Pronounce English Accurately | Dr Richard Stibbard | Skillshare

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Pronounce English Accurately

teacher avatar Dr Richard Stibbard, PhD in Phonetics

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

55 Lessons (6h)
    • 1. Why you should take this course!

    • 2. CHAPTER 1 - Introduction

    • 3. Chapter 1, Lesson 2 Why English spelling is so odd

    • 4. Chapter 1, Lesson 3 - Pronunciation dictionaries

    • 5. Chapter 1, Lesson 4 - Terminology & Conventions

    • 6. CHAPTER 2 - Consonants - Introduction

    • 7. Chapter 2, Lesson 1 - /w/

    • 8. Chapter 2, Lesson 2 - /p, b/

    • 9. Chapter 2, Lesson 3 - /m/

    • 10. Chapter 2, Lesson 4 - /f, v/

    • 11. Chapter 2, Lesson 5 - /v/ vs /w/

    • 12. Chapter 2, Lesson 6 - /θ, ð/

    • 13. Chapter 2, Lesson 7 - /t, d/

    • 14. Chapter 2, Lesson 7b - the '-ed' ending

    • 15. Chapter 2, Lesson 8 - /s, z/

    • 16. Chapter 2, Lesson 8b - the 's/-es' ending

    • 17. Chapter 2, Lesson 9 - /n/

    • 18. Chapter 2, Lesson 10 - /l/

    • 19. Chapter 2, Lesson 11 - /ʃ, ʒ/

    • 20. Chapter 2, Lesson 12 - /tʃ, dʒ/

    • 21. Chapter 2, Lesson 13 - /r/

    • 22. Chapter 2, Lesson 14 - /l/ vs /r/ vs /n/

    • 23. Chapter 2, Lesson 15 - j//

    • 24. Chapter 2, Lesson 16 - /k, g/

    • 25. Chapter 2, Lesson 17 - /ŋ/

    • 26. Chapter 2, Lesson 18 - /h/

    • 27. Chapter 2, Lesson 19 - Initial consonant clusters

    • 28. Chapter 2, Lesson 20 - Syllable final consonant clusters Part 1

    • 29. Chapter 2, Lesson 21 - Syllable final consonant clusters – Part 2

    • 30. CHAPTER 3 - Vowels - Introduction

    • 31. Chapter 3, Vowels 1 & 2 - long 'ee' vs short 'i'

    • 32. Chapter 3, Vowels 3 & 4 - short 'e' vs short 'a'

    • 33. Chapter 3, Vowel 5 - schwa

    • 34. Chapter 3, Vowel 6 - short 'uh'

    • 35. Chapter 3, Vowel 7 - long 'er'

    • 36. Chapter 3, Vowel 8 - long 'ah'

    • 37. Chapter 3, Vowels 9 & 10 - short 'o' vs long 'or'

    • 38. Chapter 3, Vowels 11 & 12 - short vs long 'oo'

    • 39. Chapter 3, Vowel 13 - diphthong 'ear'

    • 40. Chapter 3, Vowel 14 - diphthong 'air'

    • 41. Chapter 3, Vowel 15 - diphthong 'ure'

    • 42. Chapter 3, Vowel 16 - diphthong 'ay'

    • 43. Chapter 3, Vowel 17 - diphthong 'igh'

    • 44. Chapter 3, Vowel 18 - diphthong 'oi'

    • 45. Chapter 3, Vowel 19 - diphthong 'oh'

    • 46. Chapter 3, Vowel 20 - diphthong 'ow'

    • 47. Chapter 4 - READING THE IPA - Lesson 1 - Monosyllables

    • 48. Chapter 4, Lesson 2 - Stress on first syllable

    • 49. Chapter 4, Lesson 3 - Longer words

    • 50. Chapter 4, Lesson 4 - Crazy personal names

    • 51. Chapter 4, Lesson 5 - Wacky place names

    • 52. CHAPTER 5 - Connected Speech - Lesson 1 - Assimilation

    • 53. Chapter 5, Lesson 2 - Elision

    • 54. Chapter 5, Lesson 3 - Intrusive and linking sounds

    • 55. CHAPTER 6 - Conclusion

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About This Class

Learn accurate English pronunciation with this course.

Gain an overt awareness of what your speech organs are doing and how they produce each of the different sounds of English.

Learn the International Phonetic Alphabet as used in pronunciation dictionaries.

Includes INTERACTIVE PERCEPTION EXERCISES for you to test whether you can hear the difference between the various sounds of English.

Meet Your Teacher

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Dr Richard Stibbard

PhD in Phonetics


PhD Phonetics (University of Reading)

A* GCSE in Chinese


Former Positions:

Lecturer in Linguistics (University of Surrey)

Assistant Professor in Lingusitics (University of Cyprus)

Language Instructor (Hong Kong Baptist University)


