Pruning Trees and Shrubs - Everything You Need to Know | Robert Pavlis | Skillshare

Pruning Trees and Shrubs - Everything You Need to Know

Robert Pavlis, Instructor of all things gardening

Pruning Trees and Shrubs - Everything You Need to Know

Robert Pavlis, Instructor of all things gardening

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15 Lessons (1h 41m)
    • 1. Introduction to Pruning Trees and Shrubs

    • 2. Fear of Pruning

    • 3. Difference Between Trees and Shrubs

    • 4. Best Time to Prune

    • 5. Is There a Right Way to Prune

    • 6. Pruning Tools Part 1

    • 7. Pruning Tools Part 2

    • 8. The 3-Step Pruning Plan

    • 9. Pruning Problems

    • 10. Pruning Rejuvenation

    • 11. Pruning For Show

    • 12. Pruning shrubs for more flowers

    • 13. Pruning clematis vines

    • 14. Pruning spirea

    • 15. Pruning a butterflybush

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About This Class

  • Do you stand in front of a tree or shrub and wonder what to prune?
  • Are you afraid that you will kill the plant?
  • Do you ask yourself why a plant needs to be pruned?

If these questions sound familiar then this course is for you.

This course will take you through the complete process of pruning trees and shrubs. It is designed for the gardener that wants to understand their plants better, and use pruning to produce healthier plants that produce more blooms.

I am a big believer in learning the "WHY" and not just the "HOW". Once you understand the why, the how becomes so much easier to learn and understand. In this course I will explain how woody plants grow, and what effects pruning has. Then I will show you how to prune.

Meet Your Teacher

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Robert Pavlis

Instructor of all things gardening


My name is Robert Pavlis and I live in southern Ontario which is hardiness zone 5 in Canada and US systems. I have been gardening for more than 30 years – I stopped counting at 30! I am a Master Gardener and speak about gardening at many local gardening events and horticulture meetings.

I wave written several books in including Building Natural Ponds, Garden Myths Books 1 and 2, and Soil Science for Gardeners. I also publish two blogs GardenMyths and GardenFundaments as well as teach local courses in gardening and garden design.

A few years ago, I bought 6 acres of land and have developed a large private garden called Aspen Grove Gardens. We now have about 3,000 perennials, grasses, shrubs and trees.

