Product Management: a Complete, Practical Course by a Microsoft Senior Product Manager | Dr Bart Jaworski | Skillshare

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Product Management: a Complete, Practical Course by a Microsoft Senior Product Manager

teacher avatar Dr Bart Jaworski, Senior Product Manager Microsoft

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

84 Lessons (6h 17m)
    • 1. About the course

    • 2. Module 1, Class 1: Who is a Product Manager?

    • 3. Module 1, Class 2: Why choose a Product Manager's career?

    • 4. Module 1, Class 3: Project vs product

    • 5. Module 1, Class 4: Project Manager vs Product Manager

    • 6. Module 1, Class 5: Product Manager's skills

    • 7. Module 1, Class 6: IT vs real products

    • 8. Module 2: Designing a great Product Manager

    • 9. Module 2, Class 1: Being data oriented

    • 10. Module 2, Class 2: Humbleness

    • 11. Module 2, Class 3: Challenging yourself

    • 12. Module 2, Class 4: Empathy and respect

    • 13. Module 2, Class 5: Integrity

    • 14. Module 2, Class 6: Diplomacy

    • 15. Module 2, Class 7: Transparency

    • 16. Module 2, Class 8: Being ahead of the game

    • 17. Module 3: Product’s big bang – chaos is born

    • 18. Module 3, Class 1: Vision

    • 19. Module 3, Class 2: Strategy

    • 20. Module 3, Class 3: Values

    • 21. Module 3, Class 4: Product Goals

    • 22. Module 3, Class 5: SWOT

    • 23. Module 3, Class 6: User Personas

    • 24. Module 4: Organizing the work

    • 25. Module 4, Class 1: Kanban

    • 26. Module 4, Class 2: Agile scrum

    • 27. Module 4, Class 3: Product Owner in agile scrum

    • 28. Module 4, Class 4: Waterfall

    • 29. Module 4, Class 5: How to organize your work

    • 30. Module 4, Class 6: Day of a Product Manager

    • 31. Module 4, Class 7: Delegating

    • 32. Module 5: Communication – sharing the order with others

    • 33. Module 5, class 1: Stakeholders

    • 34. Module 5, class 2: Managing expectations

    • 35. Module 5, class 3: Emails

    • 36. Module 5, class 4: Communicators

    • 37. Module 5, class 5: Meetings

    • 38. Module 5, class 6: Presentations

    • 39. Module 5, class 7: Motivating the team

    • 40. Module 5, class 8: Resolving conflicts

    • 41. Module 5, class 9: Escalations

    • 42. Module 6: Before the Product development – turning order into work

    • 43. Module 6, class 1: Ideas

    • 44. Module 6, class 2: Market analysis

    • 45. Module 6, class 3: Client interviews

    • 46. Module 6, class 4: Strategic thinking

    • 47. Module 6, class 5: Roadmap

    • 48. Module 6, class 6: Value and prioritisation

    • 49. Module 6, class 7: POC - Proof of concept

    • 50. Module 6, class 7: MVP - Minimum Viable Product

    • 51. Module 6, class 8: MVP Types

    • 52. Module 7: Product development - turning work into product

    • 53. Module 7, class 1: Backlog

    • 54. Module 7, class 2: Task document/PRD

    • 55. Module 7, class 3: Managing bugs

    • 56. Module 7, class 4: Technical debt

    • 57. Module 7, class 5: Design

    • 58. Module 7, class 6: QA and testing

    • 59. Module 7, class 7: Data analysis

    • 60. Module 7, class 8: Improving development speed

    • 61. Module 7, class 9: Return on investment

    • 62. Module 7, class 10: Product lifecycle

    • 63. Module 8: Live product - finally getting the users to use it!

    • 64. Module 8, class 1: Increment

    • 65. Module 8, class 2: Comments and product rating

    • 66. Module 8, class 3: Docs

    • 67. Module 9: Data – Understanding the impact on the Product change

    • 68. Module 9, class 1: Data

    • 69. Module 9, class 2: Metrics

    • 70. Module 9, class 3: Hot to get the right data

    • 71. Module 9, class 4: User segmentation and cohorts

    • 72. Module 9, class 5: Presenting the data

    • 73. Module 9, class 6: Data vs feeling

    • 74. Module 9, class 7: A/B testing

    • 75. Module 9, class 8: Understanding users

    • 76. Module 10: Your own product

    • 77. Module 10, class 1: Your own Product

    • 78. Module 10, class 2: Choose your Product

    • 79. Module 10, class 3: Work Scope

    • 80. Module 10, class 4: Goals

    • 81. Module 10, class 5: Vision and strategy

    • 82. Module 10, class 6: Plan your work

    • 83. Module 10, class 7: Launch and running the product

    • 84. More learning materials and final words

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About This Class

Save time with this practical Product Management course! With this program, you will land your dream job/promotion way quicker!

Hi! I am Dr. Bart Jaworski, Senior Product Manager at Microsoft. For many years, I have been dreaming – just like you – of becoming a highly successful product manager. Now that I have reached this dream, I want to share with you how I managed to do that. The road had been full of unexpected challenges, and I have been forced many times to search for additional resources to help me deal with them. Sadly, there had been some aspects of the position that no course or book could have prepared me for, and this is exactly where this course comes in.

Don't get me wrong. My efforts have resulted in gaining great theoretical and basic knowledge. However, no one has ever told me how to deal with an ineffective team, how to find the right data to perform analyses, or even the basics – what character features actually make a great product manager.

Thus, I have created this course. In the 6 hours of core material, I will teach you about the position itself but also, I will provide you with practical solutions on how to deal with different setbacks that I had to find out the hard way.

After completing this course, you will be well prepared to:

  • manage any IT product,

  • choose the best improvements for it, and make them a reality with your team,

  • envision the product's growth for many years to come,

  • build a great product road map,

  • change your stale development team into a well-oiled, highly effective machine,

  • find great ideas for your product and support them with the right data,

  • excel in planning an A/B test for any product change and be able to understand its effects,

  • become a great spokesman,

  • conduct engaging meetings and make them highly effective,

  • complete any product management certification. This course provides a certificate as well upon completion!

  • and many more!

I have almost ten years of background in working on various IT tools designed for recruiters. Apart from that, I have transitioned from a rookie, self-taught product manager in a small start-up to a senior product manager in, arguably, one of the greatest software companies of our times.

You are ambitious, full of energy and dreams, but also in need of guidance, right? I have been there, too. This course is built in a way that will make your journey easier than mine was. By making use of my knowledge and best practices, I hope you will develop your career quicker than I, and who knows, maybe one day we will meet in the halls of Microsoft's office and shake hands.

I am fondly looking forward to that!

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Dr Bart Jaworski

Senior Product Manager Microsoft


I'm a passionate Product Manager eager to teach younger Product Managers how to best perform this role. I have vast experience with recruitment related IT products. I'm currently employed as a Senior product manager at Microsoft, working in the Skype team. My previous roles include Product experience in OLX (European classified ads leader) and Stepstone (Top European job board) as well as prior 9 years experience in multiple, including product, roles. I'm also a specialist (PhD) in evolutionary algorithms - My thesis research the possibility of using said algorithms in a problem of path planning in high traffic maritime areas. I am an author or co-author of over 10 scientific papers dealing with related matters.