See full profile

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1. Why you should take this course!: welcome to pronounce English accurately with me, Richard still bod if you're a learner of English and you find that people sometimes don't always seem to understand what you say or if you sometimes need to repeat words, or if you're unsure as to how unfamiliar English words should be pronounced, then you're in the right place. This course will clear up the confusion, teaching you exactly how the sounds of English a maid, Andi, how they relate to spelling. I'm, a former lecturer in applied linguistics at the University of Surrey on Have a PhD in phonetics. The Science of Speech sounds from the University of Reading. I've taught English pronunciation at all levels, from primary to postgraduate in Cyprus, Turkey, Germany, Hong Kong and in the UK At the University of Cyprus, I taught undergraduate and postgraduate students, and at the University of Reading, I taught phonetics to postgraduate language pathology students. Later, the University of Surrey I trained postgraduate English language teachers in how to teach pronunciation. I've also taught on the summer course in English phonetics run by University College London , and I've worked with some of the leading phone additions and pronunciation specialists in the UK. In this course, you will gain an overt awareness of what your speech organs are doing and how they produce each of the different sounds of English. I will teach you the international phonetic alphabet as used in pronunciation dictionaries , so that you can look up any words you're unsure off Onda. Very importantly, I will relate these transcriptions closely to English spelling. Throughout the course, I use large images based on X rays depicting the positions of the organs of speech for each sound, as well as close up camera shots where they're useful to show the actions of the speech organs in detail. From these on from my descriptions, you will learn how to describe speech sounds and become better able to distinguish similar sounds from one another. Interspersed between the lessons are interactive. Perception exercises these a few to test whether you can hear the difference between the various sounds. If you can hear the difference, you can't make it accurately. It actually amazes me that we all speak at least one language, and most of the world's population speaks more than one often many more. Yet the average person has a little or no accurate knowledge of how speech sounds of made and cannot even begin to describe their production. Making speech sounds and trying to make the unfamiliar sounds of foreign languages is such an integral part of all our lives as humans that it's truly astonishing that only a tiny number of specialists have any idea of what's actually going on inside our mouths. When we speak, we should all be able to identify speech sounds accurately and be able to say that the sound that we hear is, for instance, and labia dental sound foot rather than a by labial one. What on we should be able to describe where and how a given vowel sound is made with reasonable accuracy. But generally, people are very bad at doing this. Let me remedy this for you so that you can learn exactly what our vocal tract is doing When we produce spoken language, this knowledge will make your learning of English much more efficient. If you will be able to pronounce every word in the language accurately and confidently, No longer will our spoken English put you at risk of being misunderstood or looking less than professional. The course were also behind the valuable for learning Any other language is you tackle as a knowledge of how our speech organs make the various sounds is transferrable toe Any other language you learn? I want to teach you to help you improve your pronunciation and your listening skills. So hit the enroll button and join me inside. 2. CHAPTER 1 - Introduction: welcome to the course. It's greatly have enrolled. Now I'm going to help you improve your English pronunciation by focusing on the one thing that matters most when we learn pronunciation, the physical actions which give rise to the various speech sounds we produce for constant sounds that sounds like Put Raw and MMA. I'll describe which parts of our vocal organs are in action when we make a particular sound what that action is and how it affects the airflow through our vocal tract, and thus the sound that results for vowel sounds sounds like E it. And, uh, I'll show how the shape of the lips, the degree to which the mouth opens on the position and height of the tongue, all very to influence the resulting vowel sound. I'll also demonstrate how long or short a certain vowel sound should be, and that varies according to its environment. If your language doesn't have a contrast which exists in English, then it's likely that you will find it hard to even perceive the difference between two similar sounds, let alone make it so. We'll work on perception of sound differences to because you certainly cannot make different sounds if you cannot even perceive them. For example, the contrast between the it and E sounds as in bit and Beat is a relatively rare contrast. Most languages have only one sound like that somewhere in between the two. I think if your language has that contrast German does, for example, then it's not going to be a problem. If it doesn't, then you'll probably need instruction both on perception on production of that contrast, depending on how and where you've learned English, you may never have had a solid framework for learning pronunciation. For instance, you may not even have any clear idea of how many different sounds there are in the English language. This is really regrettable, and it's the result of a long standing and apparently determined trend in English language teaching against the systematic teaching of pronunciation. All the other aspects of the language, such as vocabulary and grammar, are taught properly, but pronunciation has for a long time being sidelined. Many learners now have never had any proper instruction in it and have just muddled along in confusion all their lives. If the English language, like German or Spanish, spell regularly, so that we know from the spelling how every words pronounced. This wouldn't be such a problem. But the apparently chaotic relationship between English spelling and pronunciation means that both sides of the equation are a real problem. What the intended sounds of the language are on which of those sounds the spelling is intended to represent in any particular word. I aim to tackle this problem head on, and to give you a solid framework on which to base your pronunciation of English, you will learn the international phonetic alphabet or I P. A. For short. This is a way of writing alone sounds of all the world's languages, not just English. Using the principle that one symbol equals one sound with no variation after the course, you should be able to look up any word in a dictionary and pronounce it accurately. For example, in the i p. A. The word women is transcribed like this. Women in this shows is clearly that both the letter O on the letter e in the word women represent the exact same vowel sound as in pic or 10. Another example is the word cough. This is transcribed like this in the I P. A. so we could see clearly that it has a sound at the end, even though the spelling really doesn't show that very well. The I P A. Is the only way there is of representing English pronunciation systematically, and it's the system used in all seriousness action res. But it seems that so few people have learned the I p A. That one sometimes wonders why it's there. A tall let's put that right on, learn it properly and bring order to the chaos. If you're in a hurry to get started, you could move right on now to the next section and start with the constant sounds. But if you've got 10 minutes to spare than I recommend you watch the next lesson. This is a very short overview of the history of the English language and an explanation of how we've got to the current, rather chaotic situation with English spelling. Following that is a review video giving my recommendations on specialist pronunciation dictionaries 3. Chapter 1, Lesson 2 Why English spelling is so odd: Why is English spelling so odd? But why does it do such a bad job of representing pronunciation? Every language has some aspects which easy and some which are difficult. The most difficult aspect of English for most learners, and not just for learners, for native speakers as well is it's quite haphazard spelling and the eternal problem of relating spelling to pronunciation. Native English Children generally learned to say words before they learned to spell them, so they usually know very well how words are pronounced but have trouble spelling them. Non native learners, on the other hand, often see words in print that they have never heard spoken aloud, so they often have more trouble with pronunciation than with spelling. How has the mismatch between spelling and pronunciation come about? Well, first, we haven't obvious problem of numbers than that in Alphabet has five vowel letters, A, e, i O and U or six. If you count the letter, why in Happy English has 20 different vowel sounds. Thus, we have an immediate problem how to represent these 20 vowel sounds with the much smaller number of letters. This problem has been tackled in many different ways throughout the long and convoluted history of the language on most of these methods are, unfortunately still with us today. Let's have a very brief overview of the major developments, which have led up to modern English being the way it is. At the core of English is the native stock of words which have been with us since old English, about 600 a. D, many of which retain their original spelling unchanged. Despite the fact that their pronunciation has changed enormously in the intervening centuries. These are responsible for some of the strangest spellings we have today, including the words with GH such as daughter Enough, laugh, bow, broad and burrow. All of those words, once header sounded them. So the GH represented that sound, and it made perfect sense a very long time ago. Indeed, the sound disappeared from the language on was either deleted completely from these words or replaced by the sound, as in laugh and cough. But the GH spelling was never changed. The Viking Invasions, which started in the eighth century and continued until the 13th century, brought a certain amount of new vocabulary, not a huge amount. Words like sky egg and cake window hit, run and skill as well as law, are all from Scandinavia, and they've long been part of our core English vocabulary. The Vikings also brought a very large number of place names to the areas of Britain they inhabited in the 11th century. The Norman conquest led to the complete takeover of government law and education by French speakers. The English language almost died out of official use, at least, and when it recovered some 200 years later, it had changed beyond recognition. The mass importation of vocabulary from Norman French had changed a purely Germanic language into a hybrid one still with a core Germanic structure but now over laid with a largely romance vocabulary from the 14th century onwards are far reaching. Change called the great vowel shift began, which gradually but profoundly altered the vowel system of English. Over the centuries, the pronunciation of all the long vowels in the language radically changed. Before the great vowel shift began. The word name would have bean pronounced number, and the final he would have been pronounced. It was a two syllable word, Justus. The spelling indicates that it should be the modern word bites would have been beaten. Mouse would be moose House would have been Hoose Mouse and House didn't have a final letter e in the spelling in those days. Notice how at that time, spelling and pronunciation matched perfectly, the letters and a M E were pronounced exactly as we would expect. Nama. Just those four letters would be pronounced it every other language of the world, but not in modern English. The great vowel shift. Mestel that up. It's the most important reason for the mismatch between English spelling and pronunciation today. It's the reason we have pairs of related words with different vowels in them. Nation national, hostile hostility in size, incision and hundreds of other pairs like that. Often we have dual pronunciations of a word. One applying the great vowel shift. What not examples are me grain and migraine ideology and ideology. Both of those a common similarly all the words like economical, economical, economical, ecological, ecological have dual pronunciations again, the direct result of the great vowel shift. It can also be a source of great confusion, went unfamiliar or foreign looking words crop up. We don't know whether to pronounce them, as though the great vowel shift has happened or not. We all agree, I think, on how to pronounce the name of this popular Scandinavian furniture retailer. It's I care, isn't it? But only in English, where the great vowel shift has been applied to it. In other languages, it's Ikeya pre great vowel shift style. How about this van and truck manufacturer? Is it European style of a co or English style? I Vico? You will hear both, but only in English. All that confusion unique to English is the direct result of the great vowel shift. Although the great vowel shift was at its most dramatic in the 15th and 16th century, it's never actually finished. It's still in process today, and it's the basis of some of the different accents of English and explains why some Australians pronounce Australia as Australia. At the same time as the great vowel shift was at its most radical came the times of the Great Explorations and later the British Empire. From this time onwards, the English and their language came into contact with hundreds of languages from all over the world and adopted many foreign words for new ideas. Examples are numerous and include bungalow chutney and juggernaut from Hindi chimpanzee Denki, the fever on zebra from various African languages and kiosk, Kassig, kabob and caftan, all from Turkish. From the 18th century onwards came great advances in scientific and medical knowledge. To cope with this, many terms from Latin and Greek were adopted on. Many more new terms were invented based on these classical languages, bringing in a new sophisticated layer vocabulary intelligible only to the initiated. This is the basis of medical terminology. Today, this process of adoption of foreign words continued apace. Just one page of my addiction re yields representation is from Eskimo and Chinese kayak and Colin, German and Cantonese kaput and ketchup, Japanese and Millais, karate on kapok, American Indian and Australian Aborigine, e kazoo and kangaroo. With such a history of amalgamation, Zand adoptions coupled with a conservative spelling system which was essentially fixed with the invention of printing in the 15th century and a tendency to retain the original spellings of foreign words. Even though the pronunciation in English may not match that spelling, it's really unsurprising that the relationship between spelling and pronunciation is an uncertain one. Delving into the history of our language will tell us. How s a K E may not always rhyme with make and why P l A I t never sounds like plate. It will shed light on Why s I t c i t e and s I g h t Aloha MMA phones. They're all pronounced exactly the same, yet I e a d can either rhyme with bed or bead. So we used the international phonetic alphabet toe look words up in a dictionary and to distinguish the various target sounds. Once you can make the target sounds reliably, you can use the i p A to produce the right Sounds accurately in every word. We'll start with the chapter covering all the constant sounds then, when all the vowel sounds and after that will do exercises on reading the I P. A. Until you can read from it easily, quickly and accurately. Then we'll move on to special topics such as clusters of continents together on how pronunciation altars in connected speech. To get the most out of this course, you may very well want to invest in a specialist pronunciation dictionary. Not all pronunciation dictionaries are created equal, so the next lesson is a review video comparing three of the best known ones and giving my recommendations on them 4. Chapter 1, Lesson 3 - Pronunciation dictionaries: There are three well known specialist pronunciation dictionaries, two of which I can recommend one I advise you to avoid. The one to avoid is the Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation for current English, edited by Clive Upton. As the title indicates, this diction reclaims to represent what Upton calls current English. In trying to achieve this, he has departed from the accepted standard transcription. An example is the most peculiar transcription of the vowel in price, as I Upton has it, starting with the value in cup, which gives us something like price. It doesn't even sound English to May, and it certainly isn't standard English as spoken or taught anywhere in the world. The whole value of the international phonetic alphabet is that it is a standard, a clear on widely accepted model. And if different dictionaries start transcribing the same word differently, the I P. A loses its purpose. Professor J. C. Wells, author of one of the dictionaries I'm going to look at next, departs from the normal conventions of academic politeness and etiquette and calls Upton's decision to use this transcription bizarre, and I have to agree. My advice is to give the Oxford Dictionary of pronunciation for current English, her miss. As it's just confusing, you will continue to Prince Price as price and ignore the inaccurate transcription. So it's pointless. There are other Oxford titles edited by the same author with the same nonstandard transcription. Avoid them all. There are two pronunciation dictionaries, which I can recommend the Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary, 18th edition by Daniel Jones and Peter Roach on the Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, third edition by J. C. Wells. If you've already bought either of these than either is fine to stick with, they have much the same information on both used the I P A. As I use it. In this course, the strongest point about the Cambridge English pronouncing Dictionary, the C E P. D. For short, is that it has entries for lots of words, where you really cannot tell the pronunciation from the spelling it all. Some of the best examples of these are place names and surnames. These are covered much better in the C e. P. D. Than in the Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. The LPD. I like this because once you've mastered the sound system and the pronunciation of ordinary words, these are the sort of words, you'll want to look up. The CPD is quite fun because it has so many of these wacky spellings because it's a good way of making sure you've learned the I p a. Later in this course, I've included lessons specifically on place names and crazy spellings so that you can practice reading the I p A forwards whether spelling doesn't help or is downright misleading. On the other hand, the LPD is useful in another way. It presents the results of a Pronunciation Preferences poll conducted by J. C. Wells. In this, he asked informants for that preferred pronunciation of words with variant possible pronunciations such as garage that could be variously Proust garage, garage or garage or garage or Garr Egx. Instead of just listing all the possible variants, as other dictionaries do, Wells gives detailed information on UK versus US differences on analyzes preferences according to various factors such as age, which is very useful information for the attentive learner. So the two dictionaries are similar, but each one has particular strengths of its own. If you have loads of cash by both, if you buy only one, my preference would be for the C E p. D. Because I love its coverage of unpredictable pronunciations. Once you've got one of these dictionaries do use it. Look upwards. You don't know and practice saying them using the methods I teach on that way, you'll get the most out of this course. 5. Chapter 1, Lesson 4 - Terminology & Conventions: We need to learn a few technical terms and conventions before we go on. Phone aims are the contrast of sounds of a language. Sounds are contrasted if they distinguish two different words. So, for example, the constant sounds Curt and Burt make the difference between the two entirely different words. Cats and bat proving that cut on birth are different phone names. Similarly, the vowel sounds it and make the difference between the words pin and pan. So again, there different phone aims, andare contrasted. The international phonetic alphabet transcription that we're using is what appears in pronunciation dictionaries. Both the Longman Pronunciation Dictionary and the Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary use it on ditz for anemic it represents phone aims for anemic transcription is written inside a bleak slants like this. Generally, if anemic transcription gives us all the detail we need, it tells us clearly what Target sounds Toe came out to pronounce the word accurately, and it cuts through the confusion off irregular spelling. Occasionally, though, we may want to go into more detail to describe in greater phonetic detail how a sound is made or how it varies according to the sounds near it, according to its fanatic environment. For this more detailed phonetic transcription, we use square brackets, for instance, in the word information. It would be quite unusual and difficult to say, the first end as a proper end. Sound information sounds quite strange, although that's how it's transcribed in the pronunciation dictionaries. It would be much more normal and much easier to make the nasal sound with the upper teeth touching the bottom lip already in the position for information information, not information. In this way, there's no movement required to get from the theoretical end. Sound to the following sound information. There's no phony which corresponds to that sound is not a recognized sound of English, but there is a phonetic symbol for it. Here it is, it's and with a tail. So if I wanted to show the exact pronunciation of the word information in detail, I could use square brackets on this M with tail symbol. For the most part, this course is about pronouncing words according to a clear model, so we usually use for anemic transcription inside obliques. Lance occasionally go into greater detail and use phonetic transcription in square brackets . Hama phones would Hama phones comes from Greek homo the same and funnels sound. Hama phones are words which sound the same, although they may be written differently. English has many, many examples of hama phones, pairs or groups of words like meat M E E T and meet mea T. They sound exactly the same. Seen S E E N and seen SC and a P pear, p e a r and Pappy Ai uh, on the three veins. Vain, vain and vein. They'll sound exactly the same to each of these sets of words. The words are all pronounced identically. It's vitally important that you are aware of words which are hama phones. Throughout the course, I will be drawing our attention to them every time I put more than one word on a line separated by commerce like this. That means that these words are home A phones. If you're not fully aware of Hama phones, you may be trying to make differences which simply don't exist. She is very difficult. Hama graphs are words, which is spelled the same. They may or may not be pronounced. The same examples of Hama graphs are wind, the noun and toe wind the verb. Another such Peyrard tear was into tech paper and tear. That's in tears in the eyes. Another example is the pair minute, the unit of time and minute, meaning tiny and entrance the way in or entrance the verb meaning to delight, or something similar to that. Sometimes Hama graphs a pronounced the same but clearly have different meanings. Match meaning football match a match for lighting fires and to match up stressed syllables . Words with more than one syllable are stressed on one of their syllables. The stressed syllable is pronounced with a slightly higher pitch, a bit more loudly and stronger than the unstrung est syllables around it. For instance, the word doctor is stressed on the first syllable. Dog, indeed, is stressed on the deed. An I p. A transcription syllable stress is indicated with a high vertical mark before the stressed syllable. Dr. Indeed, in long words that may also be secondary stress. This is indicated with a low vertical mark before the syllable with secondary stress. Counter revolutionary counter revolutionary, the Lewin revolutionary has the primary stress, but they're secondary stress On the count encounter. Syllable breaks are indicated with dots full stops in the I P a to break the word up and make the transcription more readable. Dr. That's all. And now we're ready to start. 6. CHAPTER 2 - Consonants - Introduction: Now we're going to make and distinguish all the constant sounds of English on Learn the I P A. Transcriptions for them at the same time, the constants of English. In fact, the constants of all the languages off the world can be classified and described in terms of three factors. The presence or absence of voicing the place of articulation on the manner of articulation . Let's look at each of these in turn the presence or absence of voicing first. Here in the throat, the larynx contains the vocal folds. This is where we produce voice it. Put your hand on your throat and try saying a very long sound. Nothing happens in the larynx. This sound is voiceless. Then change it to like a bee buzzing. You should be able to feel the vibration of the vocal folds with your hand. Or you could put your hands over your ears and do the same thing like that. You can really hear and feel physically the voicing alternate, and you should feel the voicing, literally switching on and off under complete control. Exactly the same applies to other pairs of voiceless and voiced sounds such as that's voicing on for every constant sound, we will determine whether it's voiced or voiceless. Constant sounds are made at various places in the mouth, from those made right at the front, using the lips work and per and burn two constants made behind the upper teeth tip debt set Desert, for example, to those made further back cut and go and right back in the lab rings hurt. These are the various places of articulation, and we'll identify which place of articulation is used as we come to. Each of the constants in the coming lessons. Manner of Articulation describes how the speech organs air used to interrupt, disturb or otherwise affect the flow of air from the lungs the air convey stopped altogether has in a put sound put and then released in a sudden explosion. But exaggerated sounds, which involve a complete stoppage of the air followed by an explosive release, are called Stops or PLO sieves. The two names are equivalent. Other examples of stop so plays it's our turn cut on DGA or the air could be constricted very tightly by the speech. Organs said that it's forced through a very narrow passage with a lot of friction noise. Examples of this are on sounds with friction. Noise are called Fricka, Tibbs or the aural passage could be blocked altogether, but the air allowed to pass out through the nasal cavity, as in a sound. Sounds made in this way are called Maizels. Those are some of the manners of articulation. There are more places and manners of articulation than that which we will deal with as we come to them. For the rest of this lesson, I'm going to go rapidly through the whole set of English continents, giving a maximum of just three example words for each sound as far as possible, I will say each continent with a neutral sound after it, in between neutral vowel sounds and with a vowel sound before it. So be like this. Uh huh. Up has chilled. It sounds like before a vowel in between vowels and after a vow, I say as far as possible. Because some of the sounds cannot occur in certain positions. For instance, we cannot have a hurt sound or a year sound at the end of a word. Then, where possible, I'll give an example of words with the constant sound in each position as I do each of the sounds I'll put the i p a transcription upon the screen i p a transcriptions of target. Sounds like this appear inside a bleak slants like this so that we know that we're dealing with the I p. A. In many cases, the I p a transcription is the same as normal spelling. But there are some special symbols you need to learn. I'm not going to go into detail at this stage is I just want to go through them all quickly . The purpose of this lesson is to get the measure of how many contrast of constants that are to have a first look at the transcriptions on. Most important of all, for you to identify which ones you find difficult, I'm going to start with the constants produced right at the front of the mouth, work on birth, on work, systematically back until we get to the one produced furthest at the back, right in the larynx. Which, as we know, is they hurt sound Off we go. What? Ah, what want away, huh? Uh huh. Up pat. Open top, but a but bike, maybe near But ma, um uh um, map hammer home for, uh ah. Fuck off. Fish effect Half the of the of vain cover have for, uh, sir us, I think. Toothache Breath the of the of this other Breathe butter, but time button coat. Duh. Uh huh. Dip Ladha loud. So But sir us sick Listen, race za a za as zone Desert pigs No. A ne un night Been neath own le a le oh light alive whale Sure. Ah Sha Hush shop Ashamed push Asia je genre measure Beige Sure. Uh huh. Much charm Kitchen reach Gia edge Jump Magic page ra Arra Rug Parrot Yeah! Ah, yeah Yard royal. Okay. Uh huh. Look, can't jacket hike. Good ago, Doug Gate. Bigger egg Young Ana Singer ring, huh? Uh huh. Horse ahead. Those are all the constant phone names of English. 