Project Management Fundamentals | Mike Clayton | Skillshare

Project Management Fundamentals

Mike Clayton, Business Speaker and Author

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6 Lessons (49m)
    • 1. Project Management Fundamentals Trailer

      1:36
    • 2. The Basics of Project Management in 4 mins

      4:32
    • 3. Define Your Project

      11:18
    • 4. Plan Your Project

      11:02
    • 5. Deliver Your Project

      11:49
    • 6. Close Your Project

      8:17

About This Class

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Oh no! You have a Project to Deliver!

But this is new to you.
You will need to know four things:

  1. Does your Project have a Firm Foundation from Day 1?
  2. What are the Ten Things You Need to Build into Your Project Plan?
  3. Are You Really In Control of Your Project?
  4. What are the Essential Disciplines for Closing Your Project?

Each video is around 12 minutes and will introduce you to the
absolute essentials of one of the four stages of Project Management.

Over the course of four videos, you will learn:

  • How to Define your Project to Assure the Success You Want
    And download your free one-page project definition template.

  • How to Create a Robust Project Plan that covers All the Essentials
    And download your free Top Ten Project Planning Tools Summary.

  • How to Maintain the Correct rhythm for the Project delivery Heartbeat
    And download your free Project Delivery Checklist.

  • How to Close your Project when You Know its over, but it Never seems to End
    And download your free Project Closure Checklist.

In the first video, The Basics of Project Management in 4 Minutes, we recommend a free eBook, 'Decode the Jargon of Project Management'. This is now in its second edition, and you can sign up for your free copy here.