See full profile

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1. About the course: Hi, and that the BOD and I'd like to be a product management teacher. Welcome to my very special Skillshare course where I teach you every skill, every technique, everything I know that led me to become a Senior Product Manager at Microsoft, working for Skype. In the course. I start by telling you everything there is to know about the position. I tell you about the traits of the great product manager. And then we set on a journey from the products inception and conceptual tools to putting your ideas together and verifying them and working with the team to create the product. And later on, use the data to estimate whether you're successful or not. Because the best product managers in the world are data-driven and are also great communicators that's covered in this course as well. In the last chapter, there'll be a project that will show you how to create your very own product that will help your career, your CV, and to put all the skills you've learned into context. So let's get on the fast class. 2. Module 1, Class 1: Who is a Product Manager? : Welcome to the course. Let's start with who is a product niche? Product manager leads a product that solves a problem using a team of talented individuals and technology in order to deliver value. This is what you should use on your job interviews and picture yourself as product. It has all you need to know. It has the fact that he merely the product he specifies that you are an IT Product Manager and other logistics manager and other fashion brand manager. None of this, none of those same positions that share the name of product manager position. It also stresses that you're not doing this alone, that you have a team that helps you out. And most importantly, you are solving a specific problem. You are not there for creating product. For product sake, you always need to focus on fixing particular issue. This is the most important. And delivering value to solve that issue can mean a lot of different things. And it's not always creating a new piece of code. Sometimes it will be helping the marketing department or I think specific document that will help your team to progress hits really fun. However, picture yourself as a ship's captain with a team of volunteers. On the one hand, you are, the captain is a site where the ship goes, how it should behave was quests, will you embark on? But at the same time you are now that the owner, the real boss of your crew, they are volunteers. You need to treat them well. You need to make sure that their morale are up and you always need to justify your decisions well, so they would follow you and still keep the thrust. And that's all for the class 1. Let's move on. 3. Module 1, Class 2: Why choose a Product Manager's career? : So before we proceed, let's figure out why it's a good idea that become a problem. There are several reasons. For one thing. It's just a very creative, very varied job that can surprise you and can push you to learn new skills day-by-day. You are as a product manager. The rock star of IT does a lot of things that the band on you, you call the shots. You need to get people to work together and be comfortable and support you, which is really awesome and it works out. It's really fulfilling. And well-paid. Product managers can really, and with money that keeps them security. It has good work-life balance. And it's very unique position that protects you from professional burnout. Because while it can happen that you are sick and tired of your position, you can always switch to a different company in different industry. And despite using absolutely the same principles, you will have minor details that will really refresh things up and let you reinvigorate your enthusiasm and the passion for work. This is something that is quite unique. And last but not least, for some of you, it could be a natural career progression. For others, it will be an alternative one. For example, as a Cloud developer, you may progress to, well, head of development or development manager, engineering manager. But that's still something similar to what you did. And Rodin manager on the other hand, gives you exposure to many different in there, the blend then to create product manager and force you to do something different to stay away a bit from the keyboard and coding and all that technical details. And be closer to people and do something different. Some of you may want it, some of you may want to keep the keyboard. And I was obviously called developers, just an example, of course, there are many different positions you can be promoted to mentor and it's all up to you. Let's move with that our next class. 4. Module 1, Class 3: Project vs product: Before we move on, has built our vocabulary. What's the product? Anything can be a product and book a website piece of software. Let's focus on the IT product, which can actually be a website or a piece of software or a full software. This is our product. Those products can be collected into brands like Google. Google is an advertising company that we can arguably say has search product. Hello, YouTube has Gmail, has an office, sued lots of things, but they are just part of the breadth of an advertising company. Now, lower than product, we have features that are part of products, but those features can also be products. The search engine that runs the main website is also shared with Gmail, youtube, and other parts of Google. All of them are powered by a single search engine that presumably has its own product manager. And all he or she does is to make sure that the PSR transfer those SAP products is cut. It's ridiculous to call Gmail or YouTube sub-product, but that's what it is really. Now, let's make this a little bit more complicated and fro and a project, the next. What's a project? Project is a collection of all the actions needed to create your product. So that would be writing the documentation right in the code. Having this on time, this kind of stuff. Imagine product manager being an architect that dreams about his dream house, has great neighborhood, two-story building, parking lot. Burns, no fossil fuels. It's great. But at the same time, this product manager won't be worrying about plumbing, about the type of cement use. This like nitty gritty details that will have to be thought about someone when the house will be built. But it's on the B, the product manager, those will be contractors and project managers. And who are those? Let's talk about that in the next class. Sierra. 5. Module 1, Class 4: Project Manager vs Product Manager: How do project and product manager that? It's pretty easy. Program manager makes the product decisions. Project managers makes sure that those happen. Supplies developers with the right technology, makes sure they hit their deadlines and ever fingers small. Let's, There's the core difference. Let's go back to that ship and Captain example. Captain makes the decisions about the ship, where it should go, What missions should they take? And the project manager is the Excel, the executive officer who makes sure that the ships FLO, that there's enough water, that there's enough food that the full complement of the crew is on the ship and they are ready to execute any decision made by the captain and anytime. Basically, both positions are hot to two and they are very, very different. The main thing here is to remember not to be hired as a project manager either the title of product better because companies get that confused there all the time. Believe me, you don't want to be Miss hired on a different position to something completely different and waste your time. That being said, of course, project manager can be promoted to product merge. Very good path for this person. He or she has all it takes to be a great product manager and it's a good career path before because this module, let's have just one more lesson. See you there. 6. Module 1, Class 5: Product Manager's skills: Let's talk about product manager's skills. This class, as you can probably tell by my hair or isn't part of the initial recording session and made it to the curriculum very light. Not because the information I'm going to give you a Smith. But in fact, when we looked at it, we deemed that we are missing some of the contexts earlier without further ado. Here are the six skills each great product manager needs to have. First and foremost, the business acumen. This means you understand your market, you understand your position there, and how your company is shaping in the wider landscape of products of your nature. You know, what works, what doesn't work, what used to work, and how users use your product. You are able to identify the threats and opportunities, as well as being able to tell anything that's solid trend that changes your market from momentary fashion, like we've seen with the stories functionality that is now being removed from LinkedIn and used to be in Skype as well. And another, a great example here is clubhouse, which in 2020 used to be a big thing and slowly passing away before many of the products managed to introduce club house like functionality, skill and mu2 data analysis. Here it's all about asking the right questions and getting the answer. Is knowing where to find the data you require. And when you have enough data to make any product cost. And also the communication to be able to tell your results to the, to the world. And this actually has a whole chapter dedicated to it. So I'll tell you everything you need to know. I did mentioned communication and that is another kill you need to have. I will repeat it often, saying that the great product manager is the one that communicates well. And if you have all the skills right, and your poor communication, you will never be great. So what does it mean to be a great communicator? That means that you know, when to say, what to say and how to say in terms of what channel do you. That means that you are communicating often enough in know how to use the words to create a sustainable boss about your product and you build trust and friendship. You use Enter. You are able to defuse potential difficult situation and also grow your position without playing politics. Of course, this skill has a whole chapter dedicated to it, since it's a very complex aspect of you. Next skill is leadership. You will often lead without direct influence. You might not be the direct manager of your engineers, of your team. And still you will have to lead them. You will be able to create trust, open place of work. You will able to inspire, he will able to prevent conflicts. You will be able to have heightened junior product managers inside you think because you'll team will want to see the prologue gray. They will give your opinions. They will do things on their own about improving small things that you didn't think of. And together, you will make about the product. That is, if you can maintain high moral motivation and thrust into products future, there will be many pieces of advice also in the next chapter on how to achieve that. Now, obviously, since you are an IV bolus, you will have to have some technical skills, not technical background by any chance you don't need to be an engineer developer. What you need is to understand the tech you're working with, understand your product, understand the technical process behind creating any increment. You might consider learning skills like SQL, database, like code version control tool. I also recommend you learn about APIs. Cloud computing. Finally, it's about knowing what automated are and how to set them up so they actually help and are not maintenance nightmare. And you should also learn your companies. And now, it's often hard to learn them beforehand. Since without the access to data to analyze and often very experienced software, It's hard to get those skills. But if you already have access, make sure to organize in-company training for yourself so you are able to peek at the time. Finally, understanding, this is like sort of the land of skills of the business acumen and communication. But it's also unique because it's like saying that no plan survives the actual battle of the enemy. And of course your users are not the end and in fact they are, are your closest allies. But very demanding. So you need to be able to build communication channels with you use, get a stream of feedback. You need to know your users by decomposing them into groups or so called persona's that I will also teach you about in this course, you will be conducting polls and directly observe on how the users use the product, talk to them directly in interviews, sessions. But it's also about having the user first approach and making sure that you create stuff that uses actually need and not the ones that you think or believe in. That border here is very thin. And you can see that with the Apple products that are being praised for their simplicity, just because they make something that looks beautiful and has only the options that users need, or Apple believe they need. So if they are successful in determining the set of limitations that make it easier for your users to use their products. And they have Humboldt. On the other hand, if you are like me and you like to customize and be open to modify your software. He will absolutely hate the Mac products, especially if you are forced to use them from time to time. Those were the six skills that you need to have as a great product manager. Don't worry, rest of the calls with elaborate on them and make sure that you have all the practical information to grow them and practice them. But for now, let's move to the next class. Thank you. 7. Module 1, Class 6: IT vs real products: So before we close this module, let me just stress IT. Product Managers have it easy. It's not like you are producing graphic cards or chairs that if something goes wrong and it gets delivered to the client, you lose money twice because not only do the EU loss a lot of cash when you created the faulty product. He also will lose a lot of that cash. Again, when you will be replacing it with working counterpart. We, the product managers, can easily pan back bad choices and there's other people who can point out the bad choices for us. So this also opens those to being more of a gambler, to have that habit in the back of your head that you can risk a lot. And as long as it's not an application that is a bag or something, really vital. And you see an opportunity that comes with some risk, you may decide to take it. Because even if it goes wrong, you can easily turn it back. You can test it on a small amount of clients. Thus, lots of possibilities that can have really done with non-IT products. And remember that during your career that will really help you to make good calls when the situation calls for that because it's very difficult to make the right decision. That's all for this module. Let's move to module two. 8. Module 2: Designing a great Product Manager: Welcome to Module 2, this chapter where I present all the different aspects that you need to develop, become a great product manager, not just a product. This chapter was written for all levels of product managers. So without further ado, let's begin. 9. Module 2, Class 1: Being data oriented: The first and foremost, the most important feature of a product manager is being data-driven. This means that you operate basically like a scientist. Data drives your decisions. And you need to be sure that you produce data at the end of the product development process to prove that you've achieved the success that you embarked on. And this, this success starts with, well, like any scientific discovery with a hypothesis of a product hypothesis. With this update, I will be able to increase the user base by 15 percent. Why she's been presenting my ask, well, this will come from your research from similar functionality, similar projects, or just duplicating what your competitors that, that will have different sources. But it's very specific and will not dwell here. Why they need to be data-driven product manager. Other than that, well, for one thing, you will be very professional. And thanks to that, you will be able to easily show your decision making process to other people. So they either support you or help you find issues in your thinking or plain mistakes. So we can avoid them and correct them early on in development process. Which is great. This is wonderful. This is, this is why you have a team to support you anyway. For now, that's it. We'll have a whole chapter dedicated data. So wait for that. But for now, let's move to the next class. 10. Module 2, Class 2: Humbleness: Product manager needs to be humble. Surprised if other program manager is more of a salesperson that has two Russell dazzle, his three colors. No. Remember, you are data-driven. There's no ego involved. There is just pure data that drives your decisions. And that helps to fuel your humbleness. And if you are humble, that also prevents you from cherry-picking the data you need, the UTS you think you might be wrong. So you tried to have the broadest possible perspective when looking at any source. Whenever you present the results of your work, let the data speak for itself. Don't use bloated words or overhyped. The situation. Just show the numbers. Say that something is successful or not. Or a Pizzo. And always leave a small Dao that there might be a mistake summer, and you might find it later. Humbleness has also another aspect to it, because you need to remember, you won't create any product at all. Though B, bunch of people around, designers, developers, business analysts, and QA's who will support you, who drive your decision to reality. And you can't forget that without those people, your product, your change wouldn't have gone live. So if you acknowledge those people as often as you can, when there is the we narration during the big presentation, then everyone will feel included and the morale will be higher. So be sure to be humble and not pay the glory for yourself. You are in a glorious position to begin with. You don't need to go overboard with that. You don't need like a slide with people involved. As long as you make sure that it was a team effort and you just speak on behalf of the team. As I said, that builds morale and it also builds trust that offer this class. Let's carry on. 11. Module 2, Class 3: Challenging yourself: A great product manager, always challenges. And it's not about setting too ambitious goals. In fact, it's very similar to being humble, while we naturally strive for perfection and best results, it's very important to always realize you can be wrong. You could have made a mistake. You could have wrongly interpret the data. There are also many other aspects of that. But why do it in the first? Because as set during the humbleness class, you will avoid making mistakes by aggressively looking for them. It's not about self-doubt or bring yourself down. It's about asking just one more time. Am I correct? Is this the right way to go? Did I make the right call? Give yourself another chance to find a mistake? 99% of chances, you will just go through your previous decision. In one single percent. You might find the mistake that was their hidden. Until now. This will create a habit of double-checking your assumptions, data, and decisions so that before you can present it to anyone, they are firm and well-established and triple checked. People make mistakes. So why not do the best you can to prevent them? You can use technique developers called the rubber duck technique, where they would take a rubber ducky and talk to it to explain the duck. A piece of code so that it's easy to find a mistake. You can also take a simpler non animated object and explained to the object your decision-making process so that it has heard. And you can maybe hear some loopholes or mistakes or something that just doesn't feel right. Making the right choices and finding mistakes is summing of a risk calculation. It's the number of checks versus the probability of finding there. So just build a habit of, it's called sanity checking of what you do. That's where the rubber duck and technique comes into play. Questions like, Is my analysis complete? Is the dashboard working as expected? It's also a mentality that you can project on others on your team so that there would be habit of trying to avoid mistakes. Like, walk me through your design. Explain to me why do you think it's the best one? Tell me again about your testing method here and the number of tests you think. Do you think it's all what you needed to do to make sure that the software is bug-free upon release. And all, again, it's not about telling yourself or members of the team. It's about giving yourself yet another chance to pick up on an air before it explodes. That's all LES, That's all for this class. Let's move to the next one. 12. Module 2, Class 4: Empathy and respect: Next up, empathy. You are not dealing with robots. Everyone around you is a living, breathing human. They have their emotions, their motivations that dreams. And if you are to be a great product manager, you need to incorporate that in your day-to-day work. Your team members will have their family member's sick. They will have their problems, their health issues. And while you should expect them to be professional, day in, day out, when they slip, you shouldn't hold it against. In fact, calculate the risk of this happening. When you try to come up with ETA for a product, you need to make sure that people gum first, because without those people, there won't be any product. Those people need to be motivated, have high morale, enjoy their work just like you. You are also human being annealed, also like empathy. And that's it. If you are empathic to your team members, they will be empathic towards you and more understanding when you have a low point at the old in your life and that will come. That's how life goes. If you just do the so-called crunch and push your developers to the brink of anxiety or depression or being too tired, you will just lose great people replacing them such a hot pink. And it's always better to invest in some way to make sure that he or she grows and becomes better and wants to keep working with you, keep working with the product. Let's be real here. People will leave as it is and you don't need to contribute to that. Okay, so other than being understanding, what else can you do? Well, talk to them. Talk to them one on one. When you see that there's something happening. It's not about being their best friend or a psychiatrist. In fact, it's only about saying, Hey, I see that something's going on. It would be great if you can share it with me. If you need help. I'm here to help. Just say the word and don't enforce that. Just put the offer on the table and see what happens. Sometimes people will just want to keep private and you need to respect that. And you are well, not their boss or supervisor often, but to someone that helps them to determine what work needs to be done. But you are also a manager and leader and this is what great leaders do. They make sure that the team is comfortable. High morale and empathy is the key to that. Now of course, there will be toxic individuals that will need to be identified and get rid of. But most of the time it will be just people who need help. We also situations when someone will get angry. What to do then this class later on resolving conflicts. But let's just now say don't allow it to escalate. Tried to keep it contained, private. Take a breeder excuse this person from the room or from the place of work until he or she calls down and then manage that. There might be stressful situations and the sooner they are disarmed the batter. That's this for this class. Let's carry on to the next feature of a great product manager. 13. Module 2, Class 5: Integrity: Alongside your humbleness, challenging yourself and being a patrick comes integrity. What is integrity? It's the practice of being honest and showing a consistent and uncompromising adherence to strong moral and ethical principles, values. In ethics, integrity is regarded as honesty and truthfulness or accuracy of one actions. Integrity can stand in a position to hypocrisy that Wikipedia, by the way, works great for what I'm about to tell you. Product manager's life is way easier if your team can trust you when you hold your work, when you tell the truth and you don't pick company politics, you need to have confidence from your people that when you say something it's true and to your best knowledge, and that you have your best intentions for product, for them and for yourself. It should also come with a level of responsibility for the product and your users. For example, whenever I decide to choose a new employer, I always choose accompany. I'd really like to work. I know I wouldn't ever who work for a loan shark and I don't think I'd be comfortable working in retail and using the tricks and techniques I know to get users attention and engagement to buy more stuff that nothing that would work for me. Though, of course, it's nothing wrong with it and go ahead and work for retail. I'm just saying that I myself wouldn't feel integral when working for such an employer. This also translates to your future work. For example, and I worked for a job board. Everything we did, every change in the product could be well-motivated by saying that you are looking to better the life of job seekers to give them yet another opportunity to find their dream job. And it was a great motivation to do the product changes needed. Integrity also means that you are willing to admit mistakes, to say that you are wrong and suffer the consequences of those wrongdoings. Hopefully, there won't be a lot of them and know we minor. But if there's a problem, if there is anything that went wrong, it's better to come clean, admitted, and move on. You don't want things to drag on. You should be able to take responsibility. And often, it's also about the h01 responsibility for something for the team that wrong. Of course, you are not always to blame, but you always could have checked more, do a little bit more to prevent a bad situation. Just be able to say sorry and apologize when needed. That's also common thing that helps you be a better product. But one thing to add here that being honest and truthful is not the same as being brutally honest. It can say that something went bad or is wrong. But you can choose words that don't hurt someone. Like saying, you're fricking fat or well, it might be healthier for you if you lost a pound or two. Yeah, it's the same consequences but completely different spin on the same thing. Don't, don't be too honest while being truthful. And that is a trade of a great diplomat. And diplomacy is the next feature we'll look into in the next class. See you there. 14. Module 2, Class 6: Diplomacy: The promise. This will be very, very useful when you are in a situation where you have a lot of people coming to your requests and you have to be able to say no, you won't be able to please everyone. So don't even try. But how will say no? Because he to say no in a way that people will still come to you and will still want to interact with you, Kyiv, their future requests. But one thing you presented your thinking, present your data and show why you've chosen other things, then the person's requests, this will protect your relationship with this person and will also keep trust. This is what you need to earn. Also, be empathic while saying no, say that you wish you could have helped, that you can take this request on replacement list for tasks that can be picked up if the core tasks are logged or otherwise stopped, say that you understand the frustration, disappointment, that you'd feel the same way at this person's place. But still you have to reject. It's all about saying no and being able to hear this person's needs and ideas in the future without this person being stress and angry, just from the perspective of having to talk to you. You still need to be colleagues that enjoy each other's companies and keep it professional. Another aspect of a diplomat in your line of duty is the fact that you are on the border of technology and business. This means that you can be on a thing of a battlefield, but the business has the master technology. And technology is not really happy because the state of the field is not an optimal shape. That means that the codebases old, that there are too many bugs. It's generally known as the technical debt and we'll talk about it in later classes. But what you need to do to be able to translate the business decisions to technology so they are being accepted and also convey the needs of technology to business. So the business will approve of changes in the product that are hardly visible by the client. Is this Catholic? Know it's common interest. Do you need to deliver value using technology? And if the technology is bad, then the value delivered by the product will be a slow database, will be okay for small amount of clients, but it will kill the product IV. Not performing in a scale. Now as a diplomat, he need to be able to either put that technical that later all intertwine it in within daily product operations or set a date or a KPI that will unlock working with those technical needs. That is, you will talk more about it in technical depth class. But for now, as a diplomat, you'll need to look for common ground and making sure both sides are more or less happy with the state of the first and your decision process. But never tried to antagonize any of the sites and don't look for a bogeyman. It's up to you in the end and you may be forced to an uncomfortable situation or decision you need to make that he didn't agree with. But as long as your team knows, you need to be fully on board with the decision from higher OPS. And if they are going to be upset, better to take it on your chin and carry on with your life rather than making them corporate overlords, demons that prevent you from making good decisions. You may be thinking that, but you can't project. That's the first step to decreasing morale of the team and start losing people. So rather than saying, guys, I know it's stupid and we shouldn't be doing it, but the guys upstairs wanted what can I do? Just say, this request from upstairs will really help us align our product with the core strategy of the company. And I do believe that we are in a team spirit situation. Thus, let's just make sure we are aligned. Let's work with other departments to get this done and get back to our own track as soon as possible. I really believe in this change. And also I can't be more excited to get back on track, move our regular scheduled duties. But don't worry if you stay out of company politics. As I advice, this won't happen too often. Maybe sometimes. But you have to be ready for that. Again, building product should not be a battlefield. And even if it is, diplomats are not on the frontlines. Thank you. Let's move to the next class. 15. Module 2, Class 7: Transparency: Transparency. Being transparent as a product manager means that it's easy to read, easy to understand your decisions, and easy to follow your actions. That translates to you communicating often and in a way that's easy to understand. Use a lot of pictures, simple wording. I'll talk about that in the communications module. And for now let's carry on with the transparency. If you're a transparent product manager, it's easy to follow your decisions. It's easy to understand why you prioritized tasks the way you did, and what direction you took and what are your principles. This is done by communication, as mentioned, by being data-driven. So anyone can see the data that you use and understand your conclusions. And those are done using very full and detailed documentation that you should provide and create and document everything as a good philosophy that I'll get to in the later modules as well. The interest parent also means that you are being truthful and honest, which ties in greatly with integrity. This is very similar in this regard. And here also at a you are tired thing that truth and not to be overly honest, just say the words in a way that they would hurt a transparent product. Mentor also has the courage to present that data, to admit mistakes and show the things as they are without sugar coating it, or without providing blown out optimist. Transparency also has to come with responsibility. Let me tell you a story. I was setting up a new startup and it was not ready to shout to non-technological stake holders. I was pushed to do a demo. I knew that it will be a bad idea. But still I thought, Hey, come on, I'll explain everything to them and where we are. It didn't go too well. What I should have done then is to say, I'm sorry guys, it's not ready yet. It will just get you panicked, but it's just the stage of development. Give us few more days. So it's an estate that it won't cause you panic because there is no need for one and then it will be better. Also, transparency shouldn't come with pointing fingers. If you have website down and it's because the internet something wrong, you don't go to the companies that are inside that. It was the intern who did because it was not him, his body or engineering manager who didn't teach him well or he didn't have rights, supervision and asking me to build the right message that will protect the intern. And say exactly what happened and what will you do to prevent that from happening in the future solution? Say, the new server configured was a law that requires omitting established procedure cost service to go down for 20 minutes. After this time, we managed to restore working configuration and bring the service advocates were killed the assessing the consequences of the downtime and looking for ways to prevent a similar issue in the future. Other than, sorry guys, our new intern johnny, BE just updated the server with a conflict that didn't go pass quality assurance. He wanted to be done and get home early. And instead, the team had to work overtime to get things working. That's that transparency. That's looking for a scapegoat. That's all for this class. Let's move to the final one from this module. 