24 in total. Most of them should be no problem. But according to the sound system of your first language, some will be difficult to make or distinguish from each other. Those are the ones you need to concentrate on in the following more detailed lessons 7. Chapter 2, Lesson 1 - /w/: were the voiced by labial Approximate the most frontal of all the speech organs and the easiest to see other two lips and the sound. What is made with the two lips Very rounded pouted right out like this. What? Because both the Lipsey used to make it The work sound is a by labial consonant bi, meaning two on labial, meaning to do with the lips. That's its place of articulation by labial. For what? The lips don't close the air passage completely. The air passages somewhat restricted but still open. See the little rounded gap between my lips. What sounds like this so called approximates is the speech. Organs come close, they approximate to each other, but they do not make closure. That's its manner of articulation. Approximate. While we're saying what are vocal folds are vibrating What, what what So it's voiced. So what is a voiced by labial? Approximate. This is a typical three part frenetic classifications of a constant sound, describing its voicing place of articulation on manner of articulation. Do pay close attention both to what you see in the video onto my description. When I say the sound is by labial, I do mean it is by labial. It is made with the two lips and does not involve the upper teeth at all. It's an approximate, which means there is no contact between the lips. They're very close to each other, but not touching the archetypal spellings of the work sound of the letter W on its own, as in Wild on the letters. Wh together as in what? Where, when? Why, on most of the other question words, There is no difference in the pronunciation between W on its own. And wh the letter h does not alter the sound it all in the world who the sound is, of course, not work at all. It's her. At the beginning of woods, Qu is typically pronounced quote as in quick, quiet and quit. An exception is key Qu A Why, which is pronounced exactly the same as key k ey in the middle of words. Qu, maybe quote as in banquet, but often it's not. It's often cooked as in Racket and Jacqueline at the end of words. It's always Kurt, as in technique, very occasionally in words of foreign origin. The work sound maybe spelled O U. As in, we'd aboard the spelling New I occurs once only as far as I'm aware in weaker. Let's do some examples where there's more than one word in a list. It means that those words are hama phones, words which are pronounced exactly alike. Here are examples of words with were in initial position. I'm going to go slowly and the idea is that I give you time to repeat and you listen and repeat waste. Waste white white Where Where? Wine wine will will wheel, wheel want want woman woman The work combination in a woman is a difficult one for certain learners, especially Japanese speakers, because they were sound and the following vowel sound. Oh, are fanatically and physically very similar. The work constant needs the lips to be tighter than for the vow. Then they relax into the vow. I exaggerate the movement from work to the following vow Woman Well, woman would would woul wolf wolf wolf even harder to distinguish and pronounce. If you don't have the combination of sounds in your language, is the glide from work toe Do as in woo wll woo. For this, the Nets is still tighter for the work continent than for the Val, which follows, but the opening out into the vow is much less noticeable. Woo Woo Woo Wu is quite a rare combination as the word woof itself and womb on DTA. Wit to woo. That's only common if you're now. There's also woozy on Wu sh on Wookie Hole, but the combination is uncommon, and most of the words spelt w o work with a short look like wood. Now we do examples of work in medial position in the middle of a word. Awake, awake? A where a where but where but where? Lower lower shower, shower reward reward. The word sound cannot occur in final position. The letter w can, but not the sound. Now let me emphasize were must not involve the upper teeth at all like this. That's the sound. This is very important, a very important distinction for clear pronunciation. What must be by labial. It must have no contact with the teeth and should have no frigate of noise. When we come to contrast it with work, this is a problem if your language does not have both were on vour. In contrast, German comes immediately to mind, as it has No. What sound? Remember every time it's spelled with a w, it must feel work. If it's spelt with a V, it must be vote Hindi. Urdu has both sounds, but they don't contrast with each other. So Hindi and Urdu speakers are often heard saying ver forward in English, which can be very unclear now. At the end of each lesson, I'll do some sentences. I've made up with as many examples of the target sound in them as I can think off. Use these for practice. But don't take them too seriously because we would never really have that many of the same sound. All in one sentence. The weary whale wished for warmer waters. The weary whale wish for warmer waters. No, you repeat, the weary wail wished for warmer waters. Why won't William just work the way we want? Why weren't William just work the waylay ones? Now you repeat. Why won't William just work the way we want? The whereabouts of the wandering Wallabies was a constant source of worry for the warden. The whereabouts of the wandering Wallabies was a constant source of worry for the warden. And now you repeat the whereabouts of the wandering Wallaby is was a constant source of worry for the warden. Whenever we were away from Wales, the weeds in the woods grew wild. Whenever we were away from Wales, the weeds in the woods grew wild. And now you repeat. Whenever we were away from Wales, the weeds in the woods grew wild. What? 8. Chapter 2, Lesson 2 - /p, b/: per hands birth the by labial PLO's ifs person, but are made by bringing the lips together so that the passage of air from the mouth is completely stopped and then releasing this stoppage suddenly per per per. But But But, as I said earlier sounds involving complete stoppage and then sudden release are called Stops or PLO Ziff's. You can see and feel this very clearly per le, because both the lips are used in their production person, but also, like were by labial continents. Put is the sound at the start of Peter and Post and Power. It's always written with a P or a double p A, as in apple, and it's transcribed in the i p A with the letter P. So that's easy. But is the sound of the start of bat and been on Bon? And it's written and transcribed with the baby. What's the difference between pert on birth? The first Per is aspirated. This means that there's a puff of air when we say it, but is not aspirated. There's no puff of air or least it's very much weekend. Another difference between person but is that per is voiceless. If you put your hand on your Adam's apple and save, but But then you should feel the voice say, If you say without a vow, then there should be no vibration of the vocal folds. So the complete phonetic description of the put sound is a voiceless, aspirated stop or PLO Ziv on, but is a voiced a natpe aerated stop or PLO's? If let's do some examples will do some minimal pass. Minimal pairs are words, which differ in one sound only so that we could isolate and contrast the two sounds. We'll start with words with part number at the beginning of a word in initial position. Pig big pie by push Bush pair bear pin Been If you can't easily hear the difference between these words than the perp, Bert distinction is a very, very important one. Fear, and it's gonna be difficult. You must work on that because it makes the difference between a lot of words. Most learners will find that that's a very clear distinction and not a difficult one. But Arabic speakers particularly find this distinction difficult now, at the end of words in final position. Nip Neb Pup Pub cup, Cub Cap, Cab Robe, robe, Loop, lube. Loeb Loeb compared the vowel in these words. Is it exactly the same each time, whether the word ends in a park or a book? Or is it a bit different? Is the Valle in loop exactly the same as the vowel in lube? It's the same phone name, the same target sound, but phonetically. The Who in loop is not quite the same as the value. Lube lube is considerably longer vowel sounds before the voiceless continents are always shorter on or clipped than those before the voiced continents. Another name for voiceless continent is Fortis, Fortis's Latin for strong and, as we've seen, voiceless put is much more strongly articulated than voiced. But the lengthening of vowels before voiced continents like lube or shortening them before the voiceless ones like loop. Whichever way want to see it is called pre 40 slipping, and it's a feature of all the sounds of English, not just open but well here it and practice it repeatedly throughout the course. Now let's have some minimal pairs, which have put number in the middle of words in medial position. Crumple, crumble, simple symbol. Rempel, rumble, staple stable. Just as with Putin Bert in final position. We have the same effect of lengthening the preceding vowel before the voiced consonant compare the length of simple and symbol. The M sound is noticeably longer in symbol, shorter on more clipped in simple. Drawing out the preceding Val before all voiced continents and clipping it short before voiceless ones is a good trick if you find the constant distinction itself difficult. The distinction between pert and but on between all the pairs of voiceless and voiced continents is vitally important because it makes the difference between a huge number of words. It really is central to the sound system of English. For most learners, it's most difficult at the end of words, making and perceiving the voice constant is the problem, so a word like dogs with voiced eggs must be differentiated from dogs with voiceless X Dogs has the length and Val dogs. The clipped, shortened vow dogs has soft, long voiced continents. Docks has powerful, sharp clipped voiceless constants. Some more examples Lap lab laps, labs tap tab temps, tabs, lop Loeb lops lobs, rip rib rips, ribs, this voiceless voice distinction. The end of words is a problem for many learners German, Korean, Russian, Spanish and Vietnamese all come to mind as these languages have no equivalent of the voiced continents at the end of words. Also, Chinese learners have a problem with final stop constants in general, on voiced ones in particular again because they don't occur in the first language. You'll notice that although some of my examples have continents together like simple symbol , I haven't gone into any great depth on constant clusters that's constant next to each other like this, with no vow between them. This is because I'm going to leave my detailed look at constant clusters until later in a section of their own, so you confined them or easily for reference. Finally, some sentences to practice person birth in initial position. Listen on, then repeat Peter, the impoverished Piper Place for pennies down the pub. Peter, the impoverished Piper Place for pennies down the pub on repeat Peter, the impoverished Piper Place for pennies down the pub. Perhaps putting plaster in the pot might permanently solve the problem. Perhaps putting plaster in the part might permanently solve the problem and repeat, perhaps putting plaster in the pot might permanently solve the problem and that, but big, burly bison blundered blindly down the Baron Banks. Big, burly bison blundered blindly down the Baron banks and repeats big, burly bison blundered blindly down the Baron Banks. Behind those bushy brows hides a brilliant but sometimes barmy brain. Behind those bushy brows, hides a brilliant but sometimes balmy brain and repeat behind those bushy brows hides a brilliant but sometimes balmy brain. On the last one, basking in the blinding sun of the Bali Eriks, poor Brian breathed his last, basking in the blinding sun of the Bali Eriks. Poor Brian breathed his last and rupees basking in the blinding sun of the Bali Eriks. Poor Brian breathed his last, but 9. Chapter 2, Lesson 3 - /m/: ma. The by labial nasal stop like per on birth. MMA is by labial. It involves both the lips mm, its voice properly voiced throughout the whole of the continent. Hands of your ears on feel the vibrations. Mm. On its nasal. The lips are totally closed so that no air could escape between them. The air comes out of the nose. Try say, while you're holding your nose, you can't. Your nasal cavity will fill up with air in a most unpleasant way, and it may try unsuccessfully to escape from your ears. The sound is present in almost all the world's languages, so it shouldn't be a problem to make. The sound is always written with an M, and it's transcribed with an M, so spelling and transcription are not a problem. Some words with in initial position meant, I mean meant Mum Moon andan medial position amidst amend. Among Ramon, Remind is a voiced continent, so preceding vowel is lengthened. Home rhyme seem dome. The spelling MB at the end of a word is pronounced. The B is silent tomb rhymes with doom, womb rhymes with tomb comb rhymes with home climb rhymes with time climber rhymes with time thumb rhymes with mum from rhymes with thumb Lam rise with him. Can you think of any more? Post them in the comments, if you can. I have limb Boehm, dumb, numb plum, Plummer, Cata Kuhm and also Koum, which occurs in many place names ending in C O M B or C O. M B Meaning valley as in winch come also silent is the letter n inwards ending mn like autumn. So column and autumn ended and I'm sound. But if the M and is not at the end of the word, then the end is pronounced as it's part of the following syllable. So we have or terminal similar. Our solemn but solemnity condemn condemnation, condemnable him but him no and damn but damnation and damnable. The L in L M is silent in woods, ending a l M come bomb and bomb me balmy sounds exactly the same as the other bar, maybe a m y in bomb palm. Some Kwame most usually occurs in the phrase toe have no qualms about doing something Almond salmon, but L. M is fully pronounced in elm realm, Helm film and overwhelm. So it's a relatively easy sound spellings a bit old sometimes. Now let's have some sentences with lots of sounds in them. My, oh my mother makes such moist yet moldy mooncakes. My oh my mother makes such moist yet moldy mooncakes. And you repeat, my my mother makes such moist yet moldy mooncakes. Mabel's method Zahra might McCarver mouth Marco mysteriously Maples methods are a mite McCarver mouth Marco mysteriously, and you repeat, Mabel's methods are a mite McCarver mouth Marco mysteriously, and the last one, the Mir ist a roamer of Marmite makes me miss those moments of madness. The Mir ist aroma of Marmite makes me miss those moments of madness. And you repeat, the Mir ist aroma of Marmite makes me miss those moments of madness. Mm. 10. Chapter 2, Lesson 4 - /f, v/: for on Dvir, the Labia dental frigate IBS Foot first. Making the foot sound involves close contact between the lower lip on the upper teeth, but this means it's a les b o dental sound. Leiby oh, meaning the lips on dental meeting. The teeth the lower lip on upper teeth are in contact, but the closure is not total. In fact, it can't be total because of the gaps between our teeth, the air passages tightly restricted. So it's forced out of the mouth with a lot of noise, literally noise in the acoustic sense. Like white noise. This type of sound is a Fricka. Tiv. The word Fricka tive comes from friction. The friction created by the narrow constriction through which the air is forced is voiced or voiceless. There's no vibration in the lower rings, so it's voiceless. It's a voiceless labia. Dental Fricka tive can occur anywhere. A word. Initial medial and final position. Andan constant Luster's the letters F and double F. Always pronounced, pH is usually pronounced Fezzan photo, except in the name Stephen. In Stephen, it's a sound. The same is the other spelling has T E v E N. Of course, if pH occurs in a compound word like loophole, and it's per plus her. And in Shepherd, the P is a put in the H is Silent Shepherd and Hap hazard. It's per plus her hap hazard, but in most words letters. Ph Pronounced photograph Fayza Alfa Philosophy Physics Elefant Dolphin dia from G H, in words from old English, is sometimes pronounced as in enough laugh. Laughter. Cough rough, tough trough. Chuff That's a bird and sometimes the surname buff. But the bow of a tree spelt the same rhymes with cow. Now some examples off in initial position. Finn feed Fine. I saw fact Full fool and in medial position. Afraid office after traffic Ruth, rougher loofa is voiceless, so it's a Fortis or strong constant. So when it occurs in final position, the vowel preceding it is clipped. Short leaf loaf laugh stuff. Golf Wife. Be sure that you're making a Les B O. Dental sound, with lips and teeth in contact now is made in exactly the same position as and in the same manner. So it's a labia dental Fricka tive again. The only difference is that is voiced. Feel the buzzing or hear the buzzing by putting your hands of your ears as it's voiced, its a Leninists or weak continent and any preceding vowel will be lengthened. So we have important contrasts, such as leaf versus leave. Both words have the same target, Val E. But in leave, the vowel is much longer on the final continent, shorter in leaf, the vowel is clipped shorter and the final sound is much stronger and longer. Other examples of an initial position very vast, vile van. You will see that all of these have a contrast with. We have ferry, fast file and fan, so it's a very important distinction to be able to make in medial position. Over river Never. Driver Dover Ondimba Final position. Ive hive Give of glove stove. The foot of the contrast in final position is a particularly important one. It's a vital distinction because it makes the difference between pairs of grammatically related words in which one is a noun and the other a verb. Examples are half and to have calf and to carve proof Andi to prove safe on and to save. Similarly, the plural of many words. Ending in has knife, knives, life lives, wife, wives, hoof hooves but not roof the blowers roofs. This, for the distinction can be difficult, notably for German and Dutch speakers who don't have an equivalent of the final vote. Sound. Now some practice sentences. Fearless Frankie Fried four Fish Fingers for his final feast. Fearless Frankie Fried four Fish fingers for his final feast on repeat. Fearless Frankie Fried. Four Fish Fingers for his final feast. After the fantastic festivities, 15 of the fellows fell off the ferry. After the fantastic festivities. 15 of the fellows fell off the ferry and repeat after the fantastic festivities. 15 of the fellows fell off the ferry on the the Valiant Victor's vaulted Round the valley. The valiant victor's vaulted round the valley on Repeat, the valiant Victor's vaulted round the valley vying for vital Victuals. The vanquished soon vanished. Vying for vital Victuals, the vanquished soon vanished. Hand repeats vying for vital Victuals. The vanquished soon vanished. In. The next lesson will contrast vert and work 11. Chapter 2, Lesson 5 - /v/ vs /w/: the versus work the vote were contrast is an important one on one, which is difficult for a lot of learners. As I said, German and Hindi Urdu speakers come immediately to mind. German has no work. Sound it in Hindi or Urdu. Both sounds of president, but they're not contrasted. They don't make the difference between words. Vote is Labia Dental. What is by labial? What must have no frigate of noise at all, whereas, but should have Frigate of noise whenever a sound is written with a W. It's what sound whenever it's written. V. It's a the sound now contrast ing, but with work in initial position. Vine wine vale whale. Very wary vet. Wet vest west verse. Worse Viper White uh, veal Well and in medial position. A veil, a whale, a vile A while wavered way would and the pair cannot be in contrast at the end of words, because they were sound cannot occur in final position. Now, some practice sentences with work on Dvir. Vincent, previously the very wary ist of villains, unwisely lost his way. Vincent, previously the very wary ist of villains, unwisely lost his way on Do you repeat, Vincent previously, the very wary ist of villains unwisely lost his way. Why are you always vacuous about your wishes? Victor? Why are you always vacuous about your wishes? Victor on repeats. Why are you always vacuous about your wishes? Victor. The virulent virus wormed away in the computers. Inner workings. The virulent virus wormed away in the computers, inner workings and repeats. The virulent virus wormed away in the computers. Inner workings, vastly worried about the vagaries of the world, Will went away for the weekend, vastly worried about the vagaries of the world. We all went away for the weekend and repeat vastly worried about the vagaries of the world . We all went away for the weekend, and there's a terrible joke on the Internet. A man sees somebody walking along with a 12 foot pole, and he says, Are you a poll Volta? The other man says, No, im chairman. But how did you know my name? Sorry about that. Not the thing at all. 12. Chapter 2, Lesson 6 - /θ, ð/: and the A bit further back in the mouth, but still frontal enough to be able to see and feel the speech organs at work. We have third on the this time I'll supplement the zoomed in camera with a diagram, a cross section of the speech organs. Here's the nose. Here's the tongue, and here the top teeth, the place of articulation for foot is highlighted in red to make foot. The tongue touches the top teeth has with, for it's impossible to make complete closure because of the gaps between our teeth. So the air rushes out fast with friction noise. So that is another Fricka tive is the voiced No, there's no vibration of the vocal folds, so it's voiceless. It's a voiceless dental Fricka tive. Foot is always spell th and its I p A transcription is The Greek Letter Theatre is an unusual sound of the world's languages. Most languages do not have it. Arabic standard Castilian, Spanish and Greek are notable exceptions, but it's a relatively rare sound and likely to be difficult for many learners. Here are some examples of foot in initial position. Thin, thin, I think, I think, thought I thought thought. I thought Thief, thief, French, French through through three three. Thread, thread and medial position. Something something. Nothing. Nothing. Pathway, pathway. Healthy, healthy, wealthy, wealthy bison, bison and, in final position, both. Both cloth cloth month moth. Both both tooth tooth teeth. Teeth north, north, south south that that is the voiced equivalent of foot. It's dental in place. It's Ricky tive on the vocal. Folds vibrate. So it's a voiced dental negative like that is always written th and it's not always 100% obvious whether a particular th is going to be 30 or the examples of initial position. This that there then, though. So I said, the spelling doesn't tell us whether we have, ah for or avert in any particular place. But look at those words, this that then there. And though all pronounced with voiced that, how did these words differ from those with a voiceless foot at the beginning? Thin think thought, thought and thief, the words with voices for our role. Lexical words there. Adjectives now owns verbs, whereas those with voiced the rural grammatical words there pronouns, conjunctions and some adverbs. The foot words aren't open class with a very large number of examples where the vote words are a closed class, there are only a few words beginning that in the whole language. In fact, we can list all the words beginning with the easily they are than that the the there them themselves there. Therefore there, in these on they some words. Were they in them like they're unveil this those thou though, and thigh, I think that's all of them. Tell us in the comments, if you can think of any more on some examples of in medial position. Mother, mother, brother, brother both, uh, above them rather rather lather love that smother, smother weather, weather. I za either gather, gather other of the Lesa Let the the letters th in the middle of a word is far more likely to be voiced. That then voiceless, for there are very few examples of foot in the middle of a word, and most of these are compound words like toothache and pathway. Her loads of words with me. Deal that. And now the in final position teeth, teeth. The noun becomes the verb to teeth, wreaths, a reef. The noun of flowers becomes the verb to Reeve, meaning to encircle, as in the smoke wreaths around my nostrils and makes me sneeze on the plural of the noun wreath is also wreaths. The noun mouth gives us the verb to mouth on the plural of mouth. His mouth's the noun sheath gives us the verb to XIV on the plural of sheath. His sheaves singular path becomes plural paths to loathe the verb meaning to hate. Ordered to test related to it, we have loath L O T H o L O A T H loath, which is an adjective meaning unwilling. I was loath to tell her, but I felt I had to breathe breath. The noun becomes the verb to breathe, but the plural of breath, surprisingly, is breaths. Bathe bath. The noun becomes the verb to bathe. The plural of bath is unusual. It can be either baths or Bath's. So third, and they are difficult sounds for many learners, and there are several different ways they may be mispronounced. French speakers typically substitute certain desert for them. Turkish and German speakers may substitute toe and depth. Even though Spanish has both sounds, Spanish speakers may still have trouble with them, pronouncing the sounds correctly but in the wrong place is influenced by the use of the letters C and said in Spanish. Andi, even native speakers of English are not immune to mispronouncing the dental frigate IBS, in this case substituting for Denver. It's common amongst a certain sort of native speaker to pronounce third as as in free instead of three and path instead of path and to say, instead of the in places other than the start of the words that robber rather than rather we've all heard people, usually big, tough people who say 12 free. Both of them was there. I definitely saw both of them more Big Brother will come and do of you. If you don't shut up, don't do it. It may be native speak. It's certainly common among lower social classes in and around London, but it's not going to give a good impression if you want to sound professional. It's a heavily stigmatized pronunciation. It sounds most unprofessional, th whether it's fill that must always be dental. It could be a very weak sound, but the tongue must touch the teeth for our labia dental, the lip on the teeth in contact for should never in any circumstances be substituted. Fourth up on Dvir never replaces the some examples contrasting for and third Watch My lips . Fort Thoughts First, First free three half hath deaf death Both both and the contrast it with the that that van . Then live lies. Clothes, cloves achieves. She's another mispronunciation is dead. For that, you will certainly hear this among certain groups of speakers. But again, don't copy. Just because someone does it and calls themselves a native speaker does not mean you should copy will regard it as acceptable. The dental sounds should be dental. Anything else is stigmatized and sounds unprofessional. We're contrast the and depth when we do debt in the next lesson. Now some practice sentences with the 13 thirsty thinkers thought, thankfully of great things in Fan it, 13 thirsty thinkers thought, thankfully, of great things in Fan it. Can you repeat that 13 thirsty thinkers thought, thankfully, of great things in fan it. Thrifty, threadbare therapists theorizing on theocracy, thrifty, threadbare therapists theorizing on theocracy and repeat thrifty, threadbare therapists theorizing on theocracy. This is the weather that thoroughly thick skinned northerners like this is the weather that thoroughly thick skinned northerners like on. Repeat. This is the weather that thoroughly thick skinned northerners like Thank goodness they've gone. I began to think they'd never g o Thank goodness they've gone. I began to think they'd never g o under Pete. Thank goodness they've gone. I began to think they'd never g o that and that. 13. Chapter 2, Lesson 7 - /t, d/: toe under. We're moving steadily back in the mouth now behind the teeth. The close up camera isn't so useful now, so I'm going to dispense with that largely and use the speech organs diagram instead. Now feel with your tongue or wash your hand and feel with your finger and just behind your top teeth, you will find a slight ridge of Bony