I am a plantaho... See full profile

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1. Introduction to Pruning Trees and Shrubs: welcome to pruning trees and shrubs. Have you ever stood in front of a tree or shrub with pruners in hand and wondered to yourself, What should I cut? Do you have a fear of putting the wrong branch or making a cop the wrong way? Do you have an ugly, overgrown bush and don't know where to start? Have any of the sound familiar to you? This course is for you. I broke in this course down into three logical sections. The first action will provide you with the basics, including things like selecting the right tools, understanding the difference between trees and shrubs and how they grow. I'll answer the all important question. When should you prune? And most importantly, I'll help you get over any fear you might have about pruning. You might be surprised that it's really hard to kill woody plans. One of the main reasons people have problems with pruning is that they don't have a clear plan of attack. To overcome this, the second section will provide you with a simple, three step plan. By following these steps, you will always know what to cut, and you'll have a clear plan from start to finish. This makes proving so much easier. The third section will provide you with specific examples. I'll show you how I prune in my garden, taking you through my thought processes and reasons for making each cut. The's hand on demonstrations will show you how to rejuvenate an overgrown shrub, prune for more flowers and produce Woody's that enhance your garden design. It's time to have some fun and start learning the art of pruning. 2. Fear of Pruning : lots of woody plants, air not pruned on a regular basis. And one of the main reasons is fear. People are afraid to do something wrong to the plant. I'd like to take a few minutes now and look at the various reasons people have given me for not pruning their plants. People are afraid that they'll just take too much of the material off the plant, and somehow that will harm the plant. The reason for this fear is that they don't have a clear goal in mind. If they knew exactly why they were pruning and what they wanted to accomplish with the pruning, they would never cut too much because they would only be cutting the right amount to meet their goals. Some people are afraid that by pruning they'll kill the plant. Well, I have good news for you. It's virtually impossible to kill a woody plant by pruning. As far shrubs go, you can cut him right to the ground and they will grow back. Trees are a little different. You could cut off all of the branches on the tree, and it'll just grow new branches. It won't kill the plant if you cut the trunk off. Some trees might die, but many of the assiduous ones will just grow back. Evergreens air different. If you cut them off a ground level, they will die. But it's very hard to kill a tree or a shrub by pruning and this course I'll teach you how to prune in a step by step process. You'll first analyze the plant and figure out what you want to accomplish with your pruning . Then you'll make one cot and then reevaluate the plan. Have another look at it. See what needs to be done next. Then you go in and make next Kat. This is a slow, it narrative type of process. At any point in it, you can stop. So it's highly unlikely that you'll create an ugly plant because removing one branch isn't going to do that. Some people worry about using the right tool when they go to prune. There are lots of options there shears. There's loppers, their saws. Which one is the right one to use for a particular cut? Well, the good news is that doesn't really matter. Most of those will do the job, just find. But there are some rules to make your job easier, and we'll go over those in the course. Once you learn that, you'll know exactly which tool to use for a particular car. Another big concern people have is when do you prove should you be pruning and fall during the winter? Early spring, Middle summer? What is the best time? And if you prune at the wrong time, will it harm the plant? The good news is that you can prune almost any time the year, and you're not going to harm the plant. But there are some better times to prune. You might be familiar with the advice that you should prune spring flowering shrubs after they flower and late flowering shrubs. You should prune in early spring, and that's a good rule. That rule, though, is made for people. It provides the largest amount of flowers and people like flowers, so that's why we put in that way. As far as the shrub is concerned, it doesn't really care too much when you prudent. There are some better times on the best time. That prune all shrubs really is late winter and early spring. Now there's a simple rule, and if you follow that, then you won't have a fear of pruning at the wrong time. In the course, we'll look at this in more detail because they're awesome special cases and reasons why you might prune a different times of the year. We've now looked at several reasons why people are afraid of pruning, and I hope you feel a little better about the whole process. Now, as we go through the course and you learn mawr more about the pruning process and how it affects plants, you'll start feeling much better about doing your own pruning. By the end of the course, you gotta walk up to any shrub or tree and you'll be able to prune with full confidence. I'd like to present a couple rules of thumb for pruning, and these apply pretty much all of the time. Rule number one. Don't cut unless you know exactly why you're cutting. It is a pretty simple rule. What saying is only prune when you have a clear goal in mind when you know why you're pruning and how you're going to make the cut. If you don't know those things, step back and don't prune. If you follow this rule. You'll never fear pruning again because you'll never make another mistake. My second rule of pruning is just a simple. You don't have to prune. A lot of people feel obligated to go to the garden every spring and cut something. That approach to pruning is never going to work. If you're standing in front of a tree or shrub and you can't find a good reason for pruning , don't prune. Many plans air fine on their own, and they just don't need regular pruning. And some never get proof. My third rule is a lot harder to follow, and this rule is Understand your plants if you understand how the plant groves when it buds where it buzz how buds develop pruning, become so much easier. The more you know about your plant, the easier it is to prune it. The problem is, learning about your plant is kind of difficult. I don't know which plants you have, and they are all a little different. So what I've done in this course is I've added a whole chapter to help you learn about plant growth. I've also created a series of exercises that will help you to get the no, the plants in your garden. Once you've gone through those exercises, you'll understand how each of the specific plants you have groves and that will tell you a lot about how and when to prune int. Keep in mind that the way a plant grows is determined by its genetics. We can't change that. Each plant will grow at a certain speed in a certain direction. Have a certain whips. You'll have a certain height. All we can do with pruning is helped to plant to look its best. 3. Difference Between Trees and Shrubs: What is the difference between a tree and a shrub? What about a shrub and a sub shrub? It's a good idea to understand. The difference is before you start pruning your woody's. The Korean Spice Bush is one of my favorites. It blooms in early summer and has the most fragrant flowers of any shrub. But is it a shrub or a tree? I have both growing in my garden. Here it is growing as a shrub. It has lots of stems coming up from the ground, and it's not too tall, but it can also be grown as a single stemmed small tree. As in this picture, both forms grow well on flower every year. The only difference between these two plants is the way they were pruned. An interesting side note is that the shrug form tends to be nibbled by the deer and winter , but they leave the tree for Malone. I guess they can't be bothered to stretch their necks up. Let's look at another example. The common you. This is a very old you that has been left to its own devices with very little pruning. It forms a very traditional looking tree. These use have been clipped differently, following a European style that produces plants that look much more like shrubs and hedges . And this picture shows one of my use pruned into a small shrub. One last example. Help to Cody um, Mike. Annoyed. He's commonly called the Seven Sunflower. This picture shows it in a shrub form. There's a great plant that flowers and fall and then produces these See people like red callous ease. This plant has great exfoliating bark, and a lot of people will prune it into a multi trunked tree so that they can appreciate the bark. As in this shot, it can even be pruned into a single stem tree. So what is the difference between a shrub and a tree? They're both woody plants. They both make new above ground growth each year, which survives winter to grow grand the following year. Each year they had new branches on the older branches get thicker. In almost all aspects, trees and shrubs are the same. We make a distinction based on a few characteristics. Trees tend to be larger and have a single trunk, but you can find large maples with more than one trunk. Many trees will die if you cut them to the ground, but others will re sprout When you cut sugar maples to the ground, about half of them regrow do the same with green ash, and they all regrow. Shrubs tend to be smaller and have more than one stem, and almost all will re grow if you cut them to the ground from a biological point of view. Trees and shrubs are the same kind of plant as faras pruning goes. We can treat them almost the same. You might recognize this as lavender. You usually bite in the perennial section of the nursery, and it's a common plant described in perennial books. You might be surprised to learn that it is not a perennial is actually a shrub. Here's a list of some other plants that are called perennials but are actually shrubs. Why are they shrubs? Each of these produces woody growth above ground in the same way as your trees and shrubs. Biologically, they grow more like shrubs than perennials. What is the difference between a shrub and a sub shrub? Nothing, really. Shrubs tend to be taller. Some sub shrubs have top growth. That is a bit more her beige ISS. But the basis of these plants are very woody, just like a shrub. Here's a close up of a single stem of lavender taken in the spring. Notice the new growth coming out of dormant buds just like a shrub on the lower section, the left side of the picture. You can also see the bark that was formed last fall. Although it is only a foot tall, it is a shrub. Many garden shrubs, air now available as miniature versions that only grow a couple of feet tall. I wonder if people will start calling them sub shrubs? Probably not. The key point about sub shrubs is that most people treat them like perennials and cut them to the ground and fall or early spring. If you do that, you have a good chance of killing it. Prune it like a shrub and it will live for a long time. 4. Best Time to Prune: When is the best time to prune? There is both a short answer and a long answer. The short answer and the one almost everybody gives us the following Prune spring flowering shrubs after they flower and summer flowering shrubs in early spring. If you follow this, it works most of the time, but it's really not the right answer. Let's have a closer look at this in more detail. The above rule was developed for the benefit of the gardener, not the plant. It provides you with the maximum number of flowers, even though it's not the best solution for the plant. Let me explain what I mean. Consider a lilac. They bloom in spring. So according