16. Module 2, Class 8: Being ahead of the game: Last, but not least, being ahead of the game. What does it mean? It translates into several sub aspects. First of all, this means that you are in an arms race with a competitor. That you watched their actions and decisions changes there make, what are they working for, what numbers that they disclose? How many clients loved them, how many clients left you for them and tried to talk to them too. He made them switch providers. Understand your competitors and their motivation, and understand how your product is seen in the market in comparison to the competitors. What this also means, reacting to internal opportunities in the company. That might mean utilizing a new technology that appeared, or an additional budget and new marketing push. Whatever. Just be on a lookout for something that you can utilize in your own product. Peek ahead of the game also means following the industry you're in and reading relevant blogs, news articles, community boards, following industrial leaders and well competitors, as we just said, you need to be a hub of industry knowledge so your head can passively process it, the information that it took. And this might produce outstanding results, whether that will be product ideas or simply great insight. During high level meeting. Of course, I can't tell you exactly what to follow and whom to follow. Cause every industry is different. But you have to take the time and research to find those sources of inspiration. Well, you can make that easier by asking inside company won't be should follow. And then set up Google alerts to see if anything new happens for the topic you are interested in. Next up, if possible, a visit industry events that everything that's going on happens on the Internet. And on those industry events. You may, here your competitors is closing a bit too much. Then they shoot and you'll be there to listen. And also, you may find a startup that might inspire you to do something greater than your product, or you will just meet a future competitor. And you can be prepared by either buying the company and involving them in your product, or just keeping in touch and making sure that whatever happens with this company, you be having some contingency plan for what happens in this company. Proofs It's hypothesis. In fact, this is also an element of being heads of the game. Being ready to fail. What happens in 10, 20 years when your product is obsolete? How to future proof your company and assure future jobs and income? This is something you need Consider, think about and have some kind of strategy or an idea how to proceed. What's your contingency plan? Look at tech giants for invest in small start-up initiatives to see if they can create a new product because they have piles of cash to invest and look for new staff in future proved themselves. Say, if you get goal, they failed with so many things like Google Glass, Google Plus, and Google stay. I am looking to grow as well. Okay, those costs allow money that went wasted bad for every file project or something that went okay, and is now a source of revenue for a very long time. And this is the enterpreneur solution to future proofing your accompany. Finally, being ahead of the game also means to free your mind to entertain the possibility of close to cite Pi solutions and products. Do realize that machine learning technology that has revolutionized many industry in the last few years has been around since 1986. Nothing changed in the principles. It's just that the computing power was not there to effectively utilize the technology. Nowadays is imagined being an investor that recognizes this opportunity and invest in technology that only comes into fruition around 13 years later. This is ahead of the game. And this has been module to the great product manager. Thank you. Let's move on to the next module. 17. Module 3: Product’s big bang – chaos is born: Here I want to present you the conceptual tools that will help you said, the right process, the right mindset, how the product, and have those tools that will later help you to decide on what's the best direction for the course. This will be most beneficial for people who are not product managers yet. However, the beginners will also benefit a lot and find a lot of inspiration. If you are a highly experienced product manager, I think that you will find some good tips in class for an classifier. So let's begin. 18. Module 3, Class 1: Vision: Let's kick things off, talking about product vision. What's that? Basically, this is your ultimate product destination. This is a single, small, compact sentence that describes exactly what do you want to ultimately achieve your product? If you would, be to apply the vision to yourself, you'd probably picture yourself leaner, more energetic, with more enthusiasm is canister. There isn't a single vision for a product. Once established, it can evolve, change, and adapt. The Quran mocked, in fact, the first vision might not even be correct. So you need to build step-by-step until the right one emerges and you are comfortable with. Okay, so what should a vision contain? The typical definitions provided, for example, by Joel Sapolsky, suggests that the vision should contain the following elements. Target customer, statement of the need or opportunity, product name and its product category. Key benefit, primary competitive, alternative AND statement of primary differentiation. For this course, we'll be using an example product app called money hungry alarm clock. This fake product is simply put an alarm clock on your phone that charges you and have you snooze. So you'd have a better modulation together. This is meant for executives who can't make it there morning meetings because they oversleep because there are so tired. Of course, this is absurd, but it's intentional. And just for this course now one is building and probably some are built at already anyway. For the elements that I listed, the vision should sound something like that. For our clients who have problems getting up on thigh, money hungry alarm clock is a mobile app which will allow them to reach their morning meetings. Unlike a classical or arm clocks that failed to do that for them. Personally, I think that the vision should be more compact and omit the competitors. If you surround your vision around competitors, you go into a trap of always being in the tail of them, always trying to mimic or B, they're cheaper, alternative of them. Competitor. For my taste and my suggestion, I would omit the competition altogether in the vision and gave the following. We want to make sure our clients reached their work on time by providing them that technology to achieve that. Please note that I specifically didn't say how the company will solve the problem. It's just the problem that is the focus and the fact that at some technology will be used. That is because you can't have vision, limiting your options. You may set off starting doing one thing and end up doing another. Nokia who started off with boots and ended up making mobile phones. And now I think it's communication hardware. Besides the solution, that is, the mobile app isn't probably tested well on the level of shaping division. So if we proclaim the fission is only based around the Moab, we may find out that it was pointless along. But with their mobile app, we can learn things that will lead us to the ultimate product that will succeed. And we will indeed use that technology to wake up the executives. So again, division should be broad enough to allow the freedom of interpretation. Now, one other reason, the creative vision is that it will emerge on its own and you want to control what it says. Again, you don't want to have a vision that says, we are the cheaper alternative to a bigger competitor. This is the moralizing in blocks creativity and innovation. That's not what you want. So make sure that the version emerges from your initiative and it meets the right inspiration. Function. Vision will also help you prevent feature creep. So then setting where additional features pop up into the product for future sake. Instead, when you decide on what to add to euro, You should match it against division and decide whether the new feature matches the vision or is just a complete sidetrack. You may think that vision is just below that cliche that doesn't really work. It can be bloated with was that that happens. But I assure you it's a great tool to help you focus, to help you get on the right track. And it's something you need to work on. As said, this is something that can change in time. So you may have by annual or annual vision revision meeting with your team and see if everything's right so you can double-check if an update isn't required. Oh, one more thing. When you are shaping your version, make sure that if you have some small product inside a bigger company, the vision of your product is compatible with the overall company vision. So it's not like a separate entity. You still are part of the bigger team and you need to make sure that you fit there. So say, if you are a product manager in a mobile department of a food delivery app, you can have the MAY in-company vision sound like we want to break restaurants and the clients together by providing them with an efficient and quick delivery system. So for your mobile app, this vision could sound like we want to bring restaurants and the clients together by providing them an efficient and quick delivery system using their mobile devices. See it's just one word at it, but basically you do the same as the whole company. But your focus is on the mobile app. Now let's look at visions for different companies. Linkedin, create economic opportunity for every member of global workforce, Nike, to bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete. But if you have a body, you are an athlete. For a specialized company departments division can build more specific, say Nike shoes to bring better results using innovation to every runner. I would avoid very broad visions like the consulting company PwC has. Our purpose is to build trust in society and solve important problems. This is hardly unique for PwC. This sounds like a government version. I mean, idealistic government vision. Before we conclude this class, Let's look at a final example of it. Imagine failures fork, a character from the book around the world in 80 days by Jules Verne. In the book title, protagonist makes a bad that he will be able to travel around the world with an 80 days with his gentleman's club. So for his journey, division could sound something like that. I am willing the fog and I wish to travel around the world in 80 days and we the first person to do so. And when my bath with limited time and limited resources for his hand, he will be able to carefully choose the right actions to benefit his vision. So buying supplies is a great way to make his visionary reality. However, spending a day in Perry to side C will only set him back. Those would be probably a great day of tourists. That's all for now for vision, Let's move to the next class. 19. Module 3, Class 2: Strategy: Okay, So if the vision is where we're heading, strategy is the answer to the question, how will we get there? Let's go back to Mr. Fox example. For his 80 days journey. The strategy could sound something like this. Using balloon as a mode of transportation, stocking 80 days worth of dry food and fuel supplies in order to limit the necessity of restocking, efficient water management. Very detailed plan for the trip in order to be able to verify if the journeys on track within the deadline, 34 hour per day flight with two shifts with the valet, photographic evidence of countries he lands to prove he indeed travel around the world. The strategy as quick way of showing how to achieve the vision with NAT, much details present and that's okay. It's not a list of features. It said high level task list. One strategic item can mean a lot of different features or changes in the product as long as they achieve this strategic point. However, those can't be too high level to the level. They are not pragmatic. They need to be transparent and understandable so everyone can get behind those strategic bonds. This will really help in communication with stakeholders and your team to explain what you want to achieve. It shows that you have a clear plan on how to achieve your vision very early on. It's also important to point out that the vision should never be really achieved and should evolve in time to keep the product going. Strategy item can actually be ticked off and have a beginning and an end. Having a clear vision supplemented by a good strategy also helps the team operate. When you are not around, if you have holidays or sick leave. And the team can still refer to the vision and strategy and carry on without you for somebody. That's all about strategy for now, let's move on to the next class. 20. Module 3, Class 3: Values: Very often. Next, vision and strategy, a thing called product values appear. What are those? Well, if vision is our destination, strategy is how we get the values would be the guiding principles that we apply on the journey is helpful. Not really. I, I don't see how this helps you, the product manager. This is a nice communication piece that HR and marketing can use in different contexts. But it's nothing that he should be really focused on and dedicate another energy to create. Another interpretation of product values is something that you put on the products box as features or on the landing page. Again, not really helpful. Example for failures fog would be a list containing encourage ambition, curiosity, relentless snus, know law-breaking, being kind and never backing out from a challenge. Well, it sounds good. I'll tell you that, but does it help? It doesn't really. But since you now know what it is and how to use it or not, that's all this class was about. So let's quickly move to the next one. 21. Module 3, Class 4: Product Goals: Goals. Making sure that you are going in the right direction in accordance to the vision and strategy you've already said. But why bother with goals? Why not just do the best I think you want to do and not spend time analyzing and stressing over some metrics. Good question. First of all, goals help you to focus too, identify the actual things that you need to work on and making sure that he can activate out of the box thinking to not just do your shop in a mediocre way, but instead look for opportunities or even risks that you wouldn't otherwise consider. But since the goals need to be ambitious and nod like absurd, you will need to take that extra step, extra jump to get to where you want to be. This is the manifestation of the vision and strategy that helps you to declare what you want to achieve in a specific time-frame. That also helps you to create and effective communication framework so that your stakeholders know where you are, how is the plan being realized, and whether you are close on that. To achieve onwards, you declared you want to achieve. As mentioned, you will be setting them yourselves or your manager would do that for you, or you'll do that together. But always make sure that the goals seed the current trend. It's not about just sitting behind and, uh, looking as those metrics grow by giving them additional push, forcing your creativity to come up with something new, something different. Now, while I really don't like frameworks and there isn't really a lot of frame working in this course. There is one framework here that I really enjoy to show you on how to create good goals, effective goals. This is the smart framework of goals. That means that the goals are first and foremost Pacific, simple, sensible, significant that it's clearly understood on what is the end outcome, end goal of this specific goal. They are measurable. So that can be represented by numbers. And you can take a reading from time to time so that you know how far you are from a number. You said, for that specific goals, they need to be achievable. So you can't just say the goal is to have the best product of your type in the market. How would you define that? They need to be easily quantifiable and not crazy, ambitious, which leads me to the R aspect of smart framework. They need to be relevant. So you need to be shaping them in a way that benefits your product, benefits specific fragment of the strategy. Finally, time-bound. You can't just chase your goals forever. There needs to be a deadline when you plan to achieve your goal. You may fail. You may not achieve it. Bath, you will do whatever you need to do to achieve it in the time-frame, given the best way to formulate your goals is so-called OKRs. Objectives and key results. Objectives are what you want to achieve. And key results is the outcome of those initiatives. This is the best way of creating goals that I know. Because the alternative that I've encountered where either metric based goals alone where they would only evolve. Certain metrics that are common for the whole company, which is more or less okay? And we'll often cover okay, horse, but also our neatest limiting. And there was approach I know is to have feature-based Gulf where you need to deliver certain feature by certain time. And that limits you correctly because you can't be creative. You can't do anything that is connected to a Southern opportunity or realization. Instead, you are just and worker in a factory doing what he or she is supposed to do. No OKRs give you the freedom of setting some goals that you can realize on multiple different ways. You can still commit to some features, but then say that that feature is too big or you found a way to achieve the OKR easier and modify your plans to reflect that and still reach your goal. Okay, ours are very often easy to understand by the whole company, all stakeholders, and can represent the Sabbath strategic either so say like an elements of how to achieve the tangible strategy item that you have presented to the company. Okrs are also often not even connected to your theme necessarily. Those are actions that your team will most likely be able to sort out by their work. But maybe can fall away where no development is needed and you still can achieve your goal. This is about creativity, I told you about. Before we close this class, Let's look at example OKRs. Here, I presented you with two. One of them is to increase the number of people who complete the account registration in any fake app and also maximize product uptime. I've added the column for the cure level. So that's the measurable part, the goal. So we can see that it's supposed to grow from 35 to 60 percent by Q free. Will the uptime goal, however, which is connected to making sure that the product is available for the users. There is no current, no level, which I want to show to you that while we don't know the products uptime, we still want to bring your app to basically a 100 percent. We will have to also invest the work to measure this OKR, which is fundamentally important. That's all for this class. That's more. 22. Module 3, Class 5: SWOT: When it comes to conceptual tools that will help you kick off your work. Nothing is as helpful as the swot technique. Swot stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. That's basically a chart that contains four boxes that stands for one of those letters. And when you populate with adequate sentences that describe your product in that specific context of that specific letter. This is particularly useful because it helps you to set of whether your product, then it can be used at any stage of its life cycle. It can help you to decide on your next move to understand where your product currently is and refocus your efforts. And it's also a good exercise for rainstorm to get that creativity in your thing going. It's often a great source of inspiration and good ideas. So to show you an example, let's look at the swot analysis I've made for this course. This course is quite focus on giving you practical advice and not theory. I try to limit the BS, Boeotia, the minimum. The course is oriented to counter the difficulties I dealt with over the course of my career. So you don't have to do the same mistakes and look for the same solutions. Either. I had the opportunity to review existing product management courses and could identify the world, in my humble opinion, was missing and add them to this particular course. I'm also a doctor, which means I'm trained to teach and effectively pass knowledge and new skills. So that's quite good in terms of how I deliver the information. Their weaknesses of my course are that, that, well, my career in product management is now six years old. So that's not like Granny, 30 percent years of experience that I can share with you. Perhaps causes from more experienced product managers might be more appealing. While this isn't the first cause a make and still improving my craftsmanship. So perhaps it's that as polished as I would like to be, by some more polar than the first 11 more weakness I can see is that I'm not the native English. Which means that maybe some of my words, the way I build sentences or does pronounce some words are not as comfortable as if I spoken pure American accent or pure British one. But I don't think that this is a big thing in the air. When it comes to opportunities. As far as I can see, the market is there, that there are people who want to learn product management and they are eager to know more. So I believe there is space for additional courses. For me, it's a great opportunity because I'm building a wide network of contacts for people I can presumably in the future work with. I can hire or they can hire me something that can help build my carrier. But also I can build myself as an product management expert, influencer and have alternative career here, has product management instructor and consult with the knowledge I'm building on how to create good courses. I can build many more of them and build myself a great source of passive income that would make me financially independent, which is also a great opportunity here. When it comes to threats, I may be completely incorrect. Maybe there isn't any more space on the market and I incorrectly interpreted the numbers I crunched. That might therefore mean that I lost so many months of work to create this course. And they will never had any gained from that. That I basically lost time. But only time will tell whether that's real threat or just me feeling a bit insecure. That's all for this class. Less carrier. 23. Module 3, Class 6: User Personas : The final conceptual tool that can help you make the right product decisions. Our user persona, it's something that is coming from process called user segmentation that we'll talk again in module about data. But for now, let's just focus on the persona's user persona is an archetype person that represents one of the user groups that you identify Among you use. So you should give this archetype and name, age, gender, some backstory, almost like creating an RPG character in Dungeons and Dragons. Why do this? Why have a single person representing a major group of users? It helps you communicate the features that you will be adding to your product. Because you will be using that specific person and giving the context of a new feature and how this feature will help this specific person. Thus, It's a great communication tool and a means to add purpose towards you. Do So say like when I worked for a job board and we had Mary who was unemployed and is looking for a job. It was much more impactful to say that we are doing something to get Mary hired. Then to get some famous job seeker higher. Of course, Mary was completely made up, but she still made an impact. The has, this helps by recombining often complex ideas and propositions. However, this may backfire if those personas are not easily identifiable and not communicated. Because if someone doesn't know who Mary represents, then this person won't have the right context. Thus, you have to work to make sure that Mary had other persona's archetypes are easily recognizable in your company. Oh, I completely forgot. Make sure to keep your persona, a name, and a picture so it's easy to refer to him or her. So let's look at example is a persona's based on the job both app and full types of users that might use that the job both application. Say that based on our research, we identified it, we have active candidates who are really interested to get a new job. Passive ones that are more or less comfortable with their current position. However, they would like to find some better, maybe better salary, higher position. But that is not their first priority lives. Something that happens, happens if now that's okay as it is. Next up, our graduates. So people who are just now entering the job market and that 100% sure what to do with their life or where they would like to work with. Finally, the inactive candidate. So the ones that job both lost and there's no information on what's going on with them. So now let's assign persona's to those groups. For our active candidate. Meet Troy, the banker. Throw is 32 years old, he has two kids. And since he lost his job, he's in a dire need to get a new one asap. He lives in a small house and loves watching hockey. For Troy, it will be most important to get notifications about the mu S added jobs that match his profile. So he can be the first one to apply and be the first one or the shortlist of their possible candidates for those jobs. Our passive candidate, Brita, the product manager. Brita is 29 years old and she simply wants to animal. So she actually likes a job. She wouldn't mind that change if that would mean better back for her. She lives in a studio apartment downtown, then she enjoys swimming in large lakes. For Brenda, it's good to have a very specific notification for jobs that much her profile and offer higher income. And perhaps spamming her daily doesn't make a lot of sense. And instead, a weekly feed of the jobs that match her preferences will better work for her because she doesn't have time or the right focus to apply as soon as possible. Anyway. For our graduate, we have Jeff that states in his Facebook profile that the nobles do not work. Jeff is 23 years old, he recently graduated a social studies and he plans to travel a little bit before King of his career. So the job board should be able to propose Jeff Gray opportunities for graduates, proposals or a very fulfilling career that he can embark on which do match his or her profit. And finally, then active candidate, any the office work any is 21 years old and she doesn't really yet care about her carrier is just some income for her that allows her to survive and live day-to-day. What she cares more about her friends and having a little bit of Gutai while she's not that much focused on her carrier, she loves yoga and spending time in the wild. So for any, it would be great to deliver functionality that asks her from time to time or this her status and whether she would be interested in specific offers, spamming, any with jobs that we believe match her profile doesn't make sense and only possibly pushes her to unsubscribe from our emails. So in that case, less frequent is more beneficial because the jackpot might just hit the right time when Annie would be more inclined to look for a different position, maybe to get more money for a plant safari trip. Those were the user persona for job board. And to mine that I specifically mentioned features that contribute to those specific persona's because they are pretty different. And you can see how product can adapt to specific user needs based on the features of this basale. That's all for this class and this module. Thank you. I hope the tools I have given you will help direct and conceptualize your product and we're ready to move to the next module. Thank you. 24. Module 4: Organizing the work: In module four, I will give you two sets of information on what is the theory based. Okay, let's be honest. Classes that revolve around the development frameworks used in the modern development scene would be most useful for you in the job interview section, then having the right base. However, it's also about how to organize your time effectively so that you can squeeze out the mouth from your day and not go bananas because you're overwork. Thus, this is a great module for the beginning. Product managers who don't have, they're all yet. And if you already landed the key or you are very experienced, just limit yourself to classes 56. Those will tell you exactly how I'm very effective in my native Labor. See you in the module. 25. Module 4, Class 1: Kanban: Let's kick this module off with Kanban or cannonball. What is it? This is a method of organizing cure, preferably small project. In order to efficiently know what's going on with it. You will need that. Maybe with some essays on something smaller that you'll work on. And definitely for your job interview, it's a question that might appear. So how does kinda work? In Kanban? The tasks are segregated into different columns under different names that represents their status. Those columns store tasks that aren't organized by priority. So within a column, that top task is the most important. It should be started immediately. And the bottom one is the least important. The columns represent the state of the task. Say those are two due, pending testing and completed. So whenever a task changes, its status is being moved from one column to another. And that's basically, that's Campbell. Remember that Kanban is best used for small projects, because as your project grows in scope, more and more tasks will appear. And you will find yourself in a situation where only the top free items are being, the only ones being worked on. There'll be more and more tasks coming in with higher, higher priority. And very soon small improvements, bug fixes. We'll go to the bottom of the Kanban permanently. Never to be worked on realistically, ATO day-to-day. These, it's very good to use a website called Trello for your Kanban board. And this is something I use day-to-day for different contexts. That's all for this class. Let's move on to the next one. Well, we talk about other adults crowd to smart bird. They're suited for large scale projects. See you there. 26. Module 4, Class 2: Agile scrum: Now let's talk about the most popular framework for development there. It's called adults crowd. Of course, this is just a short video to give you the basic knowledge that you need about it. There are many courses that take many hours just dedicated to adult Scrum, and that's not why we are here. So what is Agile Scrum? As I said, it's a development framework that is focused around producing as much value as possible within short periods of time called sprints. Those can go from one week to four weeks. And it's all about producing some working software or an abbot wherever in this timespan. And then observing what happens in order to, at the jazz, the decisions for future sprints. So to have this feedback loop of data to generate as much value as possible. The whole Scrum is described in the short manifesto called the Agile Manifesto. And basically you can take Ideal Scrum and apply it however you like. As long as you keep some principles. There is a key rule called the F35 free row, three actors, five events. Free artist was that free actors are product owner. So the equivalent of the product manager who decides on what needs to be done within a sprint. Team members who carry out those tasks. And those can be developers, testers, whatever you need in your organization. And finally, the Scrum Master. And Scrum Master is this person who is there to coach the team, to help them achieve their goals. To make sure they commit to Agile methodology, and make sure that the team is able to deliver their increment. So the change in software on time. And it doesn't mean that his project managing them. He's just there to coach them, to help them keep the right push when needed. And thus making sure that that delivers. The five events are sprint planning. So it's when product owner product meets with the team and agrees with them on what will be done within the next two weeks. Obviously, sprint is another event in Scrum. Then we have daily meeting where the team without product owner meets to see if they are on track to deliver the increment. This is a very important and should allow the team to mark their progress without reporting to any superior, is that it's the interior meeting and that's it. Finally, the sprint review, where the team meets with all the stakeholders, including the product owner. And they show what was achieved within the sprint, whether the goals were achieved, and demonstrate the working software. So the product owner stakeholders can decide whether it meets their expectations and that can be released to the user. And finally, fifth, the retro meeting where the team, including Scrum Master and Product Owner meet to discuss the sprint that has just concluded and try to establish what was good, what was bad, and figure out improvement or future sprints in order to avoid any negative events that might have happened during the sprint. Finally, the free artefacts, the backlog, so the software table, whatever where the tasks are being stalled in the order of priority. The sprint backlog, the small fragment over the backlog where the tasks that we're committed to be completed or stored. And finally, the increment, the working software that's being delivered the end of the sprint. Funny enough, you can look at sprint backlog as a, as a Kanban board really, because it'll be short, it will have a time limit and it will also have columns that represent the status of the task. All you need to know for now in terms of Agile Scrum. Before we conclude this subject, let's talk about product owner in the next class. But you have everything you need to apply the Product Owner position if it is very similar to the product management. And what to say in the job interview when asked about the methodology. See you in the next class. 27. Module 4, Class 3: Product Owner in agile scrum: Okay, so let's make sure that, you know, what's the difference or similarity between product owner and product manager. So there is no confusion. To understand who a product owner is. Let's look at the definition from Scrum Guide. Scrum product owner is responsible for maximizing the value of the product resulting from the work of the devil. Well, sounds like product manager to me. Let's see. The product owner says possibilities there. Finding the features of the application, prioritizing, adjusting the features and priority as needed after each sprint or iteration. Accepting or rejecting work results, keeping customers or users apprised of status and getting their feedback still. It's a product manager right or wrong. Not sure. That's the thing. In terms of pure theoretical adults crumb product owner is the product manager. It's one and the same. But that in practice, usually what happens is that product owner product management has different scopes that though have the same job title or very similar, have different responsible. And you can look at product owners in a scale of five steps. The first step would be a scribe. So this is a product owner that has absolutely no decision-making power. This person literally writes download the actual product owner, product manager wants, and delivers it to the team so they well coded. But there is no decision made. A step higher is a peroxy product owner where a minimal amount of decision-making is being provided. And that's as little usually as deciding which backs to take or making minor product decisions. The first step is business representatives. This is where real product management kicks in. And here usually the product owner or a product manager cats some level of freedom who will win a small product or part of a bigger product and is free to the side on the content of sprints and how the backlog works. But still there's a higher tier above this person who the sides on the actual vision strategy and coordinates the work of the business represented. And that is usually the sponsor. The step 4, where everything I teach you in this sprint kicks in. And long-term planning, short-term planning, talking to high level stakeholders and having the full product responsibility is what this person is birth. And if we go to something like head of product or principal product owner, product manager, then we have the step five. The entrepreneur. I'm almost using product owner and product manager interchangeably in the last section. As I said, those should be the same person. But if we take the previous chart of different types of product owner, we can do the same for product managers. The name will be slightly different because we will have an interim or associate product manager. Again, proxy product manager, junior product manager or simply Product Manager. Then well against product manager through royal product manager and lay down Senior Product Manager, head of products, VP of product, this kind of stuff. In a situation where in-company have both product owner and product managers. Product manager will usually be the senior person. So we'll still have a scribe product owner, proxy product owner. But the business representative becomes simply product owner. That can be later promoted a product manager or senior PO, and then to head of product or simply Product Manager. So the key here is to make sure that when you are getting hired for either PO or PM role, as I said, make sure what will be your responsibilities. What are you going to do with will be your level of responsibility and freedom. And based on that, make a decision, uh, regardless of the job title, it's not that important in the long run because the experience in the achievements will be the core of your recruitment success. And that that job title and glass, It's very far from the actual product manager titles space. But this also can be worked around by simply changing the title in the CV and mentioning that the actual job title was different, but you worked as a product manager, product owner, and here's the experienced baba, baba. So that's all for this class. Let's carry on. 28. Module 4, Class 4: Waterfall: Before we proceed, let's talk about Waterfall. Waterfall is the historical methodology of software development, where everything had to be planned and you have phases of a project and you'd go from phase one to face-to-face free to voice for whatever they would be. And in the end, presented the client with exactly the software he or she ordered. That is obviously very risky and lots of things can happen. That's why in modern days, Agile Scrum is far superior because it allows you to course-correct and to have frequent talks with your user or client. And make sure that what you deliver makes sense and things that do not work out are being caught immediately and course-correct. I only tell you this so you are aware of it in case it appears on a job interview. But also be aware that waterfall is still used in analog products. So the chair is said, is probably done in the waterfall where you may also look at a sprint is a very small waterfall that one to 40 weeks long. However, there also can be course corrections. Whenever something doesn't make sense or needs that adjustment, there is always space to do that, but that's not something that should be used often in adults graph. So that's all for this subject. Let's carry on with the chapter. 