Professional Outdoor and Nature Photography 10: Selling Your Outdoor and Nature Photography | Charlie Borland | Skillshare

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Professional Outdoor and Nature Photography 10: Selling Your Outdoor and Nature Photography

teacher avatar Charlie Borland, Professional photographer for over 35 years

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

14 Lessons (1h 28m)
    • 1. Intro to Selling Your Photography

    • 2. Introduction to Pricing

    • 3. Royalty Free vs. Rights Managed

    • 4. A Look at Microstock

    • 5. Establishing a Price

    • 6. Establishing a Price Pt 2

    • 7. Where is the Photo Being Used?

    • 8. How Big is That Usage?

    • 9. Granting Usage Rights

    • 10. How Unique is the Photo?

    • 11. Pricing Examples

    • 12. How to Negotiate the Sale

    • 13. How to Negotiate the Sale #2

    • 14. Stock Photo Agencies

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About This Class

After your successful marketing efforts, you will hopefully be negotiating price and usage with those clients. This course covers how to establish a price for your work as well as covering negotiating strategies to aid in making the sale. 

Meet Your Teacher

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Charlie Borland

Professional photographer for over 35 years


Charlie Borland has been a commercial and stock photographer for over 35 years. Based in Oregon, his clients include Xerox, NW Airlines, Fujitsu, Tektronix, Nike, Blue Cross, Nationsbank, Precision Castpart's Corp., Mentor Graphics, Texas Instruments, Pacificorp, Cellular One, Sequent Computer, Early Winters, Cascade Bancorp, and AGC. He has won numerous awards for his photography and received recognition for annual reports he has photographed.

His imagery has been used thousands of times worldwide, including National Geographic Adventure and Traveler, Outside, Women's Sport and Fitness, Newsweek, TV Guide, CIO, Sports Illustrated for Women, Time, Backpacker, Sunset, American Photo, Outdoor Photographer, Eco Traveler, Southern Bell, to name a few.