to the above rule, you should know a prune them until after flower. But let's turn the clock back a few weeks, the buds air starting to swell. The plant takes a lot of its food reserves and energy and uses it to make new leaves and flowers. It grows these leaves as an investment because it knows they will use the sun all summer long to replenish the food supply. But now you come along and cut many of these young leaves off. The plant has just wasted its food reserves, growing leaves that will never give it any benefits. This is not great for the plant. As far as the plan is concerned. It is much better to prune it in late winter before the buds start to grow. But that will give you less flowers. Some people suggest that you can prune and fall as long as the tree is dormant. In warmer climates, this works quite well, but in colder climates, say zone six and colder. This is not a good idea. As the temperature drops, new cuts heal much more slowly, and in the winter this process almost stops. This allows diseases to enter the new cut, and for this reason, in colder climates, it is better not to prune and fall. Do it in late winter, when the cuts heal faster and very hot climates, woody plants become dormant in mid summer. It is a good time to prune them, provided you don't remove too much material because exposing the shaded bar can lead the sunburn. There's another pruning myth floating around, it says. Don't prune in late summer because it causes the plant to produce new growth, which will not have time to harden off by winter, resulting in winter kill. The growth of most woody plants and temperate climates is controlled by day length and nor temperature by late summer. These plants are already shutting down and hardening off for winter. There are some exceptions, but most of them do not start making new growth if you prove them in mid to late summer. So when should you prune? Here's some simple rules for decision. It's plants that work most of the time in colder climates. Prune in late winter before Bud start to grow. This preserves the food resources in the plant in warmer climates. Prune in midwinter and in very hot climates. You can even do it in summer. If you are pruning problems like diseases and broken branches. Dude, as soon as you see the problem, if you want more spring flowers, prune right after flowering. These rules were quite well, but there are exceptions. Most evergreens need to be treated differently, and some sub shrubs, like lavender and Russian sage, need to be proved much later in spring. And I'll be dealing with these special cases. In another video 5. Is There a Right Way to Prune: What is the right way to prune? This is a question. All beginning, gardeners ask, and for good reason. Nobody wants to prune a tree or shrub the wrong way. Well, I have some good news and some bad news. The good news is that there is no right way to prune. There is a right way to make a cut on a woody plant on. There are some better times to make the cut, but the bottom line is that there is no right way to prune. Pruning is all about making cuts that will produce the result you want. I'll discuss this in more detail in this video. So what is the bad news? The bad news is that this makes pruning a bit more complicated. I can't tell you exactly which cut to make, because I don't know what your goals are. What I can do is guide you through the various options to make pruning easier. Here's a picture of to use. They are the same species of plant, but they have been pruned to look very different. The one on the left has been pruned into a very formal mushroom shape, the one on the right has had minimal pruning to make it look as natural as possible. Which one has been pruned correctly? Both of them. Each one has been pruned so that the plant meets a certain aesthetic goal. The selection between formal and informal is one of the first decisions you have to make in any pruning job. I took this picture in Holland. It shows two small back yards of for sissy. A is growing along the fence line, joining the two properties. One neighbor has decided to clip their side of the shrub in a formal style, and the other neighbor used a natural look. Neither style is wrong, but it may be a good idea for neighbors to agree on the style. If you decide on a formal lock, there are many options open to you. Hear a few examples. Trees and shrubs could be pruned into various odd shapes. We call these topiaries. This is an example of cloud pruning to form idealize trees. This is an art form called Milwaukee. You can even go to extremes. You might think this is Photoshopped, but it's not. Anyone can produce such a tree in their yard If you decide to use one of these formal styles for your plants, you should know that the effort to keep them looking good is much more than is required for a natural style. Some of these need to be clipped a couple times a year. If you want to keep your pruning toe a minimum, always pick an informal style. It is also harder to make mistakes using this style. Can you imagine accidentally cutting the head off of one of those topiaries? Most evergreens require no pruning at all, provided you plant them in the right spot. This dwarf Alberta spruce grow slowly and never needs pruning unless a stem reverts to a non dwarf form, in which case it does need to be removed. The one in the picture has grown too big for the spot. It should either have been planted somewhere else, or it's now time to remove it. Young trees benefit from pruning so that you can give them a solid structure as they mature , they need less pruning, and many large trees hardly ever need pruning. The take home message from this video is that there is no wrong way to prune. You have to decide on the style you want and then prune to reach the goal. Many people struggle with pruning because they never set a clear goal. I have a large garden, and almost everything is pruned to look natural. It both suits the style of the garden, and it's a lot less work. I do have some more formal trees or on my Japanese teahouse to match its style so you can certainly mix several styles. In one garden, a formal evergreen in the middle of an informal garden suddenly becomes a focal point. Don't start pruning any tree or shrub until you're clear about your goals. Crooning becomes so much easier if you do that. 6. Pruning Tools Part 1: welcome to my collection of pruning tools. Now you probably don't need all of these. If you have a normal sized garden, a few of these will do the check for you. In this video. I'll discuss each of these tools. Tell you which ones. I think you should have them. Which one? They're just nice toe have tools, and I'll give you some pointers about picking out the best quality tool for the job, the one tool it all gardeners should have. There's a good pruner, the sounds, to be my focal and, quite honestly, any serious. Gardner and most nursery and horticulture professionals will have this pruner. There are some new brands in the market that also good, but this is still the preferred tool. This is not only essential for pruning trees and shrubs, but I use this all over the garden for cutting back perennials and dead heading things. It gets used a lot, and it comes with me most of the time when I'm in the garden. In fact, a lot of professionals will have a sheet carried on their belt. Just so it's always handy when you're looking for one of these tools. The most important feature is the grip that has to be comfortable. It has to fit in your hand. You're going to use it quite a bit. It does take a fair amount of pressure to cut these pieces of wood, so you want something that feels good. Some brands come in different sizes, becoming different shaped handles. Someone even twisted. The Falcons have a nice line of different ones. Some of these a twisted, some actually rotate. So go to a store. Try it out. It's not really good buying one of these in a package. You have to get out of the package and hold it. Ask yourself. You know, Is this feel comfortable? Can I do this for a couple hours and not get tired? Another feature that's very important is to get ahead that you can take apart at some point , you're going to want to do a nice, thorough cleaning here, and the easiest way to do that is to take all these pieces apart, clean them separately, put it back together again, and your pruners like new. The manufacturers that make tools that can be taken apart we'll be able to supply replacement parts and At some point, you might want to replace the blade. The other things that look for is a good quality spring. There's a nice, heavy duty spring was these cheaper pruners. I have just use a regular spring, and it doesn't work nearly so well. The problem with this design is that it comes out now that can be a plus or minus. If you need to replace that, it's a plus. The problem I had when I bought this the spring was actually too small for it, and I kept losing. It kept falling out of the crooner's, so I went out and bought a replacement that was a little larger, and now it stays in quite well. The weak point of most of these pruners is this latch here. This is what keeps it clothes when you're not using it and quite honestly, even on the foul calls. This is the weak point of the whole tool. If you tightened the screw, too much is too tight. If you lose the bet, it's too loose, and when it's loose as your pruning, it sneaks its way back here, and suddenly it's locked and then you got unlock it This is really a pain on most pruners. As I've said here, which looks just like a Falco. Well, let's look at it closely, and it's a much cheaper pruner has the same kind of spring the blade comes off. The problem is, it doesn't work nearly so well. I've had to replace this screwing here When I go in the garden. Seems like I always carry the Falco's with me there. Two types of pruners, This one here is a bypass pruner. If you look at it from the cutting end, it's a blade goes right by the anvil. It was very similar to a Paris scissors. The nice thing about these is that when you cut wood on Lee, the wood on the anvil side is damaged. The other side is not damaged because the knife cuts nice and clean past the wood, the second type of pruners, an anvil type. In this case, the blade comes down and hits the middle of the bottom piece, the anvil. Because the anvil is much thicker, it actually damages the wood on both sides of the cut. Anvil pruner should never be used on green living. Would there only use in the garden really is cutting up old dead branches, and I'm not really sure why they even bother selling it, because you can use a bypass pruner for that justus. Well, when should you use pruners? Well, pruners. A good up to would That's green and half an injury less well. Remember that is that if the wood is bigger than your pinkie finger, don't use crooners as long as it's this side or last, go ahead and cut it now. Why do I say Greenwood? Greenwood cuts much easier than dry wood. The two of for larger branches is this slopper, for some people call it a long handled pruner. You notice that the head is very similar to a pruner. Most of them are bypass pruners, but the blade is much longer and is designed for cutting larger. Would this one's good up to about an inch, maybe an inch and 1/2 depending on which brand you have. This is an older pruner that I have, and it illustrates the biggest problem with these pruners. The real weakness is not the blade end, but down here in the bumper section. So these handles have some bumper so that when you caught the bumpers prevent the tool from having you smash your knuckles together. The problem is that those bumpers are usually made out of some kind of soft rubber material . They don't last very long, it doesn't take much work and those were gone. And now you're banging your hands each time. It's like these particular ones had to add a metal bracket here to act as a bumper so that I could actually use them when I was in the store at the end of the season than they had all the