29. Module 4, Class 5: How to organize your work: We are done with a framework part of organizing your work. Let's talk about the actual organizing of your work. Now here are my techniques, tips that I used to be an effective product manager. First of all, keep a single source of truth. Whatever happens, don't make several lists of the same thing to use in a different context. For example, if you have your task list, the backlog in software called JIRA, you don't want to use another software. You'll have to replicate the same task list just to generate a cool Rome. This is not the way to do it. You will lose time trying to mirror those two. And you really, you won't have time to sync anyway, unless you have someone to do it for you or it's automated. But now you don't want to P4's to manually sync staff between different softwares. I also keep a private to-do list. As I mentioned, you can use Trello for that. And this is not a backlog of development items. This is the list of talk to someone organizing, meeting, investigate, XYZ, perform research, double-check this, double-check that, and make sure that nothing that you promised to do is lost. Or if you think that something needs your attention. Ballet there, here is where this list comes in. Helps you organize, helps you keep on track. And with this, you will never forget to do anything. Moreover, if you have like a moment where we want to do something and then you re-evaluated because it doesn't make sense. That's okay. As long as they didn't went on to be forgotten. Here is an example task list that you could see as an inspiration. But let's carry on to the next point, using tools to organize your work. So this is a derivative from the last one where you use Kanban board to organize tasks. But you can also use reminders. You can use your calendar to help you manage your time, the different ways to support you. And I really like the one that Slack has square. You can use slash, remind me and just put a reminder. You need a specific time. You can even directed to specific people. And it's very superior because then you can use a command slash remind list and see all the reminders that you skipped, forgotten, ignored, and just use it as a supplementary task list through your profit task list. In fact, if something is very important, should we move from this preliminary list to the main one? So you also keep a single source of truth here. And you might not be using Slack in your company. Generally, I think that reminders are awesome. And for a time I use Siri to help me as well. I prefer Slack or Google Assistant never worked fluidly for me and I hate every interaction I have with the software. So maybe your Google Assistant is way better than another place. You can have a to-do list is your e-mail. Obviously same thing applies that you can move something from an e-mail to your private to-do list. But how I found it effective is to organize my emails by color. And I use colors to represent emails that need my immediate attention, that need attention whenever I have a moment to spare. And also e-mails that were I have open thread and await reply from anyone I emailed. And also I make sure to take any e-mail that has a completed thread and move it to our completed folder. Never delete an email. And you may use additional color statuses. If you need. For me, if something needs to be separated, I simply create additional folder in my e-mail client. Like for example, admin staff where I keep all the emails that are corporate for me to find new policies that I ignored in the heat of the moment and need to come back later to see how do I need to say organize a business trip in their new capex? Now, often I'm asked, how do I keep track and organize my day when I have so much to do? I am then replying that IMS life to my calendar and I am also the master of my color. So if I need to do something, I just booked on the calendar, you do not need to only use it to plan your meals. You can use it to plan that you work on a document or cleaning your backlog, or just booked time to think about something because you need peace and quiet to make a good call. You can book time for research. You should sometimes consider booking time for lunch in case you are spam. Many so important meetings that you don't even have time to eat. And that happens with a vast product managers. Doing so has an additional benefit. Because if you book time for something else, other people who see it as a time where you are busy and they won't put you and another meeting. So that's for your own safety. Next up. Plenty of they. Whenever you come to the office, look at your calendar, evaluate the plan, set yourself daily goals on what you need to achieve and execute them. And those are the most important things that you need to do on that day. One more thing. If you have a task that will take you five minutes, try to do it as soon as possible, immediately. So you don't have to have trash in your brain. You don't have to create a task in Trello, an e-mail, or a reminder in Slack. If you can do some really quick, just do it. Get it over with. The shorter the list of things to do, the better, the more creativity or brain will be able to produce. Finally, stay focused. We are living in a world of distractions. The applications, apps, phones, communicators, they all demand your attention. And it's only apt to your concentration, your focus, and your discipline, not to allow them to do that. So make sure that all your push notifications that aren't critical are the only once enabled. And well be the slave and the master of your calendar, which will translate into being master and slave of your own time. That is a collection of techniques I use to be effective. Lad, move on to the next class. Thank you. 30. Module 4, Class 6: Day of a Product Manager: In the last class I mentioned to organize your data. So how to organize it in more detail? How does an effective day of a great product manager look like? It all starts with an early morning. While some of you would like to sleep long. I always think that it's better to have lots of space in the morning for you to have a slow start, to have a calm breadth-first, to slowly get into stuff. I do suggest that you tried to have some kind of, uh, at least mall workout before the job. And I don't mean gym. You can have a walk, you can have a run. Or if you are going to the office, just park a bit further and have a 2015 minute walk to get some air to get the blood pumping. And it usually helps you to have a better day thanks to that little time investment. Now, hi, he used to always eat breakfast in the office and be there early before most of the team comes in. So I have time to organize my day and to have breakfast and small chat with a member of the team or other team just to get to know each other better. And maybe do a little bit of work, gossip on the product or on the status. But usually it would be more private, more casual. It's an awesome opportunity to do that. I would have my first coffee in front of the screen while planning the rest of the day, as I said, reviewing your calendar, you are to do this slack e-mail, you name it, whatever you use. I would also start the day with the most important tasks. When I'm the most trusted, the most focused, and would try to do any creative writing work before lunch and after lunches where I will put most of my meetings if possible. So that whenever I'm going down on the energy curve, I do less and less important meetings and usually in the afternoon I'll just attend something that I need to be there to listen in, but not necessarily have to contribute too much. Well, that is until I went to an American company where obviously those principles were moved ahead several hours. So have coverage of the american time in Europe. But you get the idea. Now, very important. When you have a full day of meetings or at mid day that has lots of them. Make sure to plan breaks. Maybe 10, 15 minutes, half an hour, as long as it's not back-to-back hours or meetings. This is a really counterproductive who you will be exhausted by 60, 70 percent of your marathon. And that. Now the point you need to be sharp, rested, focused, effective setting like this and just pretending Kyoto will get, you know. So that's why you have to make sure to be aware of your energy levels and to break whenever possible. Maybe even cancel a meeting or to rest it. There's no glory in overworking yourself. In fact, it will harm you and your career. Speaking of harm, don't go over four coffees a day. That's that's enough. And I believe that the proven maximum over which your heart won't suffer in the long-term. Finally, at the end of the day, I suggest if you need to do your time sheet, that well, shitty bottom task to do. But if you leave it until the end of the week or the mouth, it gets even worse by the two investors to free hours. When do you remember what you actually did during the day rather than being creative and that spreadsheet at the end of the week, month, that's the day of their product manager. There is one more organizational thing I need to share with you before I close this chapter and I'll see you there. 31. Module 4, Class 7: Delegating: In the previous classes, I taught you about organizing your thoughts. But how to make even more time by delegating my making sure that someone else's thus the job. And what are the core principles? First of all, have a mantra of delegating everything humanly possible, whatever you don't have to do. And there are people or programs that can do it for you. Just delegate, you should be aiming to an optimal Sarah. Where all you do is having your backlog and just organizing the order of the backlog and figuring out what else should I put. That's, that's the optimal job. You shouldn't need. Three optimal world to do anything else. How to achieve? First of all, be ready to invest time to make. That means that whenever you can delegate something that you need to spare time to explain clearly or train the person who will take over some of the responsibility that you're delegating or invest time to create that automatic script or get it running in order to delegate some of your work to automate. Remember, B, product manager and a project manager. It shouldn't be forced to micromanage your team, check their milestones. If they are not delivering, that's their problem and the problem of their manager, you should not involve yourself even if a project manager, background and you know how to help your the product manager, you have enough as it is. So focus on that. In fact, let's go a bit further here. I said that if an issue where a project manager and you can help lead the team learn on their own. Let them discover the best techniques. Let them learn. If you go on micromanage and tell everyone what to do, no one will ever progress their skills and careers because we as people are lazy beings. So if someone can do with For us, we won't really object. And you need to flip this around. You need to find opportunities not to do work. You may be in a situation where you'll have a junior or an intent to help you out with some stuff, and that will be a lifesaver. But since those people are junior and are there to earn, make sure to take some of the time you saved and spended back to this person to teach him or her to share your knowledge, experience. Pay back the time you save to this person so they can be better in the future and hopefully save even more time. Again, spend time to save time. But delegating is not only about you and your thigh. Sometimes it about taking a piece of the product that you can develop and considering outsourcing. Say you want a mobile app for your product. You may either consider hiring new people and creating a new department, or just hiring a company that does mobile apps. And well, just pay, give the SPAC and require something delivered within the promised time. So this can save you lots of fast and perhaps money. It's debatable whether having an in-house team or having an outsourced team is cheaper or not. But this is just something to put in your head as an alternative, as an option, and never just jump into growing their people you have on the payroll is usually harder to execute in a corporate environment, an outsource company to do something for you. This is all I had for you in terms of organizing your work. This is the end of this module. Let's move on to the next one. Thank you. 32. Module 5: Communication – sharing the order with others: In Module 5, I will tell you of different aspects of communication. And let me tell you, this is really module that should be consumed by everyone. Because if you can communicate on expert level, even if you still have space to develop as product manager, you'll still be seen as a great one. However, on the other hand, if you are a perfect product manager of terrible communication skills, no one will appreciate your skills really. The communication aspect is that the ratio between a mediocre and a great product. So put another focus into this module and you'll see what I mean. See you there. 33. Module 5, class 1: Stakeholders: Let's kick things off. Talking about stakeholders, who the stakeholder is a person or group of individuals that directly or by proxy benefits from your work. There are many different types of stakeholders and the list includes users or clients. He'll manage. Development team. Are the teams, say marketing team, suppliers and vendors, communities, or even the government. How to best live with your stakeholders. How to get the support and trust. The key to good library of stakeholders, happy stakeholders, happy PMs life is good and frequent communication. The ones that's directed to the right stakeholders with the right words, with the right context. We'll talk about it in this module. But for now, just take it as it is, that it's the communication. Does the key to have your stakeholders support in that communication? It's very good to be open about the current state of affairs and your future plans was, what are you going to do the product rule RR plans. So in the stakeholders nodes coming, they will be much more eager to trust. Also, be sure to keep your promise. This is a very important thing. And that really builds good relations, trust, and makes sure that the product can prosper well with your stakeholder support. And since communication is the key, it has to be a two-way street. So provide stakeholders with platform to communicate with you. Of course, that will be a different platform for different stake holders. Management can access you directly or in a meeting, but uses will require some kind of an online forum or a ticketing system, perhaps an online webinar from time to time. It's up to you really to figure out what will work in your specific company, business and stakeholders. Very complicated. And as long as you know that you need to do it and it's vital for your business. I think that's very good advice to give you and says You, you have two-way communication of the stake holders. Make sure to acknowledge and be empathetic about any issues or problems that may arise. Don't just swept things under the rock. Provide a meaningful reply. Though never tried to go into an online Quirrell with an upset user. If you stumble upon one, just acknowledged their issue and try to bring the conversation private, that will be much more effective and won't get you saying something. You wouldn't like to set. A good example of how communication can help you or sank you is with their recent polish game developer City Project Red. And they're hit game Cyberpunk 277, where the game was delayed several times. It was well communicated at first with good reasons for the delay. However, as the delays kept piling, there were two very important issues of communication. One of them was that one of the last post about delays. They said That's the final possible delay and there will be no more delays. And there were moreover, the company that's been known for being honest very through full and hardworking kept hidden the fact that the game ran okay on PCs and new gen consoles, but it was hardly playable if at all, on old generation consoles, no one had any idea. The game reviewers were not Kievan the versions for the old console, knowing well what will happen. And that was a PR disaster that sank the reputation of CD project rat. And you don't want to do it like this. That's all for now in terms of the general topic of stakeholders. Thus, much more to come this module. Stay tuned. 34. Module 5, class 2: Managing expectations: Important aspect of communicating with stakeholders is managing expectations. This is the aspect where you need to maintain certain level of product, loyalty and hype. But don't overblow it, make sure that the users are not easily disappointed. And if something mediocre or just simple, straightforward scamming, don't make them too excited about it as also several other aspects here, but we'll get, let's start by saying that you should never give promises you can't keep. You need to make sure that whenever you promise something, it's a lot of basically, if there's promise, there will be a delivery and nothing can stop you. If not, if you have any level of uncertainty, don't promise L. That also goes on over hyping stuff. You are not a marketing person that's supposed cells. You are a product manager. You excel at being data-driven, transparent, accurate, and this is how your communication has to be. That doesn't mean that you have an accountant and just provide the numbers with no friendly spice to your communication. Let me give you an example. Since adding feature x by our competitor improved his product absolute by 15 percent, we should expect a grove of similar metric by at least 10 percent. However, given that we learned from competitors mistakes and provide a better value offer with our wish, I hope to report even greater increase soon. You can see that there's a clear differentiation between the data analytical estimates and the god optimistic feeling, which is clearly stated as I hope now the promise, just an opinion and it's okay as long as it's structured as a one-off thing to say when you are making promises is to acknowledge Murphy's Law. Murphy's law state in obviously comedic fashion that if something can go wrong, it will go wrong. Mason. So mentioned of if everything goes according to plan, if nothing goes wrong, if the Arab suddenly doesn't turn into a pandemic chaos, we should be able to follow the plan. That's that something that tissue this slide insurance in case something really unlikely will happen to prevent you from making the promise, all delivering on it. Also, if you know that there's a delay with the product, tried to communicate it and acknowledge it as soon as possible, as soon as there is no way of avoiding it. Sometimes, when possible, and especially when communicating to high level manager loosely, Kohler's tried to provide an alternative that if you can deliver a feature with certain properties by the time promised, you can try to see if you can deliver something with a bit narrower scope. Try to find some consolation prize. Something that you can still deliver, though it's not to the initial promise. Well, I said Dad promising. I think if you are not absolutely sure, but sometimes that will happen that despite being absolutely sure, something will go wrong and you have no control over it. Let's just life. Finally. Don't be afraid to say no. As we stated in the diplomat portion of the course, saying no as something that you have to do and saying that something won't happen. It's also managing expectations. As long as you use the principles that I provided in the class, that's all for now for managing stakeholders expectations. Let's move to the next class. 35. Module 5, class 3: Emails: I recall when getting an e-mail was an exciting thing. Piece of information materialized from some other being out of thin air on your my computer screen and I was mind-blowing. Now, it's mind-blowing when I get an actual paper met my inbox. These days, emails are crucial part of product managers like this is an aspect of communication in to maintain. And I'll tell you how to do it best in this class. Funny enough, the first advice I have to give is to sand as few emails as possible. This is not the best way to communicate. You don't want to spend all your day writing e-mails, reading e-mails. Try to move the communication to meetings. To meetings first and foremost, the communicators are even worse, but we'll get to that in the next class. So how to limit, how to make sure that whenever you send an email, it works best for you. First of all, disable your email notifications and make sure to only check your emails at specific times of the day. No one expects you to ride them back asap. If they do, they have communicators and if you don't, there's still an actual phone to call you or come to you if needed. There are ways to reach if something's urgent and if it's not, it can wait. Remember, you are the master of your time on your calendar and not your e-mail, not your push notifications than anything else. I mentioned before. Use that color-coding animus. It really helps you organize and knowing where you stand and treating your inbox as yet another to-do list. For that, you need to keep it nice and tidy. Since you want to interact with your emails as little as possible, make sure to unsubscribe and block every e-mail that comes away that you don't want to receive. Of course, there can be corporate span that you need to watch that sometimes has having potting for you, sometimes doesn't. But it's up to you just if you know you don't want to read it, you'll never read it and you don't want to receive it. Save yourself that free seconds every time you need to scan for an email and just never received it in the first place. If you don't want to receive a lot of emails, tried to close stuff quicker by not replying to an email, but simply going to a person and simply talking it over. While one-to-one communication is the most efficient, there are some body language and everything can be sorted out quickly. Sometimes, especially now in a post COVID era, you will need to use the communicator or a phone or a meeting to do it. And still much more efficient than bouncing emails back and forth for days on. If something needs to be sorted out quickly, it can be sorted out via email. That's just how it works. Plus, you get to unglued yourself from the monitor and walk through the person is in the office and you can talk to disperse. This is so rare these days. Now. If you still need to reply, keep it short. And to the point. And if you manage to replace email with a one-to-one interaction, it's good to still reply with the bolded points from that meeting and have something written in regards to your common understanding and what you agreed upon. This might be counter-intuitive to what I said previously, but a written record, it just basically meeting notes that you share with their second person on that meeting. This will really help you to argue. Since we segue into writing emails when you are writing a big scoop, our newsletter, never make it too long. Tried to have a short email that has just links to biggest, bigger pieces of the article. You who should prefer your e-mail recipients to read through the bullet points that are easily visible on the screen, and then click on the details if they needed, rather than scroll through gigantic big e-mail, not reading about what they actually should care for. Because different parts of the email will concern different stakeholders. For example, I would say that the biggest email you want to write is as long as one word page long. Now more. And when you are writing to more and more senior stakeholders, the email should be shorter. Ideally, if you have something important to communicate the person way above your pay grade, it should be really like six sentences at most with data, with what happened and your recommendation, for example. Also, delicate and sensitive subjects are best dealt on one on one meetings, not on emails. So she need to say sorry, you need to sort out something. Though it personally, unless you are addressing a big fuck up that everyone needs to really read a formal statement. However, this formal statements should also be followed by an open-door meeting with every one invited. So if you really messed up, people can still ask you questions and have an open discussion. After you send a statement email, whether that's something wrong that happen the product with what you said or whatever the misconduct that happened that you need to address. It got a bit grim. Let's go back to the more lighter elements of day-to-day advice on how to deal with your emails. And if you are in a situation where you need to propose a meeting, don't propose it via email. Just set up the meeting. These days you are able to see everyone's availability. Men just put in a meeting where everyone can talk when you feel you need it to best sought out the situation. Now, they will sell. Please, please please please take as much care to it as possible. Make sure that he didn't misspell any names. Ran it through spellcheck, like Grammarly, very detailed. So the read is just awesome. Double, triple check it and make sure that any typos, and I guess I missed a typo in wherever I work. But I still try hard to make sure that my e-mails are to the best standard of grammar and word choice. Try to make your email professional. Use the company font is derived. Filter everything you can to make sure that whatever has left your inbox is as good as the vision of your product, your ultimate product. That's all for emails for now, let's move on to the next class. 36. Module 5, class 4: Communicators: So communicators, emails younger brother, even more disruptive to your day-to-day work. Here, I have very similar advice. Make sure to control that communicates silent down the notifications. Do not check it regularly compulsively, just whenever you have a second or designate times to check them. If you allow yourself to be consumed by boss may be generated there. All you can do whole day is just talk, meaning Leslie often on the communicators, that's not what you want. That's the least think he wanted to actually remember is the calendar what controls your time, not the communicators. However, common sense applies. Communicators nor emails are like the most evil thing in the world. They do help as long as you don't allow them to take over your product management like there are also free more things I can advise. One, make sure that you regularly check the channels that you are subscribed to and leave the ones that are irrelevant to you, or at least mute them. And in fact, think once, twice, three times before generating new ones. The fewer, the more focus. Deborah. Also, if there's an important message that can be important to you later, use the pen option on your communicator so that you can easily recall the messages in the future if you know that they are important or you were looking for them for longer time and he found, he found them and he believed that in the future you may need to recall them once more. Finally, communicators are not your cloud storages. Don't rely on them to keep your files. You don't know how many phallic and keep. And also it's usually very hard to navigate. Dropbox OneDrive devils are the solutions that you need if you want Cloud Storage and if there is an important file downloaded, put it to actual cloud storage and use it. That's all for communicators. Let's move on with the module. 37. Module 5, class 5: Meetings: Meetings, the gathering of people inside a company that can be beloved for people who get energy from other people and hated by anyone else. How to make sure that meeting that usually takes some energy from you is productive and help. First of all, state or at least plan the meeting goal. Know what you want to achieve and have some kind of an idea how to achieve it. And for that, It's good to have an agenda and have some kind of time slots that you dedicate specific agenda items. Be sure to monitor the time, cut any unnecessary discussion. And especially if you call the meeting moderated and make sure that everyone is focused and on track. Now, we said that there should be emitting goal. And if you see a discussion has suddenly turn to something else that is equally or more critical. It might be good to sue, moderated and tell the participants to organize a different meeting for the very important topic. My personal advice, try not to overdo it with external stimuli and helpful, helpful tools like lego breaks or toys. If you start treating your meeting participants as kids and they might start acting as kids. I mean, sometimes the tools are helpful. But if you use them, believe in them, know how to use them, and don't just follow blindly some Mickey read on the internet. It's still a bunch of adults at work and try to keep it like that. Especially there's one technique, I hate, witches Asking the meeting participants on what do they expect to achieve from the meeting. It's not a democracy. There's someone calling the meeting who has a meeting goal, as we said. And the meeting goals should be achieved. Thus the moderation part. Now, sometimes if you really, really need people to focus, perhaps it's good to consider having a basket for phones which should be deposited there and given back at the end of the meeting. Of course, it's again treating your participants as children so maybe don't use it every day. So only as a super important meeting where you say, I really need your attention, full dedication. Thus, if you could please leave the form here for the duration of the meetings. We don't have anything critical that you need to monitor that demand. Ask. I recall having meetings where they were. It was just three of us in the room and perform. The participants had to form that they constantly checked. So I literally lost my patient that sometime took four of them postal, toss them into a corner. And finally, I could have my meeting goal within like next five minutes about how to lead them in. Try not to just sit around and talk. Stand up, move around, but not too quickly. Just roam around the room. And what you want to do is to catch eye contact with people in the room, but not obsessively. Just like 5, 10 seconds. Switch person, 5, 10 seconds, switch person and others, few seconds. And like Earth and not from people to people who can sometimes look at different places at the meeting room. But catching eye contact also helps you to keep participants focused. Another thing that energizes the room as using anecdotes that you involve someone in the room. And I mean, that real story, but say, okay, imagine Peter here is using our product and it suddenly is all red. What do you, what do you feel better because of that? So make it interactive even if there aren't any toys around. Now, remember also to have meeting notes every time whether you take it at someone, takes it for you. So always designate someone who will have those notes. And ideally also make sure that they're meeting ends up with a list of action points that has designated person and a deadline. Only then there'll be actually actionable. You can use your to-do list in traveled to recall them if there are any tasks that you need to follow up on, whether it's for you or if there are any other tasks assigned to other people after such a mean. Now, meeting is not only about leading the meeting, it's also about organizing them. Has mentioned take breaks. If you have a series of meetings. But also don't just keep people in the room, tried to get to the goal of the meeting soon as possible and end the meeting quicker. Only can as much as you need to be aware of the number of meetings and how to organize them. It's also something you can teach the team to do. Because breaking your work for a meeting is not only about going to the meeting, going back to work meeting Burke. I mean, if you write something and you are disturbed for a longer time for any, then you need to go back to it. It's now the play Paul's situation. You and your developers need to get into the right state of mind. Recall where they stopped writing and what should be next. So definitely, definitely try to put your meetings and blogs or have your developers have meeting in blocks and have prolonged spans of non meeting time. Finally, remember that delivering the increment, whether it's in Sprint or any other ways of organizing your developers work has the highest priority. So make sure that you and your team don't just blindly go to every meeting that's being assigned. In fact, makes sure that if you have a meeting invite, you decide whether you should even go. You need to prioritize your time heavily and if you feel there are better ways to spend your time, just denied invitation, apologize. Say that you need to do something else and find a different time, if any. That's all in the subject of meetings. Let's carry on with this communication model. 