Ridge before your finger or tongue slides up to the roof of the mouth. This is a ridge of bone, and it's called the Al Viola Ridge. Put your tongue on it and make his many different sounds as you can without moving your tongue from that spot. What sounds could we make in this position? It's quite a lot Took Duh no, that set uncertain are all made in exactly the same position. Is that a surprise? There are a whole range of sounds, which we would think of is quite different, but they're all al viola made with the tongue behind the top teeth on the al viola ridge. More sounds of made here than in any other place of articulation. Is Al Viola on It's a stop or implosive the air passages completely blocked by the tongue until it's released with an explosion toe. It's voiceless. There's no vocal full vibration. This means that it's a Fortis or a powerful continent. Remember that vowels before voiceless continents are clipped. Short feet. Compare voiced dir, which is weak. Orl Ennis vowels before voiced constants are drawn out there, lengthened feed feet feed. It's the same vow. Feet feed. That sound is typically spelled with a T or a double T. As in cattle rattle. Batting is an extremely common sound present in all the languages I've ever come across, so it shouldn't cause much difficulty. The main thing is that it should not be used as a substitute for now for some slightly stranger spellings. Th is normally third, but occasionally it's pronounced toe in proper names such as Thomas Thompson, Thames, Tame Stratum, Ty and Thailand and also thyme. The herb on the word now. And it'll is sometimes pronounced tall because it's a German word. The spelling BT is often pronounced just toe. The letter B is silent. Examples of this are the word debt. This is one that a lot of non native speakers get wrong, even though their English is really, really good on this lets them down. So it's D b T, but it's pronounced debt. It never was pronounced Deb in English. It was always debt and its derivatives, such as indebted. And we have also got doubt subtle on derivatives of those words. But in words where the two letters BT apart of different syllables in both the beyond the tear pronounced so obtain obtuse sub. Total examples of that similar but trickier is the legal word to indict. Looks like indicts, but it's pronounced indict on indictment on Indict a ble. There's no sound corresponding to the letter. C on the vowel is really not what we would expect. It's not what it looks like, so Indict Indictment Indict Herbal. Conversely, the rather rare word in diction is pronounced as we would expect now. It looks now for examples of words with in initial position time towed Toot Thames So there's no sounded Thames. It sounds as though it's spelt t a. M s Thames Ondimba medial position at him. Attain out potent Ondimba. Final position. Noticed the clipping of the preceding Vell because it's a voiceless, constant talked put suit Boat rate aren t R clusters trip clusters the physical difficulty of moving the tongue from its frontal position on the RV owner Ridge for tip to place much further back for a run. It is not easy to do, and it causes a noisy release to the sound. As in Train Train. It's released his with such sound rather than a cleanly released train train. It's important to do this because a clean took in TR clusters is not expected. It makes the word train sound like If we say terrain train, it sounds like terrain, which is different. Completely different word. So train make it noisy. Noisy release instead of a clean release, not terrain, but train in tier clusters. Same sort of thing applies. There may be a change again to the sound. This time it's more optional. Tune, maybe carefully pronounced tune tuneful with a perfect tear sound. That's fine, but it may also have a bit of frigate of noise tune, tuneful, tuneful tunes. It's never a really church sound, though it's definitely not sure the word tube tube is never tube has never tube. It was choose ch Obey. The lips would be rounded before we even start the word tube is not like that cube tube, so compared chew two C H e w. The lips are rounded from before I even start the word tube and tube is no rounding of the lips before I start tube. So noisy. Release cube or tube, both of fine and now dip debt is the voiced equivalent of term a voice. Al viola. Stop or blows, if typically spelt with a D or double D, as in bed and bedding. Head and paddle examples of in initial position down doffed dish Do dump in medial position ladder Reduce idea indeed and in final position, read lead or lead BYD hide. As with all voice stops, dirt can be difficult if your language does not have final voiced stops. Remember the trick that lengthening the preceding vowel and reducing the strength of the final continent is an excellent way of making final voiced constants. Sound voiced Sound correct If you find them difficult examples of the clipping short of the vow before a voiceless continent on the lengthening of the preceding vell before a voiced continent, feet feed, height, hide site, side right ride, Matt Mad Now, a contrast dir on the from the previous lesson. Death is al Viola behind the teeth on the Bony Ridge does on its a stop that is dental on. It's a fictive and should never be used as a substitute for the Spanish. Speakers, in particular have trouble. The contrast because the letter D in Spanish is pronounced that so that causes confusion. Here is a minimal pass with the and the a death of the dine fine side, sighs Dave Veith. Wordy were the did the visa Hedda has. Ah, and now practice sentences falter under time to turn in. Tommy taunted terrifying Tamsin. Time to turn in. Tommy taunted, terrifying Tamsin and you repeat time to turn in. Tommy taunted, terrifying Tamsin telephoning. Tonight would take too much time. Telephoning Tonight would take too much time. Telephoning Tonight would take too much time. Distant drums resounded dully during the demonstrations. Distant drums resounded dully during the demonstrations. Distant drums resounded dully during the demonstrations, and the last one don't doodle during dinner. Drone the dimwitted dean. Don't doodle during dinner. Drone the dimwitted dean and repeat, don't doodle during dinner. Drone the dimwitted dean toe Duh! 14. Chapter 2, Lesson 7b - the '-ed' ending: the E. D, ending on the past tense of verbs on adjectives, has three different pronunciations and ed. When he d directly follows a tora dirt sound, it's pronounced it. Wait, waited, want wanted, collect, collected and ended hand handed. Add added e D is pronounced Teoh when it follows any voiceless continent except pass past Past is a homophone of past p a s t miss missed again. That's a homophone of m I S t laugh laughed Rush rushed cough coughed and it's pronounced dead after all vowels because there were voiced on all voiced continents except another death. Examples are please pleased pile piled seem seemed time timed tie tied. Some adjectives, particularly in poems and in poetic styles, are pronounced ID when by rights, they should not be. The corresponding past tense is always pronounced according to the rules that I've just done. One example is the adjective blessed. That's plants. Blessed Pass me the blessed thing, but the verb the presidents of the verb to bless is blessed. The priest blessed the congregation. Other examples of adjectives in which the E D ending is pronounced it aged Don't did meaning determined, ragged, learned, wicked, crooked, naked and wretched 15. Chapter 2, Lesson 8 - /s, z/: set on zone. The sounds ondas are made in the exact same position as toe under on the al Viola ridge. You don't need to move your tongue at all toe. That said, Zip on both Sit on the ARF. Rickety of sounds. The air is forced out through a very narrow gap, making friction noise. The two sounds identical except for voicing his voiceless. Where is his voice? So za voiceless? Al Viola Africa tive and is a voiced al viola frigate. Tive hands are both extremely common sounds in the world's languages and shouldn't in themselves be difficult to make, Although the places they occur in may be different in English from in other languages and that may cause difficulties should never be used as a substitute for foot. No dessert for the certain Czar Viola, Fricka, Tibbs on the our dental Fricka tips. There are quite a few ways of spelling these sound. The archetypal spelling is a single s, as in sand or a double s as in past. We also have the so called soft cc before e I or why and that's France as in sell city on cycle and we have S C eight and S C. I has incent and scissors. Here are example words with initial medial and final position first in initial position and spelled simply with an s send sent so swords soup Soon Andi in initial position spelt with a C followed by an e i or why city sell cycle Sent celery with SCE and a C. I sent scissors science, scientific and scientists seen and scenic scenario on scintillating on one with S C Y size it's in medial position is usually spelt with a double s passive A sign message Fossil assess Assume medial spelt with a C I said lucid, rancid faces racy and final position spelt with eso double s pass house mouse and with C at the end Ace race pace face rice Nice, please. On There are a host of other words spelt c e at the end, a very odd exception to the hard soft see rule So C e and C I should be otherwise it should be cut is the word celiac pronounced celiac. Despite the spelling, this is an extraordinary pronunciation and it's hard to explain given that the word comes from Latin coil Aeacus and it comes ultimately from Greek Keeley across meaning to do with the bowels on both of those started with a cut sound, so I don't know what's happened with celiac. There's one word spelled S. C, where the C is silent when it perhaps doesn't look as though it should bay. That's the word muscle. Quite often. Non native speakers pronounce it Muskal, but there should be no cuts. Sound muscular has skirts muscular, but muscle sounds exactly the same as the other word muscle. They see the sea creatures. That's quite a list of words ending in S. T. L E, in which the letter T is silent, giving just the sound Castle Russell hustle bustle, whistle gristle, Apostle on epistle means a letter and some ending in Ste. N again, there's absolutely no took sound. Listen, hasten Glisson Kristen. See how many more words you can think of, which is spelled S T. But a pronounced with note sound. Post them in the comments section for this lesson. We also have Christmas in normal speech. That's probably Christmas, but in careful speech, we could get the sound in it and have Christmas. None of the others above, I think I'm right in saying can ever have a sound in them is the voice stallion. Appreciative is exactly the same as except the vocal folds of vibrating. In initial position, it will be spelled zed or occasionally X, as in xylophone, but in other positions in the word will more often than not be spelled with an S examples of initial position. Spell said Zu Zebra zone Zinc zip, zilch slang for nothing spelled X xylophone, xenophobia, Xenon, Xavier in medial position. Noisy, nosy President Desert and desert laser. Razor busy Lazy Ondimba. Final position. Cheese knows Rise. Rose buzz as we saw before, it's extremely important to be able to make the distinction between voiced and voiceless final continents. Clearly, as this distinguishes a very large number of words, it's absolutely a crucial part of the sound system of English. Many of the words are monosyllabic there, only one syllable long. So if the final constants are wrong and perhaps the vows a little bit wrong, too, there's nothing else left for the listener to go on. They could be just about anything. Examples are peg pegs as intense pegs. If the final constants are not clearly voiced, this could be peck pecs instead of peg pegs and if the vowels a little bit Rome to it could be pick picks or pig pigs or just about anything else. So it really is very important to practice voiced final continents making the Constants week on the preceding vowel. Long peg pegs bag bags, log logs, whereas with the voiceless final continents the continent is strong on, the vowel is slipped short. Peck pecs, back backs lock looks. I'm gonna do the pronunciation of the eso es ending Announce and verbs in the next lesson. Practice sentences for certain ends up. Silky snakes bask in silence on the sun kissed sand. Silky snakes bask in silence on the sun kissed sand on repeat, silky snakes bask in silence on the sun kissed sand. Horses race around the circuit as their trainers scuff biscuits on gossip. Horses race around the circuit as their trainers scoff. Biscuits on gossip horses race around the circuit as their trainers scoff. Biscuits on gossip. Zorba zeroed in on the disastrous zygote and zapped it. Zorba zeroed in on the disastrous zygote and zapped it. Zorba zeroed in on the disastrous zygote and zapped it and lost. Brazilian bees buzzed busily around the barrels of bananas. Brazilian bees buzzed busily around the barrels of bananas. Brazilian bees buzzed busily around the barrels of bananas and 16. Chapter 2, Lesson 8b - the 's/-es' ending: the ending spelled s or es on the end of noun florals. And the third person singular of verbs has three pronunciations is on is when a word When the root of the word ends in a sibilant constant a hissing continent these are injured. The ES ending is pronounced is because it's impossible. Toe have to sibilant sounds together. Examples are pass passes, Miss Mrs Buzz. Buzz is gays gazes fish, fish is garage garages Catch catches page pages after any other voiceless constant. The s ending is pronounced Map maps, tap taps Hope, hopes Look looks after all vowels because they're all voiced All voice continents except the semblance that I just listed. The air sending is pronounced I eyes lie. Lies be bees Key keys Remember with final voice constants Always remember the trick of lengthening the preceding vowel and cutting the constant off Short town towns. Lab labs, tab tabs pub pubs to run runs bun buns, lad. Lads, drag drags, leg legs, pig pigs, dog dogs 17. Chapter 2, Lesson 9 - /n/: Mm, No, no. I m is made in exactly the same position as under answer. Hands up on the viola ridge to I said, no. The tongue doesn't move a tool. The difference is that MM is nasal. As with, if you hold your nose, try to say your nasal cavity will fill it with their and your nose will expand in an uncomfortable way. So is a voiced Al Viola nasal, actually all nasal czar voiced because if they weren't voiced, they'd be silent. It would just be breathing out through your nose. The opening of the nasal cavity to allow the air to come out through the nose is achieved by lowering the U Villa D'Youville owes highlighted in the diagram. It's a flap of movable tissue above the tonsils and to the rear of the soft palate. We cannot feel the you've in a moving on. We cannot see it very easily. The closest you can get to feeling it in action is to make a Siris of Orel and the nasal sounds, for instance, or tuned to to whom? If you do that, you can feel the airflow changing from nasal to aural on back again. that's your you feel they're doing. That is a very common sound, then it's not a problem. For most learners, the only problem is likely to be the difficulty of distinguishing no on love for learners whose languages don't have that distinction is nasal look is not. You can continue to make a lot sound without difficulty while holding your nose look makes no difference. You can't do it. I get a contrast. No, and look in a later session after I've done love some words now with no in initial position . New NOS name nail. No in medial position. Any many rainy punish andan Final position. Brown, green gone Moon son train. The sound is always spelled with an end, and it's transcribed with an end in the i p. A. But there's a lot to say about silent letters near the sound, which are not pronounced. A tall, so silent letters really abound with the in sand. We got K N as in no and knife and need and Knock, and we got G N as in Nor and Nash. No and no. All words beginning with G En or Kei an A pronounced no. Then there are a lot of words with silent g n at the end, for example, a line malign sign, consign and impunity. And there's rain and sovereign sovereignty on foreign. By the way, the pronunciation and spelling sovereignity is actually wrong, Although people often say it. The correct spelling and pronunciation is sovereignty. It shouldn't be an I before the team, as with words like or tunnel, which we did earlier. Both the G on the end are pronounced. If the G ends a syllable on the end begins the next one. So we have the word no stick, not a very colon word. At least not one that I use very much versus agnostic. We have malign versus malignant sign versus signal. Resign versus resignation. There's a sign, and that's a peon. Words from Greek beginning P and pneumonia, New mouth or axe and new McCann Usace also knew Matic with MN is just the one sound pneumonic, so they're quite a lot of odd spellings. A change of phonetic detail can happen when is followed by inwards like button rotten and bitten. In this case, the nasal ization can affect the tip, resulting in a nasal release of the sound so instead of button but rotten bit, it's almost like blowing your nose button. Rotten bitten. It's quite optional, though either button or baton are both fine now. Some practice sentences with the unsound. Never Not on your Nelly, intoned Nelson, Never not on your Nelly in toned Nelson and repeats. Never, not on your Nelly, intoned Nelson. Nine of the naughty nincompoops needed new noodles by night time. Nine of the naughty nincompoops needed new noodles by night time. Who thinks these up? Nine of the naughty nincompoops needed new noodles by night time. Never say never, because you never know what may happen next. Never say never, because you never know what may happen next. Never say never, because you never know what may happen next. No. 18. Chapter 2, Lesson 10 - /l/: no. Oh, luck is once again pronounced in exactly the same place as certain on Know it's on the AL via the ridge again. Tip. Teoh, sit. No, look. The tongue doesn't move at all. The difference this time is that, unlike note for which the air flows out through the nasal cavity with look, that nasal cavity is blocked, the U villa is raised and the air flows out around the sides of the tongue. Look, look, look. As I showed before, we can continue to make a look sound with our nose held, and it makes no difference at all. Look, because the air flows out around the sides of the tongue. The manner of articulation is lateral means side, so let is a voiced al viola lateral. The lips sound is a problem for quite a lot of learners, because other languages often don't have the same distinction between and Rupp making it hard to distinguish those two on. For some learners, it's difficult to distinguish Le Andi know from the previous lesson. Well, look at the rip sound a bit later on, we'll contrast note on rep. When we've done all three sounds, let is always spelled with the letter L, and it's transcribed with the letter L. So that's not a problem. How some words with at the beginning Love list Loop lack lazy A lot in medial position. A light feed line. Realize relate Pohlad Onda o in final position. Pale pool, pool mile whale. If you're a native English speaker, you probably cannot notice any difference in the sound O at the end of words compared to look at the beginning, they probably sound exactly the same to you in a loop on pool on Lift on Phil. But there is a frenetic difference in the way the look sound is pronounced according to where it appears in a word at the start of a syllable before a vow. It's al Violette. Only the back of the tongue is low is not doing anything. Look, let left at the end of syllable. After a vow, the tip of the tongue is still pressed against the al viola ridge. But now the back of the tongue is raised high up near the soft palate. Oh oh, So the contrast is look. Oh, let Oh, this post for Kallick version of all is known as dark L. And it's transcribed with the I P, a symbol that put on the screen. Remember that square brackets air used for phonetic detail on oblique slashes are for for anemic contrasts. In previous Alec position, it's known as Clear L and its I P. A. Symbol is the normal letter L. The recent native speakers of English usually can't perceive. The difference between Clear L and Dark Al is that the difference is not contrasted. Whichever way it's pronounced, it's still a phone him to the English Speakers here on the ear is not sensitive to that difference. Non native speakers may be much more able to perceive the difference as they're not hearing it. Filtered through the sound system of English dark l can be difficult to make if your language doesn't have it. German is an example of a language with clear L only as in the German word felt Field felt and German speakers may carry this over into English and produce a clear L everywhere they might say, Field for field. Producing a clear L instead of a dark L certainly isn't the end of the world. It's not going to hamper communication in any way. It just sounds a bit foreign, not something to worry about. At the other end of the spectrum, some speakers overdue dark hell and allow it to become a sound with lip rounding. This is common in Chinese accents, pronouncing bottle as bottle metal as metal and so on. In my view and overdone, Dark Al is possibly worse than a clear L in these positions, because it's exactly what small Native Speaker Children do. So it sounds childish if you found that you're producing a sound with lip rounding, where there should be an L dark L. Then I advise you to practice making an all sound there, making sure that its primary al viola and make sure there's no lip rounding metal buffel inwards with cruel together like bottle metal rattle and cattle. A trick to sounding native like is to give a noisy latter release to the tip. But true Met floor RATTO, not a cleanly released toe clean release Obey Bachtell meto rattle cattle that doesn't sound right. Bottle metal rattle kettle. According to your first language, learned rep can be particularly difficult in constant clusters, especially with, but it's like blush and brush but I look at constant clusters in a section of their own later because it's easier to find it then and now. Some practice sentences with on Oh, long legged Li Murs slumbered lazily on like and covered logs. Long legged lemmerz slumbered lazily on like in covered logs and repeats. Loan leg glimmers slumbered lazily on like uncovered logs. Luckily, all leopards love, loping slowly through leaves. Luckily, all leopards love, loping slowly through leaves on repeat. Luckily, all leopards love, loping slowly through leaves. Pull all the loops likely until they look the full length of the cable. Pull all the loops lightly until they look the full length off the cable. Pull all the loops likely until they lock the full length off the cable look. Oh! 19. Chapter 2, Lesson 11 - /ʃ, ʒ/: sure Andi Gia shirt and it's voiced counterpart je are made with the tip of the tongue further back in the mouth than force Ondas, listen to this. You should be able to feel the tongue moving back to sh and forward again to Jit and Tzar other voiced equivalents on a So we saw our Alfio Africa Tibbs as they're made with the tongue on the Al Viola ridge Shit and your postal viola post meaning behind as the tongue is a step further back behind the Al Viola Ridge. Here is the speech organs diagram showing the difference between and sh oops and assist. So she is a voiceless post are Viola Fricka tive Onda and is a voiced postal viola Fricka tive The typical spelling of his S H has in ship on shop and shoe. But another common spelling is ch in words of French origin like champagne. Other examples of ch pronounced shall a Sherrod chic crash, Mr Ashe machine and parachute examples off an initial position shape shine shallow. Sure or sure that's an unusual spelling with s shoot in British English. The word schedule is usually pronounced but wells his pronunciation preferences poll shows a tendency for younger speakers to use skin schedule and for older ones to say she, jewel and US English. Its schedule in medial position rushes, dishes, lotion, musician tissue or tissue but often tissue in tissue. The is the results of the physical difficulty of pronouncing CIA at speed. Tissue naturally becomes tissue tissue in faster speech. This is assimilation called assimilation from similar. The two sounds become more similar to each other due to the speed of speech. Because of the inertia in the speech organs, we look assimilation in more detail later, in a lesson of its own on now for sh in final position, Bush rush Fresh cash Flush is also the sounded words containing t i o n such as nation station mention accommodation, action, exertion on invention ocean with a C In it is ocean pronunciation of S I O and is less reliable. Some words with s Iowa and I pronounced with sure and some with Joe Examples pronounced ship include all of those spelled l s I o n compulsion, revulsion, explosion, emotion, propulsion. If a word has double ass in it, it's commission expression, aggression, admission, succession impression emission When it has the letter n or the letter R before the S I A N . Then it's shipped. Immersion, comprehension, aversion, conversion, apprehension, diversion extension version. Otherwise, it's not one of those possibilities. Then it's going to be collision division revision, persuasion, explosion, decision, seclusion. All of those are. She is a very common sound is much rarer. Often it's associated with words of French origin, which have retained something of their French pronunciation like genre on camouflage. Examples of in initial position genre. Jack, if that counts, is English so many in medial position. Many words spelled S i O. N. Which we've just seen, some of them confusion, erosion, division inclusion. Also visual treasure measure on leisure andan final position. Camouflage Mirage beige massage, a massage. The pronunciation of the A G E ending, as in massage and village is inconsistent. It depends to what extent the word has bean. Anglicized village is always edge because it was introduced into the language and Anglicized centuries ago. Camouflage is always ARJ, maintaining a French pronunciation What camouflage was introduced into English only in the 20th century during the first World War. Massage is always AJ, but it's sometimes pronounced massage, sometimes massage. That word arrived in English in the 19th century. The pronunciation of garage is much less regular, with a lot of variant pronunciations showing uncertainty about whether to pronounce it in English way or a French way or a mixture of the two. Some people stress it on the first syllable garage with a full our vow, as in farm in the second syllable and the French sanding jer the End garage. Some have a more English sounding journey at the end, but stress on the beginning garage instead of garage. Some pronounce it in more French sounding way with stress on the second syllable in a week first syllable, and then they probably have shirt the end garage. Others make it sound fully English like village carriage, which case they will always give it an English sounding job instead of job at the end. Personally, I think I recommend Garage stressed on the first syllable with the farm vow and that shit at the end. Wells doesn't distinguish between Joe and jerk in his Pronunciation Preferences poll, but has Garrod strongly favored by younger speakers Andi garage or garage by older ones like Meat Person, I don't recommend Garr Ege. That's low close to me. I don't recommend garage that sounds affected, so I go for a garage. You can take your pick some practice sentences with shirt on job. Such shiny shillings should surely be sort after. Such shiny shillings should surely be sort after and you repeat, such shiny shillings should surely be sort after next one. The's modern genre cause me much confusion and give me little pleasure. These modern genre cause me much confusion and give me a little pleasure. The's modern genre cause me much confusion and give me little pleasure. It's difficult to think of many examples with jump, but here's a rather risque one. Jack looked rather louche, lounging in his beige luxury. Jack looked rather louche, lounging in his beige Ongeri, And you repeat, if you dare. Jack looked rather louche, lounging in his beige injury. Sure on Je 20. Chapter 2, Lesson 12 - /tʃ, dʒ/: Chur and Jeff Challenger are each written with to I p. A. Symbols Church is a combination of turn shirt spoken in very quick succession. On Jet is a combination of dirt and Joan. In fact, the insurer is not quite the same as a normal, normal tip as we've seen his al Viola, whereas the whole of church is made entirely in the position for show in post al Viola position. Sure, it's not to share its not sure it's show. There is no movement from the tip to the show, no sliding of the tongue back. It's already there in position for ship. Sure, sure on the same thing applies to the voiced equivalent job. The tongue is already in. Post our viola position for the job Jet churn jet are stops followed by frigate IBS. This type of sound is termed and Africa sure is voiceless, so it's a voiceless post. Al Viola, Africa Joe is a voiced postal viola Africa First, the archetypal spelling of chip is