Charlie has been teaching... See full profile

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Photography Creative

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1. Intro to Selling Your Photography: Hi, I'm Charlie Borland. And welcome to my course on pricing and selling your photography part of my Siris on how to be a professional outdoor in nature photographer. And this is course number 10. To be successful in professional photography, you have to earn an income. And while there are many ways to do that, selling photographs is the main reason many photographers get into the business now. Since you've been in the photography business, it is in your best interest to sell your products at a profit. But do you know how to establish whether you are making a profit or not? In this short course, we're gonna examine several factors in getting fair compensation for your work and hopefully ensure that you do make that profit. We will look at different licensing models, stock photo agencies, determining a fair price for a sale and, most important, successfully negotiating strategies. So if you're ready to make some money, then let's get started. See you in the class 2. Introduction to Pricing: so your phone has just rung from a perspective client who wants to buy one of your images for a specific project. If you're new to selling your photography, your first thought might be. Now what do I do as outdoor photographer's? We hope to cellar images, and we need to sell our images and generate some income. This helps offset equipment costs, allow future adventure trips and pay the household bills. Whatever your financial need, that skill of negotiating licensing fees for usage can be intimidating, since we never want to lose a sale. But with a step by step approach simplifying the process, you can easily determine a fair and justified fee. They're basically two ways that prices are determined. The first is when the client asks what your prices and the second is when they inform you that they have established prices. If you choose to submit your images to a calendar company or a gift card company, a book publisher or many other publishing markets that have established rates, they will basically tell you what they pay, and you are in essence, agreeing to their pay structure simply by submitting your photography. The second approach is when a client contact you regarding usage of your image and they may ask you for a price or again inform you of the price they're willing to pay. You then have the option of agreeing, disagreeing or attempting to negotiate a price that's more favorable to you. Rarely are you offered too much money. You might also be contacted by an advertising agency or a graphic design firm, or even a company whose heard of you senior photography published somewhere or looked at your website. If there's an image they're interested in, they will inquire as to your prices for a specific usage they have in mind. So your ability to negotiate ah favorable price for your work will, in the long run, provide you a better return on investment for your outdoor photography business. To determine a usage fee, you need to look at what you photograph and how your images fit into the market. Since today's prices for stock photo images are in reality all over the place, how much money can you make? The sky really is the limit, and it depends on your photographic product and ability to successfully sell them. In the 19 nineties, The average stock photo sale was around $325 with many sales substantially higher in many lower. Here's a graphic from Jim Pickles Stock Photo newsletter, which you may want to subscribe to, and you can find it at selling dash stock dot com. The graphic here shows the average writes manage price that we can get today at $298 micro stock around 6 to $7. But what's more important is the volume of sales based on each of these different marketing models. If you look at REITs managed, it doesn't compare or even come close to the amount of micro stock sales. So you really want to keep this in mind when deciding which is the best way to market Your imagery is making good money from your stock. Photography boils down to how you market in the art of negotiation. And then there's that question. Would you rather sell an image once for 1000 bucks or 1000 times for a buck, or ideally, 5000 times for a buck? And again, that's just a concept, not necessarily a suggestion. So here I go again, asking that same question I've asked this whole time. What do you shoot? This is such an important factor in determining the value of your work, and you must clearly know where you fit into the market and who your competition is. Do you specialize in the national parks or the natural areas around your home? Wildlife wildflowers or adventure sports? Do you know who the other photographers in your area are? If you happen to photograph the national park system, are you going toe All the same places you see published are your wildlife images from the zoo or the game farm? These are all important considerations. If you have a niche specialty than the value of your work will be much higher. As an example. An underwater photographer who specializes in sharks condemn and higher prices for their photography than a flower photographer. This could be concluded simply by looking at the supply of both of these subjects and the demand for both the's air important points. If a client is interested in an image you have but can also get the same or very comparable image from someone else than a bidding war could start, and the price will be forced lower with the best bid. Making the sale. Making good money from stock photography boils down to how you market and the art of negotiation. The goal is to get a fair price. But what is a fair price? The answer is whatever you can negotiate. 3. Royalty Free vs. Rights Managed: Ah, uh, when a photographer creates a photograph and then licenses its usage and continues to rely since that usage and receive additional fees, they are managing the rights granted for those images and being compensated for each use. This is known as rights managed. The photographer receives a fee every time the images air used. Once upon a time, all stock photography were writes, controlled on the price for a photos, usage was negotiated on how it was going to be used, how big it was going to be used and how long it was going to be used. Then photo disc was founded along with the royalty free marketing model, and the world's never been the same. When a photographer has granted unlimited use for one fee, a royalty free license has been granted. The client can then use the imagery anyway. They want anywhere, and any time they choose, without further compensation going to the photographer. That's the fundamental difference between royalty free and rights managed. Which would you prefer? Most would answer that we would prefer to get paid every time the images used, but this became increasingly difficult when royalty free business model emerged. It has become a matter of market economics. When a client can buy a photo for five or 25 or even $99 use it as they wish and forever, why would they pay $200 each and every time they wish to use an image? Here are two photographs of mind that represent royalty free and rights control. I don't personally sell royalty for images those air for sale on the Web. Rather, I can negotiate a license that gives the clients the usage they want for a reasonable price , and that can come close to a royalty free price point. But I only will go so far, The U. S Capitol in Washington, D. C. Can be found at all the stock photo websites. My image here has sold well, but I must lower its price to make a sale or clients will go to the Web. The Forest photo from Redwoods National Park is an image created by being at the right place at the right time. It has generated total sales of around $12,000 with the lowest price paid at around 250 the highest price of $3000. The reason it could command more money is because it's a one of a kind. And when it fits a client's concept, they often are willing to pay more some people in the business For a very long time, I have felt that royalty free photography was the death to the business, and any hope of earning a decent income was pretty much over, and to some degree it's partially true. Other photographers who joined the royalty free frenzy of the 19 nineties found themselves earning substantial income, but that subsided as well. Today, micro stock is the latest licensing model, which essentially is royalty free images but at even lower prices, some as low as a dollar, an image. You can choose any licensing model you want, but make sure you understand the difference before you decide. One strategy to deciding between rights managed and royalty free or micro stock is to consider how many of these images air in the market, followed by how rare the photo is. Rights manage images command much higher usage fees than royalty free, but rights manage cells less. I am going to refer to royalty free and micro stock as royalty free rights manage images might be an image that was difficult to get, making it very rare, like this redwood photo or lightning across the Grand Canyon. However, an image of the Grand Canyon, taken on an average day with no special situation, is a dime a dozen and would sell better as a royalty free image rights manage images, air still licensed by the usage. And if the client wants to use it again beyond the original negotiated terms, they pay again, although there may be certain conditions based on the website that they're buying the photo from, There has always been tremendous pressure on photographers to lower prices and be more competitive with Web pricing and royalty free prices. But I myself resists this pressure to the point of losing some sales. My reasoning is, if a human which happens to be me has to be involved in the stock sale transaction, the price must be higher for me to get involved, and it's higher than if it was downloaded off the Web without a human. I have an acquaintance that