tools on sale, and this was a pretty expensive Lauper. But it was half price, and I looked at and I thought, Wow, it's got to be a good tour for that price. But I looked at the handles like that. Why wouldn't handles? I mean, how long can they really last? I mean, these aren't really sick in here. If I start working on big branches, this thing's gonna break. Paul had it a number of years and actually been a really good pruner. I am somewhat careful with it. I don't cover a large branches, but it's an excellent tool. Much better than this other one. Loppers air Really nice to have. If you have mawr shrubs, they're not that useful on trees. But if you have shrubs, they're really nice for getting in there the base and cutting them off. It's a very quick tool for pruning, but it does have its limitations on size. And so I don't really considered an essential tool for most gardeners. If you have a lot of shrubs, go ahead and get yourself one. If you only have a couple of shrubs, you either use a smaller pruner or you'll use the saw. 7. Pruning Tools Part 2: But the next tour we're going talk about, I think, is a must for anyone who has trees and shrubs. And that's a pruning saw. And the nice thing about it is that you can cut almost any size of branch with the one tool . There's a very standard design it has a curb in. It makes it a little easier for you to stay on the branch as you're cutting. It works very well when you're cutting up higher above your shoulder than you can hold it like this, and the curve still catches the branch. This particular saw a single unit, which works well, The problem with it it it's pretty hard to stick in your pocket and walk around the guard, so I don't actually like this one too much. I prefer folding saw similar design. In this case, the blade is straighter and locks into position once it's open, and now you've got a very nice soft when you're not using it for lit up the teeth of protected. It's a bit smaller for caring around, so I prefer this type of pruning saw. Now I have to like this. This is a fairly expensive one and I only use it for branches that are above the ground. This year is a really cheap one that I bought at the dollar store. It's not nearly as well designed, but this has a very special job. When I'm cutting suckers or roots or anything near the ground for the blade will touch the soil. I use this one cutting in soil dolls of Saab very quickly, and so I use this one. If it gets dull, that's okay. I just replace you could also use a saw like this. This is great for cutting wood. The teeth of quite large cuts very fast. There's a great tool for cutting up firewood or larger logs, and it does sort of work when you're doing trees. The problem with this is it's too big and bulky. When you're down in a shrub and there's lots of branches and you're trying to get in there and cut something, it's just in the way most of the time. So I do have one of these. I rarely use it for pruning, mostly for making firewood. The other thing you should be aware of is that the teeth on crooning saws usually going the opposite the direction of hand sauce. So if I was using a regular handsaw, I put the pressure on When I go down. That's when the woods being caught. And then I release it. When I pulled back crooning songs of the opposite. They cut when you pull, and then you release the pressure on Let It Go Down. They take a bit of getting used to, and not all pruning saw work that way. Some also work like regular hand sauce. Now there's one other kind of pruning saw we can talk about, and that's a saw like this that has a very long handle attached. It works the same way. It has exactly the same purpose, but it's designed to get up very high into trees. And consider that a nice toe have tool unless you have a lot of trees on your property. Once the branches too high for you to get to it, you're almost better off hiring a professional. Let them come in and climb the tree and get that branch for you. Another tool that can be useful is a simple knife. You can use a utility knife like this, or you can use a small switchblade. What would you do with this? But when you prune a branch off, sometimes you end up with a ragged edge, and this is nice tool for just cleaning up that ragged edge. That's a proper way of making a nice clean cut. But I'll be honest with you. I never bother. Here's another nice toe. Have tool now. It's not really used for pruning very much, although if you have hedges, this is a great tool. If you have evergreens or shrubs that your costly pruning in tow a nice round shape, then this is much faster than trying to use small pruners like this. So depending on your guard, you may or may not find a use for it. I don't have hedges. I don't trim very much into round shapes, but I actually have a lot of use for this. I use it for cutting back perennials during the year. If I want a dead had something, I just want to lower some perennials. I use this and is so much faster than trying to do with something like this in the spring, when I'm cleaning up my garden, anything that's still sticking above ground like the old flower stems from the hasta annual perennials that tend to stand up during the winter. All the grass is there, still standing up. This is my tool of choice. I go through the garden, and I can cut back a lot of perennials really quickly. With this tool, there's only one to left to talk about. That's a chainsaw. It's the most dangerous tool there is quite honestly, unless you have a lot of trees, I would suggest that you hire so on any time you need a chainsaw, I'm not going to talk about buying chainsaws or how to use them. That's a subject for a professional, and I'll just leave it at that. To sum things up, I think you should have a very good folding, pruning saw and a real quality crooners and make sure they're a bypass pruner. With these two tools hiking put almost everything in the garden and anything I can't do. I can get a professional to come in and do that for me. Hedge trimmers. If you have a lot of perennials, I'd buy edge trimmer just for the perennials 8. The 3-Step Pruning Plan: most people find pruning difficulty because the task appears to be very complex. In this video, I will lay out a three step plan that you can use for every tree in trouble in your garden . The plan breaks the complex task down into manageable steps to simplify the pruning process . Here are the three steps Step one Solve Problems. This refers to plant issues and not toe aesthetic requirements is all about solving current and future health issues. Step two is rejuvenation. Step three Croon for show. In this step, you will make the plant look. It's best flower its best, and in the case of fruit trees produce a lot of food. When you are ready to prune a plant, simply go through the three steps from 1 to 3. In that order, When Step three is complete, you go on to the next plant. Step one is to solve problems. This is the easiest step, and the most important. It requires you to closely examine the plant and look for a list of existing health issues and potential future health problems. For example, are any of the branches broken? All broken branches need to be removed because they are a potential source of infection on smaller stems, the cut is usually made above a bud on larger branches. The cut is made near the break. It's that easy. I'll provide a list of problems in a separate video. Simply go down the list of problems to see if they exist on your plant. If they do, correct them before doing any other type of pruning. The reason this is Step one is that there is no point in doing aesthetic pruning until you have taken care of any health issues. Why clip of branch to the right size or shape if it needs to be removed because of a disease issue? I extend this line of thinking to everything in the garden. All decisions are made with the health of the plant being a priority. Aesthetics is secondary. Pruning is no different. Once all the health issues have been addressed, it is time to move on to step two. Rejuvenation Rejuvenation is a process of fixing a plant that has been neglected for many years. If you have a first Cecilia or lilac that is huge and has stopped flower, it is probably time for a rejuvenation which will return the shrub to its former glory. Rejuvenation applies mostly to shrubs. If you have been pruning on an annual basis, you can probably skip this step. Step three is prune for show. This step is the most complex because there are lots of options for you to consider, but it is also the one that is the most fun. In this step, you can create the look and feel to match your design criteria. This process can have both functional and aesthetic goals. You can prune for particular lock, and you can prune for productivity in the form of flowers and fruits. Other garden fundamental videos will break this step down into smaller, more manageable tasks. If you're afraid of pruning, you might want to watch my video on proving fear. I've given you a three step plan for pruning, but what do you do now? Well, here's a suggestion. Go outside, select one tree or shrub and stand in front of it. Do you see any health problems? What about a statics? Does it look the way you want it to look? Is it the right shape and size? Does it flower well, what would you like to change about it. Why do you think it needs pruning? You may not be able to answer all of these questions, and if you are new to pruning, it will probably produce more questions than answers. And that is a good thing. What is the right size? When is the right time to prune? How do you fix that broken branch? Should I use loppers or pruners? These kinds of questions will focus your learning process when you have taken some time to understand this one single plant, watch more videos and use them to start answering the questions you have. Once you have the answers, you will feel much more confident about pruning the selected plant, and you will be ready to take care of other similar plants. Learning to prune properly takes time and practice, you know. 9. Pruning Problems: In this video, I will discuss the number problems that should be corrected when you prune a tree or shrub . You might remember this slide when we discussed the three steps in approving process. The first step is pruned to solve problems, which is the topic for this video. When should you do this? Pruning? More serious problems like broken branches and diseases should be taken care off a soon as you see them. Even if it's the middle of summer, less serious issues can be done. This part of your pruning schedule to help you use this videos of reference. I'm providing the start time of each problem. This will let you quickly jump ahead to the problem you are interested in. This is the first time you are viewing this video. It is a good idea. Toe watch the whole thing because there is some overlap between problems. Any time you see a broken branch, take care of it right away. The break allows disease to take hold, and a ragged edge makes it very hard for Woody Plant to fix itself. Note that woody plants don't heal damage to their would the way our skin heals. But This is a topic for another video. This shows a serious rake on the main stem of a young decision mystery. To correct it, make a cot below the break. This shows the cut I made, but it probably should have been made a bit closer to the side. Branch is quite likely that the dormant bud will develop between the main trunk and the side branch, and this will become the new leader. You might recognize this as a buckthorn. It is an invasive tree or shrub that needs to be removed completely. This branch has broken right off, probably by a deer. Before you make a new cut to remove the damage, have a look farther along the branch. In this case, a second break was found on the same branch. The cut needs to be made above the second break. This is a low branch on a six foot spruce, and it's quite possible that the dorm and buds air too old for the branch to grow