C H, as in church and charm and champion on T. C. H. As in match and kitchen. Examples of chip in initial position chimney chair choose churlish Challenge Also check sees Eddie CH is home awfulness with check c h e e ck on c H e Q. U e. There will pronounce the same check in medial position. Achieve inches catch up temperature temperature with assimilation of tear to chip temperature. Nobody would ever say that its temperature righteous again with assimilation is time of ts to chess. Right ears. Very, very careful speech only much more normal. Be righteous on a chair in final position. Touch lunch speech. Reach Hatch, Watch and now voiced Joe The archetypal spellings off J J. As in jam and job on so called soft G before E and I, as in Gem and Germ and Giant and also D g E. When it's not at the beginning of a word, has an edge just in initial position. Joke. Joy George General Jelly Jail Jail is also spelled G a O. L, which breaks the rule that the letter G is soft job before he and I and Hard Girl before A and O in you jail in medial position. Badger Oxygen Manager Pigeon Magic Margarine is another errant spelling pronunciation combination. Like jail biologic, it should be pronounced with a gut, but it isn't. It's just margarine J in final position. Edge lodge age damage image on that Practice sentences with Chuck on job chattering cheekily, the cheerful chimpanzee chased Charlie round the church, chattering cheekily, the cheerful chimpanzee chased Charlie around the church and repeat shattering cheekily. The cheerful chimpanzee chased Charlie round the church. Judge Fudge, largely a drudge sentenced gorgeous George for perjury. Judge Fudge, largely a drudge, sentenced gorgeous George for perjury. Judge Fudge, largely a drudge, sentenced gorgeous George for perjury. And now, together the cheerful judges, cheeky jokes cheered up the jaded jury. The cheerful judges, cheeky jokes, cheered up the jaded jury. The cheerful judges, cheeky jokes, cheered up the Jadidi jury on the last one. After jamming joyless Liel Day, they joined up at the edge of the jungle. After jamming joyously all day, they joined up at the edge of the jungle after jamming joyously all day. They joined up at the edge of the Jungle Shut and Joe 21. Chapter 2, Lesson 13 - /r/: right, And Rupp is made by curling the tip of the tongue much further back than we've done so far . Up towards the roof of the mouth, the hard palate Rep Ra right are red. All right, here's the speech organs. Diagram away. L. A. The place of articulation is post our the older again. The tip of the tongue is far behind the L Viola Ridge further back than it was for sure. And your And now it's curled back and raised high up near the hard palate rep. Because of the curling back of the tongue, it's termed retro flex. The tongue is flexed back, like were is an approximate. The tongue comes close to the hard palate but doesn't obstruct the airflow. So Europe is a voiced retro flex. Approximate rip is spelled and transcribed with the letter R in standard British English. We cannot have wrapped in post for Kallick position. That means when the letter R follows a vowel in the spelling and does not start a following syllable. An example is the word farm. There is no sound. This is one of the most striking differences between British and American English. American English has retained the historic pronunciation of post for Kallick Europe, whereas it's been lost in Britain except in rural accents primarily of the southwest of England. So a Devon farmer might talk of his farm, but for you it should be farm with no hint of our sound at all. Some examples of words with Rep in initial position rate roof roughed read Rome in medial position. A range orange ferry caring but not cared. There's no Rupp sound in that marriage parody. And now here's some sentences with Rip sounds really a right royal. Rollicking is what Roger requires regularly, really a right royal. Rollicking is what Roger requires regularly, really a right royal. Rollicking is what Roger requires regularly. It's very unreasonable to require the reporting of unreliable records. It's very unreasonable to require the reporting of unreliable records. It's very unreasonable to require the reporting off unreliable records. Ignoring the restrictions imposed by the authorities. The risky research continued unregulated, ignoring the restrictions imposed by the authorities. The risky research continued unregulated, ignoring the restrictions imposed by the authorities that risky research continued unregulated. I will contrast lor ra and no in the next lesson away 22. Chapter 2, Lesson 14 - /l/ vs /r/ vs /n/: Le versus versus No, this is the difference between Le and uh le le le le They right? The place of articulation for Ra is nothing like that, for Le Love is Al Viola Herrera is retro flex, its produced much further back in the mouth. Ra is an approximate who le It's not an approximate. It's a lateral now, le compared with no le le le le no, no, no, no. Love is lateral. It's Orel. So it's possible to hold one's nose and still make a perfectly good looks. Sound le le le Because the ad does not pass through the nasal cavity. No is nasal, so you cannot make a proper nut sound while holding your nose. No, it's a minimal pass with Le versus lane. Rain lighting writing. Loyal royal Long room lift, Rift Lime rhyme load node complies Comprise pilots pirates. The second vowel is identical palette. Parrot again, The second values identical overload overrode and now le vs No look, no lame name law nor lab nab lest nest lick, Nick. And now let vs No, in final position. Cool corn file fine filed find and some minimal triplets with le contrast ing with both know Andhra Light Night, right? Collect Connect, Correct Line nine. Ryen on some practice sentences Never let Rowdy Noles No Que down Never let Rowdy Noel's Knock you Down. Never let Rowdy Noel's knock you down. Laura, the unlucky nerd, was noisily lampooned by literally all her nasty enemies. Laura, the unlucky nerd, was noisily lampooned by literally all her nasty enemies. Laura, the unlucky nerd, was noisily lampooned by literally all her nasty enemies. It's wrong to look left at roundabouts. Look right as that's where the traffic is. It's wrong to look left at roundabouts. Look right, as that's where the traffic is. It's wrong to look left roundabouts look right, as that's where the traffic is. Realizing it was the end of the line, the old lady rapidly legged it up the lane. Realizing it was the end of the line. The old lady rapidly legged it up the lane, realizing it was the end of the line. The old lady rapidly legged it up the lane. Le no on rough 23. Chapter 2, Lesson 15 - j//: Yeah, the letter J is the I. P. A symbol for the sound normally spelled with the letter. Why, in English, as in Yes, on yellow to make the year sound, the tongue is raised very high in the mouth until the whole of the tongue is pressed against the roof of the mouth. The hard palate yet? Yep, the place of articulation is pal. It'll it's like a more extreme version of the vowel E in Feet E. Yeah, yeah, The airflow isn't stopped, the air passages very restricted, but it's still open. What manner of articulation is that? It's an approximate like what Andi like all approximates its voice. Yeah, so it's a voiced pal. It'll approximate notice the transcription. The use of the letter J for this sound probably comes from the involvement of German phone additions in the development of the international fanatic alphabet. As the letter J in German is pronounced. Yeah, the I P. A symbol. Why represents a vow that's the vowel sound in French to on the gym were due to or choose. And it's not one of the sounds of English words with your in initial position. Yes, yellow yawn yard youth you. It's not always spelled with the letter. Why, though university Useful unity. Unique unicorn. The letter name you so they all have it. So you have to watch out for that. If a word begins with a year sound like unicorn, then it begins with a constant despite the spelling. So it's a unique or not on a unicorn. The university, not the university. On examples of your in medial position. Kayak Royal Loyal Reunite. When the hurt sound is followed directly by you, it's natural for it to become hew hew as in huge. This has frigate of noise and it's actually a pal. It'll frick tive rather than approximate huge the sound. Yeah Callen tika in post for Kallick position in practice sentences with Yeah, this is an unusually useless university. Even by your standards, this is an unusually useless university Even by your standards, this is an unusually useless university. Even by your standards, the youth used not to be so unanimously united The youth use not to be so unanimously united. The youth used not to be so unanimously united The Uruguay Neurologist used his you villa far too much. The Uruguay in urologist used his you villa far too much. Uruguay in neurologist used his you villa far too much. Yeah, 24. Chapter 2, Lesson 16 - /k, g/: Kerr and girl. Now we're really moving to the back of the mouth to the back constants, which cannot be seen in the mirror. They cannot be seen in the camera. Kerr and go are both stops. The air is fully blocked and then released. Cut good on their both villa. The back of the tongue is raised until it forms total closure against the soft palate. That's the veal um, cooked. Could cut is voiceless, so it's a voiceless villa Close if God is voiced so that Sir voiced villa close. If cut is most commonly spelt with K or C K. As in the word kick, the letter C followed by a oh or you or any constant is a so called hard cup sound, as in cards. Cool cup on Crash. As we saw earlier with these sound, the letter C followed by the letters E I or why is a soft sound, as in sell city and cylinder. Another common spelling of cut is Q U E. At the end of a word, as in unique technique, opaque on picturesque Maura, unusual as we saw earlier, is the Qu in the word key at the end of words. Qu is always pronounced cup in the middle of words. Qu We may be quote as in banquet, but often it's not. It's often occur as in racket and Jacqueline. Examples of cut in initial position are kettle cattle. Create kill crab. Examples of Kurt in Medial position include taken bacon tract tractors, one of very few words with double K. It it instead of the usual CK hacked biking, vacation looking Ondimba. Final position. Dunk bike, Mike the name and Mike short for microphone spelled M I C. Neck and hook. There are a lot of words which, mainly of Greek origin, spelt C H, which have pronounced Kurt Chasm, chaos and chaotic stomach. Hague Chemical and chemistry Color out scheme. Well, kid and many more. I put a list in the lesson resources for this lesson of ch words Pronounced cup. As we've seen Hsieh, Jewel is most commonly pronounced with initial shirt in British English schedule, but in American English, it's skirt schedule, although, as we've seen, there is a tendency towards skirt amongst younger speakers in Britain, the word schism was traditionally pronounced schism, but this has now largely been displaced in favor of schism and now go, as with so called soft and hard letter. See the letter G is in general a so called soft job before the letters e high and why and a so called hard go elsewhere. But this is very much a general rule because a lot of very ordinary words like get break that rule some examples of unexpected hard girl before the letters eel I include Get give and gift together. Tiger Gecko given with expected Jer, We have gibberish, giblets and gigolo. So there's nothing a tall in the spelling to tell you if it's going to be good or Joe, you have to use the I p A. On look it up in a dictionary. If you're in doubt. Ghost, ghoul, ghastly Gherkin and Gil, which is a variant spelling of G I l. L means a ravine or deep valley. All have, ah, silent letter H. Then they're just simply pronounced, gut some practice sentences with care and go cacophonous crows cord cravenly calling their cowardly kids dances with care and go cacophonous crows, cord cravenly calling their cowardly kids cacophonous crows called cravenly, calling their cowardly kids cacophonous crows called cravenly, calling their cowardly kids. Could you quickly come and get your car out of my garage? Could you quickly come and get your car out of my garage? Could you quickly come and get your car out of my garage? Gertrude, the ghastly girl, gave all her golden guillemots to Gail. Gertrude, the ghastly girl gave all her golden guillemots to Gail Gertrude. That ghastly girl gave all her golden guillemots to Gail. A glamorous girl in a gleaming green gown glanced across at Gordon Gordon Ground. A glamorous Gurn, a gleaming green gown glanced across at Gordon Gordon Ground. A glamorous girl in a gleaming green gown glanced across at Gordon. Gordon groaned. Okay, good. 25. Chapter 2, Lesson 17 - /ŋ/: un is made in exactly the same position as Kurt and go, but it's a nasal, not a stop. Here's the diagram showing the U villa lowered to allow the air to pass through the nasal cavity. I mean, and like the other nays ALS. It's impossible to make if you hold your nose. Uh, the unsound is always written n g, or when it's combined with cut to make think than it's either N K or N. C cannot occur in initial position. Cannot Icka at the beginning of a word, so we have examples of it in medial and final position only in medial position. Singer singing, banger banging, hangar hanging, clinging planning planner. The biggest difficulty with Young is knowing whether it's pronounced in as in singer or anger as in Finger. There's nothing in the spending to tell us, so we have to look at the structure of the word If n g the lettuce n G come at the end of the word, it's always never thing ring wrong. This course is quite a lot of learners problems including Spanish and Italian speakers, who tend to pronounce these words with anger whenever N G comes at the end of a word, there can be no good sound, just so lung sting string and also tongue. Some native accents of English, including Birmingham, do have thing, the end of words, but it's nonstandard, it's stigmatized, and it's widely regarded as very unattractive. If N. G occurs in the comparative or superlative form of an adjective, always changes to think. For example, Young becomes younger and youngest within good. Other examples are strong, stronger, strongest and long, longer longest other than the comparative and superlative of adjectives. If the letters n g a carrying medial position and is not the end of the root of the word, then it's junk. For example, Finger. There's no root thing fingers the whole word. In this case, it has to be. Other examples are to linger longer. Hunger, anger and mango tangle and Rangel. None of these have a ruse, and Dina and G, on the other hand singer, is because it comes from the root to sing. We also have to watch out for the N G spelling, where it's not in a tall but just examples of this are danger stranger, deranged and plunger. Now NK the NK spellings easier because it's always pronounced. Think examples are. Think pink and drink more examples of pink blink clank. Clunk sink sank, sunk. There are words in which it end. Let end is the end of one syllable or word, and a sound is the beginning of another. For example, pancake in careful speech. This could be pancake with it in sound. In faster, more natural speech is likely to become Inc pancake again because of assimilation you've seen before. It's just hard to move from the AL via Latin position to VI let much further back, so it's likely to become pancake. A smaller number of words are spelled N. C and Proust Inc. For example, Zinc Renker anchor Whenever a so followed by Kurt Order, it can optionally changed. For example, if the word in is followed by the word case and it can change from in case, too, in case this is another example of assimilation, and it can occur within words to like incredible, incredible, incredible or ungrateful, ungrateful Theus simulations optional. It's often hard to hear the native speakers would do it without realizing it. They won't have any idea which for should have pronounced probably strange spelling pronunciation combinations include tongues have just seen and Deng G as in Deng G fever. A couple of words with French pronunciation retained meringue and Harang on our some practice sentences. The younger they are, the stronger they'll be. The younger they are, the stronger they'll be. The younger they are that stronger, they'll be. The ice rink really was on the brink of melting. The ice rink really was on the brink of melting. Don't blink. Try to wink instead. Don't blink. Try to wink instead. Don't blink. Try to wink instead. And no one from British TV. Think before you drink before you drive. Think before you drink before you drive. Think before you drink before you drive. 26. Chapter 2, Lesson 18 - /h/: her is a global Fricka tive. The air is constricted right back in the larynx here by the vocal folds, and it's forced out with some friction noise. Sometimes her. There's a little bit of friction. Noise her, but very often in words. You don't hear any friction noise. Her cannot occur in final position. So we have examples of initial and medial position only in initial position. Hat, hand, heavy hoop. So there's almost no friction noise at all. Ho Notice A spelling of Who hides? Heard history helicopter An immediate position ahead behind. Rehearse. Reheat anyhow. Behavior unhappy. It's important that the sound comes from the lair inks the glass Otis and not from the U Villa position. Her in English should not have a rough sound it or not, there's a common variants of the equivalent sound in many languages. Getting it wrong. It it doesn't impede conversation. It's unintelligible, but it doesn't sound nice Now. There are a few words spelt with the letter H, which there's no her sound, our and its derivatives, hourly and hourglass on a and its derivatives. Honorable, dishonorable, honest honesty and honestly, yeah, arres, a loom and airship. But inheritance has her inheritance vehicle in British English usually has no her vehicle vehicle, but vehicular does vehicular exhaust, exhausted and exhaustion hotel in history and its derivatives and now normally pronounced with her. And they should be preceded by not am one time it was fashionable to pronounce these words in a French way with no hope and to proceed them with am so to say, a no tell an historic event. This is no longer normal. It all, and they should be pronounced as they are spelled a hotel, a historic event. The name of the letter is age not, hey H hey H is low class. Should be H now. A couple of practice sentences with her. Hardly had he heard the horn hoot before Henry hastened home. Hardly had he heard the horn hoot before Henry hastened home. Hardly had he heard the horn hoot before Henry hasten home. Hideous. Horace hastily hit all his Halle butts in his hamper. Hideous, Horace hastily hid all his Halle Burt's in his hamper. Hideous, Horace hastily hid all his Halle butts in his hamper. Uh, 27. Chapter 2, Lesson 19 - Initial consonant clusters: Now we'll cover ALS, the continent clusters of English in a systematic way, and I'll comment on any particular points that we need to as we get to each cluster. How difficult they are depends entirely on your first language. If, like many East Asian languages, your first language has few or no constant clusters, a tall then some will be very difficult, although even then, not all of them. If your language has a very similar way of making clusters, then most will be no problem. But again, some of them are bound to be difficult because you won't have those combinations in your language. A few of them are very difficult even for native speakers. The point, which applies most widely throughout this section of the course, is to be careful not to insert a neutral vowel sound between the constant sounds in the clusters. They should be clusters, so the constant should go straight from one to the other. With no vowel sounded between, we'll start with all the to constant initial clusters, beginning with swept sway, sweet swoop, swig, spit, spoon, spanner, spin spark. As I said at the start of the course, the aspirated stops lose their aspiration. Afters. So spoon actually sounds like s b o n spoon, not spoon native speakers air usually completely unaware of this smut. Small smile, smart, smooth sphere Spherical sphincter Sphinx has a rare cluster step start, stoop, stink stale again This one could be transcribed his SD because that is not aspirated. Start, stoop, stick Stale snow, snow snap, snigger, snail slope, Slow slap sleep slack strip Sri Lanka This combination only occurs in foreign place names. So it's very questionable whether this is actually an English cluster Sri Lanka and Srebrenica TSA The only words I know with it Syrians should not start with throw and should be two syllables. Siri INGE, CIA This is another marginal cluster. Some people use it in the word suit and say suit, I recommend suit. So for me, this cluster doesn't exist. Scut school scarf, scant skill and the cut sound is on aspirated. And now all the three constant clusters, beginning with Sir split splay Splash Sline Splendid! And again they put is un aspirated slip in the two words sclerosis and sclerotic only spring spring sprite spruce sprout again on aspirated but spirit spew spurious spume, sputum strip straight strong strike strain, step stew, stupid student studio script, screen, scream, scrape, scratch, squib, squid squirm, squeal, school skip, skew, skewer and, for some speakers, skew but diving. I don't say that. I say Scuba scuba diving on the last type of initial clusters are to constant clusters, which all have the lateral lor or an approximate in second place. First, the by labial stops person but followed by love and rough puller plate pliers. Plan. Plant blood blonde blight blank Blame. Prep pride prude Press proud breath break bran brim brine had some minimal pass play. Pray plank, Prank plough prow applied pride and there are more with blood and broke blush Brush blight Bright bleed breed Blink brink Bland Brand lunch, brunch bling Bring Blake Break Blacken Bracken How the by labial stops Person burnt, followed by year. Pia Pew Pure in Pune. Puny Pure Ill Be a Beauty Butte Bubonic bureau. The Al Viola stops turned up, followed by Ra train trip, triumph, trial, drug drain, drip, drag droop. As I said earlier, that order is always affected by the following Europe and has noisy release almost like church or job trail triumph, drug drool and turn debt, followed by work toe Twin twist twit 12. Do, uh, dwell dwelt on dwarf? That's a rare combination Anta end up, followed by Yeah, Tia Tune Tunic Tumor Tuba Dear Do Duty Duke Duel Noisy release on these is optional. According to the speed and style of speech tune, It's Fine or June Duty or a duty in American English. These have no year sound. Tune. Dewey Duke Do the Villa stops Cut and go, followed by Le on Drug Club. Click Clean Planning. Clear Glenn Glue Glimpse Glory, glamour, corrupt cry cruel cripple Create gra green grass group. Great. In these cases, there's noisy release to the cut, but not to the girl. Cleeng floor crude cramp but glow glitter, grime, grief Some minimal pairs with club and crow Climb crime clamp, crimp clock croak, cloak croak and with glow and grow Glean green glass Grass glo Grow the land grand Now curtain got followed by what and yeah, Cool, Quick, quiet quack. Quaint Gua gua occurs mostly in Welsh names and place names Gwen Gwent and also in Guatemala, Que que cute cube. And again there is noisy Released to the car. Cute cuticles her followed by you. Huge, huge or huge, humongous, humid human humor. Hugh. Because of the following year, the sound is often produced with the tongue right up against the hard palate, resulting in frigate of noise. Hugh hewed. It can be quite difficult to say huge Hugh Hugh. Huge properly tends to be huge now. Frigate IBS, followed by Le Ra and yeah, with initials Float Fly, flame flank flight from fry frame Frank and fright If you few feud. Fuse fuel clusters with initial foot threat. Three. Through thrill thrifty thread. Don't copy native speakers who substitute for for third. It's 123 not 12 free flip. Only three words that I can think off Fort Flak on Deflate in many place names with initial ship shrugged shrew, Shrill shriek, shred shrine shrapnel That's all the initial constant clusters. In the next lesson, we'll look at the much larger number of final clusters 28. Chapter 2, Lesson 20 - Syllable final consonant clusters Part 1: There are many, many more combinations of clusters in syllable final position than in initial position, and I'm going to try to cover them all. There are so many off them that I'm going to do this in two lessons as one would be too long. Here we go 1st 2 stops together. Debt and Goodell examples off. Apt Wrapped hoped. Stopped mapped examples off the dip. Robbed Saab grabbed, clubbed examples of act react parked, talked, lacked, locked, picked and examples of good dip, tugged logged, blogged, bag rigged. There are two important points regarding clusters in which two stops occur together like that. First, we've come across many times before. The lengthening of the preceding vowel before voiced constants on the clipping short of the vow before all voiceless continents pecked versus pegged lacked versus lagged backed versus bag. The second point is that in all clusters in which two stops occur together, the first stop is unreleased. This means that the speech organs moved to the place of articulation for the first continent, stop the airflow there on, then moved to the place of articulation for the second continent and perform the release there. Hat correct. It's hat cracked. The sound is inaudible. It's certainly not released, but you do have to make closure in the cut position before releasing in the took position. More examples of non release of the first of two stops pull Let Bob Robed, popped, leapt barbed robed, sack, tricked, tagged drug sect tricked, tagged drug onto the voiceless to stop clusters. We can add a sound makings and it's We have adults. It's We have acts and reacts. The next group of final clusters consist of a stop followed by a Fricka tive on Mr and Thugs and on, and examples of final perhaps laps collapse. A lips eclipse maps and onto these, we can add took lapsed, collapsed eclipsed examples of finals rubs, robes, tubs, tubes, examples of finals rights lights hates roots, examples of finals needs, loads, words, birds, examples of final X X max, fax stacks. And onto this we can add a Final two XT maxed faxed just the one example of final depth and onto this week and adus depths examples of final just one word eighth onto this week and add eighth getting difficult. Eighth examples of final with breath hundreds and again we can have finals added widths. Breaths 100th. The next group consists of two frigate IBS together, send was and examples off laughs. Beliefs, cliffs, bluffs, examples off knives, leaves, waves, saves behaves Examples off fifth and onto this weekend and finals fifth So examples off maths berths, deaths, myths, truths, examples Off this clothes breathes bogs oaths. Next group of clusters consist of a frigate of followed by a stop and skip step and step Spit step and you don't and examples are final lift draft Loved, coughed left soft and onto This can be added. Final sip lifts drafts Tufts. Examples of final loved, paved lived, dived examples of final ask risk mask basic dusk and onto This could be added either finals or finals. Toe asks risks. Mosques Tasks, I asked. Masked risked. It's asked examples of finalist past. Last cast Khost dust test and again this can take a finals. Tests hosts, posts, coasts, Examples of finals seized, raised, closed used lazed examples of finals rasp, wasp grasp clasp And this can take either finals or a final rasps. Wasps grasps, clasps, rasped, grasped, clasped Examples of finalist pushed, washed, rushed, fished wished examples of final rouged is the only one I can think off rather marginal that one examples of the rare final, birthed unearthed final of is much more common bathed, breathed clothed teeth. Next small group consists of in Africa, plus a stop on June. Examples of final wished, watched, reached, marched, searched, stretched examples of final, judged, charged, managed, damaged, enraged. The next group have either lateral look or a nasal plus in Africa with luck Coach on Bulge with nasal tone, which and INGE examples of final mulch, belch, filch gulch, mulch squelch. And to those we can add a final two belched, filched mulched squelched examples of final bulge, bulge, build, divulge, indulge And to those we can add. A final dip making bulged, bulged, divulged, indulged examples of final bunch lunch brunch, Hunch, launch Staunch pinch. And to these, we could add a final Teoh making lunched launched, pinched, hunched examples of final INGE change range. Strange fringe tinge, sponge, Lunge. Answer these we can add a final making hinged changed, tinged, lunged, lounged. That's enough, I think, for that lesson, let's have a break. There will continue that in the next lesson 29. Chapter 2, Lesson 21 - Syllable final consonant clusters – Part 2: the next category of these constant clusters in syllable. Final position consists off nasal, followed by a stop these up and and wound and think and get examples of final bump Lump hump Stamp camp lamp to these can be added. Final thoughts. Bumped