Transcripts

1. Project Management Fundamentals Trailer: gona thought Project answers a very simple question. What is it that you want? Could you just three words the project managers feel about what else? They're someone else's attempt to get their horse, their concerns included in your project. But perhaps the most obvious ones you feel to work. Breakdown structure is to attach costs to eat elements of your work right down structure to produce what is known as a breakdown. Because if your project going well, someone is bound to come up. Congratulations. It's going very well. We're very happy for you. Thing is change my mom on something. How did it go? How did your project delivery matchup plants? How did you perform against budget against scheduled against specifications? That's the way in which you know the project is over. Projects complete. It's done, huh? Enjoy a good night's rest and relaxation because tomorrow it's almost certainly going to be another 2. The Basics of Project Management in 4 mins: project management is a structure discipline, so let's take a look at eight steps to a successful project. Step one. What is your project all about? The first step in any project is to define clearly what your project is and what it is not . The definition state is all about setting your gold or your aim. Identifying your objectives on determining your scope. In this stage, you also think about things like constraints on assumptions. Step two does. Your project makes sense. At this point, you have to start thinking about whether your project makes good commercial sense. You need to determine the value of the outcomes of your project and compare it with the cost of doing the project and the risks involved. It's also important here to check the alignment between your project on the one hand, on your organization's goals and strategy and values on the other step three. Who will determine your success or failure? This step is all about engaging with your stakeholders. You need to figure out who your stakeholders are and how you're going to engage with each of them. Some of them will be supporters, others will be neutral and some will be detractors. But remember, the essential point about engaging with stakeholders is, whatever their perspective, firstly, you can learn from them. And secondly, in all your dealings with the stakeholders, you must remain respectful. Step four. How will you deliver your project? This is the step where we put together our plans. You need to identify the tasks or activities that are involved and how long each will take . You also need to determine the logical sequence from one task to the next. On this, together with the timings, will allow you to put together a timeline. It's also important. Now start thinking about your resources, the materials, the assets and the people you're going to need to involve in delivering your project. Putting these together with your timeline will also allow you to calculate your budget. Step five. Engage your project team. One of the most important aspect of project management is your ability to lead a team. This is where you need to brief on motivate the people who will work with you to deliver the project. Step six Shift happens, so prepare for it. This is the step where we start to think about risk on risk management. You need to identify the risks, understand the extent of those risks and how severe they are on put together plans that will help you to manage those risks actively. And finally, it's absolutely essential with any risk management that you take action on your plans. Step seven. Stay in control during implementation during the implementation stage of any project is when things happen at a tremendous rate, you need to have a mechanism for staying in control for monitoring what's going on on making any corrections that you need. It's also at this stage that you'll be thinking about things like reporting and controlling requests for change. Step eight. Close your project in an orderly way. The last stage of any project is to shut it down in an orderly fashion. The delivery stage of your project will end with the hand over of the last of the deliverables, or products that your project has produced in the closing stage. You need to make sure that you learn any lessons document anything that needs documenting. Finished the admin on critically celebrate the success of your project. I hope you've enjoyed this short video, and if you have The next step in your learning is to get to grips with some of the jargon of project management. Many people find they feel on the outside of project management because they just simply don't understand that jargon. If you want to feel on the inside, think yet are free. E book Decode the jargon of project management. 3. Define Your Project: Hi, I'm Mike Leighton, founder of online PM courses. I'm also the author of How to Manage a Great Project. And in this short video seminar, I like to talk to you about a crucial stage in your project defining it. In fact, I could argue that this is the most important stage of a project with a simple reason that if you don't get the foundations right, if you don't define your project properly right from the start, then you have nothing to build on. Your plans will be based on a week understanding of what it is you're trying to create and you will execute based on 40 plans based on weak foundations. So the definition stage it isn't just the first stage in your project. It's arguably the most important. And in this seminar I want to show you the 10 components of a really good project definition and let's get started straight away with the gold. The goal of your project answers a very simple question. What is it that you want? The goal sets out the whole aim for the project, and I always advise project managers to think very carefully about crafting the wording of your go to make it a little bit inspirational, something that will inspire your team to follow you. A rallying cry for your state told us the ghost sets out what the project is, and then the second thing in our project definition is our objectives and our objectives set out constraints on how we deliver our project, how we deliver our goal, if you like, so that we know what success looks like. An objective. Typically come in three times every project you need to think about. Are there time or schedule objectives? Are there cost or budget objectives and all their quality objectives? Set out the criteria against which your measure success and these are your project's objectives. The third thing to consider. He's the scope. The scope of your project is all the things that you need to do to make your project a success. Or, put another way, it's all the things