again. However, the side branches on this are still green and might have dormant buds that will grow. For this reason, I decided to make the cut just above the side branches in a few years. As the tree gets bigger, it will lose needles on this branch, and then it can be caught right back to the trunk. In the meantime, the remaining needles helped produce some food for the plant and make it stronger as a general rule. If the brake is on a smaller branch that still has live dormant buds on it, it is best to cut the branch near a bud. This will allow the dormant budge to grow and replace the broken ran. If the brake had been much closer to the trunk or if it was on older, would that didn't have dormant buds? It is best to cut it right back to the trunk. There's no point in leaving a stub that will not start to grow get. It's really important to understand dormant buds when you're pruning, and I'll have a separate video about them. If the damage involves a large branch used the three cuts system. This will prevent the branch from tearing bark off the healthy part of the tree as you make the cut. Spotting dead branches and summer is fairly easy, since they have no leaves on them, finding them in winter on decisions. Trees can be tricky. Look for branches where the bark is starting to fall off. This is a sure sign of a dead branch that probably died quite some time ago. The peeling bark on this branch clearly shows it's dead, but how much of it is dead? But you can see a vertical side branch that is starting to grow. The problem is that the new growth is quite crooked, and it will never make a good looking branch. There are several options here. Cut everything off right back to the main trunk. This is the best option. If this is an older tree with lots of growth on it, it really doesn't need this little branch. But if this is a young tree that was planted a few years ago, I would only remove the dead part and leave the growing side shoot on small trees. You want to move as little would as possible. This branch can always be removed in future years. Once the trees bigger, I decided to keep the new growth, and I made a cot into the healthy would near the vertical branch trees and shrubs were able to fix most of their own problem. After all, that's how they survive in nature. If a branch gets damaged or diseased, the plant may decide to abort the whole branch or part of it. It does this by forming an internal barrier between the healthy part of the plant and the problem area. Over time, the problem area dies completely and will eventually fall off. This shows an old branch coming out near the base of a good sized tree. As trees get taller, they abort lower branches because they're shaded too much and these usually die. At some point, the branch in the picture is clearly dead. You can see the bark is split, and coming off the tree has already started making an internal barrier to seal off the branch. Since this branch comes right out of the trunk, the barriers inside the trunk cut such branches as close to the trunk as possible. As I tried to cut the branch, it actually broke off. Its been dead for quite a while. Try to make the break as clean as you can, but don't damage the branch caller, which is the corky looking growth around the branch. Don't try to dig out bits of the old branch. You will just harm the tree. In a few years, this damage will be completely covered over with new bark. The leader is the vertical stem at the top of the trunk, and most trees grow bast with a single leader. For a variety of reasons, leaders can die. It can be the result of cold weather or disease, and sometimes the leaders broken off in a storm. This picture clearly shows a dead leader on a spruce, the lower branches air covered in needles and look quite healthy. The very tip has no needles at all. The branches at the very top are also banned compared to the healthy branches. I suspect the disease has affected the growing temp. Before we talk about solving this problem, let's have a look at what happens if you don't solve it. This evergreen had a leader broken off during a winter storm several years ago. No action was taken and the tree was left to its own devices. The upper buds on a tree want to be leaders, and when the main leader dies, they try to take over in many cases, several buds start growing at the same time and compete with each other to become the new leader. In some cases, one wins out and the tree grows normally. But many times there two or three new leaders that grow and their growth and deforms the look of the tree and usually results in weak crotches between the leaders. This is what happened to this tree. It has one trunk and at least four leaders. It is too late to fix the problem now, and it will always be a deformed tree. You might as well take it out for comparison. This picture was taken on the same property and is the same kind of tree. This one is a bit older and growing normally. This Bruce also had the main trunk broken off in a storm. It looks almost normal, but if you look closely, you can see multiple leaders. This is a close up view. The arrow points to the old trunk, which was already a good size when the damage happened. Once the leader was gone, several branches started growing vertically to become new leaders. There are five or six new leaders, all of which are about eight inches in diameter at their base. It is far too late to fix this tree. When you see a dead leader, you need to help the tree develop a single new leader. Don't cut off the old leader because you can use it to support the new leader. Have a look at the live branches below the dead leader and select one. Become the new leader, then tie it vertically to the dead leader, which will now act like a splint. The buds at the tip of this new leader will make hormones that will stop lower branches from competing with it. How do you select the best leader? Select the one. It is the most vertical. It will be easiest to train to grow up, and it probably already has the hormones needed if none are growing vertically, then picked the longest branch. This process of forcing a new leader works best with young branches that can still be bent into a vertical position. Sometimes the tree will produce more than one leader. Even without having a dead one, you will see two vertical branches with a very narrow crotch between them. As these branches get old, the crotch will become a weak point, which could easily split on a windy day. This shows two leaders in the middle of the picture. The branches that left and right of the middle look as tall as the leader. But this is only because the picture is taken from a low angle. One of the two leaders needs to be removed. I usually keep the most vertical one, provided it shows no other health issues. This will result in a vertical trunk with only a small kink. In a few years, you won't even notice the kink. When you make the cot, Don't leave a stub. Here's an example of two leaders on a decision. Astri. Neither one is more dominant than the other one, and neither is growing very vertically. You just have to select one and remove it. Now. The remaining leader is not very vertical, and this will result in a crooked trunk. You can leave it and it will grow, but it will probably always have a bit of a kink in it. Since this is a young tree, you can also add a vertical sweat and forced the remaining leader into a more vertical position. It's a bit more work, but it will result in a better looking tree. I plan to make a separate video on diseases, but for now, let's have a look at one common issue. If you see any disease branches, cut them off a soon as you see them cut well past the diseased areas into Goodwood. Black not is common on any trees in the proneness family, including plums, proves and Cherries. It effects fruit trees, wild trees and ornamental shrubs. This disease is quite distinct and easily recognized, and far was a black lumpy growth around the branch. And it's very easy to see when the lease er off in the winter. The black fungal growth releases sports and spring around the time that buds break, so make sure you remove any growth before then. Cut the branch at least six inches or 15 centimeters into Goodwood, then either burn, bury or remove the infected wood from the property branches Congar in all different directions, and sometimes they get too near to one another. When they touch, wind will rub them together, damaging the bark, which can lead to infections. Over time, the damage gets worse and worse. At some point, the two branches get so thick they stop rubbing each other and they start growing around each other. None of this is good for the plant. This shows a new vertical branch rubbing on an older branch. You can already see a small amount of damage. Here's another branch showing a bit more damage. Any rubbing branches should be corrected as soon as you see them. Examine the branches and remove at least one of them. Which one do you remove? Try to remove the smaller ones, since this causes the smallest cut. But it is more important to remove the one that is growing in the wrong direction. Branches should be growing out and up. Any growing towards the centre are growing in a downward direction should be removed. Water sprouts, which I will discuss later, tend to grow straight up. They should also be removed. Now look for future problems. The real goal here is to move the branches long before they rub together. Find incenses where two branches air getting close together and remove one. If you do this thoroughly, you will never have rubbing branches. This shows an example of robbing branch that was not corrected. Cut these off of beech tree. You can see that the two branches have started to grow together. This close up of the separated branches shows just how much damage there is, but it also illustrates how resilient trees are. They can actually fix this kind of problem on their own, but it is much better for their health if you do it for them. Water throats, also called epic or Mick shoots, are vigorous upright shoots that develop from dormant buds on trunks and branches. They're usually the result of excess pruning and can develop from the main trunk or from smaller branches. When you pruno Woody plant, it responds by activating dormant buds a lot of the time. These grow at points where you don't want extra branches, so they need to be removed. The left branch was cut off the tree recently and is a fairly good cut. The branch on the right was cut off some time ago, but it left a stub that it's far too big. This stub should be re cut to shorten it. The tree reacted to the pruning by initiating new buds. Thes developed into water sprouts, which are now several inches long. It's fairly clear that these branches air not wanted for aesthetic reasons, so they should be removed. It is best to remove these as soon as you see them. There is no point in having a tree or shrub grew a lot of wood that you will be removing anyway. Also removing them early means that the cut surfaces air smaller so they heal faster. If you see them when they're very young, you might be able to rub the green growth off with your fingers. Once that growth gets larger and woody, you will need to use pruners and loppers to cut them off. This ash has some dead branches higher up, and it is responding by growing water sprouts from dormant buds along the trunk. When you cut them off, cut them as close to the trunk as you can. If you leave a stubble, you will also be leaving more dormant buds, and they will just start growing again. Suckers are very similar to water sprouts, except that they start growing from dormant buds on the root system. Thes new growth, want to become trunks and form new trees, shrubs tend to have multiple stems coming out from the roots and suckers on shrubs may actually be a good thing, provided that there are not too many of them of a shrub. Has too many soccer's proven some out by removing the smallest and weakest ones, cut them out as low as possible? But