38. Module 5, class 6: Presentations: Presentations. This is a topic pretty similar to meetings of course. But unlike meetings, presentation is just usually one-way flow of information for a time until there are questions. So you are not the moderator, you are the presenter, you are in the spotlight. You usually have some PowerPoint for that. And how to make an excellent presentation. Glad you ask. First of all, very important. Powerpoint is not your presentation. You are the presentation. The greatest presentations are nothing more than a great session of improv where you have some key notes to the liver. That's all it is. You should not memorize your presentations by heart. Instead, just the, the bullet points that you want to deliver are what you need to remember. In fact, the best presentation I ever attended, Head 20 Iron Maiden album covers. And though they had nothing to do with the topic of the presentation, they were just there too, accompany the presenter. And he had just a quick observation on each of the album cover. While at the same time he would just present their professional normal topic he had on the subject, you make the crate presentation, not the great slides. Many of the advice I gave you for an exile meeting also apply for an excellent presentation. Keep poking around, jam with the eye contact. Use people in the room has an examples and make them interactive part of the presentation. Also, use hand gestures in a limited fashion. Not like too many. Don't just put your hands in the pocket. No. There is this business technique of a pyramid. The third eye that you can use that looks professionally, is still open. Your body language says that you are comfortable, that that's the optimal one if you don't know what to do your hands, putting them behind you is not good. Crossing them is not good, and putting them in your pockets is also sub-optimal. While a joke or two to re-energize the audience is a good idea. Having a joke on every slide and making fun really derails your delivery. So don't change your presentation into accommodation. Now, I told you where to keep your hands. I didn't tell you that they should remain empty if possible, then you'll be tempted to play around before you hold in your hands, that doesn't look too good. Now, while the PowerPoint doesn't make the presentation, it's good to have a good presentation in PowerPoint to accompany you if you are using it. So the main rule here is, the fewer, the better. You shouldn't have a presentation where people have to read something. If you have a list, just make it very, very short bullet points. Maybe don't even put words on the slides, but pictures that you know what they mean and you can refer to them. When you're presenting data. Make sure to only present as few as possible relevant numbers that help you deliver your keynotes. Nothing more. Don't put like a full table. Don't prove the annual statistics, nothing like that. Maybe a chart is okay. Put like two or three numbers that you can differentiate using size and colors. And that's it. That's how I would also avoid using weird transitions or animations between the slides. And finally, for those of you who have stage fright and don't feel too comfortable in front of people. The only advice I have to give to you is practice. This will eventually come and you'll ultimately be comfortable with presentations how the anyone is very good at it initially. And if you get lost, a bet, if you were flawed Fang a bit. It's okay. You are among friendly people and very rarely will you be talking to people who are not in your closest circle. So just practice and if you really do have some very important presentation that you need to deliver excellently. Again, practice or ask your manager or your team to have a practice session with you to give you feedback that that's okay. That's all for this class. Let's carry on. 39. Module 5, class 7: Motivating the team: Motivating your developer. This is very important. People who want to work, who feel energized, who have high morale will be much more productive and will be a joy to work for. So how to achieve it? First of all, realized that as I said previously, developers are also your stakeholders and you need to care for their needs. To do that. Be transparent. Don't hide facts, don't be negligent. Just take the time to explain everything, maybe several times. So the developers understand your way of thinking. They understand why the backlog is prioritized the way it is, this kind of stuff. And if there's something weird going on, be transparent about it. And the only exception is here that, as I said previously, don't transform the high, higher management to a bogeyman. But generally you want to be truthful and admit mistakes. If you do something wrong, don't be stubborn. And admit that you did something wrong. And be honest about it. When you create documentation for the team. Be very thoughtful, detailed, and put a lot of work into those documents. Because for one thing, you have higher chances of actually getting what you want to. The developers will really appreciate that you put so much work into that for them. So they have to deduce less when talking to different stakeholders who have requests. Assume that no change is trivial. That even if it's about changing translation or a single string, you don't know how difficult it is until your developers have the chance to say, now, your development team will have their own goals. And you help to keep high moral. If you take those into account when planning your roadmaps, print quarter, whatever. If there is a clash between what you want to achieve and what are the developers goals. It's not their fault. What you need to do is to talk to their manager and figure out why do they have goals that make it more difficult for you and do whatever you can to change them. There's no point bringing that up with the developers. Just go to the source and make sure you are all in sync. Otherwise though we just conflict. Finally, what I always like to do is to have my development team be the first recipients of any good or bad news about the product. So they would be my gossip grew whenever there's any tests running or we just really something and the numbers are pulling in. So it's the team who called it the thing. Who first listen to what the result is. Unproven, really, really motivated. That's all in the subject of motivating the team. Let's carry on. 40. Module 5, class 8: Resolving conflicts: Everywhere where there are people that are calling you as a product manager need to be that diplomat that can resolve how to do it. We touched on it and module 2, but let's now focus on the, on the subject Charlie, be the bergamot. It's now about egos. It's not about who's right. It's about making sure that everyone is comfortable. People's anger and frustration comes from multiple different places. So the first thing you need to remember is never to ask collate a culture. Never, never make it public, never in front of everyone. But let's focus on the details. Whenever there's differences of opinion that is getting out of hand, just, just be modest. You may be 99.9% that you are right. But there's always data or sources to check whether you're right or wrong. So whenever someone has a strong opposite opinion, just refer to data, refer to sources, and find the actual objective truth, and don't have it as two different opinions, even if your opinion is definitely right. In fact, such conflict can be easily turned into discussion if you just keep your cool. And if there isn't data to refer to, just make sure that there's consensus in the room. And you don't put yourself in a situation where it has to be like you want because you're the product manager. Now, the product managers are here to consolidate and every input is worth listening. And without this, follow your team, it's really hard to proceed. Be wary of any personal or emotional conflict with people. Make sure they are not visible. That if you simply don't like someone or someone doesn't like, you, don't let that affect your professional relationship and how you work if you are not the centerpiece of the conflict and there are just too angry people in the room. Don't be afraid to be a mediator to make sure that the people are getting gradually out of the anger state. And regardless whether you are part of the conflict, Oreo just mediating, it's really good to de-escalate the conflict and keep it private. The more show it makes them more people gossip, the worse the consequences. They're harder to get back to normal. So that's what you want to make sure that any conflict is private. And even if someone has a tantrum, Boris, really, really angry, just let him or her go, let this person van't somewhere else, not in front of everyone. Simply to protect this person. You don't know why the individuals really angry. Maybe it's health or personal family issues. So just be aware of it and never assume the worse. Of course, there might be situations that you are not able to help. In that case, referred to HR and ask them for help. I'm narrating as if you are always this calm statue that above everyone, the bigger man. But you are also fashion but you will also get angry. You will also lose your temper. And that's where you have to prove that you are the manager level, that you are able to control the emotions. And if you feel you can't control them, then leave the room, come down, come back, don't let it escalate. Also as part of being the bigger man. Don't have a situation where there is a conflict. It turns out you a ride. And then you smirk and you are there were no, Be humble. Okay. So the data shown that my point of view was the correct one. Let's carry on with this assumption. Now. Final remark here. I've been in situations where my stakeholders were not technical enough to have good communication with me. Which led to the situation where they were getting progressively angry and frustrated because they couldn't vocalize what they want to. Be wary of that. Be patient and try to ask questions until you get the right answer. If someone is nervous and frustrated might just mean that he has problem communicating and you shouldn't be there to help. That's all in terms of resolving conflicts. Let's go to the next class. 41. Module 5, class 9: Escalations: Escalation. This is your ultimate nuclear option when every communication channel has failed. And yet you can't get what you need in order to achieve your product goals. How to proceed? First of all, start from the foundation. Built a culture where people around you keep their promises, especially when it comes to you. You're the first lead by example. Promises are very important. And if you promise something, you need to deliver it. And you'll need to expect people deliver on their promises. And while trust is important, also, don't be a pushover. If someone doesn't meet their promise, It's a big deal. You can't be in a situation where people promise you stuff, done, deliver and just wave it off. Now, you need to be consequences. And if someone promised something, it needs to be delivered. No matter the cost, literally. However, if everything fails and you need to escalate to your manager, to this person's manager or whatever, wherever, whatever is the escalation path, make sure to give your ultimate, tell the person that this is unacceptable and the promise is not kept, you will escalate. This is the final step where the person can still say, Okay, Okay, I'll do it. Okay. Yeah. Or just keep keeping are you making it even more valid to escalate your case? When you escalate, it's best to do it personally in a meeting and a conversation, not in an email. It's much easier to make your case and present what is going on, what was the history. Of course, it's good to have a written record of promises and show what the benefits are being held because of the promises that kept. There might be situation where the escalation is actually needed because you might be in a very good relationship with the person you are escalating against and not this person's fault that your promise is not delivered. And it was his or her manager who made the call. And then you have to go upstairs and let the upstairs have the fight for you. That's that's something that happens. And the fact that you give the escalated person heads up might be a blessing to that person because it will be relieved that he or she is no longer responsible for the decision that this person did not really make. Finally, if you escalate something, be sure to keep it to the very end. It's not that you escalate and you see what happens. Make sure that there's a deadline at this. A person attached to the escalation do not wave the white flag until the person who escalated to dazzle, fight like a tiger to get the results you need. That's the end of this class and this module. And I'll see you in the next series of classes. Thank you. 42. Module 6: Before the Product development – turning order into work: Module 6 is all about planning your products developed. It's about finding the right information and putting them into meaningful plants. This is a module that's very useful for pre-production senators and experienced product managers for those most important product measures. I do think that you already have those. However, why not refresh them and have a different point of view? So please take the whole module and I hope that you enjoyed and learned a lot. See you in the class. 43. Module 6, class 1: Ideas: A great Rockman, Keith Richards literally dreamt of the first riffs. I can't get no satisfaction. What he did is he had a notepad next to his bed and written down the idea once he had a dream about. Well, I don't think we do have product ideas, but, but just in case, keep a notepad next to your bed. In fact, carried around and have a dedicated Trello board or Slack channel or whatever API prefer. That's only focused on getting your IT S So you can scribble them quickly and then review later. So if there's a small passing genius thought, it won't go. But let's think of more reliable sources of ideas. Rather than just momentary spark of brilliance. Primarily, it will be your stakeholders, whether it's the development team, the management team, everyone around you will have input and ideas. Be opened to them, listen to them, and make sure that ideas are at least considered. Some may sound wacky, some may not fit your vision. That's okay. As long as you don't reject them there and learn without any consideration. However, for a more structured ideas stream, I would suggest you work closely with your help desk staff and have a bi-weekly or monthly meeting where you review the stream of suggestions, change requests that come directly from the client. Now, there is a problem because it's obviously only the vocal clients and users that get to talk via this channel. But again, it's also a great opportunity to have some kind of a track record on what was requested, rather than just jumping on individual information. Here, I have a table that helps me always to determine what should I do. Look at the table here. This is a framework, I guess, or at least a point of reference on how to proceed, depending on the size of the client and the frequency of the requests is mostly applicable to small companies where there are limited number of clients and losing any of them might be tricky. So as you can see on the screen, we can have onetime requests or reoccurring. Those can come from small, regular, or keep lions. Obviously, requests from key clients that support your company and contracts depend on that. It would be good to listen and just do it. Obviously, not one-to-one. You have to still make it work for your product and fit it. So it works for all other customers. But still it's nothing to be ignored or requests from regular clients unless it's not like a brilliant suggestion that you want to implement. Just acknowledged the requests and see what happens next. Until the same requests keeps on piling up. You should not change your roadmap, your plans depending on of course, you can. If your company is small enough and you can afford it, you can propose it will be added for additional cost. With small clients, request that only appear once should be most likely ignored. And if small clients keep asking for something, there might be something to it. But also maybe it would be a good idea to offer doing that other additional rate. However, coming back to the sources of ideas very similar to your support, ask our user comments whether they come from Play Store connected to your mobile app or your dedicated comments section, or maybe you have a comment e-mail address. We spoke about that in the communications chapter where you should be able to provide media for your clients, customers to voice their concerns. We're here. That's also a great source of ideas. You can also talk directly to the clients by organizing so-called client interviews. Will have a class on it later. So let's pause it for now and move on to the next source of ideas, which would be say Surprise, surprise Internet. Make sure to follow up on industry, blogs, news articles, authorities in your field. This kind of sources, especially the competitors, make sure to follow the biggest 5 and perhaps some small emerging startup that might be dangerous as the time goes along. Finally, internal idea. Searching sessions are great. You can either organize a brainstorm with your team, make sure that it's almost celebration AT team building exercise. That helps people just have some out-of-the-box thinking, be creative. Maybe something will appear similar to hackathons where not only the ideas are presented, but they are actually being coded as some kind of proof of concept. I'll be honest with you, nine out of 10 times nothing consequential appear from such a meeting. But the tenth time might be a real stroke of genius. Something that was with having nine hackathons or internal and brainstorming session that produce anything interesting. That's all for ideas for this class. Let's move to the next one. Thank you. 44. Module 6, class 2: Market analysis: Understanding your market and your competitors is an essential part of the process. You need to dedicate a lot of effort to know what you are doing. How are you being seen on the market? And what are your competitors? How do you compare and how the product is being perceived in contrast to those competitors? Let's look at the base. Because lack of anything product related, the problem comes first. So when you go to a market or you are already done, then you have several situations that you may encounter. You may be the first product to solve a problem state. And the question then is, are you ready? The first one? Has there been someone else who tried to solve that problem and failed? Why did this person file or is the problem stated an actual problem? Do you need to actually solve for people? And if they don't know, they need a solution, how would you make them solve the problem? They don't see? It's like we have this saying, which is untrue by the way, that if you ask people in the early 90s, what do they need for the transport, they would say that they need faster horses, right? Or like people didn't know that smartphones will be so cool. And that's why Blackberry and Nokia, they are because they didn't see the genius or the first iPhone initially. And when they did it was to light. Your product might also be solving a problem that is already being sold by another product. But there will still be market for you to sell your product. There are still potential clients and not everyone that had state of problem went with your competitors. This is how this course came to be. I looked at the offer available on the market and decided there is still space for yet another course. You need to know what is the difference between you and the competitors so that you can tell the difference. Maybe your cheaper because you can do the same at a lower cost. Maybe you are faster. Maybe you provide higher quality, or maybe you just took the best of all that the competitors had to offer and created the ultimate product camera that has the upsides of all of these products and know of the downsides. For example, that this is all that can happen in which you, as the project manager have to be aware of. Finally, you can have nerve wracking situation where you are going into a market with a saturated situation where everyone that has a problem hasn't solved by one or other product and everyone is quiet contempt. So this is the hard-core version of the previous situation where you have to be so different, so innovative that you will steal the clients from your competitors. Lie called. Initially clubhouse has done by taking clients away from YouTube, from Spotify, from other platforms that basically did the same. Or how currently AWS or Microsoft Azure is doing web hosting, which was done by many different providers for ages. And now those two companies emerging because of the big resources, they could provide a burst hosting solutions in the world. When do you know where you stand, new market. You need to understand your clients and that we will do an client segmentation and class and a few others. But let's jump to the next point. Understanding your competitors, analyzing their interests are true. They are in need to be able to estimate their client base. You can do it for example, using the number of downloads in mobile apps shop, or by websites that show you how many clients companies have, maybe are competent or shoulder revenue publicly. And based on that, you can more or less estimate the number of users appliance. So a potential market for you, the people you can win over. Then you need to be able to compare your product against the competitors. Do a feature analysis, see the key differentiators, talk to clients that left your product to the competitors one or the other way round. And they have the same, or simply start using the competitors product if possible. And try to map the key differences, whether they are an advantage or disadvantage, and how threatening or hurtful are the disadvantages that you have. Maybe your product is a bit slower, but it's far cheaper and can hold more records. It's very hard to build a perfect product that has no downsides. So it's all about knowing what your clients prefer and what they can live with. Finally, the price. If all fails. Very often the cheapest solution, we'll give it a position that guarantees suppliers. But how low can you get? Can you not earn a profit for some time while you earn market position, respect and you'll live off the investors money. Uber das for many years now I don't believe they ever tell the profit, but the investors believe that eventually this will happen. You can try another strategy where you provide a very luxurious high level alternative that is more expensive but also more top-notch top level and makes them compromise. So rather than a live of large number of small clients, you are investing into their premium mark. That's all for this class. Let's carry on. 45. Module 6, class 3: Client interviews: Client. Because you always need to have some kind of direct line with your clients. For a big B2C companies, that might be very hard and you will probably use research or client Success departments to talk to people. But it's always cool. Point of inspiration, different point of view, a refreshment to see what the client has to say. Remember, the clients are your greatest stake holders. So you really need to understand that deeply. So client interview is usually conducted by a phone or in the room. Whatever. It's all about, just talking to you, use the client and saying his or her perspective. In that meeting that call, You are just the interviewer. You ask questions and you are there to mostly moderate, not around. The worst you can do is to influence the person that you're talking to, to somehow lead this person to a specific answer. And you have to be very, very objective there. You need to be focused, patient, and engaged. This is like this type of meeting where you leave your phone out of the room just so that you can be there 100% fully Daron that while you shouldn't be emotional, let your client user be emotional if he or she is really passionate about something. Added go lad dispersal event and you need to take everything that's been phronesis. Meeting should take about 30, 45 minutes. But remember, this is your inspiration source. So this person has more to say. Let him or just see everything that this person has to say about your product. And as mentioned in the previous classes, it's good if it's an X client that left four competitors or someone that came in from competitors to your product. Those are usually the greatest point of reference for people who either were really dislike your product and have strong opinions on one's wrong, or people that see the greatest benefits. And understanding those benefits, understand the point of view helps you to create product further on. Now, when I said that you shouldn't lead the interviewee to certain answers. I also need to stress that it's all about the questions you ask, and thus question should not be leading. This should be very open. So the client can basically Babylon, whatever it comes to hero Hermione. Examples of such questions. What do you think about our product? How can we improve our product? If you are in charge of this product, what would you change now that you have this product was the number one thing you're able to do about that you were in before, how would you feel if you could no longer use this product? What should we stop doing? Why or why not? This is obviously the fall our question too many of those. And finally, what are the solutions have you considered? Finally, closing. Remember, this isn't fishing for direct backlog. So the task list items, what you are here is looking for inspiration, some guidance or clues on how to proceed. You can't use a single person's opinion as your guiding light as something that is universal and undisputed. This can be a point of research. This can be a new theme. This can be a new way of thinking for you or potential, really potential backlog. If something doesn't work for a single purpose and you then have problems replicating this bad. This person mentioned, I don't think you should then put a task for us or men developers just to thin the single person's BAC, narrow, you are looking for high level guidance on how to develop your product by having different perspective, having someone else in the room other than your usual stakeholders or people that bring you ideas. So that's all for this class. Let's carry on. 46. Module 6, class 4: Strategic thinking: This class is different. In every video I'm making for you, I tried to focus on a very practical aspects and tell you what is the theory that you can apply and what is useful and work. This one is more of a philosophical class, strategic thinking. Thinking ahead. We touched on the subject in Chapter 2 when we spoke about the features of a great product manager and the fact that this product manager needs to think ahead. And this is stressing that when you plan your product, you tend to sometimes forget yourself in the world of day-to-day issues. Making sure that every sprint is filled with meaningful tasks and that everything is ready for the next and perhaps two sprints had. However, in great product manager will go far beyond that. That you, as a product manager, needs to know what to do in the next 3, 6, 12 months, two years, three years, as long as possible. The great product manager will be able to identify different patterns that will appear. You will be able to analyze the market and recognize changes that are happening and how they can affect you, whether they are dangerous or it's a hyperplane that you need to get out. You are in deep space mission of the future of your product and you'll have to go where he had never gone before. And that was, by the way, a mandatory standard. Coming back to the beginning of this video, you sometimes are stuck in a situation where you are planting that tracks of the train that is actually going. But what you need to do is to be planning the network of Rails, Froude the whole country, and then have a plan or idea or vision on what to do if the trains become absolutely. This is like this level of long-term strategic thinking that a very good product manager should have at the back of his or her mind and don't confuse IT. Strategy is not the prioritization of task. This is that rarely very long-term thinking. It's a cliche to say, but be ready to predict the unpredictable. It's an exercise that you can do your team actually to meet together and listen what can happen with our product that no one is foresee? What is the greatest danger and the greatest opportunity. You can use a bit of swath for that. Also, you need to be aware that having strategic thinking doesn't mean that you have to have a precise plan or a roadmap for the next 10 years. Narrow. It's more like if you would be pitching 10 season TV series that you have a screwed for the first episode. You have the outline for the first season. And you have the story beats and more or less plan on what happens throughout the next 96. That doesn't mean that in those 10 years, the show doesn't get canceled, or the actors quit. Or you will find that some story beats don't work and they have to be replaced with another ones. Or something is extremely popular and it had to capitalize on that. But that doesn't change the fact that they won the moment that you present your series to potential producer, you don't have an idea on what happens in the next 10 seasons. More often than not, product managers will just run around very tired and making sure that their next episode is ready to film. And that's not how the great product managers should operate. But why? Why to do this? Even when I'm saying it might never come to fruition. That is basically the philosophy that sci-fi over product. Why bother to inspire, to prove to yourself and to your stakeholders that you are a subject level experts. That you can look at the board on which your product operates and play the full dimensional chess that places you as your products, space, expert, profit, I want to say at least a visionary. That's the right way. The visionary of your product space. Make sure that whenever you have such Views, ideas, you write them down. Perhaps you make a presentation or a meeting once every six to 12 months where you show how you see the market changing and how you think long-term you should react. This would be a great auditorium for a discussion, for exchanging ideas and very creative brainstorm at an awesome thing to try. And remember, don't limit yourself with what's possible or impossible. Like in that machine learning example, I presented few classes ago that took while 27 years to have technology to utilize the concept. You have to go beyond that. It's really often almost like writing this sci-fi book about your product. But the catch here is that the right, the sci-fi and make it plausible, relatable. You really need to understand that product Bohr imagined. You can't just speculate, what should I do with my taxi business when personal transporters are there? Oh, that's an interesting fact because they are absurd. And as far as we know, transporters at, as shown on different sci-fi show will never happen. But what would you do to your taxi business if this technology came into fruition? And you know that personal transport is going to die soon. How would you carry on? When would you invest in switching your taxes to personal transport? Or maybe you could rebrand yourself as retro experience of travel. When everyone would be selling their cars, you'd keep them because they would be needed for the movie industry or salvage. There's lots of possibilities and I'm no expert in transport. And I'm just speculating to show you what I mean in the highly philosophical class. Strategic thinking is also about not being afraid to take risks. Take for example, Riot Games came producer, who was the first one to capitalize on a free to play product. The League of Legends game. That only business was to sell cosmetic items. So items that would change the appearance of the game characters and gay. And that made it great. Everyone could join a game. It was free, it was great. And people loved the idea of expressing themselves as individuals, as having something unique. And again, they, that they could pay more or less small amount of money, they still can. And that drives the business and the game to this very day. It's not only the skins and cosmetics, but as a story for another time. Okay, I think it's enough to convince it to be a strategic thinker. Let's move on. 47. Module 6, class 5: Roadmap: Since we talked about strategic thinking, let's see the practical embodiment of that thereof, that document or a chart that shows your immediate plans. Of course, let's set a baseline here. We're talking about one year roadmap maximum. You can have a decade long road map, okay, but that's just unrealistic and seven glorious class. So much stuff can happen that will, it will get changed over and over again. So the roadmap, I believe, should have no more than a year early. And different people will look differently on the road map. One, we'll treat it as a rough draft of what will happen, what should happen, might happen. Others will treat it as a big promises you have to stick to, no matter what. When you're communicating at, Be sure to show your stance or simply elaborate that things can happen and nothing is final until clients. When you are putting all the ideas that we discussed in the previous class, interval map. It's good to have some date commitments, but they have to be very blurry. Can't just put a date on it and expect that everything will go according to plan and will laugh. If you commit an item on a quarter to quarter basis and just show that something will be done at the beginning or the end of the quarter. Is the level of transparency needed. Also, transparency with roadmap is actually hunting because what you want to do is to make it very easy to understand and easy to read. Wild transparency will dictate that more details should be there. Not put them, just have a document that is easy to answer, plan on a glance, and have supplementary documentation to elaborate on the details on specific item and its limitations. If some of the limitations are very hurtful, might cause confusion. Put an asterix over the topic that will help. Think about roadmaps like this is something of a business plan for a shop. Imagine that you're opening one that you know what you're going to sell, how many clients can visit you see or unique of when should the shop open when you graduate. But at the same time, when you open a shop, you have more data pouring in. You can discover that some of the objects in your shop has very little sail level, just because people are used to the old shop that's already there in the neighborhood. And what you need to do is to offer something that's short doesn't offer. So we have to diversify your business or give it a difference then just so that you keep afloat and the product works. There's no point to sticking to any roadmap. If it doesn't work. You can also color code the rope. So the on how you operate in different colors can be different sections of the product or different teams. Spinning aversion don't put many teams. Commitments on a single robot is better to always show commitments on a team partying basis, or at least fragment of product by fragment of product. Or if you have small products and product by product basis. If there's too much details on the document, it will be unreasonable. Of course, things can happen and the roadmap might need to be changed. Be sure to clearly communicate any changes happening to all the stake holders. And if you know that some particular stake holder will be affected and really counting on an item, it's best to set a one-to-one coal and explain the situation to him or her. So it won't count to this person as a surprise. So as you can see, roadmap is I really two-edged sword shows your plans. But if you, they'll stick to it, it can really hurt you if you don't play your cards, right? And I believe that you have been given a lot of tools to manage the situation until this point of the course. Now, building their own, but from the ideas that you gather from different sources should be mostly a product exercise. That means that you should do it alone. Mostly oral if your product team may be moved business analysts. But if it's your old map, make it yours to a point at sometime before you make it public. It's very good to show that road-map to your team and ask them for opinion. Now, why that? Your developers will have natural instinct to tell if somebody is very difficult, complicated will never happen or requires so many people didn't care. If something can be done and is the best value for the product. It's good to push to have a product driven development, test-driven development. Everyone is lazy. I can't blame developers for often not wanting to pick up a very challenging task. But it's not about their comfort. It's about getting the right value arrived result. It will obviously help to hear their point of view. Consider it and adjust the roadmap wherever as possible, or make sure to book more time for an island if they believe it's really complex. But it should start from you. And then the adjusted, not the yellow