how you sound, your message answering questions and your sound bites. Go to it right now.