that you need to create. But we won't put it that way because there are two different ways to think about scope, and for me, the more convenient is to think about the scope of work, the tasks, the activities that you and your colleagues need to engage it. So here you are starting to think about what you will do on the fourth item is what you won't do the out of scope items or exclusions. So in defining our projects so far, we've got to go what we want. We've got the objectives, how we want it, the constraints that we put around achieving our project successfully. We've got the scope, what it is we need to do to achieve our goal and objectives. And we've got the exclusions. Things that we deliberately determine will not be part of our project. And this is important because once your project starts, people will come up to you and they'll say, Hey, like what? It's going really well. It's one thing. Could you just Could you just the three words the project managers fear above all else and they're someone else's attempt to get their hobbyhorse, their concerns included in your project. And of course, in doing that in adding to your scope there, using up your resources, your budget in your time. So we need to be explicit in stating what the exclusions are from our scope, so that when we get our project definition signed off. My boss, my client will buy our sponsor. We have signed off what we're not going to do so that we've got ammunition to turn somebody and say no, it's not included within our scope. We shan't be doing it because we don't have the time. You don't have the resource. We don't have the budget. If the most convenient way to think about scope is the work or the activities that need to be done, the things that you produce, the products or deliverables of the project, other fifth components of our project definition make a list of all the deliverables or all of the products that you're project will produce. And those two words, by the way, I mean the same thing. It's just that in the UK, we tend to use a work deliverable more frequently. And in the US, project managers tend to use the word product more frequently during the definition stage. Both your scope statements on your list of deliverables will tend to focus on the big items on some of the more detailed items maybe left for the planning steak. One of the other things that you will be leaving for the planning stage. Other detailed specifications of the deliverables that you're identifying in the definition stage. What you need at this stage is to note any critical functionality, specifications or any compliance requirements. The sixth elements of our project definition, our dependence is and constraints. Strictly speaking, these are two different things, but it makes sense to take them together at the outset. Dependencies are things external to your project, on which your project is dependent. Constraints are things that constrain the choices you will make within your project. So dependence is, and constraints are often very similar, and some things could equally well be framed as one or the other. Both of them will dictate some elements of the planning choices you make in the next stage . So for me, it makes sense to include them together. If you prefer to separate them out, that's fine. So what is your project dependent upon? And what of the constraints? Typical examples might be other activities going on within your organization. The create dependence is pass its use of resources. Or perhaps it's key milestones or deadlines for other projects which will get in the way of your project and typical constraints are things like operating procedures or regulations or legislation. But it may also be around preferences of senior people within the organization. The seventh components of our project definition needs to be an identification of any risks or issues that are affecting the project. The big risks, the big issues that need to be resolved or accounted for early on in the project to give you a strong platform for success. Now risks are uncertainties that can affect the outcome. Anything that could go wrong. Basically, issues are not answer. It is they are certainties that can affect outcome. The things that have happened or will definitely happen that need to be taken care off. So, strictly speaking, one could argue that an issue is just a risk with a probability of 100%. Anyway, make sure that you identify along the things you need to take care of all the things that could go wrong. We are going wrong, and that's your risks and issues. The any fighter is uncertainties on assumptions. Of course, the two are intimately linked. We're uncertain what the party it's going to bay, but we're assuming it's going to pay $100,000. Uncertainties need to be cleared up as we move from the definition stage into the planning stage, and assumptions need to be validated as we move from the definition state into the planet steak. There is nothing wrong with making assumptions, by the way, it's a necessary way off operating as we build up project plans. The mistake is not in making assumptions on, but it seem forgetting, but that all we've got is an assumption on not a certainty. So list everything that you're assuming to be true but don't know to be true. Everything you're not sure about a need to clarify and that's the eighth component of our project definition the ninth component is vital. It's your stakeholders because stakeholders and the people who have any kind of interest in your project and often they will be the ones who judge the success or failure of your project during the definition stage. Therefore, it is vital to identify who the key stakeholders are the ones with the biggest impact, the ones who are most affected. The ones who are most likely to oppose your project on potentially cause you trouble are the ones who have the greatest ability and willingness to support you on Be helpful. Of course, As you move from the definition stage to the planning stage, you'll increasingly identify more and more stakeholders with lesser unless the stakes. But at the outset, you need to be starting to think and plan for project around those all important key stakeholders. Indeed, it may well be that the definition of your project, the goal you set, the objectives you set in the scope you set are determined in large part by the needs, the preferences, priorities and desires of your key stakeholders. The final part of our 10 part project definition worksheet are your project. Now. At the outset, you're unlikely to be able to identify all of your project team members. But what you should be able to do is identify the key roles that you will need to fulfill and put names, possibly to some of the essential