was a well known travel photographer and has made a living off of images of things like the Tokyo skyline or big band in London, the Eiffel Tower, Golden Gate Bridge and many of the world's great tourist spots. Now all these images are available for download off the Web for a fraction of what he was able to earn from each image when selling them as rights managed. This point emphasizes your need to establish pricing that matches the type of imagery you shoot and where it fits into today's markets. So are you shooting royalty free or rights controlled imagery you're pricing should be influenced by your answer. Here are two more example of images in which I had decided whether they were royalty free or rights controlled. This mountain in central Oregon was taken on an average nice day and is photographed by every photographer in the area as well as photographers. Passing through. The lighting is normal, and there's nothing remarkable about the image, so I would put this myself in royalty free. The Foggy Boat Harbor in Rockport, Massachusetts, was a magical moment of being in the right place at the right time. While this may be a regular event for local photographers, I have placed my image in rights managed and it's sold pretty well. So is your work more suitable for royalty free or rights? Managed pricing is your work average. Is your work what everybody else sells? Or is your photography very rare? And there's few photographers that you compete with again. I can't stress enough the importance of making this determination. Now I'm going to take a different approach that might help you decide how much you need to get from an image sale to be profitable. And it's a brief formula on the cost of doing business, and you could certainly figure this out yourself. Let's say you just took a road trip and calculated that if you had 4400 expenses for your last multi week trip, that you need to sell 17 pictures at $250 each to break even. If you decide to place your images in a royalty free licensing model and were able to get $49 each, you would need to sell 89 of them to break even. Consider also, if you are with the Stock Photo Agency and their licensing the images for $49 each, your commission might average around 20% or, in this case, $9.80. So you need to sell 448 licenses again to break even on that trip. Now, if you choose the micro stock licensing model, where images might Sella's low as a dollar and you earn 20 cents per image download, then you need to sell 22,000 image downloads to break even. That is a daunting task and maybe even impossible. But I will mention again. This is a hypothetical example. You might very well take a road trip for several weeks, and it doesn't cost $4400 to do that trip. But again, traveling around the United States or a lot of countries is not necessarily cheap either. I will mention before moving on that the numbers I just quoted are not specific and Onley used as an example. Images do sell for much more than $49 much less and images do sell for only a dollar. And if you want to go have a look, go visit dollar photo club dot com. Also, the numbers I mentioned stress the importance of several other things, and that is pricing based on the uniqueness of your image. If it's not unique, it probably won't sell in rights managed and maybe not as royalty free, either. It might not be hard to sell 17 licenses at $250 each if the image is unbelievable. But again, if the images are the same subjects commonly found with most nature photographers or agency websites than the images might struggle even as royalty free or micro stock. Clients, of course, also have a say in pricing as well. They speak with their money and how much they're willing to pay. This has had me wondering if it's easier to ask for a higher price and then grant unlimited usage over a limited time or what I might call halfway between royalty free and rights managed. One of the many reasons clients flocked to royalty free imagery is they no longer have to negotiate the re use or the continued use of an image as they would in rights managed. In many ways, I can't blame them as I look at things I've purchased, and the license granted only one usage, like the software that came with my last computer. I purchased. It easily allowed the migration of all my data from the old computer to the new computer. But the next time I wanted to use it, I had to pay the licensing fee all over again because it was a one time use. And of course I grumbled a little bit. That's exactly what I do when I negotiate a license, and there are some clients out there who grumble at that thought. But the direction I'm heading here is how can we get the equivalent or close in fair and reasonable composition without ever having to negotiate again? I think back to where the 1st 20 years of my career was just that, charging for a specific use that would eventually expire. Then either the client or I would contact the other to discuss the reuse. Usually it was me that contacted them to remind them that it was time to rely since the image if they still wanted to use it. But it was also really tough to keep track of, especially in the early days of my career when we didn't even have personal computers and I can't even really remember that. But I often did not like having to get in touch with a customer and ask them if they wanted to keep using the photo. Sometimes the original client who bought the image from in the first place was gone, and the person who replaced him had no idea what was negotiated before them. Other times I would see an image of mine published again and contact the advertising agency only to find they no longer work with that particular client. This actually happened to me a few years ago when I saw an image of mine republished in an advertisement beyond the original negotiated conditions. When I talked to the client who was the new marketing director, he was really upset and had no idea that he could not continue to use my image from the original ad. He was not there when the first ad was created by a separate advertising agency and did not know the terms and conditions. He begged me for leniency, and I accommodated him very reasonably. There are problems with licensing these ways, and maybe it's because it's kind of the old way. This last client who used the image unknowingly will never be a client of mine. He felt extorted, even though it was neither his fault or mine. He was stuck with an agreement that happened long before he came, and it was an unwanted intrusion on his limited budget. These are the reasons clients flocked to license agreements where they don't have to ever negotiate again. For me, I don't really want to lose any sales based on licensing terms that many believe are somewhat outdated. Instead, I prefer to seek as much money as I possibly can in terms that even ideally, don't have to be re negotiated ever, and I still earn a decent licensing fee. So here we are again, back to that point, I cannot stress enough, and that is to evaluate your image library and determine where your work fits into the market, and this will help you decide the best licensing model. By making this evaluation, it helps you determine ways to create marketable images while being mindful of your production costs. So again, back to the real core of this lecture is to decide whether your work is good for royalty free or rights managed, and then plan accordingly to earn the highest potential profits 4. A Look at Microstock: It's fair to say that the micro stock licensing model is here and it's not going anywhere. It's a business model that works for some clients, and it works for some photographers. Does it work for outdoor and nature photographers? Well, I'm sure it does for a few, but I'm sure it doesn't. For many others. I, like all photographers, are looking at every potential revenue stream. However, I just can't make micro stock work for me. There's plenty of talk that the entire industry is heading towards micro stock, and photographers must accept lower prices. But I'm not so sure That's true. My last two stock photo sales arm or than the average micro stocker makes in a month. Traditional rites manage sales are still there and happening quite often. Some clients still have money to spend. But as outdoor and nature photographers looking to be probable examine where they might fit into the market, micro stock numbers just don't crunch. One person who publishes a micro stock information website generously shares Hiss sales figures on his micro stock sales. Some of his photo shoots have been quite profitable, and others not so he shares the fact that you have to keep your costs down way down. He does that by shooting of writing of subjects. At the same time his site also mentions, and I quote, most hobbyists, micro stalkers like myself don't calculate their costs for each shoot. Most of us don't need to know, and many wouldn't care if it turned out they were making a loss. End quote. Well, that's fine. Obviously, he and others that he's referencing don't rely on stock sales for making a living. And many, although not all of the newcomers in the micro stock business model are the same way there , part time photographers. While outdoor nature photographers might also be part timers, they have costs that can't be avoided. I would use myself as an example if I decide to drive from my home to Crater Lake National Park for one day of shooting. That's 50 miles each way. And if I throw in my time driving around the crater rim photographing, we're looking at about 150 miles round trip. My vehicle gets 20 mpg, and I'm going to use an average price of $4 a gallon, so that equals $30 in gas costs, Now I'll base my salary at $50,000 a year, and I worked 2000 and 88 hours per year, which equals $23 an hour times an eight hour shooting day or a payroll of $191 for that day . I happen to take my lunch peanut butter and jelly plus a banana, and we'll eat that expense. So the total cost for my day at Crater Lakes $221 my post production time. I'm going to say three hours of post processing at the same hourly wage