leaving a stub showing above ground is okay. As it gets older, it will just die off. Some trees have multiple trunks, and when they're young, you might want to leave. A couple of suckers give you that multi trunk look, but too many is not good for the trees. Health. Anything more than three is probably too much for a tree and should be removed. Single trunked trees can also form soccer's, and these all need to be removed. Many people remove suckers on trees by cutting them off at or just above ground level. But this doesn't work. The suckers have dormant buds below ground, and they just regrow. So next year they're back again, and in most cases, each cod produces two or more suckers. Do this for a few years, and you will have a mess of hundreds of suckers of the base of a tree. As in this picture, the proper way to remove soccer's on trees is to remove some soil so you can see where they start. If the soccer is small and green and just pull it off a close to the root, it's possible if it is older and woody printed office close to the root as you can, you want to remove as many dormant buds that you can so they won't regrow. Sucker should be moved at any time of year. As soon as you see them irrigated plants or mutations of normal green plants where some of the green is now a white or yellow color. We enjoy the multicolored patterns of such plants, but in nature, these plants want to have a solid green leaf, which is much more efficient for making sugars. Irrigation can exist on both trees and shrubs. This shows a very gated tree that started reverting to the green form quite some time ago, and it's now mostly green. Some variegated cultivars air very stable and will never form green leaves, but others are not stable and revert back to green quite easily. You usually see this as a whole branch of green leaves. The problem with this is that the green leaves are much more vigorous, and they grow faster than the variegated branches. If you leave the plant alone, the green parts take over the whole plant. If you want to keep the irrigation, you need to remove the green branch and as best to prove these out as soon as you seeing them. Reversion can also occurring shrubs as industry on Imus, which tend revert very easily. Cut the green branch right back to a larger branch that shows normal leaf growth. Once a plant reverts, it is likely to revert again, so keep an eye on it. If it happens a lot, consider replacing the plant with a more stable cultivar. There are also other types of reversion. The next most common reversion has to do with leaf size and shape. Japanese maples have unusually shaped leaves, and they can revert back to the normal shape. A lot of evergreens we grow our minister mutations of larger evergreens. The Alberta spruce pictured here is a dwarf mutation of a large white spruce, and it frequently reverts to the normal form. If you don't prune out this reversion, the tree will become a huge spruce. Prune any unusual growth right back to a normal branch. As soon as you see it, Many of our landscape plants are grafted. This includes almost all fruit trees, most ornamental plums, Cherries and crab apples. Most standards many roses, tree peonies and almost all miniature evergreens. The graft union is easy to spot on a young tree as shown in these pictures. But as the tree grows and a trunk gets thicker, the graph becomes hidden under new bark. Grafted plant consists of two varieties joined together. The one is a root system called the root stock, and it has a very short trunk that has been cut off after the graft was made. The 2nd 1 is the top growth, which is called the Sayang. Sayang has the visual characteristics you want to keep. In a perfect world, the root system does not grow anything's uproots. But in the real world it can grow both water sprouts and soccer's, especially if the science is not growing very well. Since growth from the roots are a different type of plant with its own characteristics, you have to remove them, treat them. As described for water sprouts and soccer's, this is a picture of a tree pne. A lot of people don't realize that most of these air grafted and therefore can produce suckers from the root stock. The normal leaves of a pne have a dull blue green color. They also have a characteristic shape. If we now lift up some of these leaves and look underneath, we find this. These leaves air a shiny green color and have a different shape. You might recognize it as a herb, a cious pne tree. Peonies air grafted onto her basis roots when the her basis roots sucker they show themselves by growing her basis leaves. Even though the her basis part of the plan is ready to flower, it needs to be removed by cutting off as close to the original route as possible. This problem will only affect shrubs, which grow many stems from a central crown, most shrubs to their own control, and they can be left alone. Other shrubs think that should produce a smelly stems as possible. Too many stems lead to crowding, rubbing branches, shading of leaves and reduced airflow, which can lead to diseases like powdery mildew for the health of the planet is best to keep a more open center. That sounds simple. Just remove extra stems. The problem with this is that vigorous shrubs respond to the pruning by making even more stems. The best solution is to remove a few stems each year, just enoughto open things up, but not so much that this shrub produces a lot of new ones. There is no perfect number dame for, and each rub responds differently when removing stems removed the thin ones and weak ones first. Then we move any that are growing in the wrong direction. You want stems to be heading up and outward away from the center. After that, take out the ones near the center. They tend to grow straight up and congest the center of the shrub. This type of pruning is best on in late winter or in the case of early flowering shrubs. Right after they flower, return to the shrub a month or two later and see how it responds. If it is making too many new stems, cut some out right away. There is no point in letting them grow until next year, only to cut them out, Then branches can grow out of a trunk at different angles. It is counterintuitive, but the strongest branch is the one that comes out at about 45 degrees. A more vertical branches, not a strong and is more likely to split in future years. This shows the branches of a pine tree coming out at 90 degrees. This is normal growth, and it is the growth that forms the strongest branches. This picture shows a lower branch on the same tree. This branch is attached to the trunk at a 45 degree angle. This is a week branch and one that should be removed, provided it is noticed early enough because this is an older branch and the trees in a wooded area where aesthetics is not so important. How this leave it. Cutting such a large branch makes a big wound, and you have to balance that against the benefit of removing it. The word crotch is used to describe the angle between the branch and the trunk, so this is a 45 degree crotch. This shows an extremely narrow crotch. In fact, it is so narrow it is almost a second leader it should be removed. If you are removing branches because you have too many, always remove the ones with the narrow crotch. Narrow crotch is not always a problem. Some trees are available in what is known as a fast sticky out of form. Has sticky Adam means having erect almost parallel branches. As in this spruce. This is a mutation that results in a very narrow tree, which is great for today's smaller gardens. This tree is growing normally, and every branch has a narrow crotch. You can't change its growth habit by pruning. It's important to correct all of the problems discussed in this video. 10. Pruning Rejuvenation: I'm standing beside one of my favorite lie locks, and I'm going to use it to show you how to rejuvenate a shrub. We've had a late spring this year, and the lilac has just finished flowering, and the general rule of thumb for pruning lie locks is to prove it right after flowers. Well, it turns out that that rule is really for the benefit of people. We tell you to prune ally locks right after they flower so that we get the maximum number of flowers out of the shrub. As far as the shrubs concerned, it would be much better to prove this in late winter. The plan has put a lot of energy into growing new leaves. We're going to come along and cut a lot of those off, and that's not really good for the tree. It's better to do all this pruning and spring. The problem is, if you do that, you'll get less flowering cause you're going to cut off some of the flower buds. Now it turns out, lilac, they're pretty tough plants. You could probably prove them any time you want. You're not really going to damage the plant very much now to remind you of the three steps of pruning. Step one is to take care of all the problems. Step two is the do rejuvenation pruning now. When and why would you do that? Well, I don't do very often. And if you prune on an annual basis and keep your plant nice and open, keep it airy so that the branches aren't too close together. Everything is growing well. You probably never have to rejuvenate, but if you have a shrub that's been neglected for a while, then rejuvenation might be just a tech it. This lilac would plan who probably about nine years ago, and I haven't really done a lot of pruning. I do take off the old flower heads because this shrub happens to be in a very visible space , and I do that mostly for aesthetics. I really don't think it does a lot for the shrub itself, but you'll notice that it's getting pretty large. And, you know, if you look through the center here, you can't see through the shrub. It's pretty congested inside here. You also notice it's getting pretty tall. I'm six feet tall, and this thing's a good 10 feet, and each year the flowers were getting higher and higher on the shrub. And that's not really good. From an aesthetic point of view. Plants is getting a bit too big if we have a look inside this shrub, what you notice is that there's some old branches in here. The getting quite beg diameters about like this on them you can tell they're old both by the size and by the bark is getting pretty rough. And these are the branches that are going right up to the top of the shrub. There is a bunch of new growth here, which is only a couple of years old. It's much shorter, hasn't started flowering yet, but it's getting to be a good size. But there's too many branches, is too congested, and except for these outer ones, you'll Middle Eastern. A lot of leaves down here. We're rejuvenating a shrub. What we want to do is to thin this out, but we also want to get rid of some of the old growth. So we take a look in here and identify a few of the very largest stems, and we take those out. Then we let these young ones start growing and take over for the plant. This does a couple things that keeps the branches young, which means that you get more flowering and they stay a bit shorter, which means that it fits into the garden better. You want your shrubs flowering at around the six foot mark so you can nicely see the flowers, especially with a plant like this. It's very fragrant, and you wanna be able to get up nice and close to it and smell those flowers. So I'm gonna identify a couple of these and I'll just take them out. The tool it works best for this is a pruning saw the branches air bit too large for loppers . I could use a chainsaw in here, but it's pretty congested, which makes it hard to get a chainsaw in there. This tour really the best option. When I cut these branches, I'm going to cut them, so that leaves a stub of a couple inches above ground. There's a couple secrets to doing this kind of prune e. What most people like to do is they like to take small pieces off so they'll get their pruners out and they do a little bit here a little bit here, and they do about 100 little cots. Remember that every cut you make generates two or more buds to start growing, so you create a really congested plant, and that's the exact opposite of what we're trying to accomplish here. The way to do this pruning is to make us few cuts as possible, but take a lot of material out. So I have made four cuts and I've taken a huge amount of material out of the tree still looks fairly congested in here because there's a lot of new young growth coming. I could take more out at this point and thin it out, but you never want to take more than 1/3 of your shrub out. If you prove too much, the trouble go crazy and make a whole bunch of new growths. And that's just creates more problems than you gotta prune out all those extra branches. My locks air pretty aggressive growers on the pruning I've just done is going to generate a lot of new Bud growth, so it's gonna have to any branches in here. So I'll do is come along in late winter and cut some of those out. I want to start opening up the center a little bit. This is not a one time pruning event. This is going to take several years to get this done. Each year he come along, take a few more of the branches out until the shrub has opened up and growing the way you want. After that, you use regular annual pruning to keep it in shape. If you prove regularly, you never have to rejuvenate a trump. 