roles key experts that you're absolutely dependent upon on some of the government's rolls. Who is going to be the project manager who is going to be the sponsor or project director who or what part of the organization is gonna oversee the project. Acting this your project board or your project steering group. This is your opportunity to show you in a project definition stage that you're aware of the level of priority of the project. And you thought about who the key personnel are on what skills you need to draw into your project to make it succeed. So 10 components to a project definition, and you'll see that you can download a simple worksheet so you can start to plan this out for yourself down below this video. If you've enjoyed this video, keep an eye out for the next one where we look at planning your project and we consider the 10 essential components of a project plan. And I wish you well with setting up more project definition. My name's Mike Clayton. I look forward to seeing you in the next video 4. Plan Your Project: Oh, I'm Mike Layton on This is the second of my series of short videos about managing a project . In the last one we looked at. The 10 critical elements were defining your project, and in this video we're going to look at 10 essential components to a good project plan. The first thing that needs to go into your plan is the scope of your project, the things that you're going to need to do. This sets out all the tasks or activities, and the best tool to use to create your scope plan is a work breakdown structure. A work breakdown structure is nothing more than a hierarchical grouping of activities. It sets out the main areas of work on breaks each one down into its component parts and continues to break the activities down into component parts until each of the components of the greatest level of detail represents a single, coherent task or activity for the person who's going to do the work. Often work breakdown structures are represented as hierarchical diagrams. But of course, when we represent them in our finish plan, they often come out as numbered lists using an indented numbering system, the second elements of our project plan has to address the deliverables or products that we're going to produce as a result of our project. Two things will make up this component. The first is a schedule of all of those deliverables. Often that schedule will be reconciled to your work breakdown structure. But then attached to that schedule will be a series of specifications sheets for each deliverable. There needs to be a specifications documenting the functionality that quality standards on the regulated requirements to which it needs to conform. Time or schedule is the third element of our project plan. And to start understanding the timing off our project, we use milestones. We identify key points in the project, the beginning at one end, the completion of the other on the major points along the way and those a note. As milestones. Milestones often represent the delivery of important products. They might represent the completion or phases of the work. Some milestones represent essential decisions or perhaps external events that will impact our project. Milestones are best represented by a list of key events or milestones with dates attached to a project plan also has to have a budget There are lots of different ways of preparing a project, but it but perhaps the most obvious ones you built a work breakdown structure is to attach costs to each elements of your work breakdown structure to produce what is known as a cost breakdown structure. This has the advantage that once each activity or element of the work is completed, it's a relatively straightforward task to compare the out turn cost of that element with the budget. Cost quality is the fifth component of our project plans, so you should have a quality plan, which documents how you're going to ensure that the quality of all of your deliverables meets the standards set out in the design or specifications documents off those deliverables. Often this will involve two separate processes of quality assurance process, which make sure that the production of deliverables is designed to correct deliverables to the corners you specified and a quality control process which makes sure that deliverables are not handed over to their new beneficial owners until they have been checked to ensure they conform with the quality standards. The sixth elements of our project plan is going to be the schedule when different activities take place. We thought about time in terms of milestones earlier on. But when you combine that with the activities you produce a schedule and the communist tool that project managers use for building, articulating and communicating the schedule, and also for monitoring and tracking progress against it is the gap shot. There are other tools, of course, but what again shot is particularly good at is representing activities against time. They often have a familiar long diagonal structure off bars, each one representing an activity going forward through time. And there will be sequences of activities running in parallel, which you know as work strings. The seventh components of our project plan is resourcing and in particular here I'm thinking about the people on your project. Two tools are commonly used for resource planning. The first is what's called an organization breakdown structure, where we take our work breakdown structure on. We allocate individuals to each activity. Some activities will have more than one individual allocated to others will have a single individual. Many of your project team members will be allocated to multiple activities. Clusters of activities will be supervised by a named individual, and there's author knows work packages. I don't the talk. The clusters of clusters of activities, the major areas of the work on his work streams and there are led by work stream leaders. The other tool that is commonly used is a linear responsibility charts or a racy chart. And whilst technically these air two slightly different charts, often what he's actually a linear responsibility chart is often called a racy chart because of its similarity. But these charts, all they do is they take each of the tasks, and they allocate individuals to those tasks, giving different individuals different roles. These roll activity type shots are easy to use and particularly good for publicizing and communicating who is doing what on your project. Engaging effectively with stakeholders is a crucial part of delivering project success, so communications is the eighth element of our project plan. Here you need some form of state called a Communication plan, which sets out which