of $23 an hour. Pretty much equals $69. So now my shoot has a total cost of $290 and now I'm gonna divide that by 50 cents per download. But first I want to mention that as of 2000 and 13 the average payout to a photographer was under $1 per download, but in some cases of the total commission can be much higher than a dollar, so it really depends on the agency. But the surveys I've found show that the average download price paid to a photographer was under a dollar. Assuming, however, that the average commission paid is under a buck. I chose an average of 50 cent commission for this example to earn back my cost from that trip for a day of photography. I need to have 190 downloads from that day. Is that possible? Sure, it's possible. Is it likely? Well, maybe, Maybe not, since I also do other things, like photography assignments and make money from that. It's not necessarily an excuse to subsidize my stock photo shooting trips at a loss. So am I missing something? Well, maybe. But the micro stock numbers just don't crunch for me, Yuri occurs. A micro stock photographer who's incredibly talented and shoots lifestyle imagery, admitted once that his income per image has been cut in half due to market conditions, alluding to the fact that he needs to shoot 11,000 images per year to maintain his level of profitability in the micro stock market, that's going to be a lot of work. Another consideration is, would clients think when the image libraries they search are reduced imagery that's created with no budget by weekend photographers? Well, it's hard to say what is most important for outdoor and nature photographers, considering micro stock is taking a look at what they shoot and how much it costs them to shoot it. Unless photographers resort to shooting dandy lions in their backyard with little or no cost the photographer and specializing in travel, national parks or the adventure photographer specializing in adventure sports and global expeditions, the Microsoft model might not cover a fraction of the cost. The outdoor in nature photographer with exclusive coverage does not have to compete in those markets. Instead, they need to establish close relationships with clients on a local, national and international basis and work hard to earn repeat business. In the end, you have to go place your work where you think you will do the best. 5. Establishing a Price: So, uh, what do you do when a client calls asking you to quote a price to use one your images? Even if you've been selling the rights to your images for several years, are you confident in your method of pricing? Do you find that you often fly by the seat of your pants? Establishing license fees can be intimidated because we never want to lose a sale. But by following a few steps, you could easily determine a fair and justified fee. The first thing you want to dio is determine the uniqueness of your image. Let's say it's a wildlife image. Is it from the zoo or a game farm? Or was it taken in the wild? If it's a national park image, is it the same location in the same vantage point that everyone else has photographed? Or is it a much lesser known or rarely seen image? These questions are important because the more competition for the same photograph, the harder can be to get a great price. If you are a niche photography specialist than the value of your work within that niche, maybe higher. A wildlife photographer who specializes in rare monkeys can often demand much higher fees than the photographer who shoots the bear monkeys at the zoo. Both photographers may have, for example, a rare crested Capitan monkey, but the more valuable image is the one photographed in the wilds of Brazil enforced it habitat and demonstrating natural behavior. The same monkey photographed at the Los Angeles Zoo will be in a confined environment where it does not have to procure its own food and behavior maybe a little bit different from its wild counterpart. As a result, exploring what's available in your area is also important. Is your subject specially easily found in royalty free or even micro stock libraries? We know by now that a rights managed image can sometimes command higher prices. For example, a typical photograph of Old, Faithful and Yellowstone can easily be found in royalty free. But an image with a rainbow over it and a dark sky in the background is much more rare and subsequently more valuable, So it's likely to be a rights to manage image. You may be able to quote a higher price when you're not competing with other photographers . This happens when a buyer wants your photo for whatever reason, and they just might be willing to pay more to get it. So what you want to do is evaluate your image and compare it with similar work in the market. To give you an idea of just where that image fits, look at your competitions, websites as well as the large stock photo agencies to see what they have. That might be close to your old faithful and rainbow photograph if you find plenty similar to yours that you have lots of competition. But if you find little, if any, than your rare or unique work should bring in more money. So the steps to effectively establish a fair price can be described by who, what, where, when and how, starting with who wants to license it? What do they want to license, as in what type of image, Where do they want to license the image to be used? When do they want to license the image, such as? For how long? How did they want to license the image? It should be noted that in today's market conditions, the buyers have a lot of power. So getting what you hope or what your pricing software suggests, maybe tougher than ever before. But of course, you won't know if you don't go. You may not get what you want, and many of us don't. But as the old saying goes, it never hurts to ask if you have all the information you need to make an informed pricing quote, then you can show the client that you are not pulling prices out of a hat, and this makes you look more like a professional, impressing them with your business savvy. So next we're going to discuss how the image is going to be used. 6. Establishing a Price Pt 2: all usages of photography have value, and the usage fees you receive should reflect the value that the client receives. When calling clients often will ask immediately how much, and you should have your SYRIZA questions ready to go when they do, call and ask you this question, and this helps you establish a fair price. In fact, I have these questions on a form that I congrats on my desk, allowing me to remember to ask each question and take notes as the clients respond to the questions. Those questions again, our house, the image going to be used. Where is it going to be used? What size is it going to be used? What are the print run and or duration of time? The client needs the image for what rights do they want? And then when I'm establishing price, I look at what unique qualities might image has. How the image is going to be used is the first consideration will look at here. Will it be used in an advertisement, an editorial spread, a brochure, a website, a textbook, a billboard or some other type of use? Every client licensing a photo receives value from that photo. A magazine may sell more issues based on the cover photo, while a company advertisement might sell plenty of products or services. Specialty publishers of calendars, posters, cards and similar sell retail items with a set print run for one production cycle. Photo sales to them are usually a one time occurrence and at a set price, with little input or negotiation from you the photographer. An advertisement should bring you a larger fee, while a textbook will bring a smaller fee. An editorial EU springs in less because it's not selling a service or a product, but rather illustrating a story. Website usage is becoming the number one place that many stock photographs are being used. And while these still are selling products or services, it may not be commanding much in the way of large fees, generally because business owners are still trying to figure out how to profit from their websites. How the image is going to be used is an important consideration, since each of the possible uses brings either a greater or lesser value to the client, and whichever way it ISS, you should be compensated for the value they receive. Another consideration is that in today's market conditions, the buyers have a lot of powers of getting what you hope or what your pricing software suggests maybe tougher than ever before. But as the old saying goes, it never hurts to ask if you have all the information you need to make an informed decision and the subsequent quote. So next we're gonna look at where is it going to be used? 7. Where is the Photo Being Used?: The next question to help you to establish the licensing fee is to ask, Where is the image going to be used? In the previous lecture, I discussed how an image was going to be used, such as an advertisement or an editorial insertion or a brochure. But this post is going to discuss where an image will be used. As we know, value has received one way or another. But the higher the visibility or circulation of the usage, the more value the client is receiving. For example, an image to be used in an advertisement in Reader's Digest magazine, with its reported 10 million circulation has a certain value. On the other hand, if the same ad is running in Midwest Living magazine, with its reported circulation of just under a 1,000,000 you can see the differences rather huge. The ad in Reader's Digest will have many more views than the Midwest Living magazine, making Reader's Digest usage much more valuable to the client. Create an ad for that magazine. This means your fee should reflect that value received. Advertising is designed to continuously generate income for a client as long as the advertisement is running. Ads are higher profile and have more views like Web page views. So the more page views were, the greater the circulation, the higher the value of the usage. An identical ad using the same image running in a national magazine has a much higher value than the same ad running in a magazine in your local town. Consider the same image running in numerous and different uses, such as the magazine ad and also a brochure. And even on a website. For example, let's hypothetically call the client Mega Cancer Institute, and they're running your image in Midwest Living magazine, and they are running your photograph in an advertisement in Midwest Living magazine, with its one million circulation. That's really a lot of views, meaning greater value received by the client. Then there are also using the image on a brochure, and that brochure is only available that their clinic. So the volume of views here will be much smaller. Finally, when the same image is used on the home page of their website and they receive 10,000 visitors per day, that large amount of use equals greater value to the client. Clearly where an image is going to be used is crucial in establishing the value the client will receive when licensing your image. All of this information helps you determine that final price. 