era. Now, presenting drove. This should be a small celebration. You should make it a big meeting. Have a lot of people invited, make it a big, big, big deal. This can be followed by a company dinner or at least him dinner. So you celebrate the opening of a new period. On the presentations, you the B, a higher level PM, if next to the road map, you would display projected improvement and estimations of that improvement to your KPIs for each of the roadmap. I realize this often very difficult. And it will be more of a guest animation. You can be transparent about it. You say, this is what I expect. This has no coverage in research, or it has depends on the item and your product. But expectations are not promises. So it, we'll only show that you know what you're doing and you have an idea how the item will affect the product and what do you want specific thing in their road map to achieve? Finally, take this opportunity to recall your vision strategy items. It's a good auditorium to recall those important conceptual tools. That's all for now for roadmap. Let's move on. 48. Module 6, class 6: Value and prioritisation: I extensively mentioned that the product needs to deliver value. Let's circle back to this topic. What is value in product? Because it's very important. You would say, probably improving the metrics, getting more clients, getting more payments, getting better traction. That's correct. But it's not the only thing that you perceive. This is what your business wants you to mostly pursue. This is why the product exists. But as a product manager and a great one, you can't only focus on that because value can come in different shapes and sizes. This can be even team's morale, products, speed, products, reliability, products, compliance, and finally, such abstract elements like complying to internal company politics or getting your manager's trust. Getting your teams track this situation where you have to play your cards, right? Play those five-dimensional chairs that will put you on the optimal place in the bowl. Funny enough, value can also mean preventing future losses. It's like in Vegas. If you didn't lose money, you earn money. Therefore often, value is very hard to estimate. However, all the only currency that you're working with. And it would be great if you could translate the value into monetary amounts, which is really, really difficult. Imagine if you need to fix a bug. And that delays very important feature. That might get stakeholders angry because they are expecting the feature to make a huge bus bring out of new improvements to the metrics and error. But what they don't see is the future losses that will come if the bag is not fixed. That's a very challenging balancing game that they have to play day in, day out. Also, you will find things that will bring a lot of value without really being and useful at all. Like when yo playing too. Match the compliance with new governmental regulations with GDPR, General Data Protection Act and that no product manager, I was excited to gather less data from the users, but it had to be done. Otherwise, big penalties will come to your product and companies for not respecting the privacy and the wild west of keeping personal data for marketing basically ceased. But those were the only days, the only bolts you could play and you had to adjust or leave. Even though you wouldn't say there was any value for the product. In fact, the value be lost because getting user data and tracking them got much more difficult was also the ultimate value because he could still keep your product and to keep on the market and not risk files, it would sink your company. Now, this value concept is great to use whenever you don't know what to do. Here on the screen, I present you my favorite technique to prioritize items, whether those tasks, whether those are actions I need to take orders prioritizing box in the backlog. So this chart will usually be divided into four sections. If something brings you a lot of value and requires very little effort, just do it. If something brings little value and requires little effort, that perhaps it's not harming that you need to do so quickly. Well, you might as well do it. Things get complicated when you have tasks that require a lot of effort and bring you a lot of value. This is where you need to plan. This is where you need to split the task into chunks and carefully on where you invest so much time to get that high amounts of value. Of course, it doesn't mean that you just need to be in their high value, low effort section all the time. Because then you want to do any thing that is ambitious, innovative, and we'll just play with strings and colors of the app. But on the other hand, that's not what you want to do, right? Though. You are in risk management business really. That whenever you issue any change, you risk it failing or you bad that you will get some gain. You sometimes to play big the wind bag. That's, that's just how it works. Obviously, there's the final fourth section of not going to happen where we have very high effort and low. Just take into account that this is not by there if solving is not going to happen as a cold that section with high effort and low value, when it's more to the middle, doesn't mean doesn't need to happen and it's just a reference point. And it will help you decide on the order of tasks, bugs, actions to do. That's all for this class. Let's carry on. 49. Module 6, class 7: POC - Proof of concept: Okay, you now know what the value is. Let's start creating it. The first thing to know is the POC, proof of concept. Something that he will develop with your team or the team will develop it on its own. Because proof of concept is a working piece of software, primordial product, where the core technical fundamentals are proven to be working for your future product. That's nothing you will be releasing to the highlands and probably not even shown to stake holders. If we go back to our analogy with the vision and strategy, the POC would be to go on the road, walking to see it even conceivable to make the journey. Only then can we tried to apply wheels, make it quicker and drive to our destination, which is the product version. That's the proof of concept. If you have a working proof concepts, then you have validated the basis for your product. You know that it's possible to proceed. You have done some internal tests and you are ready to create the next step of the product, MVP, minimum viable product, which will be that topic of the next class. But for now, let's hold onto PoC still. Why do this? Well, if you're going to achieve something with your product, then it's better to be sure that it's technically possible. Let's go back to the example of money hungry alarm clock. We know that this app and its basic first concept will be an alarm clock that takes money. So we need to be able to get paid whatever snooze button is pressed. So the POC here would be to see if you can create an automatic trigger that would take money from a credit card. And this gives you some guarantee that the whole product is doable in the first place. Obviously, it's not 100% guarantee. A lot of things can go wrong. And this is just some level of being certain that your product can be developed and threat, but it doesn't have to be complicated. It can be as single API requests sent to a server. So make sure that a server can communicate with another server. So computers, computer communication is possible and that might be just the unlock H. You need. Many people who create so-called emulators. So a piece of software that pretends to be a game console so that you can run old games on newer council. Begin with making a homebrew software that can only do one thing, show Hello World, which means that they have knowledge of the old software and a new software to the way, which at least allows them to show basic texts on the screen, which is usually a big milestone that allows them to proceed. Poc has another usage that you can consider, which is having at the TD update to your product. Nothing you'll release to the clients. But if you want to check something, have a playable demo, have an opportunity to feel and touch the change. You can just whack it in without any testing, without any checking for compatibility or going through safety procedures. And just do something on the site, see if the end goal is what you'd like it to have. An only then commissioned the proper work. That is the craftsmanship of coding rather than a dirty hack that you want to try. Finally, this can be either something that developers can do for themselves to help them estimate a big chunk of work they need to do a head. So invest into planning. Or as I said, you can use the dirty hack that I proposed for your own, destined to show to stake holders to have a demo so everyone can play around and say that this is like very early presentation. It has to have a lot of work and checking before it can be released an IRA. But internally, it can really spark amazement and cheering for a development direction that will inevitably lead to MVP. And let's move on to that class now. 50. Module 6, class 7: MVP - Minimum Viable Product: We have established that the best product managers are data-driven. That means that they need data to make their decisions. And one of the best ways of obtaining data that can prove any product hypothesis is MVP, minimum viable product. This is a limited version of the product you want to deliver. That's good enough, beautiful enough, functional enough to show to your users and clients and see what happens, see their feedback, and verify whether your plans are correct on track or you need a course correction. Let me stress, MVP is not a shitty version of the ultimate product. It's not the half baked potato. It's nothing like that. This is just a product of the risk limitation philosophy that you should take. Mvp can take anywhere from a few hours or days to craft, two months and even years. But it has the same goal to put minimum amount of effort to have something that will help you to prove your hypothesis, will look into different MVPs and their context in the next class. For now, let's keep on talking about the very concept. Because funnily enough, MVP doesn't even have to work, which you will see in the next class. It, it can be just an idea that cells, this is where you need to be able to determine what will be the best course of action. They need development? Or do you just need a pitch so that your users can tell me what they think about your next product development idea. Because in its car, that infant beautiful product or MVP is there to answer the questions. So as I said, to prove the hypothesis, you want to know if the metrics you plant, the change, change in a way. Is there enough interest into the MVP products? Are people willing to pay for it? And as I said, general users opinion and comments on whatever you have presented to them, that gives you also an audience at you can perform user interviews with. Now, make sure that you thread like a bad MVP, can kill otherwise brilliant product at its first steps. So it's a very hard work to the side, would actually consists of an MVP that's will differ from product to product concept of concept. Because you can do product. That is how MVP, or you can just MVP particular features or small improvements. A good way to look at MVP is, again, we've computer gaming world, where on Steam you often have early access games. Where the core of the game, the core mechanics, graphic style, and IRR is already there working. You can play the game, bothers much to Silt of IDA. Those MVPs take mouse and years to create. But while you still take more years to finish up again, you already have a stream of revenue and feedback to help you to create the ultimate version of that. And here is another aspect of MVP. In to be aware that users don't like to be Guinea pigs that are being tested on. So you may consider being very transparent about the fact that you are EVP your clients. And this actually is more relevant for MVP ink, particular features where you, for example, can create the laps or testing section of your product so that the users know that whatever they'll be testing has some kind of limits can be still proved to errors and future changes. And that unlocks a group of users that are open to innovation. And it will be forgiving for any perfect aspects of your MVP. This way you actually get free Q&A and testers, right? That's a good way to do it. But that means that if you're going to do it this way, still has to have quality. Mvp is not minimum working software and WB that, that does not even a thing really in terms of actual bringing per, cold products of the clients. One thing that is important to evaluate piece is that not all stake holders will agree with your definition of an MVP. Sam stakeholders will want an MVP to be released earlier. Some of them will require more quality hole features, small changes before it can be shown. Thus, it always helpful if you know what you want to do, pass them. If you have a plan that you're going to show to your stakeholders or clients, or how you proceed based on the feedback and on this experiments results, you now know what the MVP is, how to use it. Let's jump to the types of MVPs and my recommendations on where to use each particular type. See you there. 51. Module 6, class 8: MVP Types: You now know what an MVP is and how to use it. Let's look at different types of MVPs and evaluate them against the effort you need to create such an MVP and the data gets from it. Let's start with a demo. Demo is literally a limited version of your product. So if that's a computer game, then you can have limited number of weapons, limited number of levels, and get feedback based on it is also an early access game, as we mentioned before. And that gives you a lot of information because you basically have the final product and its foundations visible. But you need to work long and hard to achieve that state. Next up, The Wizard of Oz. And this comes from the children's book or movie, where the Wizard of Oz, who was actually no wizard. He was just a guy behind a machine that simulated the match. This Wizard of Oz, MVP is an MVP. Welcome to the naked eye. To the user. Every thing that should be in the product is there and he gets the value he or she wants from the product. But from our end, there's not. A lot of things go in on the backend. Say this is a service that is about rating CVs and giving recommendations that is built on sophisticated artificial Intelligence. Wizard of Oz version of this product will have absolutely no artificial intelligence. Instead it will have human beings rating the CV and giving the feedback. Pretending to be artificial intelligence. That gives you the information whether people want this kind of service. Will they pay for it? And is it justified to invest to create such an artificial intelligence, the effort is slightly smaller than with demo EVP. However, the data is much better because from the point of view of the user, you are giving him or her the actual full product. Obviously this is not scalable because you may find your success and then you have so many requests CV that there won't be enough people to do that. And, and someone may start to wonder why does artificial Dentons takes so long to write your C. So this is something to take into account that past some point of confirmation of the hypothesis, you need to go along and create that bucket and that just celebrates success. Dummy MVP is a type of entropy where you just pretend to have staff that you initially promised. But in the end it's nothing got his promises. And what you want to do is to just check the interests of the users. So your damn, it's very similar to the next type of MVP, the arrow Vb. But here you are being transparent then, hey, thank you for being interested in the product. It's not actually working yet. We're working in it. How about you keep in touch to see what happens when we are ready. It's like when in Wild West movies, the facades of the buildings, where only the facades and there was no buildings. And behind them simulate the wild, wild west. It obviously doesn't take a lot of effort to create a user interface that looks like your final product, but it also doesn't give you reliable information. Users clicking around, don't tell you they are invested if they want to buy the product, or are they actually interested in being engaged in it? Another one is, as I mentioned, Aras VP. And this one is good when you want to test if additional option or small feature in the product will be something that the users walk. So basically you add the new that option to the interface and it uses click it. They just see, oops, it's not working yet. We'll, we'll be adding that soon. And then with the number of clicks, you will know whether interests and the interests merits additional work. I would say doesn't give you a lot of information, but it gives you the key information. If your teacher work just depends on whether the user wants to get to a section or the other. But this much work ahead and many other doubts that may appear on the way. It might be an MVP to an MVP. Let us check whether someone is interested in the option and then put together a demo MVP where you see if this interests actually converted to value to your product. Now next up, Paul MVP, where you straight up, ask the users to tell you whether they like the idea or not, or how do you think products should change? In Kyiv uses your ideas on how you could proceed. But poles are inherently unreliable because you only get the replies from people engaged enough to reply. So that can be completely unrepresentative group of users. And you may get wrong data that leads you nowhere or you will cater to go to a small number of users that want. Key view, the return you expect landing page MVP is your digital flyer. You don't pretend to her product, you're selling an idea, put, sign up to a newsletter on such a page, or just pre-sell your idea. This is a good way to task. For example, online courses before you start recording, you put on the offer what the course be about. Proposed ta-da. And people can already sign in. If you get enough people to married the work on the course, you proceed with recording. If there's a handful or barely any users and you don't want to commit to work, you just give the money back and apologize that the course won't happen. It is easy to put together. It gives you quite a lot of information on viability of your choices provided you play your cards, right? A very similar combination of the landing page MVP and pull MVP would be an e-mail MVP, which can be a follow-up to the landing page one where you provide more details. You ask questions yet either. I don't recommend it. There are very few people will consider your email MVP reasonable, and it might just fall into the spam. There is very little response rate on that. Now, not worth the effort, even if it's very little effort. Another one that is similar to a landing page on VPS, social media and VP when you try to sell the ideas via Facebook, Twitter, etc. Again, if your dedicated target is easy to reach via those networks and you get tons and tons and tons of positive feedback, then you're up to something, but usually it's very hard, unreliable and it's hard to drive traffic to such an experiment unless you have a running product and you just use your social media as a way to speak to us and ask them a direct question, which then can be a direct question and vp not listed here. But again, we're circling back to the poll MVP really. And off is a pole down or a single question down on a social network, provided you have enough followers, will give you a bit more information than just putting the questionnaire on your website or in a product, but also the pants on how many of their users are on your social networks. So again, if you have the right audience, there are enough of them. You may find it helpful. But you may also find that all the wrong people reply to your post and thus lead to wrong product direction. Final type. And a very similar one to landing page. And VP is crowd funding every where you use a crowdfunding page to basically create your landing page. And P back of the platforms, popularity and engines to drive traffic to your campaign. Again, already some cash in for your product and you don't need to generate your own traffic. But you also probably have to share some of the profit. Any who, this is how many of more than products came to be. And this is a huge opportunity, though, you have to take on some effort to create a crowdfunding page that will attract the backers. And very often you'll have to have some kind of a demo or a movie or something that's more or less works that you can show to the user. That's all for this class and this module. See you in the next one. 52. Module 7: Product development - turning work into product: Module 7 is another model that is a must watch all, regardless of the experience level. Maybe some of the things you here, you will already know. Bath, the importance of managing day-to-day operations, day-to-day tasks, and creating an effective environment for work and growing your product is the absolute essence of our. So without further ado, let's begin. 53. Module 7, class 1: Backlog: Their backlog then, many times already mentioned list of your tasks, all that by priority. Let's open this module talking about this particular aspect of your work. Let's start by saying it doesn't really matter what software do you use. The backlog in its essence will always be the same. It's always a prioritized list of tasks. And you can have sophisticated software like JIRA. Or you can simply use sticky notes on your wall if you need to. For some reason. It doesn't matter what is important to keep the single source of truth as in the backlog, as single backlog. Let me add and make sure that all the tasks are always in the right priority. That's the most important things you need to do in your backlog. But what are other important aspects? First of all, make sure that it's easy to read and it's transparent. You need to favor the names of the tasks so that when someone else, not from your team comes to your backlog, should be easy to understand what specific task is representing, even if the name is not 100% accurate. At bird to favor simplicity and transparency over too much detail inside the tasks title. It will be also great if you carefully chose some assign, assigned colors are icons for different types of tasks. So that in the backlog you can clearly see how many banks have you put there? How many investigations as an spikes, how many actual tasks? Which of them are new work, and which are them are just improvements of existing parts of your product. Also be sure to carefully choose columns that you will include in the table that is backlog. I must say that the most important thing is deadline and estimated time when you pulled the task to work. That completion date that's too risky. Time to begin work is also risky, but a bit more secure. It also helps if you are able to estimate with your team the complexity of a task and represented with a number that's also visible. In the first view of the backlog. You don't want anything in the backlog that will never be done. Never. Even if it makes you to go to uncomfortable situation who have a stake holder, don't just put phantoms there to please people. The backlog should be doable, viable, realistic, and to help you wrap your head around it, I would suggest to have no more than 50 items in the backlog. That's it. I said that you need one backlog. There might be some complimentary ones that I'll get into. I believe I already mentioned one where you can store your ideas, which is super private. But for now, let's just focus on the main backlog that you share with your development team. There are two ways of solving backlog. The classical one and the non-orthodox one that I actually prefer. The classical one is that you have all types of tasks or the analyst. And they are all bunched up together. When you create a sprint, you go from the top to bottom and just add as much as a team can commit to completion. I, however, prefer a bucket approach where tasks of different types are bunched up together. So on top we have tasks for the new addition to the product. Then you have tasks that are improvements of existing features. Then you have barks, technical improvements, spikes, this kind of ordering. And when you create a sprint, you try to take a little bit of everything. So there is always progress and diversity that is questionable even in the light of the recent value class. Because he can say that why would I do it like this? As the top items will always bring the top value in the classical ordering. That is true. Frankly, if well ordered, eat should have no difference whether you use the method one or two. However, sometimes comparing oranges and bananas is a very, very, very difficult. So to keep the diversity and make sure that you bet on different types of bats in terms of what will bring you the most value in the long run. I, I do feel it's easier to put up a sprint that addresses different aspects of the product at the same time with the bucket approach where possible. So basically bucket approach and the classical approach should be no different. And it's more of a visual aid because you can still choose to ignore certain buckets if you feel that certain other things to do are more important. So that's all for backlog. Let's move on to the tasks class, where we will make sure that the content of this backlog is meaningful. See you there. 54. Module 7, class 2: Task document/PRD: Tasks, or more specifically, the task document. This is your communication tool that you will be using to talk to your developers when you're not there. When all the long day sweets and mouse accumulate into creating a single document that is the basis of what will be introduced to the product. Let me share with you my favorite template that will help you whether the fine on what ultimately you want to achieve with your tasks. This is like this complete version that once signed off, there should be very little doubt. And that's should be able to pick it up and work from that. Given that they should also have been included in most of the steps that lead to create this document. And they should have all the unnecessary insight into it. Let's start the user story. This is a sentence that tries to convey on what will be the output and who is the target of the task, the structure and goes like this. As a type of user, I won't result. So that value gain. So what does that mean? Let's look at some examples in light of PayPal or start with actually money hungry alarm clock. As a manager who has a lot of problems getting up in the morning. I want a way that would help me to get up so that I will make it on time to my morning meetings already be something like this. As a new app user, I want to set up my PayPal payments quickly so that I can start using the app asap or something that is not really connected to the users. As a development team leader, I want to simplify the code behind payments so that it is more secure and can be updated easier in the future. This understand anyone that the general context of this task and can be often supplemented by a more detailed description. But this is a format that is proven to be working by many companies. An example of such authenticity approach would read. With this task, please add the ability for the user to connect uses up account with users PayPal account. This should be a two-step process that starts on the account registration screen and user profile screen. Just to say, a task can be actually called an epic, which is then usually collection of tasks that represent work that spans over a singular sprint. The task should be closable in theory in a single spirit. Afterwards, I add links to the designs. If those are relevant. Of course, bags or research won't have those links. But it's good to take them into account in terms of our ideal template. Those can be documents, pictures, or more likely links to dedicated software that helps to create the right styling and gave staffs All that is needed to translate the designer's vision into working capital. Very similar tracking, which is added next. And this will help developers to accurately at the code that will allow you to later see how the feature is performing and how it works in the context of the whole product. Some PMs will do a separate tasks for it. And the implementation indeed can be a separate task. But if you have an epic or I like the overlaying task, it's still good to have it there for visibility. This document has to end with the requirements section. Writing good requirements requires good communication with the team and making sure you know what's important. Because you can't go overboard with the details. You can have a requirement saying that design is being accurately implemented to the product, but you shouldn't be like picture a is present, picture B is present. This has this with this that's higher than this kind of stuff. That's not the level of detail you want to go into. You just want to make sure that your paul, basic requirements from the completed task to fulfill those should be done with your Devs. So you are all on the same page and any doubt or any confusion is being sorted there and then on the spot. So when it comes to actual work, there is no confusion and you're not being asked 10000 questions. Again, the better the requirements, the more time saved later on, making sure that the actual hidden requirements are met. One thing to know is to include the requirements. What should happen if things go rock? So what's, what happens if there's an error or a problem with reaching these powder of product that represents this task. So have like a requirements that represents so-called happy path and everything goes right and also considered what happens when things go wrong. So an example requirement list would go something like this. You know what? It's a lot of reading of boring stuff. So if you want to read it, just pause the screen and let's move on to a different approach to requirements. What is testing plan? It is very similar to requirements, but that creates manual for the QA team called the assurance on what to check for. And that is best done with acute expert or even better, you outsource those requirements section to the QA person to be built based on all the meetings you have as a team when creating the task. This different approaches now visible on the screen. Here is Barrett one. Here is page 2. And as you can see, they are not that different. But if you put it as a testing list, you have an easier job having someone else to do it for you. And that was my favorite format on how to create the task documents. Let's move on to the next class. 