stakeholders are going to receive what communications at what times, using what formats and then allocate responsibilities as well. A stakeholder communication plan is not difficult to draw up in principle. The hard work goes into thinking about precisely what message needs to be delivered and how best to deliver it. Not forgetting that sometimes tone of voice, where that's written or spoken voice is crucial to communicate the message effectively. The ninth elements of your project plan needs to address the question of governance, making sure that your project is transparent and accountable and conforms to good organizational practice. You need to think about who's going to monitor and oversee your project and how important project decisions are going to be made. Indeed, how the direction for the project is going to be set and reset if things change. This is about governance on what your plan needs to reflect our two things. Firstly, the governance, roles and responsibilities and the best way to deal with that is often to create written terms of reference for the key players in the governance chain. The Project manager, response, sir or project director and the project board or steering group on. The second thing is to identify which individuals wolf will fill those roles and to confirm that they have read on, understood and accepted their terms of reference. The final elements of our project plan his risk, Strictly speaking, risk management is a project control rather than a project plan. But our risk register The primary tool for risk management is a planning tool as much as a control talk. It enables you to record every risk you identify on, not only to record your evaluation of that risk, but your plan for addressing it. Indeed, in a full risk register, you may have several lines of risk actions against each risk. I don't find what needs to be done when it needs to be done and who needs to do it. A project that does not have a risk register and use it actively is one that is putting itself at grave risk. So there we have 10 components of a project plan. Now, I'm not saying that your project may not need more components, and I'm not necessarily saying that every project needs all of these components, But for me, these are the top 10. Of course, there may be others things like a health and safety plaque, for example. But if you've got those 10 components and you've done, you work well in preparing the plan in each of those 10 dimensions, you will have a really solid ground to move from planning into delivery or implementation. And of course, delivering your project will be the subject of the next of these short videos. But we'll be talking about planning your project. I'm Mike Plane, founder of Online PM. Cool sees, and I enjoyed presenting this information to you. 5. Deliver Your Project: Hello, I'm Dr Might claim, founder of online PM Courses on This is the third of our series of four videos about managing projects. In the first, we saw how to define your project and in the second, how to plan your project in this one. I want to look at how to deliver your project on in particular, the 10 Project Heartbeat functions of a project manager. The 10 things you need to be doing during delivery to keep that heartbeat regular and keep your project patient healthy. The beating heart of your project during his delivery stage is the monitor and control cycle, constantly monitoring what's going on in your project. Understanding how what's happening, compassion your plan and controlling your project by intervening to bring it back on plan that morning. Certain control Lupul Monitor Drugs Cycle is the beating heart, and if you go around that look fast enough, we'll catch any problems while they're still small and be able to fix them with a simple on subtle intervention and check very quickly whether you got it right, or if you need a further tweet. Clearly, if you're not monitoring frequently enough, then problems may be very large. By time you spot them, you're interventions will need to be course. And if you're not monitoring frequently enough and your intervention isn't right, then your project very quickly spiral out of control. The second discipline for a project manager during zealotry stage is reporting. You need to report the many reasons. Firstly, of course, it's essential to put project progress on the record to create an audit trail. It's important for good governance and for transparency, and we also report because communication is important. Your sponsor, your board, your colleagues on the team and your stakeholders need and want to know what's going on. But the third reason is a compelling reason for me is a project manager I need to report because I will sometimes need decisions. I will sometimes need guidance and advice. I was sometimes need access to resources and by putting my requirements into a report, I can flag to my boss to my sponsor, to my client, that I need that guidance that support those resources for those decisions and therefore get them on help myself to do my job of monitoring and controlling my project. The third discipline, he's risk an issue management. You need constantly to re reviewing issues that have emerged on risks that are on the horizon. Make sure that you're taking action on your risks and continuously updating your risk register. Be constantly alert for new risks and new issues. Periodically get team members together to help you to identify new things that are emerging constantly. Work your risk register quality is the fourth discipline. In fact, there are two disciplines here. Firstly, there's quality assurance. Make sure that you take the lead in ensuring ash during the quality of all the deliverables that are being produced. Oversee the process to make sure that deliverables are matching the specifications that have been set for. But quality control is also important on. As a project manager, I make it my responsibility to finally sign off any deliverable that is released to my client, to my boss, to my sponsor, to my customers. That way, I know that what's passing out of the project and into beneficial use meets the standard required. So quality assurance is about getting it right on. Quality control is about making sure is right before you part with your deliverables. Your team members are important on the fifth discipline is to make sure that you have regular team meetings which keep your members briefed, which share knowledge and learnings, which offer praise and recognition for success but crucially, work together to solve problems and to identify issues that need to be worked out to set up regular team meetings. But think very carefully about how to craft, um, so that they take up no more time than