8. How Big is That Usage?: So, uh, next. Consider what is the size of the usage the client plans, and what is the print run they're requesting? A cover of Roche sure has greater value than a small thumbnail on an inside page. A double page spread in a magazine has more value than 1/4 page usage. Your license, please, should not only reflect how and where the image is being used, but what size and what print run. It will be used if it's going to be in a print publication. The value received, of course, is much higher, with a full page ad and 1/2 a 1,000,000 print run than a thumbnail sized usage and a 5000 print run. And these consideration should be reflected in your fee. For example, a client is placing an advertisement in three regional magazines for three months, with a combined circulation for all three of those magazines at three million, and the first example is a 1/4 page advertisement. The first insertion is one million circulation, and let's assume you established a $600 usage fee per insertion for a total of $1800 for the three magazines. This first usage in each publication is the unique one. Seen for the first time buy the magazine readers the next two months. Insertions are not unique because the same audience has already seen the advertisement and subsequent insertions have less value. A good range is 40 to 60% of the initial fee you charged for each additional insertion. In this example, that would be six more insertions. And if we establish a 50% insertion rate that is $250 per insertion for a total of $1000 now the usage is a full page, so it's worth more. The first insertion is one million circulation, and let's assume you established a $1200 usage fee per insertion for a total of $3600 for the three magazines. This first usage in each publication is again the unique one seen for the first time buy the magazine readers the next two months. Insertions, again like before, are not unique. The same audience has already seen the ad so again, subsequent insertions have less value. So let's say you choose 40% of the first initial fee for each of these two additional insertions in this example that would be six more insertions at a rate of $400 per insertion for a total of $2400. So here again, the size of usage and the amount of visibility that an image use creates is another negotiating point in establishing a fair price. Whatever price you establish should be based on your image qualities, the market for that usage and then input from the client as to what their budget ISS. Hopefully, there's an acceptable range for both you and your client. And again, the numbers I'm using here are just random examples. You may be able to get more than I show here, or you may be getting less, but you won't know if you don't ask. So next we're gonna talk about usage rights. 9. Granting Usage Rights: The next question is, what rights are the client requesting? This, like all the other questions, is just is important to you. Establishing a fair price. Does the client wish to use the image one time and never again and has no preference on who else uses the image, or do they seek a wider use and want to prohibit anyone else from using the same image at the same time? Each scenario and everything in between has varying degrees of value to the client, and you should be paid again accordingly. A single use has a smaller value, while an unlimited use has a much greater value to the client. Most clients are somewhere in between wanting a reasonable usage that covers a few basics and do not care if any other company or client uses the same image. And this allows the photographer the opportunity to continue earning money from the image as the photographer granting a licence. It's important to not only negotiate this with the client, but put it in writing on your invoice tow. Avoid any potential issues down the road that sound like G. I did not know that or similar misunderstanding, a nonexclusive right allows the client to use the image for a negotiated use, and the client has no objection to you. Continuing toe license the image to anyone, anywhere. An exclusive license may be requested by the client to protect them from the image being used by a competitors. This license model prevents you from relicensing the same image, and it's based on whatever terms you happen to negotiate, such as length of time for that usage. A client may also request an industry exclusive, which means that the image will not be relicensed within a specific industry. Total exclusivity prevents the licensing of the image to anybody, any party or any industry for whatever the negotiated timeframe happens to be. If the client requests exclusivity in any form, your price should be higher for the potential loss of income from other sales because it's being removed from some or all of the market. If you think that any exclusive type licensing does not matter in a world of micro stock and royalty free, don't jump to that conclusion. There's obvious problems with both royalty free models and micro stock when it comes to some clients branding several high profile companies have found that their advertising or graphic design firms representing them have both used the same image at the same time. This multi use of the same image by a variety clients, some even being competitors has happened before, and it will certainly happen again. And even add entities have been fired by clients when this has happened. If you'd like to read more about these types of issues, check out fair trade photographer dot blawg spot dot com While some clients may not care about this, you can bet others take major exception when they wish toe have an exclusive look to their advertising and their brand. The mere fact that competing clients have accidentally used the same image is very bad for their image and their business, and many of them will no longer return to the royalty free models. Rights manage is not dead by any means, as some clients will request exclusivity as part of their branding strategy. So the next post we're going to talk about is evaluating the price of your image based on its uniqueness and production costs, 10. How Unique is the Photo?: the best selling stock photos are often unique in some way the usage of a one of a kind images certainly more valuable than the usage of an average image taken on an average day. What makes in a unique image may be in the eye of the beholder, but the photographer with plenty of market experience understands the difference. A beautiful image of a rose flower may be unique to the photographer who created it, but nobody else. Yet the photographer who happens to capture an image of a tornado with a red barn in it flying across Kansas has no doubt created an extremely unique image. Considering image uniqueness and incorporate it into your price can be tricky. And one way to determine the uniqueness of a particular image is to do a search on photography websites looking for similares. If you find plenty of images that are similar to your image, then your price should reflect this image as being an average image. So you don't scare off the client. On the other hand, if your images that red barn in a tornado and you have a client that wants to use it, then your price should reflect that of a once in a lifetime image. Another thing that should be considered into your pricing is what did it cost you to create ? The image is also known as production value. This is often a confusing point when adding that factor to your pricing. When ABC company builds a robotic widget, they evaluate their materials and cost of production before determining the cost of the final product. Few photographers think that way and instead take what they can get. If ABC company work that way, they may eventually go out of business, and that's probably happened to some photographers as well. Throw in supply and demand, and you have another consideration. If all the widget makers air producing the robotic widgets than ABC needs to figure out a way to keep costs down toe have a competitive advantage. Photography is no different. If all the photographers air shooting the same locations than the supply exceeds the demand and prices will be lower, and they may not even cover costs to produce the images. The trick comes in establishing what is the cost of doing business and what is considered production value and that which you can charge for a client most likely will not pay an additional 25% to use an image of Yosemite's half dome just because they're from New York and spend a lot of money to get to Yosemite to photograph, especially if the client confined a comparable image from the many photographers who live right around Yosemite. Unless, of course, the image in question is that unique one of a kind image and had extraordinary production value such as, for example, you arrange for two climbers to model for you as they climbed half dome and you paid them and photograph them from a helicopter for a never before seen angle and approach. In this case, you have added