stamped camped bumps, lumps, camps. We can also have a four constant cluster latents in the word preempts. Examples of final and mint sent spent tent want agreement Can't pint joint onto this weekend. Add finals minutes tense once pines Examples of final and mind wind, wind lend friend Find onto this speaking out of finals minds winds wines, friends finds examples of final and filmed armed, stormed hummed aimed steamed examples of final and hanged, banged, longed belonged prolonged examples of final think, think drink pink zinc Monk, Monkey anchor and to this convey added finals thinks thanks blinks inks on camera to care of the end of a word. But as we've seen, it occurs at the end of syllables, most obviously in comparative and superlative forms of adjectives. Longer, longest, stronger. Strongest also in words where the route does not end at the n g. Finger linger hunger, anger, mongrel, single jingle angle language. Distinguish and penguin next to have full plus a stop hope. Aub boat old and look oop Help yelp Scalp pope. Onto this speaking, add either finals or a final two helps helped yelps yelped Ube bulb. The only word I think with orb and we can adds bulbs. If we think bulb is a word that we could have Obed not sure about that old belt dealt felt melt builds guilt. Fault vault and bolt and we can adds belts, volts bolts. Old old mold. Bold, cold. Sold child Mild, wild and field that making ads, colds, fields, worlds. Scolds oak, milk, silk, elk, bulk hoc, skulk, soak and we can add either sort milks milked Elks silks on sulked. Next to have a group consisting of all followed by Africa tive wolf ove both bolts on goals both Elf self Shelf, Gulf Wolf and to this, give me added a final two golfed wolfed, as in Wolfed it down Over Sold involve revolve valve delve time. To this convey added either finals or final depth Selves solved. Revolves, revolved, Delves, delved Oof Wealth, health, Wealthy, healthy filth, Filthy oaths else False posts. Impulse Those pills, pools, piles walls, girls, goals, holes. And now we get to the worst of the lot. O, followed by two frigates, serves in Wolf only the one word 12th and we could make it even worse by adding a finals 12th. That's really very difficult. Don't worry too much about it. Next door. A group consisting of a nasal plus affective James James James Bond length or drinks for the Wreck. Luster. We have lymph nympho on Triumph for no much else and to that we can add final sort of triumphs triumphed since dance Once Glance, chance and all the words ending in A, n, C, E and E and C. Attendance. Innocence, Radiance, Independence. Onto this, we can add final to make minced danced, glanced chanced James bones pins, Twins, lens lines, fans. Coombs Holmes comes rooms, storms, times hums Means sings things rungs, lungs, kings, tons. Just the one word warmth. I M. F. 7th 9th 10th 13th 15th 16th and 10th. When we get out of finals 7th 9th etcetera, funks strength and length could be pronounced with or without an intrusive cut, sound strength or strength, length or length. And of course, finals can be added strengths lengths. The next group is all followed by a nasal home and own home film. L'm Helm Realm. Usually the letters L. M. Of a silent Ella's in calm and Palm, but in these words, it's fully pronounced as home, and this can have either finals or final toe added films filmed own just one word killed and that can add a finals to make kilns Not far to go now, only two groups left, and this one is a rather questionable one, consisting of a stop followed by all pull on Bull, Truell on door and Claw and Door. It's questionable whether they should be counted as clusters because these occur in two syllable words, like Apple on battle. But I'll include them here for completeness because of what happens to the preceding sound . Pull examples are Apple, Maple, Ripple and people, and we can add either is or don't to that. Apple's ripples rippled people's peopled cool table stable and wobble on all the words ending in a B, l E and I b l e ondas before we can also adds order tables tabled warbles, warbled cool cattle, cattle rattle metal. Remember that the tip before look is affected by the lateral, resulting in noisy lateral release to the stop cattle kettle rattle metal. And to that we can add either is ordered. Kettles settled. Metals, metals, rattles rattled to Wardle. Waddle. Ladle, riddle, piddle and we can adds order. Waddles, waddled, ladles ladled titled Riddles riddled, Cool cackle, chuckle! Tackle and pickle on with soda. Cackles, cackled, chuckles chuckled. Pickles pickled Go eagle, beagle wriggle giggle struggle on with soda eagles. Beagles wriggles, wriggled, giggles, giggled. Struggles struggled on the last group. This consists of a nasal plus a stop. In the same place of articulation is the nasal plus O. So we got import bore control. Handle. Call on goal. Pull ample sample, dimple! Crumple when we can. Ada's or adult samples sampled. Dimples, dimpled, crumples, crumpled mobile, crumble, amble, ramble, symbol tumble. And we could add either Zorro. Duh crumbles crumbled tumbles, tumbled, rambles, rambled floor. Rather rare. This one gentle mantle lentil. You can send him a finals, mantles and lentils, but possibly not a final dirt because it seems that there may be no verbs. It all ending in until little trundle bundle swindle and fondle that can have certainly both so under trundles, trundled swindles swindled, fondles fondled. Cool. Uncle seems to be the only word with this. So we have uncles, but we can't have a death edition. Go mango triangle, Django, Django, mingle and tingle on. We can have both under angles angled, mingles mingled. Wow, that I think is all the constant clusters of English. If you're still with me, congratulations is That was a really marathon of recession. And now we're ready to go onto the really tricky stuff, their vowels. 30. CHAPTER 3 - Vowels - Introduction: we classify continents as we've seen by voicing place of articulation on manner of articulation, but we cannot use that system for vowels. First of all, all vowels are voiced. If they weren't, they'd be silent. We would just be breathing out the basis of all the vowel sounds. Is this voicing the vibration of the vocal folds? And this is the same. Whatever vowel sound is being made, it is just a sound source. The various different vowel sounds. The different qualities of vowel sounds are created by modifying the shape of the vocal tract. This is done by moving the tongue around so that different parts of it come close to, but never touch the other articulate er's when we say the vowel sound e e. The blade of the tongue is very close to the roof of the mouth, but not touching it just a little bit higher. And it would become the approximate year E Yeah, yeah, you can feel it's very, very close, very similar, and then a little bit higher still, and it would have it would become a continent, and they would be frigate of noise e. In contrast, when we say Ah, are. The mouth is open and the tongue is lowered right down, leaving a clear view to the back of our throat. Ah, that's why the doctor always gets us to say our when he wants to look at our tonsils. The sound, uh uh is between these two extremes. The tongue is relaxed and it's in a central position On the mouth is half open. Uh uh. At the same time is moving our tongue around We can change the shape of our lips from neutral to spread e. That's like smiling has when the photographer gets us to say cheese two rounded Ooh, that's almost as rounded as were who We can make a continuum of vowel sounds by varying the height and position of the tongue on the shape of the lips. E ah Oh, when I did that, I wasn't actually thinking about the sounds I was making. I was just concentrating on the physical action, gradually moving the position of my tongue and changing the shape of my lips. Ondas If by accident you could hear some of the familiar vowel sounds from English and other languages as we went through the continuum, Yeah Ah, Oh, so rather than voicing place in manner, we classify the vowels by referring to tongue height. Whether the front, the central part or the back of the tongue is highest in the mouth, and whether the lips are spread neutral or rounded in shape in fanatics, the vowels space the area within which the tongue can move to Maykel, the various different vowel sounds is charted into an oval shape like this. And then from this, a stylized quadrilateral shape is created like this. And then this is straightened up on the page and divided into thirds vertically and horizontally to show where each of the vowel sounds is made. Whether it's at the front in the central area of the back of the valve space on whether the tongue is high mid, although, and then the vowels are plotted. On this quarter natural, this Val quadrilateral appears in all phonetic descriptions of valves, and I will be using it throughout this section on valves, and at the same time I'll also be describing the shape of the lips for each vow. English has long vowels and short valves. These contrast in length and quality long vowels are transcribed in the I P. A. With two small triangular dots after the fell symbol. Like this length mark looks quite like a colon in punctuation, but actually it's too tiny triangles. Examples of long vowels are e and R on do Contrast. The examples of short vowels are A and R, and both the length on the quality of different in these contrast in pairs of valves. That's why we use a different letter for each of them. Vowels can be pure, or they could be made up of a glide from one sound to another. If a vowel is pure, we can lengthen it artificially and continue to make the same sound with no problem. Cheese, huh? Food. I could go on forever, or at least until I run out of breath. If it's a glide from one sound to another, we cannot lengthen it like that. If I say hide and try and lengthen the vowel, it doesn't work. I can say hi, I would say hi ead, but I cannot lengthen the I sound because it's a glide from one sound to another. Ah Teoh here so I could get along i or long i e. But I cannot get along. I Another name for glides is def thongs, and this is what I will call them diff thong should, by the way, be pronounced def Thorn, not dip. Thong comes from Greek, die or day meaning to, and fungus, meaning sound and pure valves are also called monath thongs. There are 20 vowels in British English. That's a very large number. By most standards, many languages have only five vowels Japanese, Greek and Spanish being three examples of languages with five vowels, and that's very common. The purpose of this lesson is to allow you to hear and see Alvar vowels alongside each other to distinguish one from the other and to identify which ones are difficult for you. Trust me, they are all different, and you may have to work on both perception on production to get them right. After this lesson, I'll go through them all one at a time. First, we go quickly through all the 12 pure vowels of English, and after that will do the eight def thongs. I'll give you an example of each vowel before a voiceless constant, a voiced constant and, if possible, at the end of a word, I say if possible, because with one exception, short vowels cannot occur at the end of words. For the sake of clarity, I will also number the vowels. And if there's any doubt at any stage about which Val I'm talking about, then I will refer to it by its number, as well as by one of the example words I give for each of them, starting with the front of the Tung Hai up with spread lips and working gradually till the back of the tongue is highest. And with rounded lips, the 12 pure valves of English are number one E, as in feet lead on me. Number two A as in fit and bid number three air as in bet on bed number four as in bat on bad number five, as in the first syllable of upon the middle syllable of vitamin on, the first and last syllables off banana. This is the only short vow which can occur the end of a word. Number six as in hut on mud number seven as in Hurt Heard, and her number eight are as in heart card on far number nine R, as in parts and card number 10 or, as in Fort Roared on draw number 11 or has input on hood on number 12. Do as in Hoot chewed and through the eight def thongs. Next, number 13. Here, as in P. S. Peered Andi here number 14 air as in Scarce Dead and Air number 15. As in Lourdes and pure. I don't think there is an example of this with a voiceless constant after it. It's a relatively rare sound. 16 A, as in date made and say 17 I, as in light, bide and by 18 oy has in choice noise and toy 19 0 as in boat load on Bo on 20 hour, as in Shout Loud and Cow 20 is a lot of vows to distinguish, and some of the distinctions are likely to be problematic. Just about whatever your first language is. But not all of them concentrate on those contrasts, which are difficult for you. 31. Chapter 3, Vowels 1 & 2 - long 'ee' vs short 'i': vowels one and two Long E versus Short Val. Number one is E as in feet lead on me e. It contrasts with Val number two. It as in fit on bid E is a long vow. There's the length mark, and it's made with spread lips. Smiling has in cheese on the blade of the town is as high up as it can be, very nearly touching the hard palate. The front of the tongue is raised to a position near fully close. On fully front, the lips are spread. E E E e is the letter name of the letter e. It is long and tense, and before all, it's pronounced as a slut. Def, though here feel sounds like feel not feel. If I get a tiny bit higher, E turns into an approximate year and then a Fricka tive. Yet the archetypal spellings of E. R. Double E has in feed and Meet Andi A as in feet and meat. Also common or words with E plus. One constant letter, plus what Children often taught in school is the magic e Magic E is the term given in some primary teaching methods to explain how a finally, in the spelling changes the sound of the vow. Earlier in the word kids are taught that Magic E makes a letter say its name. So, for example, hop compared with hope, the Magic E changes the short or vow into the so called Long O, which is the name of the letter O by adding the finally pan becomes pain, Sam becomes same and rat becomes rate. Although it's an absolutely basic rule of English spelling, this consumptions be difficult for speakers with a different alphabet or different Ortho graphic rules, especially when they come from a language which is spelt fanatically examples of words with this magic. Er these and all the words ending in E. S. C. Like Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese Centra, delete complete Onda theme. Other spellings of E include I let I, in words of French origin such as machine police, Marine magazine, prestige and Routine I, as in field and Siege Thief and thieve Grief and Grieve E. I hasn receive perceive, conceive, deceive, deceit, conceit on ceiling to help with knowing whether a word is spelled e i o i e. We have the useful spelling rule I before e except off to sea, so that gives us field and brief and peace and diesel all spelled i e. Because there is no preceding letter C versus receive and deceive and conceive and conceit . Now Israel spell T I because they follow the letter C. But there are exceptions. Sees his spell d I, even though there is no preceding letter C, as is caffeine. Generally the rule works, though it's useful. We have E Y as in Key and honey money. Donkey, Monkey pulley, Truly Turkey on Valley on breaking all the Rules, the EOE in People and the A Y in Key, which is home. A furnace with K ey key. Some more examples off long E me tree. See plea fleas has always ah, voiceless constant After the vow clips the preceding vowel shorter a voice to constant lengthens. The preceding vow feet voiceless, shorter vow feed voiced much longer. Vow seeds, seed beat speed and now Val number two short. It is a short Veldt. There's no length mark in the I P. A. On the quality of the vowel is different. Hence the use of a different symbol. The front of the tongue rises again to a frontal fairly close position, but this time it's much less extreme than for e it it e okay e here e it. Unlike E, which is long, intense, it is short and lacks. It's a month of thumb and it's produced with the lips just slightly spread. There are spread, but not so tight here. The difference between them. E e it e it. You can see that my face is much tenser for e much more relaxed. For a he is much, much longer. It is slipped on short. The archetypal spelling of If is the letter I has in fit and lid Andi think. But there are a lot of other spellings examples with the letter I stick swim grip pit tin Fish letter. I followed by a single constant plus e should normally be pronounced I as in hive on live. But an exception is live about the same as life Letter I, before a single constant and then in the syllable would be expected to be I as in arrival. But in frigid on livid, it's spelt with why Jim Gymnasium symbol, sycamore syringe syrup and typical most words, ending in Unstrap s letter, E. T. like bucket, hatchet, jacket, packet planet and lancet are always pronounced. It never at a few like facet could be either a door at facet facet. Both are OK, and you have to watch out for those which have pronounced it a French way with a like B day and valet. And those were just stressed on the final syllable, like Tibet and Cadet, which had pronounced yet not it. Unusually. Sherbert is Proust, but not it on anomalous, but obviously very common pronunciation is the letter A in English, English and England. Both of those have Val number two, a English England. The word sieve looks like it should be pronounced Seve with Val number one, but it's actually sieve with short fell number two. A strange pronunciation is that both vowels in the word women are number two whim in women . Also letter you in busy business is number two, a business busy. Most words ending in letters, a g e. Words like village a pronounced edge for many examples of this, including village image, baggage, manage courage, message package, wreckage on many more, and also the place name wanted. Marriage is has only two syllables. Map Ridge marriage. A smaller number of words ending in a G retain more French like pronunciation, as we saw earlier when we looked at the sound massage or massage or massage or massage. Mirage Mirage camouflage or camouflage? Another strange spelling pronunciation combination is the letter a orange, which has Val number two in the second syllable words ending in. Why, like happy? A neither. A no e word. City isn't city, but it's not city either. It's somewhere in between. No happy, not happy. But happy has the quality of long e quality of number one, but the length off number two. Happy Happy. There are very large number of minimal pairs, distinguished only by the E. A contrast. Some examples fit Onda feet ship, sheep, hip heap, been bean chick cheek chip cheap. This is a vital contrast to be able to perceive and to make. It's at the core of English chronology. If your language has the same contrast and it probably doesn't German does, for example, but most languages don't. Then it will be no problem at all. Most languages do not have this contrast, so it's much more likely that your language doesn't have it will probably just have one vell with a quality rather like e, but no equivalent of air. In that case, you'll need to work on both perception on production and the lesson resources for this lesson. There's a link to perception exercises for further practice on the E A distinction. Now, some practice sentences with E and A. Can we all meet hair A three. Can we all meet here at three. Can we all meet here at three? I'd like to speak with the Queen Bee, please. I'd like to speak with the Queen Bee, please. I'd like to speak with the Queen Bee, please. Richards. The richest phone a Titian there is. I wish Richards the richest phone addition there is. I wish Richards the richest phone a Titian there is. I wish Tim will given interesting interview at six. Tim will given interesting interview at six. Tim will give an interesting interview at six. So number one e number to it. 32. Chapter 3, Vowels 3 & 4 - short 'e' vs short 'a': vowels three and four short air versus short. Next our air, the value in bed that's number three. And are the vowel in hat, which is number four. Air is made with the front of the tongue at mid height. No other than for a but also with the blade of the turn at the front of the vowel space Ah , yeah, the mouth is half closed and the lips either neutral or slightly spread. Yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah is made with the mouth really wide open. Yeah. Bad, Yeah, As why does it g o even hurting the jaws a bit. And the tongue is low, but the blade of the tongue is still the highest point, Not the back of it. If it's the back of the tongue, it becomes our This is our and on both sounds air and are are short here The two vowel sounds contrasted on their own. Watch my mouth shape there. Yeah Ah ah! The archetypal spelling of al number three air is the letter A as in bed on red on Fred and the archetypal spelling of air number four is the letter A as in bad and sad and fad on Mad . Some examples of number three air spelt with the letter e plus a final continent leg bet bed with the letter e plus double constant letters. Berry kettle egg went an example of a short air sound, even though there's only one constant letter following the words editor and edit the spelling EA is surprisingly common for air dead death breath, wealth lead That's the metal on read the past tense of the verb to read. As far as I'm aware, there's only the one word spelt ie and pranced air. And that's friend spelled with the letter a any many and at 80 the past tense of to eat Ed that could be pronounced either ed or as it's spelled eight. Another spelling is a I in said and a Y in, says the pronunciation Sade, and says they do exist, but they're non standard, and they should be avoided. Standard is said and, says Onda normalised. Spelling is the letter you in Berry, which is home awfulness with berry as in the fruit, also in burial berry burial. Then there's a letter EI in Leisure and the EA in Pleasure and Measure now examples off spelled with the letter a plus, a final continent hat rat Matt Cats spelled with the letter a plus double constant letters , cattle marry hand. We would expect the letter a plus one constant plus the letter e to be pronounced a as in name and tape. But in the would have its are on unusual spelling pronunciation combination. Is the letters ai in Platt as into Platte hair or to wear one's hair in Platts? This is never pronounced plate in standard British English, always Platt, but in American English, it could be either plant or plate. The air are. Distinction is vital as it makes a contrast between many words. Bed, bad bag, bag, leg lag, said Sad cattle, cattle, pet pats, men man, vet that and now some practice sentences. First with air. I met Emma yesterday. She sat on the very edge of the bench. I met Emma yesterday. She sat on the very edge of the bench. I met Emma yesterday. She sat on the very edge of the bench. Could I get extension on Wednesday's deadline? Could I get an extension on Wednesday's deadline? Could I get an extension on Wednesday's deadline? And after the manager managed to map the entire disc of the Apple Mac. The manager managed to map the entire disc of the Apple Mac. The manager managed to map the entire disc of the apple. Mac. Actually, matters of this magnitude should never be handled by raggedy tramps. Actually, matters of this magnitude should never be handled by raggedy tramps. Actually, matters of this magnitude should never be handled by raggedy tramps Number three and number four. 33. Chapter 3, Vowel 5 - schwa: Val number five. The Schwab. Listen to these phrases. A cup of tea. This is for you. A piece of cake. I'm going to the doctor tomorrow. Leave it until tomorrow. Throughout all these phrases one vowel sound, a tiny little sound is recurring. Here it is transcribed wherever it appears in those phrases. A cup of tea. This is for you. A piece of cake. I'm going to the doctor tomorrow. Leave it until tomorrow. This valve is so important that it's the only one with the name of its own. It's called Schwab, and it's the communist pronunciation of Unstrung est syllables. Regardless of their spelling, it's the communist vowel sound in English, and it could be spelt with any of the vowel letters. Schwab has an entirely neutral quality. The tongues in mid central position on the lips are relaxed in a neutral posture. Uh uh uh. It often replaces the other vowels in Unstrung positions, so a word like photograph has a full vow O in the first syllable photograph. But in photography, the first vowel changes to Schwab foot for photography photography. Schwab is an extremely weak sound, and it's a really key to sounding like a native English speaker. Most non native speakers continue to pronounce full valves where native speakers have Schwab sounds, and they find it extremely difficult to sound native. As a result, examples of Schwab are the first syllable in above ago. A range collect connect objection upon It's the last syllable in Better Dr Doctor has a T end. Exactly the same sound is banana. There is no hint of rounding and know our sound, not doctor. The moment that a final syllable like this is given any hint of a full vowel value the moment any tiny bit of post for Kallick are creeps in, of course, communications not hampered. It's perfectly clear if you say doctor what it means, but we know immediately that the speaker is a foreigner, Dr Teacher picture, senior failure, Similar Soldier Fashion Problem album. And Schwab is both the first and last syllables in develop commander observer photographer Banon. The use of Schwab for almost all of stressed syllables is possibly the single most important aspect of sounding native like in English, German, Norwegian and Dutch have a Schwab sound. I know that I'm sure that many other languages dio but typically non native speakers give all the syllables full of value, they say banana, for instance, instead of banana. It's important to make sure sounds, because this is the root of rhythm and intonation in English. The use of Schwab in the unstrapped syllables makes the stressed syllables in longer words stand out. And the use of Schwab, in short, usually grammatical words, makes the more important words stand out in sentences. If the valves are all given their full value, everything sounds equally important, which means nothing sounds important because nothing stands out. Using Schwab and UN stressed syllables also makes it possible to speak faster than if we have full vowels, which helps us to sound fluent. Many words, beginning with lettuce d e. Have Schwab decide deride, divide, divine demand, delight and design. These could also all of them be pronounced either dirt or death so it could be decide, deride or decide to ride. Divide, divide. Divine divine. The difference is tiny, and no native speakers never notice the difference, However, when it means the opposite of the route verb, then D is d, not deconstruct de Couple de Kok de Escalate and D Greece and the same thing applies to Ari . Relate, resign, revise or relate. Resign. Revise. Rely, renowned, repugnant, refrain. Reply, but not when it means to do something again, as in rethink, reshape, readmit, realign, recycle, Revisit. Reimagine on replay. In words like this, it's re and now some practice sentences. This is a bit different. Identify which vows in these sentences or Schwab. Some of them may be either or identify those two and then say them, making sure that the vows are reduced every time in the lesson. Resources will find a PdF version of this so that you can print them out to work on. You can write the transcriptions in. It's time to go to town. Now it's time to go to town. Now it's time to go to town now. How many brothers and sisters and dogs and cats? If you actually got how many brothers and sisters and dogs and cats have you actually got? How many brothers and sisters and dogs and cats have you actually got? It's view, Frankenstein said, handed the telephone to the terrible monster. It's for you, Frankenstein said, handing the telephone to the terrible monster. It's for you, Frankenstein said, handing the telephone to the terrible monster. This is the last time I will attempt to diagnose your troublesome and pointless illness, said the doctor over the telephone. This is the last time I will attempt to diagnose your troublesome and pointless illness, said the doctor over the telephone. This is the last time I will attempt to diagnose your troublesome and pointless illness, said the doctor over the telephone. And here's another practice opportunity. Find all the Schwab's in this poem, entitled to a Schwab again, is a Pdf version that you can print out to work on toe help pronounce English. They've designed for every sound a symbol, but there's one of them that says hard to find as playing hunt the thimble. It isn't a known it isn't in a It's something in between. It's appears when strong sounds move away. You know the one. I mean let me, then apostrophe eyes this small and undistinguished sounded in my verse. Immortalize It's homely, contour, squat and round a week. Elusive little Schwab. I often wonder where you are. Number five week. Uh, 34. Chapter 3, Vowel 6 - short 'uh': Val number six short fell number six short are is very much the same as number five, the Schwab except that, uh occurs in stressed syllables, whereas Peshawar never can. As for the Schwab, the tongue is in mid central position on the lips. In a neutral posture, the mouth is a little more open. Uh uh. Again. It's short and lacks. The most important difference is that it's more strongly spoken. Where is Schwab is very weak. The archetypal spelling of is the letter U as in huts cup, Uncle Us and Funny. Another extremely common spelling is there to O, as in one, you will hear both these words pronounced one rhyming with gone. But this is non standard and should be avoided. The standard pronunciation is one rhyming with Bun also once has number six. The Vow also spelt with Oh, and pronounced with number six, our mother and brother other on another. There's also OU has in rough and tough and, in many other words on, more strangely, the double O in blood. Far as I know, the only other word with Double O, pronounced with number six is flood. Also unusual is the oe and does. I think that's unique. Here's an example of both number five Schwab and number six in the same word. No buts. It's got to be Butter was the slogan of a butter advertisement in Britain some longish time ago. Hear the word but is a noun. It's stressed, and it's pronounced with a but But when I use the word but in its normal uses a conjunction . It has a Schwab. I just said it, but when I use the word but the first time with a Schwab on the second time with but but isn't normally and now I hear you exclaim, No, but when it is, it's pronounced. But I reply, That's the difference between Schwab and, uh, now some example words with spelt with that to you. But fudge pub stuff spelled O love glove dove, one other. Another wonder. Spelled O U Country couple cousin Double touch trouble for, uh, on Schwab can never be contrasted because Schwab always occurs. It unstrapped syllables, practice sentences that judge when young juggled much more than he judged. That judge, when Young juggled much more than he judged that judge, when Young juggled much more than he judged tuck him up in bed at once and tell him to mind the bugs. Tuck him up in bed at once and tell him to mind the bugs. Took him up in bed once and tell him to mind the bugs. Fluffy fudge is something I just love. Fluffy fudge is something I just love. Fluffy fudge is something I just love number six. 35. Chapter 3, Vowel 7 - long 'er': Val Number seven loan is the vowel sound. In bird, it's very much the same as number six. Uh, except that Number seven is a long vowel, and number six is a short vow. As for, uh, the tongue in the lips in a neutral position, there is no lip rounding. Ah, uh uh. Let's see the difference between number six and number seven. Number six Bud number seven Bird number six Hut number seven hurt Shut shirt cut. Could bun burn Number seven is spelled here. I are. And you are. And also O r After the letter w in English words which were once pronounced with different vowels is there still are in Scottish accented English All of the sounds coalesced and became the one er vow Examples E r huh Verb. I prefer I, uh, for 1st 3rd bird you are for on turn church w and our word work Worth worm Oh, you are journey courtesy e a r uh, learn as always, a voiced constant after the vow makes the vow longer. A voiceless constant makes the preceding vowel shorter Bird birds heard hurts Berg Berg, hers hearse on now practice sentences for number seven Lerner. Bernie was the third person to reverse the hearse. Lerner Bernie was the third person to reverse the hearse. Lerner Bernie was the third person to reverse the hearse. Could you confirm that the flat is fully furnished? Could you confirm that the flat is fully furnished? Could you confirm that the flat is fully furnished? Firstly, as it is an emergency, the surgeon will cut a circle in your shirt. Firstly, as it is an emergency, the surgeon will cut a circle in your shirt. Firstly, as it is an emergency, the surgeon will cut a circle in your shirt Number seven. 