is needed, but cover everything that needs to be covered and give everybody a sense of ownership. And don't assume that your team meetings need to look the same towards the end of your project as they did at the beginning, as your project moves from one stage to the next, so the nature and style of your team meetings may need to change to accommodate the needs of what's going on during that stage. Your team members are so important that I'm going to distinguish from disciplined five team meetings to discipline six, which is about to morale. Team morale doesn't all happen in meetings. Yes, good, well runs he meetings that offer recognition and praise on important part of maintaining team morale. But your responsibility to your team extends well beyond just having good meetings. Make sure as a project manager that you take the time to visit team members to talk with them, to listen to them and hear what they've got to tell you. You don't have to solve all of their problems, but you have to acknowledge them and give them perhaps a little bit of support and guidance to help them to solve their problems themselves. Maintaining team or out is crucial, particularly during the high pressure times of the project. And if you're not working on team morale when it's easy and the team isn't time, the pressure then picking up on it later when's he is under pressure is going to be able. The more difficult related to team meetings and team morale is the sentence discipline to make sure that your harvesting lessons learned as you go through the project, a lot of project managers push their lessons learned to the back end of the project as a closing stage activity. And yes, you should be learning lessons at the close of your project. But you know what? If something goes wrong today, I don't want to wait to the end of the project to acknowledge it and understand it. I wanna have a frequent cycle of lessons learned meeting so we can look at the problems we're having and learn our lessons as soon as possible. And likewise if one of my colleagues discovered something clever, something that makes a real positive difference to the project, that I want to be able to share that a soon as possible and implement that can institutionalize it across the project. So make sure you have frequent and regular lesson to learn meetings. Partly about recognition praise, but partly about sharing on developing good practice, good habits on your project. Stakeholders are a vital component of the success of any project, more indeed of its failure. So continued stakeholder engagement is vital. My experience is that this is something that gives on many projects. Once we get into delivery, we stop engaging with our stakeholders. We think we've got what we need from them during the planning and definition stages. But actually it's your and delivery that we need to be constantly checking in with our stakeholders, maintaining their enthusiasm and momentum for the project and also dealing with concerns they have and has some of our stakeholders. You learn new things about what we're doing or encounter new problems in the real world. On your opportunities, we can use their knowledge and their learning to feed into improving our project. So constant stakeholder engagement is a vital part of that project. Heart. Our ninth discipline is changed control because if your projects going well, someone is bound to come up to you. And so, Mike, congratulations part. It's going very well. We're all very happy for you. Something is change my mind on something different and you was project manager. Need to have a process in place to control those requests for change so that you don't carelessly so, yeah, leave it with me. We'll sort that out to any request that comes which, of course, will sap the project of its budget out of its time. But likewise, you don't want to be that project manager who stands on an established scope of says We can't do anything else other than what we're committed to doing because to do that would be to fail to recognize that the world changes the project, discovers new stuff, commercial environments changed technological opportunities change regulation changes, and if we freeze the project requirement on day one, we never revisit it. Then we may end up with a project that doesn't meet the needs of the organization. When the project finally delivers, so have a strong change control process and infrastructure of a book on work that process effectively during the delivery stage. The final discipline of our project heart beat during the liver stage is what I call the next Bend process, and this one's very personal to me. It's a personal discipline that I've given myself, and it's one I recommend. Toe project managers on the next plane process is a very simple process. It involves a notebook, a pin on a coffee shop once a week or maybe once a fortnight. I'll go to a coffee shop with nothing more than a pen and a notebook. I don't spend half an hour thinking just letting my mind wander across the project to see what strikes me, because I know that during the hurly burly of the project, you're so focused on what needs to happen and what's going to happen. What is happening on the concerns of your team and stakeholders getting the report's ready and checking the quality of the deliverables. You don't have time to think ahead about what when we see what's coming around. The next bend that we're not paying attention to in my experience is that half the time you come away with a few notes in your notebook, but nothing particularly inspirational. Nothing particularly useful. But half the time we get an idea and that will take your thinking in a new direction, it might lead you to check up on something that you want to otherwise checked up on or it might. This is sometimes happened with May lead you to open up a whole new stream of work on your project because you suddenly realized that something's gonna happen. At some point, we haven't even been thinking about it. So there you have it. 10 disciplines that create a regular heartbeat for your project during the delivery stage. He knows this in the next one, which will be our last. We'll look at the closing stages where project and how to close your project down. My name is Dr Mike Clayton. I'm the founder of online PM courses I've enjoyed presenting this information to you. And I look forward to seeing it one more time on our fourth Project Management Short Video seminar. 