production value to the cost to produce that image, and your license fee can and should reflect this in your quote, along with your ability to justify that to the client 11. Pricing Examples: So let's now apply some of how all of this could be used when you establish a price. So let's first look at some of my nature and adventure photography, and I will give you my opinion on how I would price thes so this first images from California and it's the Ansel Adams Wilderness. This is not a unique location by any means. Many photographers have backpack in here to photograph this and similar compositions, so it's not really that rare. Next, we have bad water. Death Valley, also captured by many, many photographers. This is Mesa Arch in Canyonlands National Park, and it is well has been photographed nine Brazilian times. Although this image here is pretty wide angle, almost with a fish, I look, I don't know that that means that that's rare and thus worth more. And here we have the Grand Canyon on an average day and again captured by many photographers and subsequently not really that unique. Now we have this winter scene from Mount Hood in Oregon, with the illuminated dome tent and Christmas lights, and this image has sold very well. This is rather unique and subsequently worth substantially more. Here's another Christmas scene, and I set this up where I used to live in the mountains of Oregon. I basically put a tree there right before the holidays, lit it and waited for a snow. This has sold been used numerous times, and it's very unique. Here's a nature image from Colorado that is really unique beyond what we see in your average looking into the forest type fall color images so I would price this a little bit higher. Now we have what I call my forest sunset. Everybody thinks it's a forest fire, but it's really not. It was a sunset in which I used a sunset filter to get this bright red, yellow and orange color. Here we have this lightning image again, and it has sold pretty well. There's nobody else in the whole world that has this photograph that makes it unique, and subsequently I would price it a little bit higher. Here's a fall color image from Oregon again. We see a 1,000,000 of these, but nobody has exactly the same image. That makes it a little bit more rare, and I know that I could do well with this image when it comes to pricing because it's already sold numerous times. Here's an image of after the fire in Yellowstone, and we've seen this previously in another lecture again, this would have a higher perceived value simply based on what it is and where it ISS. Same goes for this image from Utah in which this is a perfect layout for a magazine or an ad or something like that. And here again, I've never seen another image like that. Here's a spot in Utah as well in a popular place to photograph, and I've never seen another photographer shoot this, either. And I actually went back one time to try to find the place again and shooted in different conditions. Honestly, I couldn't find it, So that might be why nobody else has photographed it. Here's another image from fall color in Utah that's again unique. I've never seen another photographer with this exact same image. So again, I could try to price this a little bit higher, especially if it really meets a client's needs. And this is the image they have tohave. Here's a barn from the Midwest, and nobody, as far as I know, has ever photographed this either. And When I was taken this picture, the owner of the farm came out and want to know what I was doing. He was a very nice guy, and I told him that I was just a travel photographer photographing and I thought this was a beautiful scene and he turned around and looked at it and thought, Jeez, I've never seen that before So this image has sold very well. Also, I've never seen another photographer created. Now he might have told the photographers in his neighborhood about it, and they've all photographed it. But again, I haven't seen it. Now here's a couple adventure images. This one here is totally set up in staged, and this image has sold extremely well. No other photographer has it, so next time a client calls and wants to license it, I'm going to ask for a higher price based on uniqueness. And here's another camping scene that I just created a couple of years ago. That is pretty much a similar story. Lots of people camp on this beach, but I've never seen anybody create an image like this, and this is in my local home base area. So again, I would ask much more for this, then I would a basic image of that mountain reflecting in the lake. So now let's just take a look at some pricing. As I mentioned in the disclaimer for this pricing schedule, this is a starting guide only, just like determining how valuable a particular photograph. Maybe for a client, you're taking a guess in a lot of ways, but able to hopefully come up with a good value based on what you're learning. So far, I go through the same process every time I'm quoting the usage of an image. How much can I get? And how can I convince the client that it's worth that much? So I'm going to start here by looking at advertising in a regional magazine, a local publication printed here in Oregon with a print run of $100,000 a client wants to use my image in an ad half page size. I'm going to quote $500. If it was a very unique image, meaning, Oh, that camping scene, then I might go up to 700. But if it's an average image on an average day, and I'm lucky that they called me because I know lots of other people have it. I might be down around 3 75 or 400. So it's all about trying to establish that value and then convincing the client of it. Let's take a look at something else here. Let's say they're gonna put it in a brochure and I'm gonna get the cover and the brochures only gonna have a 10,000 print run. I'm gonna come in and start at about 800 I'm going to see what they say. If they gasp, I might say, Well, what's your budget and find myself down at 500 or $600? If it's a really unique image, and Aiken successfully convince them it's unique, I might be able to suggest 900 or 9 25 to start. It's all about negotiations, so that's basically how this pricing guide works. You want to go through here and find which situation applies to the current usage that you're negotiating, then go through, figure out the print run or the length of time, that type of thing and find a matching price. And use that as your starting point. Okay, we have more of this subject coming up 12. How to Negotiate the Sale: Okay, so now you've gone through. Everything could come up with to determine a fair usage fee for the particular usage that your client told you they want to use your photograph for. This is the best part about the business of selling images and also the worst part, since it is, without a doubt the most difficult part of every photographer's job. The best part is that someone wants to use an image, and the worst part is we have to convince them it's worth what we're asking. We all wish our photography commanded premium prices because we want and need to make a much money as possible. Getting top dollar allows us to stay in business, and that means negotiating is one of the most critical skills to master. If you do not like this part of the business, you can or should get out of it and place this task in the hands of someone qualified to do it for you or set up that website that has automatic sales on it. This would be like joining a stock photo agency and letting them do all the work for you. We've already discussed that you can set up an e commerce site and set prices you feel are fair. And hopefully all the clients will just come pay and download. But many clients reviewing the set prices on websites often still want to negotiate a price based on their budget, and so they'll probably contact you. There are probably as many strategies for negotiating sales, and it is a skill most photographers do not possess. You must find a solution that works for you, and so I'm going to cover a fuel of the general ideas here. When a client describes their desired usage of one or more your images, you need to determine a price based on that usage, and you will consider all the factors we just covered. To establish that price, you cannot just pick a number out of the air without some ability to back it up. Clients are not stupid, and they consents. When you do that, if you happen to be a good negotiator, then you will be very successful of getting fair and reasonable licensing fees. But if you're a poor negotiator and really despise this aspect, more than likely you will fail it. Getting the price required to sustain your business. The biggest problem is fear and the fear of failure. That fear is, if you don't give the client what they want, you will never hear from them again. It's a fear that if you don't make the sales, your business will go under. It's the fear that word will spread, that you do not understand the business your prices high or are baseless. This fear must be overcome because the result will be far worse if you agree to any and all pricing that clients present you with. Instead, educate yourself on the value received by the client for their intended usage is and learn to justify your price quotes. You know that an advertisement running in a national magazine has greater value received by the client than the same image being used in a local magazine. So learned to emphasize that in a positive way, become a good negotiator and believe in your abilities, and you must fully understand the market that you are competing in and what it can bear. This faras pricing develop an understanding of the standard pricing within the industry, allowing you to base your rates to start with your goal should be to get the best price you can and have a client who were returned to you with their future needs, you can again establish the prices using the guy I've included. Or you can go to some of the websites and see what they might charge for the same usage your clients asking about. In today's business environment. Communication between client