36. Chapter 3, Vowel 8 - long 'ah': number eight Long are eyes the sound that the doctor asks you to make when he wants to inspect your tonsils. The mouth is wide open. The tongue is lowered to a fully open position on. That's why the doctor can see or tonsils so well, Uh, ah uh, our or sound very much like it is common amongst the world's languages, and it shouldn't cause much of a problem. The main problem is distinguishing it from similar sounds. So let's first just compare our with number four. Number four black number eight Barge number four Tap number eight Top short for tarpaulin lack Lark hat Hearts on number eight are compared with number seven. Number eight is much lower and much more open. Number seven Heard them. Eight. Hard number seven first number eight. Fast lurk Lark Firm Farm. The archetypal spelling of number eight are is a R, as in car cart and park, and there is absolutely no Earth sound in standard British English, in those words are can also be spelt with just a letter A as in last after father and blast . Very common spelling is with a silent L following. 1/2 have cough Carve Arms com poem As far as I can think of, there's only one word with the strange sparing e. A R. Then that's heart due to a historical change in pronunciation. There a few words and names spelt er but pronounced are Darby Clark, sergeant on the British pronunciation of Barkley and Berkshire. The US pronunciation of these is Earth, so we have Berkeley and Berkshire. We have the spelling au in laugh on. Very strange aren't as I said, this shouldn't be a difficult sound, So this is a relatively short lesson onto the practice sentences. Far, far away, the parson started his parboiled partridge with parsley far, far away. The parson started his parboiled partridge with parsley far, far away. The parson started his parboiled partridge with parsley. Far too many of the nasty farmers laughed heartily at Mark. Far too many of the nasty farmers laughed heartily at Mark. Far too many of the nasty farmers laughed heartily at Mark, so far are made up. All the practice sentences myself, but here are two very well known ones I like, so I'll use thes Barbra's cars, a Jaguar and Barbara drives rather fast castles, farms and drafty bonds, she goes charging past barbarous cars. A jag, Ula and Barbara drives rather fast castles, farms and drafty bonds. She goes charging past When I Good Friends was called to the bar that an appetite fresh and hearty. But I waas as many young barristers are an impecunious party When I good Friends was called to the bar and an appetite fresh and hearty. But I waas, as many young barristers are on impecunious party. When I good friends was called to the bar fight an appetite fresh and hearty, but I waas as many young barristers are an impecunious party number eight. 37. Chapter 3, Vowels 9 & 10 - short 'o' vs long 'or': Val number nine short Oh versus number 10 long or short? Or is the vowel sound in hot and long? Or is the valiant thought to make off the back of the tongue is low. The lips are quite rounded, but not in a tight pout. Oh oh oh! Or is short and lacks be is made in a similar position, but the back of the tongues higher. 00 it's actually about halfway up the vowel space, and there's tighter lip rounding. Okay? Oh, or is long intense. Watch my lips. Hey, a oh, okay, yeah. The archetypal spelling of awe is the letter O, followed by one or more final continents as it hot and not and lost and stop and Pong. Also the letter O, followed by two continents as in bottle clock and rotting. The letter W followed by the letter A is often but not always are examples of our our Waddle Swan and Swap Swallow Swansea, Wash. But its air in swam swag, swagger, swank and swanky, and it's also a in swathes, so it's not really very predictable from the spelling. What rhymes with hot and watch has are too more examples of short are our dock dog again longer because of the following voiced constant lock Logue Parts Pod, Porter Song, Rome and some words with odd spellings gone Yawn. VOCs old because cauliflower sausage lost and now, long or the archetypal spelling of all his O. R. As in or The Word or and Fought and horse on more again. There's no Europe sound in standard. British English are the common spellings are a W as in Sore on lawn O A r as in or on board a U As in daughter taught courts. Nords frauds distraught slaughter on onslaught Ondo you as enought thought, Thought wrought and sort a plus. L has another common spelling. All full tall hole and the U. S. Word more shopping more. But the street name power Malin London has number four are in it, pal Mao Letter W followed by a water that's a W followed by a are worn warm Yeah, warts Qu plus a R quarter and court Hello door floor. Oh, you are court in British English. This short long are or distinction is always made. There could be no confusion between cots and court. But in many varieties of American English. No difference is made between the courts vow and the court vow Both the pronounced more like our cart and now some practice sentences. Lots of the officers did horrible things to their oranges. Lots of the officers did horrible things to their oranges. Lots of the officers did horrible things to their oranges. Horace, the horse. Hold all the pots of porridge. Horace, the horse hogged all the pots of porridge. Horace, the horse hogged all the pots of porridge. Holte Lord Hall had all the hallmarks of appalling naughtiness. Haughty Lord Hall had all the hallmarks of appalling naughtiness. Haughty Lord Hall had all the hallmarks of appalling naughtiness. Pull! You ought not to hoard so many whores. Pull! You're not to hold so many oars. Pull! You ought not to hoard so many whores. Number 90 number 10 or 38. Chapter 3, Vowels 11 & 12 - short vs long 'oo': Val number 11 short or versus number 12 Long do to make number 11 0 the lips are pouted. Quite close. Watch my lips. Oh, bull! Oh, the back of the tongue is raised high up, but it's much harder to feel what the tongue is doing when the back is in action. When we make the front vows e And here it's very easy to feel that the tongue is high and frontal. We could even see it in the mirror for the back valves. We can't do that in our awareness of the tongues. Position is not so good. The best way to feel the tongue position is by switching from front vows to back ones it it it book and e e e u e u right that you can feel that it and e a frontal and high and so on . Do a back and high number 11 is short and lacks number 12. Do is long and tense, and the lips are really parted very round. Indeed who almost as pouted out as for w what? Who were almost identical shape? Oh, who? Ooh, who? Ooh! Oh, who? Oh, who? Both of these sounds are most commonly spelt with double. Oh, but there's often nothing in the spelling to tell us which vow word has. Another spelling of up is single U as in put. But again, it's problematic. In this case, there's nothing to tell us whether this letter you represents number 11 or or number six the mid central vowel in hut are some examples of number 11 or put then we have part with double T. P. U T T is part to golfing term rhyming with hut J. C. The spelling is not very reliable. Took Roque Look book hook. Another spelling of up is the O. U L D spelling, as in could would and should. And in these the other silent examples of number 12 do spell debelo to food balloon. Soon loop pool spelled o into the numeral and two before Vowels into Exeter spelled you with a single continent, followed by an E June tune. Spelled e w. Chu spot You a blue True and rude spelled ou soup through spelled o Do who and to again spelled O. E Shoe is about you I juice and nuisance, who often follows the sound to make you you is the letter name of the letter You examples of the sound you spelled with a U letter tune Puny use useful on all the words beginning U N i University United Union Unicorn Unilateral etcetera Spelt you plus a single continent music museum spout you e que spelled o u Why are you you spelled t w a few few, The other few You the sheep new and do spelled e a you beaut and beautiful. And the Anglicized place name Buell e Spelled you a que, In other words from French and Anglicized Lou or Lu in Lua Off I say Lu in lua off. And now some practice sentences with or a new number 11 Look! Put your foot on it. Look! Put your foot on it. Look! Put your foot on it. Good would should not be put on the fire. Goodwood should not be put on the fire. Goodwood should not be put on the fire. And number 12 you stupid fool! Boomed Ruth as the lunatic in blue flew away. You stupid fool! Boomed Rufus, A lunatic in blue flew away, You stupid fool! Boomed Ruth, has the lunatic in blue flew away? Take your tools and your boots when you go to to lose, take your tools and your boots when you go to to lose, take your tools and your boots when you go to to lose number 11 0 number 12 0 39. Chapter 3, Vowel 13 - diphthong 'ear': Val number 13. The diff thong here diff thongs. Air glides from one val position to another, so they're written with to I p a. Symbols. They counters one English vow on one syllable. There are three centering def thongs in which the tongue moves to the Central Schwab position. These are ear air onder here. First year is the sound of the word here. This starts in the position for E and moves to up. Yeah, EEA EEA. The archetypal spelling for here is e er, as in beer, but also very common is a ours. In years, we've just seen the spending. A R is usually this ear sound, but occasionally it's air as in Terre to tear paper. But Tia, as in tears in the eyes examples of here with various spellings e er dia pia as in House of Lords beer cheer JIA Leah Reindeer Mountaineer, auctioneer and pioneer e. A r. Here tears in the eyes. Fear near beard. Clear gear, rear smear Shia weary appear dreary. E R E is most common at the end of a word here. Austere, sincere revere Severe i E. Uh, Pia, Fierce Pierce, Tear Cashier, Frontier Cavalier and Brigadier E I, uh, is rare. We're weird. Madeira e a rial idea. I, uh souvenir. And now the practice sentences. The really fearful meerkats nearly broke down in tears. The really fearful meerkats nearly broke down in tears. The really fearful meerkats nearly broke down in tears, leering weirdly, the berry cheerleader reeled and fell off the end of the pier, leering weirdly, the berry cheerleader reeled and fell off the end off the pier, leering weirdly, the berry cheerleader reeled and fell off the end of the pier. The austere cashiers in Madeira are fiercer than many an auctioneer. The austere cashiers in Madeira are fiercer than many an auctioneer. The austere cashiers in Madeira are fiercer than many an auctioneer diff phone via. 40. Chapter 3, Vowel 14 - diphthong 'air': found 14 The def. Don't air for the tongue. Starts in the mid height Frontal position for air air and then it moves back and down to the mid central position. Schwab Ah ah ah! The archetypal spending for air is a i r As in hair and hair, we have air fair hair, lair chair path stairs on repair. Also common is a R e as in care care, share fair Rare bear spare square scare stare aware and beware The spelling e a r is occasionally air, but much more commonly it's here from the previous lesson Examples of a pronounced air pair there t to tap paper where and swear other spellings include e r e as in where and there Where should contrast with were were Has the vowel in bird were or Schwab? If it's unstrap est What? Where were you when I needed you? Where were you when I needed you? Where and we're are not the same e i r s in which has a silent age sounds exactly the same as their i r and there also air the Irish name for Ireland. The contraction for they are there is ma furnace with their on their spell. Th ei r and T h E R e. Occasionally and quite oddly, the spelling is a are, as in scarce Mary and Parent. There's also a y ers in prayer on a Y. O. R. As in Mare, Mayor is a homophone with Mayor, the female horse. It is not mayor. Prayer is not. Pray out. That would be someone who Bray's mayor crab around. Now the practice sentences warily. The mayor shed half hiss pairs with the hungry Harry Baer warily. The mayor shed half his pairs with the hungry Harry Baer warily. The mayor shed half his pairs with the hungry Harry Baer. Mary never felt she had been treated fairly by her, frankly, scary parents. Mary never felt she had been treated fairly by her. Frankly, scary parents. Mary never felt she had been treated fairly by her frankly, scary parents. Yeah, 41. Chapter 3, Vowel 15 - diphthong 'ure': Val number 15. The diff tone who are the last of the three centering def thongs is for this sound. We start in the position for the value with the lips very rounded, pouting on the tongue hired bag, and then everything relaxes to the mid central position for Schwab. Wow. Who? Uh, uh, the archetypal spelling of, uh is you r e as in pure and cure. This sound is unstable in many words, but not all Brewer could be replaced by Val number 10. That's monath alone or and sometimes by number seven. First examples of words in which the oval will usually be properly pronounced as buro bureaucratic on bureaucracy. Curious Dearing endure Europe and European furious fury. Impure manicure, neuron neuroscience, Obscure procure, Pure Puritan purity. Rural secure security. Spurious urine words in which either or is certainly found cure. Cure. You are your poor poor? Sure, sure to ah, tool. The words ensure ensure and ashore on the derivatives could have multiple pronunciations. The first syllable can be fully pronounced, especially if it's emphasized, or it could be reduced, and we can have either or or in the second syllable so we can have ensure inshore ensure, ensure and sure and sure assure assure. I sure as sure. And there's a lot of variation amongst individuals in how these words with both options are pronounced. Often people may think they say one thing when actually, they say the opposite words can be home. A phones for one person, but not for another even style of speech can have an effect on which vowel is chosen. For example, I usually pronounce both p 00 on p o ur normal speeches. Hama phones of P A. W pronounceable is poor with the month of thumb. Or but I might say, poor for some special emphasis or effects such as, for instance, sarcasm. A poor, you know, poor you, for the word sure or sure s u R E. The Longman Pronunciation Dictionary Preferences Poll gives a majority voting, for sure, but with a strong tendency for younger speakers toe up for sure. I'm with the youngest speakers on that one, I normally say sure, making it home awfulness with shores in Sea Shore. Another example, with both pronunciations possible is the word tour, in the related words, tourists and tourism. On these I vote the other way I prefer tour for me. Tour is not the same sound as tour T. O. R. A tour is a pile of rocks on Moreland, and yet I pronounce Mawr as it Moreland the same as Maura Marie rhyming with door. So the lesson is that there's an unusual amount of variation inconsistency in the pronunciation of the oval, even within individual speakers, on from one word to another. Other words which would always have your for me. But others might pronounce them either way. Pure mature manure. Obscure, premature contour. Procure one word Do, uh, meaning gloomy, apparently unhappy, often used to describe residents of rural Yorkshire. Sorry, really, auction can be either Duer or dour. Nothing else. Now this is a rare sound, relatively rare sound. So one rather desperate practice sentence, which could in theory have lots of other sounds but probably wouldn't be said with all of them. First of all, with all the other sounds, I'm sure you can get insurance now. Your more mature I'm sure you can get insurance now you're more mature. I'm sure you can get insurance now your more mature, but I don't think I would say you are everywhere in a sentence like that because it doesn't sound natural. It's too difficult. I probably say it only in the word mature. The end, I probably say I'm sure you can get insurance now. Your more mature? That sounds much more natural to me. I'm sure you can get insurance now. Your more material. I'm sure you can get insurance now your more mature the unstable vow. 42. Chapter 3, Vowel 16 - diphthong 'ay': vowel. 16. The diff phone A one of two def thongs, which glide towards E for a The tongue starts at the position for the vow air, and it glides towards it. A. A a a is the name of the letter A. The archetypal spelling of a is so called long A the letter A plus, a single constant plus the magic e at the end of the word, as in make examples of a first spelt a plus, the single continent plus the magic key, make gate late, fake case, pace, face, fame, fate and many, many more. Less common is a plus one continent, plus another vow. Examples are radio on favorite. Other very common spellings are a I in the middle of a word, as in rain on Paid on Pain on a Y at the end of a word. Hey, Dey say, May Ray and again many, many more says in standard. R P has Val number three, it's says. Never say's on said is said, not Sade. Other spellings of a include E. A has in great Aunt Break A I in the middle of a word, as in Vail, E i G H. as in eight Way on weight freight, Nay and neighbor A I G. Age in the one word straight, which is home awfulness with S T r a I t straight meaning narrow a y At the end of a word, they gray way a as in ice cream sundae, which is a homophone of Sunday, the day Gaelic reggae vertebrae on Disraeli and practice sentences. James, the aged bricklayer betrayed his laziness. One day, James, the aged bricklayer betrayed his laziness. One day, James, the aged bricklayer betrayed his laziness. One day the lame castaways made a fatal mistake. The lame castaways made a fatal mistake. The lame castaways made a fatal mistake. Hey! 43. Chapter 3, Vowel 17 - diphthong 'igh': Val number 17 the diff thong. I the def Don't. I starts with the mouth wide open on the tongue low and back, and it moves to the high frontal position of E I. I I. This entails are lot of movement in the vocal organs from one extreme to the other, in fact, and it results in a very wide, very clear def. Thong, which is common in many languages and for most learners, shouldn't be much of a problem. I is the name of the letter I. If you ask most native speakers what the most archetypal spelling of the sound I is. They would probably come up with quite a strange answer the i g h in the word high. That's because all the other spellings could be pronounced to something else. Only I g h is reliably pronounced I so examples of I spelt I g h hi ni sigh thigh on the final T on the end of that night, light fight might right. Slight plight. Onda tight. A very rare spelling is E I g h t pronounce tight only in the word height and in slight slight of hand. In fact, much more common but less reliable is the letter I plus one continent plus the Magic E which makes the letter. I say its name Mine wine five bride wise file grime like life and many more native speakers might not count this as the most archetypal spelling because of all the words spelt like this. But pronounced e words like machine please etcetera was already done. Also common is I A as in Dai Pai Tai vie and with D O s on the end died pies dries, vied and final Why, as in try fly sky shy, dry defy and all the words ending in If I like codify, electrify, justify and purify there's why followed by a single constant and then a type hype style rhyme and bite rare is I ending a word High and pie are the only ones which come to mind possibly Princess Di but a single letter I which looks a so it should be here But he's actually I is common mind the verb, toe, wind compare wind the noun, pint blind child wild and also a single letter I inwards where it will be expected to be I such as final crisis climate pirate Minor and it's homophone Minor and also a single letter I followed by an A in giant dial diary Diamond and Lyon. Rather rare is whyy ending a word Bye bye di lie on the Isle of Skye And that brings me neatly to the silent s in ill and island and also the other ill in a supermarket or a church e y e occurs in one word I and a way occurs just in one word. I I are occurs in the one word iron. There is no earth sound in this in British English, it's I iron. It sounds the same as i o n iron, although I o and without the letter R can be either i an eye on i r o n is always iron. The spelling ai occurs in foreign words and place names Taiwan, Shanghai, Dubai Chai Bonsai haiku, Tai Chee Andi Samurai A few words have a Y pronounced I kayak papaya Uruguay and Paraguay come to mind. French name Versailles has the I sound, as does naive with a We have Piola maestro and curriculum Veit I an odd spelling, even though it's so familiar. Climb, climber and climbing with I and a silent letter B. And now some practice sentences for I. The bright white kites are flying higher and higher into the sky. The bright white kites are flying higher and higher into the sky. The bright white kites are flying higher and higher into the sky. Nine times he climbed the mountains of sky looking for diamonds. Nine times he climbed the mountains of sky looking for diamonds. Nine times he climbed the mountains of sky looking for diamonds. Mike unkindly reminded me of the time he saved my life. Mike unkindly reminded me of the time he saved my life. Mike unkindly reminded me of the time he saved my life. Def, don't I? 44. Chapter 3, Vowel 18 - diphthong 'oi': Val number 18. The diff phone Oy oy is the sound in toy on boy. The tongue starts in the position for or with the lips rounded and glides towards the position for E away boy Oy. This results in a very clear wide if dong, which is usually easy to recognize, easy to make on which occurs in many languages. It's not normally a problem except for spellings, which looked like oy. But aren't the two possible spellings of Oyo Why the end of a word? And oh I in the middle? Examples are boy boil noise, moist toy oil, oil, soy soya foil and many more in British English Boy with the U in it is a homophone of boy without a U on. Buoyant also has no sound for the letter. You in American English bur why can be either boy or buoy? Not all words which looked like they should have oil in them, actually do which of these words do not have the oise sound. The answers are choir coincide, Abbott guar and tortoise in RP Tortoise is home awfulness with tortoises in. The teacher taught us you will hear talk toys, but it's not regarded as correct. Better is taught us and now practice sentences for Roy. All the boys sat up in the Joyce Tsai noisily playing with toys. All the boys sat up in the Joyce Tsai noisily playing with toys. All the boys sat up in the Joyce Tsai noisily playing with toys. Those loyal to the Royals joined in joyfully. Those loyal to the Royals joined in joyfully. Those loyal to the Royals joined in joyfully away. 45. Chapter 3, Vowel 19 - diphthong 'oh': Val 19. The diff thong. Oh, the first of two rounding def thongs. Oh, starts with the tongue in the Schwab position in the mid central position, and it moves towards the position for who? Oh, oh, oh, The lips move from neutral or slightly rounded during the first part. Just strongly pouting during the second part. Oh, oh, oh oh is the name of the letter O oh is a peculiarly English sound not found in any other language that I'm aware off In most languages, that nearest equivalent is the Monaf thong. Oh, and it's a real give away. When a foreigner pronounces Oh, as a mono thong, we immediately know that that person is not a native speaker. The archetypal spelling of oh is the letter o plus a single continent plus the magic e as in home bone vote, nos Rose wrote Next most common iso A as in boat codes Goat Khost toast boast load throat letter O at the end of words. No. So hello ago. Echo, dodo Ow Hasn grow flow Crow mo Slow elbow and window Rather rarer o e toe. Whoa! Oboe and plural is like potatoes and tomatoes. Oh, sound where the spelling doesn't really show it. Old cold. Both truth. Oh, you as in mold shoulder bolder ou GH indo, though, although on draft a wage as in oh and Dough, then there are a number of unusual spellings with very few examples rare in words of French origin with a U move, not more. Looks like more but its move show for show veniste goche rare again in words of French origin with E a u Chateau Gateau Plateau Bureau tableau and true so Oh, you in the words So only I think on an odd spelling e o in yeoman. Oh, l with silent l folk Andi Yoke French au lt only in Renno, Orono, another French names and Ian au l T Seoul, the capital of South Korea. Pharaoh E. W. In so a truly strange spelling combination, mismatches broach be ah O C H, which is pronounced with this foul broach, not brooch. It's broach and now practice sentences. The bloated old goat floated past on his boat. The bloated old goat floated past on his boat. The bloated old goat floated past on his boat. 50 stoned poets wrote total baloney. 50 Stoned poets wrote total baloney. 