11. Pruning For Show: in this video, I'll have a look at the third part of our three step pruning plan. Pruning for show Step One of this plan took care of the shrubs health and resolved any issues. Step two is rejuvenation, which is mostly the correction of improperly doing step one step three of the plan is all about you and your wants. In some ways, this is the easiest part toe learn because you can do just about anything to make the plant look the way you want. But it can also be the hardest part because you need to make design decisions. I can tell you how I might prove in a certain plant, but that pruning would meet my personal war and may not me. Yours, for example. I might want a formal look and you might want an informal look. Neither is wrong, but the right pruning is the one that makes you happy. To simplify matters, I broken down Step three into smaller segments. In this video, I'll introduce these segments and provide a few examples of each. This will give you a good overview of what is possible. Prune for looks. Some pruning is done to enhance the characteristics of the plant. Dogwoods are good example. Some are planted for their red and yellow stems, which are especially attractive and winter. Once the leads fall off, the first year's growth is very colorful, but as that growth ages, the color becomes browner, unless attractive. So many people cut the shrubs back to the ground each year so that they're always colorful . Birch trees have a nice white trunk, but if you leave the lower branches on the tree, you won't see it. Proving these off exposes the trunk, resulting in a better looking tree. This pruning is not for the benefit of the tree. It is done entirely for aesthetic reasons. The best leaf color on a dappled willow is on the new growth, which shows a combination of green, white and pink. For this reason, and because Willow's go back strongly, these shrubs air usually heavily pruned in spring to produce the best show prune for size. The garden looks best when it contains plants of very size is the problem with woody plants is that they get bigger each year, and at some point they become too big. Pruning can control their size hedges are a good example. Most people let them grow until they get the desired height on. Then they proven to try and keep them at that height. I love hydrangeas, funicula shrubs, but they will get taller each year, and they tend to flower at the tip of their stems. But I want flowers at about six feet so I can enjoy them. So I prune these shrubs shorter each spring to controller size and control the location of their flowers. Roses Growth wrote the season, and many gardeners clipped them back in mid summer to keep them shorter. You can cut the top off a tree to keep its smaller, but it's usually not a good idea unless you're trying for a certain look in my sugar bush. I cut some maples almost to the ground. They respond by growing numerous new shoots, making the tree look more like a shrub. This gives me some medium height under the taller trees. Before you top a tree, think very hard about what you're doing. It can't be reversed. Pruning evergreens has to be done carefully, and it depends very much on the species boxwood and you are routinely clapped to keep them to a specific size in a Japanese garden. They conform most of the plantings with each one klepto, a different size and shape. In my own garden, I am pruning a large to keep it small. I cut all new growth back to about a one inch stub. This keeps the branches small and tight, but this is now an annual task. If I stop, it will get bigger and become too large for its current location. Climbers air routinely cut back to keep them in shape. For example, type three KLA Mattis a cut to the ground each spring to control their size. Climbing hydrangeas, air cutback for both size and to keep them away from window sales and doorways. Pruning for shape. One of the great things about woody plants is that you can turn them into all kinds of shapes. Remember one thing. The more you deviate from its natural shape, the more pruning work you will have in the future. In many cases, it becomes an annual job boxwood and you are very adoptable plants. You can leave them alone and you will end up with a shrub, or you can prove them into around it ball or a hedge or even odd shapes. You can probably create any of these shapes using any woody material, but some species air certainly more adaptable than others. Some don't mind being pruned on a regular basis, and others don't want to be pruned nearly soft. Toepfer is a common form of pruning, especially for evergreens. They had an interesting shape to a garden, and in many cases they become the focal point of the guard. This type of pruning is very common for junipers. I have been converting a you that was a bush into a form called cloud pruning. Let's take several years but can produce some very interesting shrubs. Espalier is a technique for turning a three dimensional tree into a two dimensional one. It is used for fruit trees or for fitting a variety of flowering trees against walls and fences. It's a great way to add trees to a small garden. The other platform that is very popular these days is the standard. The term standard is used by experience gardeners, but many newer gardens just call them trees, and they would call this in hydrangea tree. It's not really a tree this hydrangea particular data is normally a shrub, but if you prune it to a single stem, I remove all lower branches. You end up with something that looks like a tree. Standards are usually more expensive to buy, so it is worth making one yourself, as I did here. Start with a small shrub or rooted cutting, which is what I used. Remove all but one growing stem and let it grow naturally. Stake it to keep it straight As it gets taller. Remove lower branches. In a few years, you will have a standard. The nice thing about making one yourself is that you can make it any height that you want. Pollard ing is more common in Europe than in North America, but it can be useful in smaller gardens or where a large plant is mistakenly planted in a space that is too small. In this technique, you cut back new growth every year, leaving the main lower trunk and main branches to grow in size. In many ways, it is similar to a standard, but it usually has more than one growing point. Now that you have seen all of these possibilities, you might feel even more confused than when you started. That's normal. It is important. Understand that the same pruning techniques are used to make all of these designs. The cuts are all made exactly the same way. When a cut is made, buds react exactly the same. The only difference in these designs is where you cut. If you want to keep annual pruning toe a minimum, keep all of your woody plants looking natural. It is the least amount of work. Select trees and shrubs so they don't outgrow their space or accept the fact that when they get too big, you will replace them. On the other hand, pruning weird shapes could be a lot of fun, and many gardeners find that it adds a lot to their hobby. Pick one or two plants and try something new. It is unlikely you will kill it. You might create something ugly, but there's a good chance you create a new favorite plan, and even if it is ugly, you can replace it. Start to enjoy proof. OKay, 12. Pruning shrubs for more flowers: thin this video, I'm going to explain how pruning effects flower. And at the end of the video, I'll give you some special tips on how to prove for the best flowers. Let's have a look at a couple hydrangea in my garden. In the center of the picture, you see two large plants. Both of these are hydrangea, funicula limelight. There's a fantastic plant, and everybody should be growing it. Both plants are about the same age there, about five years old, and they're the same size. Last year, there were about 6.5 feet tall. The one in the back has nice white flowers, and it has not being pruned for several years. The one closer to you has a green chart truce color, and this one was pruned this past spring. This room was getting too tall for space, so I decided to cut it back. Tow a boat 2.5 feet. Now, if you look at these two, you'll notice that both shrubs are about the same size. Even though this shrub has been pruned back quite heavily, it's grown like crazy this summer. It's now about six feet tall and is almost as tall as the one in the background, which wasn't Prune it all. This is a fairly common response to pruning. Uprooting makes things grow now. Most drugs won't grow quite this much after pruning, but these hydrangeas grow quite easily, and this one has just taken off. Prudent can also fact bloom time. Let's have a closer look at these two shrubs. This is a close up of the unproven one. You'll notice that most of the flower hat is nice and white, with the tip showing a bit of green. The white are the open paddles, and the green are buds that aren't quite open yet. You can see most of the flower hat is open. If we go and have a look at the hydrangea that was pruned, you'll notice there are very few open flowers. Most of the flower had is still showing buds, and that gives it that green chartreuse color. Last year, both of these plants bloomed at exactly the same time. But this year, due to pruning, this one is at least two weeks behind where it should be, and this delay in flowering was caused by the pruning this spring. This is a smoke Bush called grace, and new growth has this fantastic orangey red color, particularly when the lightest coming from the back in the spring I cut this plant back to about six inches. It's a very vigorous grower and can take that kind of pruning. This picture was taken in July, and it's already about four feet tall by the end of the summer will easily reach 7.5 feet. Pruning had one other consequence. This plant normally flowers in June or July on new wood, but this year it doesn't look like it's gonna flower at all. It's already August, and I don't see any buds forming. I think it's going to skip a year, and this can be the consequences of severe pruning. Here's another shrub that was cut back very heavy this spring. The plant is an elderberry called black lace, another great plant for the garden. I hadn't pruned it for a number of years, and so it was getting quite tall, and I thought that it really needed to be contained more so I cut it right back to the ground this spring. This picture was taken in August and it normally blooms in July, so it should be covered with flower hats. But I don't see any flowers developing now. I think it was still flower before fall, but it's possible that it will just skip a year. These air some good examples of how pruning effects flower. It can delay flowering, usually by only