55. Module 7, class 3: Managing bugs: No software is free of box. They will be always there in some form of fashion. You can't escape. The trick here is to manage them, is to provide quality software that has some hidden or unlikely issues, but still doesn't make you feel is broken so that you are not constantly chasing each and every backed. Instead you're chasing the quality. How to manage those. First of all, you want to create a back vault and that can be a dedicated page in your documentation or a separate backlog. The purpose of volt is to keep known bugs that you as the product manager decided are not worth your attention. That means bags that are unlikely to happen or have very little impact, or simply do not create enough attention or problems to bother. Not every buttons to be fixed. However, this vault allows you to keep records of what was rejected. The same bug doesn't come into your backlog over and over and over again. And you have an opportunity to record why specific bug was rejected on what you wanna do is just have a review of every free or six months at the vote to see if something is not due to a promotion to an actual bug or something that is no longer a concern. For example, Bach's assigned two functionalities that were removed. Obviously, the bark can travel from backlog two volt back and forth depending on the situation. But the more the harm it causes, the bigger the frequency, the more value lost due to the back being around. So how to decide which backs to fix? Well, for one thing, he, our Google friend value effort chart comes into mind as their way of well, sorting out your bucks 10 once more exception though, thrive to prioritize bug fixes for the newly released features, you want to start a new piece of code with top-notch quality and top-notch focus so that any results are not obscured by some issues that you are aware of. And eat also builds morale when you take care of a newly released baby of the developers for the bags that are not apocalypse level and neat product managers attention. I suggest that you have a meeting every two weeks or every four to eight, maybe every three months, depends on your product, where you meet with your QA team and selected developers. And you decide what to do with specific box. Tried to give them priority, send them to the volt and estimate the complexity of the fix? He did and give them priority in the backlog based on that. Now, I did mention apocalypse level box. So this is when the software is down, no one can use it and the phone keeps ringing. My soldiering. And this is where the product manager needs to be reasonable to a level. There will be stress and there will be confusion. But as I was told on the University times, a story about a 20 engineers, one was a smoker, second one was a non-smoker and both had to fix a broken engine. Obviously, the non-smoker, just rush the work. He was a bit of panic and he couldn't figure it out. Well, the smoker just look at the engine for the about the problem. Put the non-smoker side, and managed to fix the issue quickly. The moral of the story is not for you to take on smoking, but to give yourself space and your developers to consider what's happening. Shouting, putting pressure, emanating stress really doesn't help anyone. If the software is down, everyone knows we are in red alert. No need to make it rather error. So to say. Instead, best to agree that interval of updates with the team and designate a single person that will tell you was the status. So you don't have to come in to the team's area and ask for an update. Does disturbing the flow of work for everyone, then you have to create the firewall between angry stakeholders and the people who will be angry them by fixing the issue. Finally, a little bit of philosophy with barks. Try to learn something new with each fix the bug. Maybe it's knowledge about that something should be designed by their hair, should have more redundancy or something was missing in the design. There's always an underlying issue for the bug. And the more knowledge you and your team accumulate over time due to fixing those bugs, the better software will be created in the future. That's all about the box. Let's move on. 56. Module 7, class 4: Technical debt: Technical debt, the bags, older, amino brother. What is it? Well, in a word or sentence, it's the sum of all potential development actions needed to rectify any technical issues or weak points of your product. So what does it mean? That could be obviously parks, but also poorly written code and scalable infrastructure, which means that it can handle only a limited number of users or relying on technology that is long, do you and doesn't provide the right security for the product and for the user's texting, technical debt and sexy. It's hard to communicate. It's hard to estimate value, but it still can be neglected. It's like maintenance. The house that is not being renovated regularly becomes ruined and eventually collapses. And is the same of your code. It needs maintenance. It needs to catch up to new technology, new standards, and new ways of coding that make the product or work quicker, more effectively and being future-proof, also a whelming thing called is a cold that developers will want to work with. And it will have less issues to achieve what they want because they will better understand what's already there. Thus, it may lead to better morale of the team. Some may say, this is not product managers problem. This is tech side and attack has to worry about. Yes, and for one thing, it's you who decides what makes this sprint. And you need to be aware of such thing as technical debt in order to allow it to this print. And sometimes the work will be so necessary and so big that it will take up all of the sprint or even several of them. How to manage that? That is very difficult challenge. So how to make space? To do that? I have few techniques to share with you. First of all, I like to collect value of the new additions or changes made to the product. So if I'm seeing that an update is performing exceptionally well and it generates all the KPI impact I was hoping to achieve. Then I allow more space into sprint for technical updates and maintaining technical. Dad tried to squeezing some small front-facing change that the user will experience so that the stakeholders want see a purely technical sprint. Another way to do it is to stretch technical work in several sprints. So the work progresses those slower than it would if all the team would focus on solving this one issue. This is particularly useful when you are dealing with very demanding stakeholders that just want to see new staff and are not really convinced that maintenance is the key, though it is a bit of your fault if you're not able to communicate why a technical change is needed, provided you are being convinced yourself, of course, things might be going sideways and the product might be struggling. So that's not really the best time to do any technical updates and useless. The lack of technical maintenance that push the product to bad place in the first place. But if you absolutely can't dedicate a moment to work on technical debt, puts some kind of a milestone with your team that once you achieve it, you will give back the technical debt privileges. So to say. You can also try to use value effort chart and put both maintenance tasks and their regular tax on the board and see how they pan against each other. Such transparent prioritization can help you either realize that you are wrong and the technical maintenance is varied you or the other way round show that developers that the work you're doing is more meaningful than what they think is very critical intense of that. Otherwise, you will start seeing your developers leaving, being frustrated. And they don't want to work with a team like that. You want to, for them to enjoy work as much as you should. And just to give you an analogy, it's like you'd be working on a dirty desk and no one would allow you to fix it up because you are supposed to work and not clean your desk, right? This is an analogy to show you how working with bad code can disturb your flows. That's all for technical that. Let's move on. 57. Module 7, class 5: Design: Ux design, the many of the aspects of product management. You are to create that products that are just functional. It's about creating products that delight, that are fun to use and gather engagement by providing user experience at this easy, intuitive, and makes the users want to share the product with their friends and family. In terms of product manager and the design, you'll be usually quite far from there. It usually comes down to process coal as wireframing. But I also don't think that the product manager needs to do that. In fact, in most of the cases, they'll be designated designer, UX experts, or the whole team working to create the interface that will be optimal. You don't need to be an expert in that. If you have tollens, if you have prior experience, that will be helpful. But at the same time, be sure to benefit from all the talents that are around you. And they worth your time towards really important managing backlog and looking for new ideas, how to develop your product. However, what to do to make sure that the process of working with designers is as good as possible. Festival. Your designer is there to interpret your words. When you need something. Give it in a way that leaves lots of space to design, to brainstorm, and Kyiv space so that the talent of the designer might flourish. They are not there to draw what you want them to draw. Make sure that you benefit from talents of people that are better than yourselves and let them grow. Also, make sure to involve your designers in every step of the way when that project product is being. Firstly brainstorm developed. They are part of the theme and involve them in the creation process very early on. So before the requirements and the need for the interface is finalized, they already have the right context and have some ideas, the present. When the often long process of creating a design, again, make sure to set up checks. And I mean like once per week, maybe twice per week, where you review the work that is being done so that you have a chance to say no or objective solving or just worry or concern. You are the product manager. And if in the end you say no to something, this is your prerogative. But if you say yes, then you are fully responsible for the effects of this design. So it's in your best interests to make sure that what's being created is something you can stand by. Which you can also help the designer by providing those wireframes or pen and paper, pencil drawings or how you imagine the work being done. But show it as a point of reference and not as He's do this for me in a way that developers need care about the right communications, setting the right expectations. Remember, creating beautiful UX. What can make or break the product, regardless on how well does it operate. Otherwise, be friends with your designers and good luck creating this beautiful product. Let's carry on. 58. Module 7, class 6: QA and testing: Testing is a very crucial period in development lifecycle. On one hand, you are almost there, your code is almost ready. It's almost about to release to the users. Magno needs to be tested and this can take long and bags can be found on improvements are needed and think stretches and you're getting frustrated and you shouldn't. Quality over quantity. And that's where the QA team comes in to help you out. Different companies will have different testing cultures. Some of them will be manual testing. Sam will rely on automated one. Most often than not, it will be a hybrid approach that some tests are done by algorithms, but they're still a human being making sure that right quality is being delivered to the users. Of course, in a small startup, you can be the tester or developers can pass each other scope. But at some point of scale, you'll be in dire need of people that are solely focused on delivering the best quality there is. Remember that QA engineer is now the plane tests. Very often those people are almost junior developers that can do the testing and actually write code responsible for automated testing. But also in some of the cases they will be able to fix some of the minor bucks or at least debug them so the developer has an easier job fixing that. As mentioned before, you can outsource your task document to QH2 so that they would be responsible for making sure that the task has arrived. Quality criteria that were deemed completed or not. But is it all in this relationship that through you should know about nadia. What is important is that the QA person should be responsible for showing you the working version of the product. And I don't mean some development version where something's still needs to be done. You to be the final test or the final quality check for what actually users will see. It might sound like a waste of time on or, or an overstretched. But believe me, very often, something that works in a contained development environment can go south when pushed to production and everyone will be sure it's working and not notice and issue. And I don't mean that the bags will be not noticed. I mean, that's, for example, a conflict that enables a feature or not. We'll now be important to production. So all the code you send to the users will be blocked by a single check, should I show to the user yes, no. And the flak no will still be hanging because salmon forgot this little tiny detail. And this is why you should be the first user of whatever you commission to production. And that really can help you avoid some serious issues. You hear, OK, oops, we forgot about the minor. They sell more often than you can. Imagine. Those issues will be noticed at some point or another. But the sooner and it will happen, we're just people. We make mistakes. That's okay. As long as we make sure to not allow them, to prevent them as much as we can besides being hands-on and seeing the update firsthand for the first type is a great source of inspiration. Let me tell you a story about a game called Aliens Colonial Marines. Here. The game was received mixed reviews. Many new to AI, titular areas being stupid as a bucket of water. So only years after that had come out that actually the gain that was shipped was shipped with advanced alien being disabled for whatever reason. Those just a change from a 0 to one to make the enemies behave in a more structured and challenging manner and no unnoticed. So imagine how this game could be better received and animal. But if this issue was picked up much, much earlier, that's all I have for you for this topic. Let's move on to the next one. 59. Module 7, class 7: Data analysis: Okay, This is just a preview of Chapter 2 come I just wanted to mention that I didn't forget the fact that data analysis is important in the development process. However, since we have a full chapter that allocated to it, That's that well home that right now, Let's just say few basics. Just like with the designers, you will most likely have a data analysis person or the Pac-Man and please rely on them and do, do, do too much work that you can outsource. Their ligation is the key. Also be aware how important tracking is. This is the nervous system of your product. You need to know what's going on and you need to know how to react to that. And this is what your business analysts, data analysts help you to uncover. Finally, if you have any item that has broken tracking and doesn't the report in to their reporting software, there's no point really see it. If it's not track, traceable, trackable, it's invisible and thus never habit. And you big Post button. Right now, I'll carry on with the data aspects of product management carrier in what into modules. But for now, thank you. Let's move to the next class. 60. Module 7, class 8: Improving development speed: Okay, Let's talk about a very important topic that no one talks about and which makes this calls the front and other costs. What to do if every thing thanks for. When every stakeholder's demands, more speed, more changes, more updates, and yet, Sorry boss, he doesn't go any, any, any faster. What should a product manager do in such a clutch situation? First of all, talk to your developers, understand their position situation and most painful issues that hinder them. Maybe it's the process that's too tedious. Maybe they framework is bad, maybe there's so much technical debt that without proper time investment, you won't be able to see a quicker turnaround. Investing time to get into. Obviously don't have open with hypothesis that they slack or do work to slowly unless they are real pathologies where they spend most of the day near foosball, which I highly doubt that that's ever the case. Worker them to make sure that you understand the issues. And It's not clear, there should be a technical manager, the team manager or engineering manager above them, who you can talk to to understand what could be done in order to speed the development, to see what investments can you take and whether that would temporarily slow down the current initiatives and work on that. Sometimes it's worth to invest in a virtual team or a task force that will be dedicated only to battling slower. And that should always begin with tracking and making sure that you establish the parameters which you measure, the slowness against. Whether it's time to create single task in specific estimation or time to build, or time to test whatever you think hinders you. Start with measuring it and only then start investing in solutions that will help you to see whether the speed was improved or not. It will be very often connected to technical debt. So maybe there are already tasks in the backlog that just weighed your attention. And when improved, can take some of the pain away, thus making the overall process quicker. Are you? Your team is simply too small and you just need more hands on board. The first no budget for that. Then it's up to you, your communication and building the right expectations. Maybe you are being too optimistic. Maybe you are not taking into account Murphy's law when estimating the ETAs. Maybe you should Fuzzy the ETAs and exchange quarters to have here 1.5 year two if needed. It's all about putting the right words so they don't come back to bite you in the ass. Provided that there's no structural or team changes you can do to improve the development speed. That's all I have for you. I know that this is difficult subject and you probably face it at some point of your carrier because appetites grow while eating. But I sincerely hope that rather than figured this one out on yourself, you will now have a blueprint on what to do with this class. And we can now close it and move to the next one. See you then. 61. Module 7, class 9: Return on investment: Let's have a difficult conversation about the money. Let's be frank. While being a product manager is all about generating value. At the end, this value usually will translate to income to the company. This is business. We are not here to do co-found staff, but to add profit. Well, if you can have the lock and talent to focus on cool factor and cool features and generate profit by that, then that's good enough. This is client's interests. However, for most of us, business centricity will also be a factor or a perspective. There's a product manager. You share the responsibility of being a business focused on making sure that your decision benefit the company that you work for. Of course, like Uber, you can live of them, investors money and just generate traffic, generate the numbers, and figure out the business layer. So with profits By wouldn't suggest that you go about like this. Usually there has to be a sound foundation for the business idea and help from the start to reasonably and securely grow your business. Thus, don't waste the single.php and don't get me wrong. Don't be a cheesesteak. Don't avoid spending money. Don't buy the cheapest software. Don't try to hire the cheapest personnel. Know. I mean, just make sure that you don't spend money for things that have no chance to benefit or green value the company. Just don't go into spending madness just because you have the but that's not the right thing to do. I'm not saying, don't think the theme out for a way. Trip to brainstorm, to have a fresh perspective, to thank that developers for the input. If you have battered, spend it, but spend it wisely. And also if you need specific software, specific hardware, invested it. But make sure that there is sound financial AND logical reason to spend it. I've seen companies putting money out left and right for staff that was unnecessary, unneeded. Now wanted apply common sense when spending money. That's all I'm saying. You can also try to be creative. Maybe a viral campaign attempt might make more sense than a multi-million dollar TV commercial. Who knows? I mean, just be open to trying not to spend money where you don't need to spend. But again, you need to spend money to earn money and saving whatever the cost. And without any sound reason is playing stupid. If you have the best software, the best engineers, bus hardware, the best system than you are on your road to create the best software. That maybe that's not one-to-one how it works, but it certainly makes it easier in the long run. Now, let's talk about your contribution. You should be able to translate your actions, your updates, your ideas into the income that has been brought to your company. This will help you show that company invested. Well, you, it gives you the universal way to translate whatever your main KPI is made metric to monetary amount and helps you to compare with additives. Has the dollar sign helps you to, how are you doing in the whole company? Now how to do that? First of all, you'll need to know how much does your sprint costs. So just take an estimate of the salary of your and your teammates and that gives you a benchmark of how much does the company pay to get your processor. Now, what do you want to do? Whenever you add a update? Change? You know what it brings to the product, what is the change in metric? Usually, this is done by AB testing, which we'll get to later. For now, just say that it's a practice where you release feature or change to have the users and the other one. So you can know what the actual impact of the change. So to make it easy, say that you have released a feature that increases their life time value of each client. By 5%, you know what? The average lifetime value of your client. Thus, each individual client that comes can be later counted in a way that the 5% of each of those clients will be attributed to your chest. So that is your input. Two companies finance, this is what you brought into the table. So each month after the feature is released, you can attribute 5% of the income to your actions and put it as your return on investment. So here is an example table on how this may look like. So here you see that the team costs $50 thousand per sprint. You can see, or let's say with a permanent will be easier. Let's say that the revenue that this is your first math, you have not released anything. So it only brought 0, so your return on. So the company basically lost $50 thousand on the spread. But as new features throughout, you can see that the revenue is growing and the ROI is slowly decreasing to a point that the investment down in you is not negative after just 20 months, right? And this will just keep growing as time goes by because those features will stack up. More things will happen. Of course, this is only estimate something that will help you to count that. In reality, each other is just an, a big puddle of standards going on. So you won't be 100% sure whether that's accurate. But again, it's an estimate. And in this method, you do need an AB test. You can also do a cohort analysis, which is a little less reliable. By cohort, you mean users who joined your product after certain day or within certain period. So this is just a group of users that time connected. While this isn't something that every PM, thus, this is something that helps me to make sure that I'm on the right track, that I deliver value to their company and helps me then later talk in future job interviews on math about my impact on the company. But again, this is something I do. I just want you to remember from this class that you should always remember, What's your end game here? To non-profit. And everything in between is not your ultimate goal. This is all I have for you in this class. Let's carry on. 62. Module 7, class 10: Product lifecycle: Let's end this module with a very practical class on product life cycle. You probably had this phrase, which refers to how product behaves in different phases or stages of development. And you're usually shown a graph like this, where there's an introduction stage where you are looking into getting clients, getting the product popular. Then if you succeed, you have the growth phase where you vary dynamically, gain new clients, and the sales grow. Finally, in the maturity, things slow down. You get fewer clients until your product goes to the Klein and then losing people and slowly travels towards lack of existence. This chart often as asked about during job interviews and you are being asked what to do in different stages. Obviously, you can say that integral, you need to invest in marketing and brand awareness than in growth. It would be good to capitalize on the success and diversify in maturity to be very careful about investment and make sure that you keep your log time clients as long as possible and save costs and do maintenance in the Cloud. That is like the job job interview talk. Other than that, this chart is basically bullshit. And I'm not afraid to say, it doesn't really matter what phase your product. You still are looking for the maximum value, for the minimum. And the context may change. We just suffered a terrible, terrible pandemic that put that graph on its head and nothing makes sense. And different products will behave in different way and different things will happen. Look at Pokemon GO game, which started off very strong, lost a lot of users because it couldn't keep up with the demand for changes. But it's still enough users to then carry on growing past the high phase and slowly getting Hughes's again by adding new characters, epoch him on new features and being a very successful app many years after what would appear as the Clyde. Other gaming example similar to this one is the pandemic hit game among us that was there on the market for three years, had a mediocre success in the meantime. And basically the admins of the app, we're ready to set it to retirement. When then one of two tremors twitches, that portal where you can show yourself playing a game. Started playing it with friends and Magda hi Papen. And there were free or 30 million people playing Among Us Dale. And this game blew up. Now obviously, it's now trending downwards again. But it's still much stronger than it used to be before the pandemic. There are many also cases where a game was saved to play and then it achieved success once it became free. And three lighten micro-transactions. Night being the primary example. Besides this, original charts spans several years, if not decades. Sometimes product manager usually will change his post every five years. As like this is this point where you really need to see if you like the product and you want to carry on, it's time to do something different. And I don't need to really even mean changing. The employer can change just the product or the team, or just mix things up to you hardly ever keep of the product from its birth to closing the lights for the final. So if you are to remember anything from this class, then remember that just the robust, Just put all your strength, all your energy, and all your optimism to do best for your product. And don't be hindered by a concept called the product lifecycle. That's the end of this class and this module. And I'll see you in the next one. Bye. 63. Module 8: Live product - finally getting the users to use it!: Module 8, relatively quick, because it covers a whole aspect of product life cycle, which is the release of the increments. There are few important bits that you need to pay attention. And is this model's pretty quick, just watered regardless of your experience level? C, yeah. 64. Module 8, class 1: Increment: Let's talk about the increment, the accumulation of all the work, all the planning, all that, testing, everything you did for weeks and months on finally reaches the client, the users. What to think about that? Well, look forward to answering all the questions. Was the product hypothesis, right? Well, that design be appreciated? Well everything work according to plan. Coming. So soon. Be very joyful. Thus, make it small celebration. I mean, Nath cake and go to the dinner every second week with your team. You know, just celebrated on the review meeting where you check how does it look and have this optimistic feel about the world. However, what you also need to make sure is ready with the increment is that all the marketing materials, all the instructions, or the man who was although social media posts, everything that you need in order to succeed, slowly, release the increment is already there. Of course, you don't have to do everything on your own. Probably you have people to help you. There will be copywriters, there will be marketing department, but still make sure everything is ready, especially in the internal communication. Maybe get a quick read on what's going up. So we make sure that the increment is presented in the best possible light. Also, make sure that if you have some diary of your own successes and releases or you maintain a log of sprints updated after the release of increment. This is very important to remember that update should be exciting to the user. He or she should be looking forward to positive changes and new functionalities. And nav, be afraid that his or her software will get even more complicated. That's that's not what you wanted to do. Make sure that in this communication, every word counts that you close just enough to make it easy to read and use a lot of graphical. A slow communications, good pictures. Make sure that people who prefer pictures than words are well-served and will be given the optimum experience. An easy way to understand what changed. Maybe there should be a before and after picture. Who knows? Just make sure that the layman person really knows what happened with the increment to maintain the hype. You can also disclose some future plans in each updates. And depending whether it's secret or not, it goes to the general public or internal. Provide different level of details or just limit yourself to hence bath, give some insight into the future, the tiniest one. But since you are working in an Agile loop of feedback, make sure to be aware that the real data's come, that you will have to work on the increments later to add jazz based on what you learn on the data login. As we already established that Murphy law exists, monitor the new release curve either personally or with your development team, makes sure that no real new dramatic back appeared, that everything is going smoothly and everything is fine. And never, ever release on Friday. Never. You don't need to wait too long to make changes and devise new actions. If something is particularly bad or particularly successful, you need to make drastic steps. Let's focus on the negative scenario. There can be situation with everything goes to a head and you didn't know what to do. The best. I think what you should do is to call a meeting or developers and measure stakeholders present the situation, presents your proposals and brainstorm the solutions. Maybe there is something that will help to salvage the situation, or there is one particular element that destroys the otherwise great domino, then make sure that you don't wait two to three weeks to rectify the situation. Act now, get the benefits as soon as possible. And if it's really, really bad, don't be afraid to roll it back. With success. Of course, you don't need to change anything in panic to have more success, but be sure to understand what happened, what was so good, so that you can replicate it later in future releases. A bad release can cancel out a lot of high involving your new increments, or can almost drown or completely around the whole product. The blue free. The head came from Blizzard from a few years back, was selling game at a time. However, the start was terrible as they weren't prepared for the numbers coming. Though. They knew how many cells there were and all the servers basically died for the first three days. So the gamers were not very pleased and that didn't make the game any favors. Those had many other problems. That's something that I would like to attach to this particular class while we are close together. Let's move to the next video. Thank you. 65. Module 8, class 2: Comments and product rating: Then increments. Now, like we previously said, that to maintain good communication, you have to have an open line of your stakeholders. Let's focus on the columns that appear from your users clients after the release. Don't be afraid of your users. They are. After all, your ultimate stakeholder and their voice really matters, so they need to be heard. They are always a good source of ideas. And World Bank reports. Sometimes it might be a big bags of confusing messages. But don't worry in time you'll be able to determine what is good feedback and what is just unhappy person that will never be pleased. So following the communication module, you should already have established paths from which the feedback will come. Whether that's the Mobile App Store, email forum, rather, whatever. Just be sure that you are on top of it and see what happens in the ethics, what you should be aiming in your product and not stop until you achieve it is at least 80 percent rate. Whether that's four star, four out of five. For apples have a five apples, whatever you are being graded against, 80 percent should be like the lowest possible score you can accept for your product. Imagine you want to go to a restaurant and use Google Maps. Would you go to M, press the roundedness below four things. You'd be looking for something that's more reliable and best if there's many radius to begin with. And it's not only the restaurant owner and his mom. You also have to put some effort into making sure there is traffic to your comment section. He wants people to speak. Sometimes you can do that by getting users product benefits. Other times it's just enough to have a pop-up in the right place at the right time. That might result in person giving the rating. Asking your net promoter score or NPS. Question. That is, query where you ask whether the user would recommend your product to his friends and family. And this is very popular right now in terms of measuring the product's quality. Again, if you stumble on negative review, can happen. Don't quarrel. And the question user, when everything is visible, just be apologetic. Say you're looking into this, ask for more details or ask for direct contact so that you don't go into a shit storm fight with the user because you had a bad day. You can always try something different and rather than rely on the asynchronous ways of contacting your users. You can also organize online meetings, online seven hours and present the update and see what live users have to say about that. That is also a great source of feedback. Just make sure that it's moderated so you don't get any pranksters asking stupid questions. Finally, I'll be afraid to that again. Maybe rather than read everything yourself, you're a junior and data analysts or anyone that can do that for you to read the comments, follow the rating, and compile a report back to you on what is the feedback and what is its frequency and the suggested priority. That's all for this video. Let's carry on with the next class. 66. Module 8, class 3: Docs: Documentation is not a normal iPad. It's not a PDF. It's not the book is. So the manual, it's a philosophy. It's a mentality that forces you to record everything you do, to put things on paper and making sure that no information is being lost due to our biological brain being the factor. But why document everything? Because it's super practical because it saves you a lot of time in the future. It's literally that spent time to save time approach. And to do that, I strongly suggest that for each initiative, each major, minor, medium undertaking you're doing in your product. Create a dedicated document and include everything. Start from what you further about when you started to work on that project product than your initial research with links and numbers. Your estimations then include everything that's already in the template for the task like tracking, like design, user story, et cetera, et cetera. And finally put all the numbers and results that come after the release. Future plans on how to proceed with this very detailed. This is only for you, but it should be written in a way that you'll be comfortable to share it with other people in the company and there are no cursing, no blaming. It's just a catalog index of actions that happened and the results that came. That's all. This will make it so easy to put together. Any e-mail, any newsletter, any presentation you need. This is your jumping off point. And rather than do the same thing over and over and over again, you can have a single point of reference, single-point of true, and just use that as a basis of any other committee created. It will be extremely easy. I also suggest you keep an online doc for your team that shows who that theme involves. What are we working on? Them? Archive of Sprint, sprint goals. So what you wanted to achieve touring specific period and whether that was successful or not. And a list of current and past initiatives with a length that protect talk. I mentioned that keeps everything tidy, easy to navigate, and help the stakeholders get to know more if you're not available. Or you can just take staff, the stakeholders, rather than talking to them. That's a great time-saver really. It also helps to onboard new people, helps to see what went wrong if something went wrong and why. And it's something that you should project onto your team, requires staff to be documented as a part of the task requirements. If there's a research going a spike, the results need to be written down. The updated tracking needs to be included everywhere it should in order for the right team through Monitor, menu tracking, et cetera, et cetera. It's a very helpful and future-proof mentality. That's all for this class and this quite short module. And let's move to data. Very important aspect of product managers work. See you there. 