and vendor has, for the most part, departed from the casual phone conversation to being an impersonal email. This is a godsend for the photographer, uncomfortable with these conversations and a problem for the photographer who considers themselves a master negotiator. The advantage of the telephone negotiations is the opportunity for a warm and casual conversation. So much is conveyed with the tone of voice as to the speaker's attitude and position. Simply put, you can tell if your client is having a good day and open to your position on pricing. The client can also tell whether or not you are an experienced negotiator and skilled at justifying your price. A phone conversation can be a simpler way to quickly negotiate a sale for the photographer , preferring the email approach. They are removed from this uncomfortable position of simply talking about pricing. Instead, they respond to the client with a short email. What many do not understand is that the email negotiating process is just a Zim porton as the telephone conversation, and it can be considered more difficult because you do not get a read, so to speak on your client like you do when you hear their words and tone of voice during a phone conversation. So again, you must develop the skills to type on effective negotiating position, serving the same purpose and justifying your price When you reply in an email to start, establish a friendly conversation at the beginning of the negotiations. As I mentioned previously, you want to gather as much information about usage is possible and then quote your price. The last step, of course, is making the sale in good faith and helping your client by your photo be prepared for all kinds of requests from clients, and especially if they're calling lots of different photographers. A couple strategies that you might find useful are to, of course, be very friendly and indicate to the client that you're very interested in helping them be sympathetic to the issues they raise, while also asking them to be sympathetic tears in a manner such as, I hope you understand, or I want to work this out with you. So let's see what we can do. Consider also, if the client plans to use more than just your images, the project might require a wide variety of subjects and may may use someone else's photographs. In this case, you might tell the client that if any of your other images air close enough to what they want, then offer them a multi image discount in attempt to sell them or images do expect them to really squeeze you on price. It's very common for a client to call and say that they just talked to another photographer who said they could use their photograph for 100 bucks. If you happen to want $300 they could very likely put the squeeze on you to meet or beat the other photographers price. I rarely, if ever, given to this, because it's a tactic used by many clients who often will not provide any evidence on pricing that they received elsewhere. In fact, if I don't like how the negotiations are going with the client and I don't care for their attitude. And I also don't care if I lose the $100 they're offering. I will ask who the other photographer is. They probably won't tell me, but if they do and I happen to know the photographer, I say as much and suggest that I will give them a call and ask the other photographer to confirm their quote and then offer to match their price. I continued by stating that this is good for them, the client, because in the end, the best image makes the sale and the client winds funny, as nobody has ever offered to take me up on my suggestion. Instead, they say they will call me back, and if they do, it's usually because they were able to find a way to increase their budget or meet my price . I have a policy that I will always try toe work when talking with a client, but only within reason. If a client proposes a license fee that I feel is absolutely unacceptable than I have every right to say no. But it is important to understand that you do not have to bow to the pressure or accept their price. You do not want to be too demanding, either. Rather, a cordial negotiator who shows a concern for their clients position but has the skillet stating their own. The idea is to come to a mutual agreement by negotiating in a professional manner. On the other hand, do not go on with sob stories related to the increasing cost of doing business or your son's college tuition is killing you because, quite frankly, they don't care about the costs, and this casts a negative tone over the conversation. Instead, you want to relay the value they will receive from your image in their current project. Successful negotiation starts with you believing in what you're asking for. Understanding your needs makes your negotiating position stronger and the process will go smoother. Start with a price range that you feel is fair and back that up with why you feel it's fair . Listen to the clients offer with understanding, but also understand the client is providing you the bottom of his or her price range. When a client says we only have a budget of X amount, understand that this is the bottom of what the client is willing to pay, meaning it will pay no less and hopes you will agree to it counter, of course, with some flexibility. But don't agree to the low end price unless you absolutely feel it's fair when you counter back. You should set the top year range reasonably higher than the clients initial price and explain why you did that in a convincing manner. Your price should leave plenty of room for negotiation. The client started by setting its top price, and now that you set yours, the client price becomes the bottom price range. In the negotiations, you might not get your price. But presenting what you need in a convincing manner, such as how rare the images on Lee increases the likelihood that the agreed price will be closer to your price during this process. Don't forget toe. Listen to your client. Often time clients are less concerned about the total price than they are about paying too much. This proves why it's important for you to be ready to justify your price and why, in the end, successful negotiation may not be about getting what you want for either side, but finding common ground 13. How to Negotiate the Sale #2: Sometimes you're going to be negotiating a sale, and it's gonna get really tough. So prepare yourself to simply walk away. Several years ago, I was hired by an advertising agency to shoot the CamelBak catalogs. As I always do, I negotiated a usage fee based on a two year usage by the client. And then after that, the images became available for me to use as stock photos. Then, at 1.1 of our models from that photo shoot, a professional mountain biker, referred me to a bike manufacturer who sponsored him. Since the model happen to be riding the company's bike during the CamelBak photo shoot, they were looking for an image they could use in an ad. When they got in touch, I gladly went through all the images from the shoot and selected several that matched the clients criteria, then prepared a PdF presentation and emailed that to the client. A week later, I got an email from the client saying they wanted to use one image, and I got the usual How much question Since I based my prices on usage, I replied enquiring. Where would it run? How long, How big and so on, I was told the image would be used in to mountain bike magazines, half page and two times in each magazine. I looked up the price in my pricing schedule and based on the magazine's circulation size, a usage and so on. The usage fee was suggested to be around $2500. I sent the client and email and stated that price and how I derived it. I got a reply. And in a nutshell, the client actually said, and I quote, Clearly, whoever publishes your pricing guide does not understand the bike industry. End quote, and he continued by offering. And I quote, I will give you $700 for unlimited usage. End quote. My reply was, and I quote last unlimited usage I licensed was $12,000. And this pricing guide I use represents what photographers in the business charge or considered to be fair pricing based on the usage end quote. His reply was okay, forget the unlimited usage. How much for these two uses? My reply was, I would love to work with you, and I'm willing to drop the license feed a $2000 if you'll include a photo credit. I personally don't view photo credits as having any value. The phone does not ring off the hook. When you get a photo credit in a magazine, it's simply a negotiating point. And successful negotiating is the key to making sales. I will lower the price in exchange for a photo credit, but what's important is that you don't give anything away without asking for something back , even if it's a worthless photo credit. So his reply was, That is too much. And I don't understand how you can say that it's fair or reasonable price. It's not worth it. And I don't know why people pay that for a photograph. So at this point, I'm beginning to figure there's not gonna be a sale since I'm not going to give away the photograph. My next reply was, This is how I feed my family and I plan to put my kid through college. If the price is out of your budget, I understand. But speaking of value, why would anyone pay you $4500 for a bicycle? By the way, I had gone and looked at his website, and that was the average price for his bicycles. In the end, I had to walk away. Another common tactic of clients is to suggest that they could get the same image that you have on the Internet for pennies compared to what you are requesting. This is actually a false statement, because if they could, they would if they can get the same photograph you have for a dollar than why would they even waste their time contacting you to negotiate a price for using your image? When clients say that, I respond in several ways, the first being if you can get it for that price, then by all means I encourage you to do that because that's a much better deal for you. If the negotiations have become sarcastic on the client's part, which I should mention, I try