a couple weeks, but in some cases the shrub just won't flower it all for a year. Here. Eight other tips for getting your shrugs to bloom their best. The best time to prune a shrub flowers in the spring is right after flower. Rule of thumb is to prune it within three weeks of flour. If the shrub blooms in summer or fall, the best time to prune is late winter or very early spring. I like the pruning the shrubs while there's still snow on the ground. That way I can walk in the garden and I don't compress the soil. You might be wondering when you're shrugged flowers. So I'm going to provide a list of shrubs and their flowering period in the description below. Some shrubs seem to flower all summer long. A good example of this are some types of roses. You can prove them pretty much any time you want. It's usually a good idea to prove them back while you're dead. Heading the flowers we're starting to see a lot of new shrubs as re bloomers. One example of this is a lilac called blue meringue. It flowers in the spring, and then it flowers again mid and late summer. So when do you prune this type of shrub? It's a good idea to treat them like spring bloomers. Prune them after the first flush of flowers. The flowers that come later in summer will be developed on new wood, which will grow in late spring and early summer. Sometimes shrubs just stopped blooming, and people wonder why Now? There's many reasons that wouldn't cause you're shrub, not bloom, but one of them is that it's just getting too old. If you haven't prune your shrub in a number of years, try giving it a good cut. Cutting out some of the old stems will reinvigorate the plant to grow new growth, and this new growth flowers easier than the old stems. It's best the prune dead and diseased branches. As soon as you see them, it doesn't matter what time of year it ISS rule Number seven might surprise you. You can prove whenever you want. Oh, the other rules I've gone through are designed to maximize the amount of blooms on the plant. They're not really designed for the health of the plant. In fact, the best time that prune all shrubs is in late winter or early spring. But that might sacrifice flowers, and so we've developed the above rules. But as far as the plant goes, you can put an end time. You want some shrubs produce a lot of flowers. Some of these hydrangea panicky Alatas air A good example for these kind of shrubs. Prune out the excess buds as soon as you see them. This will produce a shrub that looks much better when it finally opens its blooms. If you follow these eight simple rules, you will always have shrubs that flower really well. 13. Pruning clematis vines: in this video I'd like to talk to you about How do you select the right pruning technique for your particular acclimatise that I'll go and show you high Prue Michael Mattis in the garden at the end of the video. I give you some secrets that I use for making it easier for acclimatise to climb up structures in order to prove cloud is, you have to know which type you have. If you know the name of the cloud is, you can look it up on the Internet and find out what type of pruning it needs if you don't have the name. So you've moved into a new house and there's some commodities there and you have no idea what it is, where you bought them and didn't keep the name. Then you have to do a little more work. Well, you really have to do is let them grow for a year and watch the flowers. And if I have acclimatise like that and it's the first year I have it in the garden, I won't prune it all. Just leave it alone and see what it does. Haven flowers very quickly. It's a type one claw Mattis, and it blooms very quickly and very early in the spring, which means you shouldn't put all this time of the year there. Some other commodities that bloom sort of late spring early summer, and they also bloom on last year's would. So you don't want to prove them at this time of year, either. You want to leave those well, you might cut them back to a height that that is more suitable. And then there's 1/3 type of chromatis, which is a type that most people have. So if you're guessing and you want to some pruning, you have no idea what type it is. It's probably a type three, and those commanders we prune right to the ground. They bloom on new wood. They're gonna start to grow in the spring and make new leaves and stems. And then sometime in midsummer, they'll bloom. So in the spring, I take out my list. Acclimatise and I know which one is growing at each spot here, and I decide what to dio this. There's one of my favorite play, Mattis. It's not very bombing and gardens, but it's one that a lot more people should be growing acclimatise. Our Pinta. It's very hardy. I think it's hard. It is only three. It blooms really early in the year, so all the buds are already on the plant. If I prune this back, I won't get any flower. So you have to leave all the buds. I just leave it the way it ISS. If it gets too tall, you can cut it back a little bit, but I just leave the whole thing on. The premium is already done. It's a great plan for the garden, and it's also a great plant for a container and the container. It stays a little smaller and blooms really nicely early in the year. This 1st 1 here is acclimatise called Journey Queen, and it blooms on world would. So the buds are already on that KLA. Mattis and I don't want to cut it off. Unfortunately, here that rabbits sometimes disagree, and during the winter they go had improved it anyways, so this is a pretty young plant. It's only been in the ground a couple years. It has about a foot of growth and it will bloom a bit. I really would prefer that I have stem that are about my height so that the booms air this height when it blooms. In this case, because it's a low the bloom to be right down on the ground. Another great clattered called Miss Harvey. I've got each one name, so I know what they are, and it's a type three climatic, so it's going to bloom in late summer on new Wood says it. Blooms are new. Would all this old stuff is not of much use, and it grows about 10 feet tall in a year. So I just cut it right back, conceded about 45 inches, a stubble left, and so I just come and just cut it right off with some pruners. Physical matters I've had for many years and I've lost the name of it. But I do know it's a type three KLA Mattis. It blooms quite leighton in the season and make small purple flowers about this big stars. I know the type of acclimatise it is. I know how to prune it. This thing needs to be caught right back to the ground, and it will flower on new wood, So go ahead and show you how I do that. So Step one is to cut it back. I could cut it very carefully, right above a bud. But there are so many stems in here and there, quite brittle this time. The year I don't think that's really necessary. Just grab a handful and cut it. So we got about eight inches of growth, lots of buds along here. He will also sprout from underground. So we've got lots of new growth coming. The next step is to get rid of all this upper growth. I trained Michael Mattis on vertical wires. So I want to be careful. I don't cut those, but I just pull it off on whatever it gets stuck too much. I just give it a cot and pull some more until it's all off. It's not a very organized process. You just keep working at it until you get it off. Here we go. Now, you don't have to get every last piece off these things. They're dry, they're brittle. And another couple weeks the wind will blow them off anyways, pretty clear. Mattis is really easy. Make sure you know what type you have, and then you know exactly how to prune it. Each plant only takes a couple seconds and you're done. I'd like to add one more important thing to this video. Like to talk about building something for them to climb up. Acclimatise, wraparound things with their leaf pedals. So you have the leaf here and a very short patio, and it wraps around. It needs something thin, the wraparound or it doesn't climb very well. A lot of people use lattice for acclimatise to climb up, but that piece of lattice is just too thick for the leaves to get around so they never climb up. When you have to use string to tie them on, it doesn't really make a lot of sense Almost everywhere I've acclimatise, I use wires. He's a thin wires. The leaves have no problem wrapping around them. I put the wires and vertically because, hey, acclimatise grow vertically. I've seen other people foot wires across their arbors. One here, another one here. Well, that doesn't really work, because vines and grew up to that wire and go across and set up, and we want to get height into them. So the best solution I found his simple wires. Don't worry about them getting too hot in the summer. That doesn't seem to bother Gladys. It all hope you enjoy this video and now you know how to prove acclimatise. 14. Pruning spirea : hi prudent spirea is differently than most shrubs, so I thought I'd do a quick little video and show you your various options for pruning the shrub. It's early spring here, and I did nothing to this in the fall. It still has last year seed heads on here, but they come out fairly easily. So there's a couple options. Option one, which is the one I prefer is do absolutely nothing. If you just leave this trouble alone, Theseus heads will fall off. The new leads will cover them up. If they're still there, he'll grow low. Bet, and you don't have to do any pruning at all. That's one great thing about spy areas Option tube. You might want to make a look a little nicer and take you seat heads off to do that. I like this tool right here, and I'll show you how to do that. - Now the Trib looks nice and neat, so last year I cut. This struck back to about a height like this, so it put on about 8 to 10 inches of growth last year, and if I want to keep it at that height, I just need to reduce these back down to a lower size. The problem with doing that is if you prove this to the same size every year, you'll get too many branches in the top part here and get really congested. So the best thing to do is cut it back a little bit. So a couple inches above last year's Kat, or cut farther down past last year's cut one of the other. But don't keep cutting these things to the same height every year. They just get really congested. So Option three is to cut this back a little bit. And for that I could use the hedge trimmers the way did before before he could use very good pruners for that. And I just grab a bunch who caught it. Now these Fibria look pretty nice is around it. Bush don't normally proving that way, but for this planet seems to look all right. So I just go around and cut off whatever I don't want. Well, im doing this. I'm also having a look to see if there any broken branches or any damage. Things always clean up the problems first and then do the shaping. That means he's the role of tedious this way, so I think I'll switch the other way. Normally, when I'm putting back shrubs, I'm pretty careful to always make sure I get a cut right above a bud. But there's just too many stems on this thing to bother with that. So I just kind of like this. The trouble do just fine now. The fourth option with this drop is I could cut it right back to the ground, so you only leave a couple inches of stubborn bottom. That will keep the whole plan a little smaller, keeping more contained. But for this shrub in this location, I don't really want that. I'm not going to show you how to do that. That's it. That's all you have to do for spirea is pretty easy. Plants to take care of 15. Pruning a butterflybush : I'm standing here beside my butterfly bush and in zone five, this is 1/2 hardy shrub. Everything that's above ground has been killed off during the winter. But the root system is still good and it's alive and it will re sprout right at the ground level. So I want to get rid of all of this. I'm going to do is just simply cut it down. So I leave a little stump danger to above ground and take the rest away to really several a prudence and shrub.