50 Stoned poets wrote total baloney. Oh, 46. Chapter 3, Vowel 20 - diphthong 'ow': Val number 20. The def. Don't. Our the last of the vowel sounds is another centering def Thong, our to make our the mouth starts in a wide open position with the tongue far back on DLowe . It's Tunsil inspection moment. How and then it moves towards the position for you on the lips are tightly rounded. Our now, now this is a very large movement results in a very clear def thong. It's usually very easy to make and to recognize. And it occurs in many languages the archetypal spellings for our ow as in our and now, Ondo, you as in Ouch! On mouse examples of our are spelt Ow! Town down crowd growl. So how a female pig prowess tell on foul with ou out cloud proud known round lounge, hound, fountain and mountain There are some O u G h words the bow of a tree Dowty drought on plow spelled au a u pronounced our only occurs in foreign words. Usually German sauerkraut on lout and Faust ao, pronounced out only occurs in foreign words as well, mostly of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Macao, Sao Paulo, Bilbao, also Maori Laos. The country could be either Laos or loss on practice sentences without foul mouthed louts proud around my house until I growled at them foul mouthed Louds proud around my house until I growled at them Foul mouth louts proud around my house until I growled at them. Powerful showers will abound in the South. Powerful showers will abound in the South. Powerful showers will abound in the south. Our that's the last of the phone names, the contrast of sounds of English. In the next section, I will look at reading the I p a. Correctly building up from familiar monosyllables toe unfamiliar longer words. 47. Chapter 4 - READING THE IPA - Lesson 1 - Monosyllables: reading the I p. A monosyllables. We've done all the symbols for all the sounds of English now, but there's no point in that unless you can read the I p a out aloud quite quickly and fluently. So that's what we're going to practice now. I'm going to start out in this lesson with the I p, a transcriptions of familiar easy words of one syllable, only to give you practice in reading the transcriptions and especially in making sure that you get the vowel right throughout this section. I'm going to show you the i p a transcription of the word or later with longer words. Part of the word they're now pause the video, and you should then say what you see on the screen allowed out loud before I say it and we move on. Do say the words aloud. Even that may be embarrassing wherever you are. Don't just look at the transcriptions silently, or don't just mouth them silently. I want you to read them out aloud confidently, because that's what the courses for. If you've got a recording device, handy, record yourself and compare your pronunciation with mine as you listen to me Here we go 1st 19 short words. One for each of the vowels, minus the Schwab, because Schwab cannot occur on its own. Number one pie Number two. Train number three Page number four Love number five Tank number six limp number seven Took number eight. Clown number nine pair number 10 Pierre number 11 tubes number 12. Choice number 13 own number 14 pure number 15 leg and the 16 towards number 17 heart number 18 Shop and number 19 Quick. Hopefully you did well on all of those now onto the next set of words, each of more than one syllable. 48. Chapter 4, Lesson 2 - Stress on first syllable: reading the I P. A stress on the first syllable. This time I'm going to show you transcriptions of words with more than one syllable, each of them with the first syllable being the stressed syllable. I'm going to show you the I p a transcription off the stressed syllable, only first. Then I'll pause the video on as before. At that moment, you should say that syllable allowed. Then I will show the whole word and you say the whole word aloud, being very sure that you're correct. Let's start off with 10 words, each of them with some trick in the spelling or pronunciation. Let lettuce and the word is lettuce. Second syllable is s rhymes with hiss lettuce, Sam salmon, salmon. The L is silent Kern, Colonel, Colonel and Colonel as in military rank and the center of a nut, Hama phones more mortgage mortgage. The T is silent and the A G is the sound in village mortgage, sudden southern southern. The vowel in Southern is not the same as in South Southern. This. Listen, listen. The T is silent. Listen, teach teacher teacher If each feature feature despite the spelling feature and teacher rhyme feature nuke Nuclear nuclear not new killer or new killer Despite what some people say. Nuclear hang handkerchief Handkerchief. No one ever pronounced visitors hand co chief. It hasn't got a d sounded. It hanker chief. That's it for this lesson, short and sweet and in the next lesson will do some practice with longer words. 49. Chapter 4, Lesson 3 - Longer words: reading the I P a longer words Now some practice reading longer words 10 in total again of increasing length and difficulty. This time I will give you the stressed syllable pause. Then you say that aloud than the rest of the word to the end. And then, if there's more than that, the whole of the word starting at the beginning, se each bit allowed as it appears from the i p A. Building the word up on making sure that each bit is correct. Fish Official. Artificial artificial. The stressed syllable is the same as the word fish tiff. Tiff IQ Scientific scientific Paul Parliament Parliament. The second syllable is normally just to Schwab. People don't usually say parliament. Parliament. Seek secret, secretive, secretive Sim. Similarly fact. Similarly, facsimile necked Connect Connect. The first vow should be a Schwab with not a hint of or rounding Connect Connect. The same applies to collect on correct. There shouldn't be any rounding it all in the first foul meme memory rate commemorate and again not a hint of rounding the first syllable. Make sure it's a Schwab commemorate to To it if counterintuitive, getting long and complicated now. Did you get that from the transcription. Counterintuitive. Come, accomplish, accomplish, accomplish The stressed syllable has the hut vowel in it. The first is Schwab accomplish not accomplish And the last one Oh Oh sis New Moco Neo sis New mo Coney Aosis Very long, complicated medical word New Makoni Asus has to secondary stresses It's almost like two words They don't get much worse than that. So if you can read that one from Transcription you can read just about anything new Moco Neo sis have some practice and next I'm going to take things to a higher level by looking at crazy personal names on wacky place names in which the spelling and the pronunciation really don't match at all. 50. Chapter 4, Lesson 4 - Crazy personal names: crazy personal names. There are some British personal names, surnames and first names, usually rather upper class ones whose spelling and pronunciation don't match very well. These give us a wonderful opportunity to practice reading from the I P A. Without help from the spelling. Let's do the same thing again. I'll put up the I P A and pause You then read it out aloud. Stand whole word, and then I'll say the word and put up the spelling. Let's start with once in which the spelling is not too peculiar and work towards the stranger ones. Say this born born that's born a reasonably common name. The name of the composer Vaughan Williams. His first name, by the way, was Rafe Rafe Vaughan Williams. Some very posh Ralphs pronounce their name Rafe. Most pronounced it Ralph, though Ralph or Rafe. How about this, Mom Moom, that's more has in Somerset Moore, the author. MoMA sticking with high culture. How about this Done? Done. That's the metaphysical poet John Dunne done. Andi Peeps beeps. That's Samuel Peeps, Sinjin Sinjin. This is the pronunciation of ST John as a first name or a surname, as in the late politician Norman Sinjin Steve us. This one's not too uncommon. If you see Sanjana's a Person's name, you can probably assume it's pronounced Sinjin. If it's not a personal name, then it's pronounced normally. Ascent John also sent John's ambulance. Don't go around calling its engines. Ambulance. ST John's Ambulance. In the world of academia, we have keys. Keys. This is spelled K ass, but it's keys as in gone. Villain Keys College, Cambridge Keys. This one's the name of a well known alcoholic drink. You can see it in the booze aisles of the supermarkets. Coben. That's Coburn, as in Corbyn's port. Now a few really crazy ones. Chumley, Chumley spelled Cholmondeley. This was a real classic. I've never known anybody but the name Chumley, but this one's a classic of spelling. Pronunciation. Mismatch is quite well known. Chumley Mingus, Mingus spelt Menzies, a fairly common Scottish name. Mingus Onda. Really, absolutely, utterly mad One. But also well known is this Fanshawe fan Shore spelled further stone horse for Featherston whore, but it's pronounced Fanshawe. If you encounter names like this, just apologize profusely. If your ignorance and ask the person whose name it is, how they pronounce it and copy whatever they say 51. Chapter 4, Lesson 5 - Wacky place names: wacky place names. There are a very large number of place names in the British Isles whose spelling and pronunciation don't match up very well, giving us another excellent opportunity to practice reading the I. P. A. Some of these are well known. You'll probably know that Darby is pronounced Darby the value in car, not Derby with the vowel in Bird on the soles, Bree is sold spree. Nothing like this bending at all. But did you know that tin meth in Devon is Tin Tin Mirth and stratum in London is straight ? Um, stratum. Let's start with a group of names you're probably familiar with, but some may still be a surprise. These are place names ending in Wick and which, all of which are Anglo Saxon in origin in some, but not all of them. That W is silent. He probably known Aurich Haras, Judge Greenwich, Woolridge, Warrick. So off we go. Your job is to read the I P A correctly Berrick Berrick Village College and Nick and Nick the Silent Ella's Well and Nick Chizik Chizik in London. Chizik on one, which really caught me out when I visited not long ago. Wittig, Wittig, Wittig is a rather nice house near not so nice. Wolverhampton. I had no idea that it wasn't pronounced White Wick until I went there and heard everybody talking about Wittig, and I was most surprised. It's Wittig. Similar is said, look Southern on the south bank of the Thames in London Southern. Not all names ending in Wick on which are pronounced with a silent W droit twitch droit twitch joint, which is pronounced the way it looks as our middle, which on Nantwich. Then we have town names ending incest er, all of which were Roman military camps. Some of these may be familiar, others less so. All of them confuse our American cousins rather wonderfully. Let's read the I P I. Gloucester Gloucester, Lester Lester Worst sta Worst sta Mr Mr in Oxfordshire Mr All Star all Stir Warwickshire Onda possibly less well known toaster toaster in Northamptonshire. And yes, it is a homophone off the other sort of toaster for making toast. Toaster. As far as I know, there's only one in which the sister is fully pronounced. And that's sire Ancestor, Sire Ancestor. Now let's move on to some more unpredictable ones. My first group of these Airil French names just say them aloud from the i p A. Before going on beautifully, beautifully in Hampshire Beach him, Beecham Be either be the these Air Norman French names, which the ignorant English peasants simply mispronounced on. By now, by default, they become the standard pronunciations for these places. On we go read aloud beckons. Field beckons field. It's spelled Beaconsfield, but it's pronounced Beckons Field That's just off the M 40 halfway between London and Oxford beckons field Leme Stir Lemp Stir in Hertfordshire Spelt Leo Minster Pronounced Limb Stir Biddeford, Biddeford, North Devon. It's not bide food. It's Biddeford. He'd and Asia must be something about the Southwest, because in Devon again, there's a village named he'd spelled, I'd pronounced ead and just nearby. Age is H spelled ash pronounced h very odd about this one. Foi foi even further down in the Southwest, you'll find a very picturesque town called FOI in Cornwall, pronounced foi, Let's go on. It gets wilder and wackier Lim Lim. Despite all those letters, it's simply limb comb spree. Kong's Bree Somerset. I never knew that one until I did this course. I've driven past it many times on the motorway going down to the Southwest never visited, I must admit, and I've always pronounced it Congress Berry No longer. Now I know it's Kong's Bree and through Kong's Bree runs the River Kong's brio. Pronounced Yo Kong's brio. Froome Froome Also in Somerset Froome, Schoon, Schoon A Place in Scotland. Scott On the edible tea time things are scorn and polite company never scone. The place in Scotland is Schoon, Marel Urban Marel Iban, Marel Urban in London All the unstrap vowel should be sure. Marel Iban Not Marylebone Marel Urban Grove Now Grove ner a common name of streets around the country The S is silent Grove ner. Similar is grow Mint village on the picturesque North York Moors Steam Railway. But this could be pronounced with or without the s sound. It could be either grow mons or Grossman, you hear both. Sometimes like in this case, there is more than one pronunciation of the same name according to where it is or how it's used. Here's an example of this. Say both of these allowed Morlin is the pronunciation of mortal in college Oxford and Morden College, Cambridge. Different spellings Morland for both of those but in the name sent Mary Magdelin than its Magdelin. So he got Morlin on Magdala. Hoban is the communist pronunciation of this. It's in London again, and it occurs around the country and street names. But it's also pronounced with the L. You'll hear it both as whole burn unders. Holberton. Another crazier example is this. In Devon, this is the name of two villages. One is pronounced wolves ary. The other one is pronounced as it's spelled wall. Far this worthy. Getting crazier still is this. Say it aloud. This is written happy Isberg and is pronounced Hayes bro. Hes Borough. This is a village in Norfolk, famous for the unfortunate fact that it's falling into the sea. I had absolutely no idea that Happy Zberg was gonna be pronounced Hayes Bar until I went there on holiday, and I still find it really rather hard to see that name and read it out as hes bro. Very, very strange and just a couple of place names from Scotland, Edinburgh or Edinburgh, Edinburgh is almost always pronounced as if it was borough B 00 U G h. Even though it's not, you will rarely hear anyone say Edinburgh. This is really about all logic, what it should be, because it's nothing to do with the English word borough. It's Berg or burn, meaning Castle, but it's always brownstone. Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Another one cuckoo, Brie or Cuckoo Bree. This one's a really wacky one, spelt Kirk Cut Bryant, but it's pronounced coo Brie. Two more from Scotland. Stray Vin and Weems Stray, even spelt, strafing, even pronounced stray Vin Weems. It's spelt women s and pronounced Weems Weems going further a field to the USA we find too soon. Tucson, Arizona. Andi, Connecticut, Connecticut. The silence. See in the middle syllable. There are many more of these, but don't worry about them. If they're big places are well known names, then people will know how to pronounce them and make cheerfully correct you if you get them wrong. But it's no big deal. If you do. Smaller places air just as much a mystery in a surprise and often a source of fun to non locals who come across them as they are to anyone else. Don't take them seriously. Just enjoy them. Now we'll move on to the next section on what happens to speech sounds in connected foster speech 52. CHAPTER 5 - Connected Speech - Lesson 1 - Assimilation: when we speak fast, our speech organs being controlled by muscles are affected by inertia. They cannot always move from one position straight to another, especially if two adjacent sounds air made it places far apart in the mouth. In cases like this assimilation comtech place, the word assimilation is derived from the word similar, and it means that one sound becomes more similar to its neighbor. One type of assimilation that we've seen already is in words like tissue, tissue or tissue so carefully. With no assimilation, I could say tissue or more quickly, with assimilation of the physically difficult combination or move from state year CIA that it become shut tissue, tissue or tissue. So this assimilation is optional, and it can affect all words containing CIA and then followed by a rounded vowel. So, like issue and tissue and words ending in S i O N and T I. O n words like that, Then the unassimilated version no longer exists in English, Only the version with shirt. It's possible station passion, fashion ration complication. That's the only version that's possible, by the way, the word Fisher always has. Sure, it can never be fish your but it can either end with a Schwab Fisher, which case it's her ma furnace with Fisher, the person who fishes. Or it could ended Fisher. But it can never be CIA could ever bait fish you up. A similar process could happen when ending one word is followed. By beginning the next word, they can easily be pronounced Aziz well bus, shelter becoming bus, shelter, dress, shop becoming dress shop, spaceship becoming spaceship and nice shoes becoming nice shoes in the same way voiced. This could be assimilated to voice before ship or yeah, followed again by a rounded vowel sound cheese shop. The coming Cheese shop Where's yours becoming? Where's yours? Rose show Becoming Rose show and these sheep thes sheep becoming these sheep. Another common type of assimilation is a shift in the place of articulation of the al viola sounds toe owner, so that their place of articulation becomes the same as that of a following constant. For this, we find assimilation from Al Viola Dattner to buy labial place of articulation before the by labels, but or pop examples are voiceless. Al Viola took changing to an unreleased voiceless by labial before the by labels or pop so great Britain is rarely pronounced with a properly enunciated at the end of great, it's more likely and fast speech at least to be assimilated to, ah, voiceless, unreleased by labial. But it's not a properly enunciated Put sound is certainly not grape Britain. It's Great Britain. Great Britain, not Great Britain. The sound is unreleased. The lips come together anticipating the following but in Britain, but they never release. So we have the shape of the by labial Great Britain, Great Britain. Other examples off being assimilated to a following by labial include football, football or football that's most or up most dust, bow or dust bow fruit machine or fruit machine hits man or hit Matt lights, bulb or light bulb. In all these cases, assimilation is optional, and it depends on how carefully the speaker is speaking. If we're speaking slowly or with emphasis than assimilation will be less well, there may be done at all if we're speaking faster or more carelessly than there will be more assimilation. Some examples with and without assimilation. So without assimilation, I have shown knew the utmost respect. I have shown you the utmost respect and with assimilation with the utmost respect, I simply cannot agree with the utmost respect. I simply cannot agree. First, we're emphasizing I have shown you the utmost respect. And in the second, where are the de emphasizing with the utmost respect That's most up most in exactly the same way. Voiced Al Viola Odor can change optionally again to unreleased voiced by labial so silent but that never happens before again before by Les Built in or pop Blood poisoning Becoming blood poisoning Blood poisoning, Blood pressure, blood pressure Broad bean broad bean custard powder Custard powder Gold mine Gold Mine Old Bailey Oh Bailey Al Viola Nasal changes optionally again to buy labial nasal again before by labels or pop brown paper becoming brown paper. Chicken breast becoming chicken breast. Con man Becoming calm man Fan belt. Fam bells Queen Bee Queen Bee Question mark Question mark in part in part in person in person, and we can have a simulation from Al Viola to Villa. Place of articulation. Voiceless Al Violetta can change optionally again to voiceless unreleased villa Kurt is a cut that never happens before Villa Kurt will go so credits card becoming credit cards credit, and there's The silent cut sound doesn't get released. Credit card cut glass becoming cut Glass First class becoming first class Short cuts becoming short cut. Smart card. Smart card. Shotgun. Shotgun voiced. Al Viola Duh can change. Two. Unreleased voiced villa Got a silent good. Just the position of girl again before Villa Koga cold calling becoming co calling had come Had come Had gone had gone second class. Second class. Bad guy Bag guy Bride Groom Bride Groom Al Viola Nasal certain could change to Villa Nasal before Villa Kurt Orga Common ground Becoming common ground. Golden Globe becoming golden globe. Humankind becoming humankind Open court becoming open Court. Roman Catholic becoming Roman Catholic town clock becoming town. Clark This is a common source of variant pronunciations in all words, which have i n or U N. Followed by the letter C. Pronounced cup words like include Do we have include or include inclined or in kind, incompetence or incompetence. Uncompromising, uncompromising, unconvincing, Unconvincing. Unconventional, Unconventional. We could have assimilation from Al Viola to Labia Dental Place of articulation. Al Viola Nasal Concetta Aged to Labia Dental nasal mm when followed by labia. Dental information. Information. Infrequent, infrequent, unfortunate, unfortunate unfit, Unfit. In fact, in fact, in front, in front, on fire, on fire in first place in first place, we can have assimilation from by labial to labia. Dental place of articulation as well by label nasal can also change to the same thing. Labia, dental nasal again when followed by from Folkston from Folkston is quite difficult to say with a problem from Folkston from Folkston from Frantz. Quite difficult from Francois. Much easier. So from Folkston from France, assimilation is something that should happen naturally as a result of the inertia of the speech organs. It isn't something that should be deliberately done or copied, and in more careful speech, it doesn't happen as much as in fast speech. 53. Chapter 5, Lesson 2 - Elision: illusion is the deletion of sounds in many words. Allusion of a syllable containing a Schwab is normal in all styles of speech, not particularly a feature of fast or careless speech. For example, camera. It would be very unusual to say, camera with three syllables camera with two is much more likely. Similar interest library different on in British English words ending in a are why, like Secretary Veterinary secretary in US English these a pranced, airy veterinary secretary religion of turned up with continents. The al Viola stops toe under are most prone to emission of all, especially when they appear in a constant luster. For example, Christmas Christmas it's quite difficult to say more likely Christmas Onda sandwich becoming sandwich and then sandwich. Then the sounded sandwich gets assimilated to the by labial worth. So in fast speech, we probably have sandwich sandwich on the same process as we've seen before can occur across word boundaries. So, for example, must be with a vision of the TERT. Must be the 1st 3 becoming the 1st 3 you and may becoming you may and then assimilation of the didn't sounded Andi becoming him. So you may. You may we stopped for lunch. We stopped for lunch. We stopped for lunch and then assimilation. After the deletion of the ter assimilation of the per to the following foot, we stopped for lunch. We stopped for lunch. Her the hut sound is often deleted. For example, you shouldn't have told him you shouldn't have told him. And finally, an extreme version of assimilation of Delusion occurs in utterances like Watcher. Apparently contraction of what cheer the informal greeting recently revived by Ron Weasley and pals in Harry Potter Watcher, Watcher, Run and gotcha! Contraction of I've Got to You, which can have a variety of meanings, depending on the context. 54. Chapter 5, Lesson 3 - Intrusive and linking sounds: linking and intrusive sounds linking arms right in British English, a post for Kelly car that's a rip sound following a vowel, and they're not followed by another. Vowel is not normally pronounced words like far no rope sound farm ladder pillar, but when another valve follows, a letter are in the spelling. It's often pronounced, compared these words first without and then with linking road far better. There's no vow following the in the are in far, far better far and away far and away. Four times four apples, half cards. Her hair is red, her hair is red hair ease. Her hair is red. A year from now, it's a year away, a year away. Our sound can also be inserted at the end of any word, ending in any of the vowels here or when followed by another vow. As there's no letter are in. The spelling, this is called intrusive are the most famous example is Law and Order. Loren Order. There's no letter are at the end of law, but we often hear one Lauren order closely followed by the Victoria and Albert Museum. There's no are at the end of the name Victoria, the Victoria and Albert Museum. It's very common in phrases like I saw it yesterday. I saw it yesterday as there's no letter on the spelling. This inserted Rupp sound really doesn't belong there, and many people will express their disapproval of it and say we shouldn't do it. It's quite likely, though, that having strongly voiced their disapproval, they may nevertheless be heard doing it quite unconsciously. A moment later. It's officially frowned upon, but more common than we realize. Intrusive Europe, similar to linking Europe, is linking yeah, linking yet can occur between any word ending in i e a oy. So that's any word ending in a high front E type sound I a a oy because it leads naturally to a year. Yeah, A I, uh Oy, when any of these is followed by another vowel sound So examples up first without and then with In Kenya I always I always I always lie on the beach. I always lie on the beach. I always lie on the beach The end, the end, the end, the end of the evening, the end of the evening. He ate, He ate Hey, ate He ate the whole cake in one go He ate high up, high up, high up It was too high up for me and I couldn't reach It was too high up for me and I couldn't reach very old, Very old, very old My only car is getting very old. Linking were very similar in principle is linking were linking year occurs naturally After the high front vows I A e and oy school ended and it sound and linking were occurs naturally after the back rounded vowels Ooh oh, an hour again followed by a valve because the shape is already there 00 how go out, go out Go out to osk the way Go out to ask the way Too often too often, Too often so old, so old The books were so old they fell apart The books were so old they fell apart Know anyone know anyone know anyone? Don't you know anyone? Don't you know anyone? So linking sounds on intrusive sounds again They should happen naturally They're not something we think about there, not something we copy And they're not something that we pay any particular attention to. They just happen as a result of the physical movements off mouth in normal speech 55. CHAPTER 6 - Conclusion: That's it. We've come to the end of the course. We've covered a lot of ground and gone through many examples of all the sounds of English in just about every possible environment, you should now be able to use the I P A to look up unknown words in a pronunciation dictionary. If you use dictionaries other than those, I have recommended the long One Pronunciation Dictionary and the Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary, then just check that they do use the same transcription conventions as we've been using. Don't use the Oxford Dictionaries, edited by Clive Upton. Do you use the I P A. And look words up rather than listening to recordings all the time Reading from the I P. A. Means you will be building words up in syllables, using the reference sounds from the simple example words I gave. This makes it much more likely that you will be producing the right target. Sounds particularly for the vowels with words of more than one syllable. Remember the trick of finding the stressed syllable, saying just the stressed syllable allowed, making sure the vowel is correct? Tay then saying the stressed syllable and the rest of the word to the end. Tayna on finally start at the beginning and say the whole word Aquitania at Catania. Play plagiarism. Plagiarism be be in Caribbean, the British pronunciation Caribbean. The problem with just listening to recordings is that you may persist in pronouncing words with inaccurate sounds. The I P. A. Focuses your mind on the correct pronunciation of each syllable of the word. Do trust the transcription and follow it. Even if it seems odd, it will be correct. Of course, you may also want to hear words spoken aloud. Both the L P D and the C E P D. Come with a CD or if you go online, then I recommend the website www dot how just say dot com. Notice the spelling carefully. I've put in a link in the lesson resources to this website. This is the most comprehensive and reliable website I've found for British English pronunciation, and a good feature is it has a huge number of technical and medical words, all reliably pronounced. I hope you've enjoyed the course and found it useful. If you have any questions, don't hesitate to post them here and I will respond So all that remains to me to do now is to wish you every success and enjoyment and your continued use of the English language.