to never allow myself to fall into that trap. Then I might respond more like if you can get the image you want for that price, then why continue wasting each other's time? I appreciate you contacting me, and I wish you the best. In the end, you cannot fear walking away from a negotiation. Occasionally you will have a client that states a price that pleasantly surprises you, but it was higher than what you were going to quote. In these cases, I usually just say, I think I can work with that Once negotiations air done, we discuss verbally the terms of the agreement as we just agreed to. And then I send them an email confirming that before creating an invoice, inquire whether you will be given a written purchase order or if they wish to make a payment directly to you online using, say PayPal. If you will be FTP ing a high resolution image or using a dropbox and you have not received payment or a purchase order, then you must make it clear right up front that the image will not be sent until payment is made. I also want to go back and address the issue regarding the value of a photo credit. Let's say a client just bulk that your price, and so you reduce your fee a fair amount and now need to ask for something in return to justify that price drop. The photo credit is one option, but these again, as I previously stated, are overrated and generally have little value to the photographer they rarely translate into more sales or more photo requests, but they make a good way for you to lower your price while saving face. You want to make a sale and you're willing to go down on your price some. And requesting a photo credit is a way of giving a little by getting something back. The problem is, a credit line does not fill your gas tank nor allow you to send some cash to your college bound kids. Other ways to get something for lowering your price is to ask for copies of the book. If the photograph their purchasing for you happens to be going into the book and then you can use these as promotional pieces or given free to clients or something like that, depending on the project, they may just agree to give you more money, since that may be cheaper than books. Occasionally there's a publisher out there interested in obtaining lots of photography and paying on a royalty basis. I have accepted these terms of payments from some established publishing companies like note card publishers, and it's worked out just fine. But you really have to be careful here. You may also be invited to participate in a royalty program from a new or startup company who does not have the resource is to pay up front for licensing photography. These air much more risky because there's no guarantee the company will survive, nor that you will ever get paid, look very carefully at these potential projects and do your best to evaluate all aspects of the license agreement that they'll present to you. So in the end, the whole goal here is to get fair and reasonable compensation for your photography without looking weak and without being overconfident. And it's all about finding common ground. I have found great success when I show my clients that I'm very willing toe work with them and help them use my photography. 14. Stock Photo Agencies: in today's markets for outdoor photography. Outdoor photographer's should explore all options for selling their photography Besides promoting your own images, should you consider a stock photo agency? The answer, of course, depends on each photographers subject speciality, the volume of images they have and how the photographer wishes to run his or her business. A stock agency houses, images, markets and distributes them and pays royalties to the photographer. Stock photo agencies are always on the lookout for talented photographers who consistently produced unique images and lots of them today agencies air wary of photographers who shoot the usual subjects. They have plenty of flowers and all the standard viewpoints of the national parks, but they still welcome outdoor photography that illustrates today's outdoor and environmental issues and themes. So how do you envision your business running? Is 75% of your time spent in the field and 25% in the office, or is it really the opposite? Either way, a stock photo agent can be a valuable partner. Their websites are open 24 7 and the photographer's work could be licensed at any time. Some agencies have researchers who monitor the industries in areas such as trends, styles, what's selling and what's not. And they share that information with their photographers. So what a stock agent be good for you? Most outdoor photographers do not have. The resource is to compete with these mega agents, effectively or expeditiously. We all know that the demands of today's business is for instant fulfillment. So how many sales might you be losing during this next two weeks shooting trip you're taking because you won't be in the office filling photo requests? One solution that we've already covered. This setting up your own e commerce website. That website could prove lucrative. But before making the investment, consider the administration and marketing you would need to put into it in order to compete . Whether joining an agency will be good for your business or not. Depends on your specialty. Notice that I continue to talk about specialty. An example. If you concentrate on your local community, like the parks, the town, the sea nix, the flora and fauna and even community events, will the world be interested in your photographs? Are these images suitable for national and international markets? If you shoot the Fourth of July parade in your town, which has a population of 3600. Who outside the local area would be interested in those images if there is little international interest than a stock photo agency may not want that type of work. However, if your photographic specialty includes national parks, major city skylines, current environmental subjects, the potential markets broaden and broaden greatly. US. National parks and cities are major tourist destinations for visitors across the country and around the world. And that makes thes images more appealing to a stock photo agent, especially if your coverage can compete with the best that's already available. If your area of specialty is unusual, such as rare and endangered tropical flowers, how do the buyers of these subjects find you? This is such a niche specialty that a General Stock Photo agency may not provide much help . Instead, a boutique agency or your own self marketing. Maybe better options. Looking at buyers and wondering, Does a calendar publisher search for images differently than an ad agency? Sometimes there might be a difference, and usually there is. Generally a calendar publisher is looking for beautiful images within a specific subject area. These images may be found searching a picture agency site. But the buyers may find it more efficient toe work directly with the photographers that they've established relationships with. They create a want list of their needs and email it to the photographers and the photographers, then do all the research to find the images that the calendar company might use. The advertising agency, on the other hand, may find a search of a General Stock photo agency to be more productive for their specific need because it's often looking to fill a conceptual concept. For example, an advertising agency looking for a photo to illustrate the concept of family bonds might not even consider using an image of a family of cheetahs on lookout on top of a termite mound as an example until it comes up in a search for family. An ad agency cannot use your work unless they know you have it. The best way to get your work in front of them, particularly if you have a lot of concept photography is toe. Have your images on a picture agency website and make sure the concepts are keyword it accurately on your images. So if you decided you want to work with an agency. You need to find one that fits your needs, and I recommend you take a look at the Picture Agency Council of America website. This lists agencies and their particular website addresses. You can select an agency that's a close match to your specialty, and there are major agencies like Getty and Corbis that carry pretty much all subjects. There are also regionally specific general interest agencies across the country and in many states, and these generally cover the region closer to their home base. There's also specialty agencies like animals, animals and Grant Heilmann and even Lonely planet images. And these all cover niches tow hook up with an agency. You next determined the licensing structure you are most comfortable with, and we just talked about all of this. Rights. Managed or royalty free or micro stock are the generally those license models. You can visit a website called Picture Licensing Universal System and get MAWR information on those various licensing models. It should be noted, and I've mentioned this already that micro stock and subscription stock, which are both royalty free models, are the fastest growing sector but are at the low end of usage fees. You could have a large volume of sales when you use a royalty free model, but your commissions on each image will be minimal. Agents also require a contract, and you should expect one that require some exclusivity on your images. And what this means is any images they choose by that agent may not be marketed through other agencies and might not even be able to be marketed by yourself. With the advent of the Web, agencies have global reach, and the competition has forced them to demand image exclusivity. So you really want to investigate that even Mawr and thoroughly read the contracts. Selling nature photography to produce a reliable income is challenging, but pardoning with a photo agency is one more opportunity to increase your income. Be sure and do your research to ensure a good fit with an agent who needs your work, then dig in for the long haul. Work closely with that agent, and in time you should realize additional income for your efforts