6. Close Your Project: Hello, I'm Dr Mike Leighton, founder of online PM courses, and this is the fourth of our Siris of four short video seminars about project management. In the previous seminars, we've looked at defining your project, planning your project on delivering your project. So now it's time to look at closing your project down in an orderly fashion, and we're gonna look at seven essential disciplines for closing your project down, and the 1st 1 is hand over. Sign off of the last if you're deliverables because the first step in closing the project down is also the last step of the delivery stage, it's handing over the products off your project into beneficial use. It's about getting sign off from the new owner, your client, your customer, the operational manager concerned that what you delivered meets their requirements, and sometimes they're still be accompanied by some for operation with use, memo or snagging list of things that need to get done. But essentially, when you hand over and get sign off that moves you confidently into the close stage. The second discipline is therefore to refuse the project. How did it go? How did your project illusory match up to the original plans. How did you perform against budget Against Schedule on against specifications. Your project delivery review needs to make sure that you understand how the project performed so that you could be fully accountable for yourself, for your team and for the project infrastructure around you. One thing you can't do this stage, however, is to look at the outcomes of the project. More was achieved using the deliverables or products that you produced that needs to happen sometime between six and 18 months after hand over, so all you could do at this stage is to schedule that outcomes or benefits review. The third discipline is to review lessons learned for the project. Now if you watched our last video, you'll have heard me say that lessons learned reviews need to be continuously happening during the delivery stage of the project but have closing stage. You do need to get your whole team together to review everything you've learned. Try to make it as appreciative as possible in the sense of looking for what things people did, that we're good. That were beneficial because in a well performing organization and in a well performing project organization you can improve better and faster by focusing on institutionalizing good practices of them by correcting poor prices. And, of course, your lessons learned. Review is also an opportunity for you to offer praise and recognition for good performance of on your team members. Now some organizations make a big deal out of this. They produce long and sophisticated project reports, which were then circulated widely in the organization on often not read and filed and wasted. Now, whether your organization produces these reports or not on whether, if it does there properly, read or know the value of your lessons learned with you is not for the reports. And it's not for the wider organization. It's for the people who have worked together on the project because we get wiser when we take the time to reflect on what we've learned from our own experiences. The fourth discipline is to sit down with each of your team members and to give them good quality oneto one feedback that will help him to develop and become better, more effective professionals as they move onto their next project. Clearly on a large project where you may have 2030 5100 or more team members. You can't sit down with all of them. So I will sit down with my work stream leaders and give them good quality want, want feedback and expect them to do the same with their team leaders. And so here's your opportunity to give people focused individual praise and recognition and also to identify how they can take their career forward and improve their practice next time. This is a real discipline because as people start to drift away from the project as your mind starts to wander off of the project, sometimes the last thing you want to do is to look backwards. But you know what? It isn't looking backwards to develop people. It's looking forwards to the future of those individuals and of the organization protects great Hagman. And so the fifth discipline and this one really is a discipline is to deal with all of the house standing protector. And a lot of projects never really end, even though we know they've done their thing because there's lights. Bagman hasn't mean kid go out the way. Silent invoicing, one of that sort of stuff to make sure that you make a list of all of the project admit that needs to be done and work your way through it and clear it. Ideally, you delegate a lot of that. But remember, the first rule of the allegation is down. Tress. Delegate the rubbish. It's a punishment for somebody else or because you can't be both it. Make sure that you're delegating for good reasons. Delegate. Help other individuals to develop their skills or independent working or to give them responsibility or delegate because it makes really good, effective use of your time on this. Clear your project admin, and then we move on to the six discipline. It requires a lot less discipline. It's celebrate, always, always, always said right, the completion of projects. Because that way the people who've been working on the project feel recognized and rewarded . They feel good about themselves, and it improves their confidence and morale going to the next projects in these times. Sometimes it's hard to get a budget out of your organization to pay for a project celebration, and maybe that's appropriate as a project manager. I've always thought that it's my responsibility to make some four celebration happen, and it doesn't have to be grand, and it doesn't have to be expensive for me. It's about taking the team out for a pleasant meal, a sociable event, something that lets people recognize. We've reached a key point in our careers as well as the end of our projects. And we've done something to be proud off on. We can share stories about it, ask colleagues and friends, and when you finish the celebration, the last thing to do is to create and sign off a project close. Remember, on a project closure memo is a simple document that says, You know what? We've handed over our project and we've got that signed off. We've done a lot the reviews and we've cleared our at me and we've celebrated our success. And now I was project manager believes the project is complete. You're saying that off. When you sign that off, you pass it to your clients, your sponsor to your boss. You ask them if they believe project is complete when they countersign it. That's the point of which, you know the project is over. Projects complete. It's done hung. Enjoy a good nights rest and relaxation because tomorrow is almost certainly going to be another project. I hope you've enjoyed this sequence of videos. My name's don't like Clayton. I'm the founder of the online courses. Thank you very much.