67. Module 9: Data – Understanding the impact on the Product change: Module 9 is probably one of the most important, or do I said in Module 2, being data-driven makes you a great product. Thus, you need to be very prowess and understanding the data, presenting it, processing it, and then making sure you make the best possible decisions based on the data acquired. I will help you to know where to find the right data, when to make the right call, and how to present it the stakeholders. Thus, I think that regardless of your experience level, just wanted this module. Thank you and have a great one. 68. Module 9, class 1: Data: X USA President Bill Clinton once said, economy for now, for us, proud mentors, data for data, this is your guiding principle. This is what you should verify your work. Again, we spoke about monitoring your day at is data that helps to keep your efficiency, monitoring the development speed. So you can find bottlenecks and confirm that you have successfully managed to increase the development speed. Every aspect, every decision should be based in some way in data. Of course concept applies. But still, this is something that you can always refer to to make sure that you are not going based on opinions or gut feeling, but on the, on the reliable numbers. In this introduction every class. Let's also focus on some main principles or, or general advice when collecting. Planning to collect or displaying any data. Always have in mind how to display it and how to interpret it. So it makes sense, so it's transparent and easy to follow. We'll have a class on that soon. But this is like a general principle you should be aware of. As an outstanding product manager, I strongly suggest that you start each and every day by looking at the KPIs and the dashboard of your product. I mean, this is after you had your breakfast, you talk to someone, grab your coffee, plan your day. And the next point is looking at the data and preferably good dashboard that you created on your own. Just to have this flexibility of knowing the data analysis sooth your company is using and being comfortable enough to put together some of the components that helps you to understand what's going on in progress so we can see what happened. There you go two days ago, week mouth, whatever you think is the right time horizon for your product though, checking specifically what happened yesterday or since the update is very important to catch anomalies that might otherwise be invisible to tracking due to many different reasons. Users using different versions and drops not being significant enough if you do not zoom into specific day or specific version of your product. This habit will really help you to uncover issues that would otherwise linger for far longer than they should. Imagine. It happens that the payment stubbing received. If you see that there was 0 manage generated yesterday, then you can sound the alarm and rather than having week or a month with no income, you just have a few hours and everyone is on top of that. Of course, he didn't have monitoring and alarms set up to begin with AB. They were there, but well, they failed in some scope. Let me tell you about an uncommon way to use data in your favor. From my experience, I used to work within the company that had the development team External not outsourced, but there weren't people who sit in the same office with me and where exactly my team. I was a senior stakeholder product representative of a branch of a larger product. And the problem that might be called US had everything took forever literally. And rather than do something drastic, we started off with measuring time from request Kievan to the theme and the delivery date. Which was very tricky given that they had multiple stakeholders like me from different countries. But when those numbers were transparent to stakeholders and to developers, everything started to come together as the expectations were built on one hand. And there was a bit more pressure not to allow this parameter to go of Rails. A good blend of good communication and good usage of data. In order to get me, the product manager out of a very sticky situation. To conclude this video, make sure you work based on data, not opinions, and always measure, analyze, and act. And now let's move to the next. 69. Module 9, class 2: Metrics: The metrics, the numeric representation of what's happening with your product, what are the users doing, also known as KPIs. Key performance indexes. The most important thing is to know what is a KPI or another the shortcut I just said. But what is the actual Key Performance Index for your product? And this is what you need to establish who the CEO and senior stakeholders. And well frankly, you will not do that too often. If at all. You probably have a sad KPIs when you start your position, then you can simply suggests to add additional ones if needed. However, if there are 2040 KPIs, then how are the key performance index? In that case, I will try to limit yourself to two to six actual KPIs. The level one KPIs and everything else, of course, can and should be monitored. Bath with lower priority. And with those lower priority metrics, you shouldn't have any specific goals around them unless they are Gulf connected with specific updates, specific feature that is inherently connected to that word. But in terms of general product development through to six, KPIs are more than enough and help you focus your efforts correctly. And times you can have even so-called North Star metric approach where you have only one single KPI do they care about? And nothing else matters. Say for money hungry alarm clock, that would be growth. The number of users in the app, also known as Mao MAU, monthly active users. The philosophy here can be that the more users, the more the opportunities to make a sale, all to have someone's news, the alarm clock, right? That's them. Possible angle here in terms of a little theory that can pop up on a job interview and tell you that there is division between metrics that are leading metrics and lagging match the definition for a leading metric greets. Leading indicators are sometimes described as inputs. They defined what actions are necessary to achieve your goals. Measurable outcomes. They lead to successfully meeting overall business objectives, which is why they're called Ledi. Those can be, for example, percent of customers that sign up for a two-year agreement may be the number of customers that login daily, or simply the customers that made at least single purchase. Lagging metrics is, on the other hand, something that measures current production on performance. While a leading indicator is dynamic but difficult to measure, lagging indicator is easy to measure, but how to check? They are opposites. And as such, a lagging indicator is sometimes compared to an output metric. The examples here would be profit, expenses, retention or rabbit. What you also want to do is to document the exact word to word definitions of York APIs. So that it's easy to know what actually is being shown on the analytical software that you use to track your progress. Make sure to double-check if what you're measuring is correct, that there's no misunderstanding that whatever is being displayed, your program matches the definitions you've said in the document and that you can rely on those numbers. There are no anomalies that would stab them in anyway. Finally, we have metrics. You may find that you have conflicting goals with different departments. And that's something you cannot endure and need to escalate that higher. For example, if you are focusing on making sure that you have the best conversion from lead to client. But at the same time, the marketing department is investing to get as many leaves as possible and they don't really care about the quality of the lead, thus killing your goal, then you have a problem that you need to solve. That's really it for the metrics. The metrics themselves are not that important. In terms of this introduction, it's more important how to generate the product that drives those metrics, which we covered throughout the whole course. Thus, Let's move to the next class. 70. Module 9, class 3: Hot to get the right data: One of my favorites, thrips about the engineer, Dilbert is the one where he has a meeting and he tells his stake holders that data shows that it doesn't matter if you use fake or actual data in a document. It will have absolute same impact on the outcome of any project. And then the manager asks how many research shows that? Now he says some focused, like 27. Obviously, this is quite ridiculous and hopefully not true because that would mean that I did a lot of work unnecessarily bad. Let's take this opportunity to ask ourselves where to get the right data for your research, because sometimes it's very hard to get it. You might be lost. So let me help you with your first best ally in terms of getting the right data is proximate. If a project that product was done previously in the company, some similar initiative and you have already proven better results, then that's something you can comfortably lean on and have a point of reference. So checking if something wasn't already done in company really can save you a lot of effort and lead to good decisions. Another good source of data are your competitors. Provided that they are good enough to share their data to tell you exactly what was the impact of specific update or specific initiative. Then usually those numbers are ones you can rely on and work with them in your product, or at least reference them in any communication. If not competitors. There are also products that are similar to you or did something that you plan to do which are not your direct competitors. It's worth trying to reach out to product managers from those products and see if they have something they can share with you to help you to make the right call. Maybe it won't be like specific numbers because non-disclosure agreements apply. But if it's a percentage number that you can use, it's already very good. Also, what you can do is use Science or Google Scholar website hosts a lot of scientific papers on different topics. And maybe there is a scientific paper that checks for what you want to do. And even though you might be asked to pay to access the article, it might still be worth it to get a solid foundation for the saving on the next cause of your actions. Finally, obviously internet books, e-books, blogs, websites, forums. They are all gray. They are all most reliable source of information that might be devious because inaccurate or downright incorrect, bad. It's always something to look into or get some trace on what might happen. Thank those information with a grain of salt. But it's better than nothing. And with that, let's move to the next video. See you then. 71. Module 9, class 4: User segmentation and cohorts: As a continuation of the user personas. Now let's come back to the song. This is about user segmentation. Now, let's figure out how can we segment our youth? We know y is useful, so let me remind you that. But let's figure out We're to get our persona's or segments. First of all, we can simply ask on profile creation whether they meet the groups or personas that we identified inside our brainstorming session. Or we start grouping by age, location, gender, and occupation. It all depends on what do we need to find out to get the segments that will benefit our analysis? And this is very tied to the product itself. So I don't have a universal advice here. However, if you do not need to ask whether someone active or passive candidate, you can always determine that based on your analytical sued. For example, Google Analytics can show you the user's age and location which you can use. But also you can just profiled them based on the behavior in the active candidate will have a different set of actions. He or she doesn't know Joe board then the passive one, easy to tell if a user is inactive and graduates will be easy to recognize based on their age and having or not having education. This allows you to better craft features and whether communicate your changes product based on the target audience. This can help you also to prioritize your backlog when the amount of value can be conditional base to the target audience. Obviously, say that a job both has small amount of active candidates, small amount of graduates. They'll be a larger portion of passive candidates and a gigantic group of people who logged into their job board at some point and never came back. And this is a gigantic repository of potential leads. So potentially any initiative that could activate some percentage of people who left the job both can be more beneficial than something that's crafted towards graduates. But for example, just to give you a good perspective, alternative and non-invasive way to analyze users. His cohort analysis. A cohort is a group of users that's joined your product within a certain span of time, usually within a single day or a week. This keeps you a lot of information about the seasonality and how users behave if they were given a specific new features versus the ones that didn't happen feature. It's less reliable cause different cohorts start using the product in different circumstances. So uses operating in summer, we'll have different behaviors then people operating in the winter. Example here would be educational products. You really courses do not have too many audience during summer because everyone else is resting and no one is thinking about education. But the cohorts of people from October and November are reaching people and usually at beginning of the year is very similar for a job boards. The biggest spike is in September and January in terms of the number of candidates that start looking for a job. And the first one is connected with new budgets and the second Monday, September 1, is connected to, well, people opening their recruitment processes again after the summer breaks. However, cohort analysis will be most useful when you will be checking the behavior of users that were given a new update while they were still using the product previously versus the ones that only knew the product with the new feature. With that said, we're closing this class and you're ready for the next one. 72. Module 9, class 5: Presenting the data: Presenting the data is the key for your communication skills. So let's do alpha and do that shall say, you have a network of four hotels and you need to show that data on what is the current occupation rate. So we can show it like this, where we have all the four hotels visible and the red rooms are unoccupied, the green rooms are occupied. We can also just show a single digit for every hotel or all can be presented as a single number. So how is this relevant? Well, you need to make sure that whenever you presented it, they have good contexts. You present the right level of detail to the right people. You'd be looking with their staff and personnel at the first chart. So we can understand what's going on and who or which hotel needs your attention. They're booking theme would be only really invested in the second level where we just showed the booking rate of each hotel. And finally, the execs just want to know what is the booking rate of the whole network. Of course, that can be also split for them. But the high-level overview, a single number. It's almost an art to choose a number that represents what you want to convey correctly and clearly showing the whole table of data or too many numbers will be confusing and will derail any message you want to deliver. There's one principle you can use here to make sure that the data are showing is readable. Ask yourself, would my mom understand? I mean, I'm sure your mom is a very brilliant person, but she's a layman. She's not in your business and has limited understanding usually of what is that you do day-to-day. So if you could show us live to your mom and it would be clear for her on what you want to convey. It's most likely that the whole team hall office will also understand this particular piece of information. Again, the key numbers, the key information matters. You want, appear smarter if you put more digits on the slide. In fact, see an example here. You should never put more than four digits on a single slide. And to make sure that they stick the landing, try to vary them by size and font so that the right numbers are visible. And you have no problems delivering the right level of detail to people who need to get that level of detail. Finally, charts. A single chart that has the x and y-axis with legend is usually easy to read. However, if you have several charts to show that there might be a problem because if you show them on one slide, then they become progressively smaller and harder to read. On the second hand, if you show one chart per slide, then any comparisons might be hard to deliver. I recommend that you show many charts on a single x-y axis, but add them gradually one-by-one. So you can have always the complex of narration of the new chart. While the previous chart is still visible on the screen. And it's not confusing at what's you're looking in. Those are really the basic principles you need to know. It's really enough to make conveying message. And it's all the philosophy you need to present their arrived data and make sure that he know that he presented the right people. Generally, the higher the management level, the fewer the numbers you want to show, unless being asked for. The fact that you're showing a few numbers doesn't mean don't need to know that, right. You need to be able to answer questions. But we also need to make sure that if there's like a single or two pieces of information and executive will carry out from mimetic, then it will be the information you want them to know. That's all for this class. Let's carry on. 73. Module 9, class 6: Data vs feeling: Best data managers are data-driven. Repeated like a broken record, that you need to be data-driven. Eddie need to use data when making decisions. But what if not, is it really always the case? What if there is no data? What if you are very confident in your skills, in your experience, in what people told you, maybe it's not worth too always bother with the data. Maybe you can go to your gathering from time to time. And what I'm telling you is, use common sense. Remember that you are in the risk management job. If you are able to risk making a decision without proper data, without proper backing, and being transparent about it, then by all means, you can do it. And in fact, sometimes it will just make sense. There are product managers that are highly data-driven and there are product managers that take a lot of risks. This is a scale. So if you think that investing time in research just doesn't make sense and you can quickly check some product hypothesis just by experimenting. You can do with it. It makes sense. As I've repeated over the whole course. The whole job is about getting the most value out of minimum investment and risk. If there's little risk, little work to be done to win bake, Why not try? And really, this is creating appeals. See dedicating a little bit of sprint to work on some ridiculous hypothesis or innovative piece of product that might not work. But you want to still try it anyway because there's a lot to gain. There is this nice story I can tell you about a company called or help that specializes in helping to lead a legal efforts to get money back the passengers who had their flights council, ultimately, I have been on a presentation by their CEO. Were they had a challenge to drive more traffic to a website where they would keep Clive's more information on what they do and encourage them to start checking if they can have claims from their flight. What the CEO ask the developers out of the blue is to put a red dot above that tags that are linked to that section. As if it messenger, you have a new information. Overnight. Literally that traffic was driven by 30 or 40 percent more to this website. And that kept on just this very simple, very inconsequential cause, a gradual change. But there was very little work to achieve that, right? You didn't go through extensive research. You didn't design the perfect interface. You just did a small experiment and it was successful. And if it wasn't, you, just remove the dot without any issue. Let's try something different. That's also part of being a product. That's also something you need to consider when making choices that you do not overwork yourself to achieve your results. Of course, sarin gas you can do is to invest in getting the data. As mentioned, you can commission research. You can make a poll, you can create demonstration POC and VP. Whatever. You can, always do something to generate the data you need to verify your thesis before you put all hands on board to verify our hypothesis, before putting all hands on board to work on a project. Another thing you can do is to test and risky project on a very small portion of users. So if all goes to hell, you only risk their lack of satisfaction were very small percentage of your client base. Those can be offsite project, you're mad man experiments that will take very small portion of the sprint, just so that you can acquire the data. Invest time to get time, invest money to get my invest value, to know whether you should invest even more to get even more value. Having said that, just remember, never reject an idea because it's too much work. Try to make sure that you can check whether the work we're pan out as quickly as possible, get the data so as possible. But never have a blockade of nowhere not doing this because it will take forever. And I'm just here to pick up low hanging fruit. That's not what product management is about. It's also about innovation. It's about looking to the future and trying new things and sometimes failing. But with this course, I hope you on file. Let's move on to the next class. 74. Module 9, class 7: A/B testing: This is probably one of the most important classes in this entire course. That's why it's almost at the end. So you remember AB testing. This is the practice that we already mentioned when some of the user base has an unfinished product. And second part of the is the base has some change involved. So it's like having two parallel worlds that are different and you observe what's happening with them. Either changing product affects the metrics positively. That means that it's an improvement. And we can destroy the original version of the product and make the new one, the test one in the AB test, the full fledged new version. This is also helping to see your impact on the product and on the era of AI that we spoke previously. Now, how to conduct could AB tests? Typically you don't want more than four testing group. Let's say for the sake of argument that for money hungry arm clock, we're testing free new alarm bells. And the fourth group, the control group, is the original alarm clock. So 24 groups, two to four variants. You can observe how the KPIs for in each of those parallel worlds. And in the end of the test, decide which one wall. It's also a great tool to make sure that unhappy stakeholders or theme that has hesitation with Sam change can get on board with having an AB test clearly and undisputedly shows that an increment is positive or negative and there's nothing to discuss. This is the ultimate source of true because you are testing the same users at the same time, in the same context. And it's not bound to any seasonality or external conditions that might affect testing the product before and after adding a change. However, make sure that you also commissioned an AB test dashboard. So you can clearly see how the experiment shapes from day one on production so that if something goes wrong or the testing data is now being collected, you can notice it very, very, very quickly. When planning your AB testing. Avoid holiday periods, tried not to do it in summer, Christmas where there are very few users and they, they are not using your product to the fullest. Try not to run more than one AB tests at the same time. But still common says applies. Ap tests are very far from one another in the application, say one AB test on boarding and one somewhere in the User Options. And logically they shouldn't collide. By all means. There is a small risk of collision, but it's probably negligible. And AB tests should trans anything from one to four weeks. But you should have an option to turn it on and off as you please. So if something goes wrong, there's nothing stopping you from stopping the test and making your next decision. In my experience, textbooks usually be salted in women that to free the period. But objectively it's not enough data. So when it runs for a week or two, you should have enough results to make a valid claim. Whenever you run an A B test. When you check your KPIs in the morning, also check the AB test C was going on that that's like part of your daily sanity check of the product. And based on that, you can already gotten the results with your theme, which as I said, can increase the morale when the AB test is over. Try to understand the results on your own. You'll probably have all the understanding you need based on the daily check-ins. But before you get the final report from the data analysis team, you should know what's coming. However, this in-depth her port, provided you're not making it, will also give you things like the uncertainty. Which means that despite differences in a and B groups, the differences might not be big enough to prove the impact of your increment by be a simple measuring error. That's for the data theme to establish. And that's nothing I can help you with here. That's nothing I ever did. Though. If the difference is more than 5%, then you're probably not in a risk of a random difference. If the test failed. Don't dismiss it lightly. Tried to understand what went wrong and see in the salvageable. If you can try something different and still have a positive impact on the previously prepared increment. Finally, when the test is over, be sure to report on its results, the key stake holders, and then make the call on what to do next. As mentioned in the MVP class, It's good to have long-term plans. So you should have some kind of a vision, an idea on what to do with the increment if the AB tests succeeds. It's also like often when you AB test a whole MVP for example, with or without the MVP iced feature. That's all for this very important class. Let's carry on. 75. Module 9, class 8: Understanding users: Data is not always numbers exclusively. You can look at the users more direct, starting with fall out reports. Those are actually visualizations of numbers. Also, they are called the panels. The point here is to observe the user's journey from some entry point to the final point and see how many people are lost between different steps. And based on that, make some product decisions that will optimize the conversion from one step to another. An example here might be going into the shop's website, finding the product, browsing the product, putting it into a basket, and then from there few steps to make the payment. So you're probably the most interested in the final step, but it will create a curve of people that come to your website and then make the purchase. And you can focus some of your product initiatives on a particular convert next up. And something that is difficult in the modern, more privacy respected. Age is direct observation or recordings of the user's screen. At Random. User's actions are being recorded in a movie for you to watch later and see how they use their product. I'm not 100% sure how effective it is. Nowadays. I used a few years ago when the privacy weren't such a big concern yet. But there's a more privacy safe alternative on this. When you invite the users to your office and ask them to use the product without saying a word, just looking at their screen. The same thing. But well, there's you breathing down their necks or at least some kind of an interviewer that does that for you and then compiles a report. Finally, heat maps that show you how often a specific section of the screen is being interacted with. Using the example on the screen, you can clearly understand why the second page of Google is also known as abandoned land or place where even the most lost don't go. And with that, let's move to the next video. See you then. 76. Module 10: Your own product: The final module of this course is about creating your own product in your own free time. This is particularly important folks who do not have product management experience yet. And yet we wanted to create something that will be added to their CV as product management experience. I talk about this in the first-class. While this will be most beneficial for the carrier, for people who don't have any real product management. As a person, who was a product manager, when I started my course, I really encourage you to give it a go to, to create your own product. And they have this full land, full scope product manager experience from an idea to release and maintaining a product. I do this by telling you on what steps to take and comparing that with what I did for this particular course. So without further ado, let's begin. 77. Module 10, class 1: Your own Product: I already touched on it in the intro, but why bother? Why prepare your own product? The first and foremost reason, especially for people who are looking to land their first product management job, is to get hands-on experience, to have this way of fully utilizing the skills and showing on the CV that you have what it takes to become a product manager in a bigger company. This will generate lots of stories of success that you can then craft into experience and present to your future. Employer has proved that you can be an excellent product manager. Not to mention that this can be a source of passive income for you, but focus on your personal goal. Focused on the fact that you want to Cain product management experience. And it doesn't matter if you fail or win. However, if you are not successful for your product, it's very important to know why you failed and know what could have been done better. And obviously there will be some differences on how you will work on your own product and how it is in that typical company. You'll probably don't have team and you will be doing most of it yourself. You might outsource, delegate some of the work, but usually I would expect that you don't invest a lot of money into your private product Because it's, it's your private school. Really. Of course you can and by all means. But I'm trying to be realized. However, even if you do all the work yourself, focus on the product management aspect of it all. It is not to be a better developer. If you start with an app or a small gay, then an E, she'll be referring that later. It's about conveying your product management skills and not saying that you spent three days fixing a bug. And then with a stroke of genius, he managed to fix it. No. It's about creating and then conveying product management experience. For me. Creating. My calls had the first and foremost important goal of proving my seniority to my past employer. I mean, I actually got the senior rank before I managed to complete my first course. But that was like a way from a dad and a position to make sure that I can still show that I am promotable and I can share my knowledge effectively with younger product managers. However, there were small Legos. I always wanted to have a hobby that is not connected to getting myself empathy. So yeah, that's it. This is a hobby of mine right now where I get to help people, which is awesome, especially that I get to help other people in need. And I also got a love of new skills added to my portfolio. And editing movies is one of them. That's all for the first class in this module. Let's carry on. 78. Module 10, class 2: Choose your Product: Okay, so we need to choose a product to develop. Of course that it's now the product has to have some shape, way or form. Let's start with a disclaimer. I'm trying to inspire you and give you some options, but it's all up to you. And I consciously don't tell you exactly how to pursue each individual potential product. It's up to you. It's up to you to do the research on how to create this product given your decision and how to make it successful. I will tell you a little bit about it more. But say, if I suggest to create an app or a game, I'm not telling you what up or gained the Create on the old platform, how to call it. It's all up to you. It's your product, your project, and you have to make it successful. So without further ado, you can obviously follow my track and create an online course and teach on something that you think you can teach. That's a very good product. If you have developed, by all means, use them, create game and run the app and see if you can make it successful and specific number of users. Or if you want to do something different, you can try say, stock photography and find websites where you can upload them and set up a goal that's connected to number of photos download, or the income that will count something along those. Similar for t-shirt design, where you can put your artistic spirit, create those designs, and see if you can set yourself goals. That will be math and your stock photography fuel your product. I will tell you about goals later. So let's carry on with the inspirations. Obviously, you can pursue creating a blog or an e-book and right, to create a problem. There's this great log service called, where you can have an easy goal to create, to gather 100 followers. And thanks to that, are logged the paper read of your articles in this platform. Another thing you can do is to set up a YouTube channel and create videos to see if you can be as successful YouTuber and your channel will be your product. I once spoke to a young product manager that got her first product management assignment based on her influence a career where she took everything professionally and make sure to gather followers and spotlight in a very product manager oriented way. So this is also something that can be converted into product management experience. Finally, you can take on, consult on a subject you are familiar and expertise all try some gig economy on websites like Fiverr or upward. Of course, you have to have non-profit management skills to start working there. But at the same time, you will need to utilize product management skills to be successful there and get more clients and more income. Those are my propositions, bad. By any means, don't limit yourself to the list. You may have a different idea, a different product, and a different means of creating it. And that's okay. That's all up to you. See you in the next class. 79. Module 10, class 3: Work Scope: Now that you have decided on what product work on, let's decide on the scope of work. First of all, set the products budget. You will probably need to invest a label to create a product, whether that's in a course or equipment, software, hardware, just make sure that you don't fully know investment. I'm not telling you to take a loan or anything, but some investments might be necessary with the budget. Decide on what you can do on your own and what needs to be outsourced based on the theory can devote to that. And your skill set. Maybe if you don't have budget, but you have time, maybe it's a great opportunity to learn the skills that you would otherwise. Else. With that, make sure to purchase everything you need very quickly so that no software or hardware is limiting your progress. This is the first investment you will take to make product project success. Also, it would be good to find a group of experts, all right, friends. Let's, we'll be happy to support you in terms of sanity checking your decisions and your plans so that it will be easier to have success and have someone there to support you. When things get tough. For me, I decided to do the whole curriculum, all the recordings, all the editing, and the basic design for the course, all my own. Though, some of those skills I did not have when I started to do this, I did find a few friendly product managers to bounce the curriculum off to see if I didn't miss some important class that they believed was missing. I did, however, outsource the creation of the intros of those videos with website called place, which I pay to get monthly access, and that allowed me to generate those also integrals. I also did purchase microphone which I since then updated to this duty. And I did buy the software to edit videos. And finally I invested in a tribe or to hold a camera as the camera I already had was quite to the beginning where I also did. I did read a lot of how to create the course, how to make it successful, but I still found out a lot about it once the calls was released. So it was continuous learning and I still find new ways to promote and grow the course. That's it for this class as carry out. 80. Module 10, class 4: Goals: Okay, Now, in very, very important step now is to set up goals for your product. Before it's thought work, you have to have goals. Let me get you to module 3 again, where I talked about why this UP goals and Watts, the Guth way to do that with a OKRs and smart framework. But for now, let me just recall you the smart goal framework. And we'll set the goals for your product. It's hard for me to tell you exactly what those goals should be because well, there'll be unique to your initiative. But for reference sake, let me show you the goals and their status of my calls. So you have a good hang of it. I aim to complete the course within poor mouse. And it took almost a year. I moved the release date at least three or four times. And yet in the end was 12 months. And I can say counting because I'm still developing and making this cause better. But yeah, the three times more than I originally planned, I wanted to get at least 100 students within the first year of release of the course. But surprisingly to me and very positively surprised, it was only six weeks to achieve that goal. Another goal for the course itself was to earn enough to justify the investment in oldest software and hardware or her to do. And let's just say it's been long paid. My final goal is to reach the first page of results for Product Managements, search in the platform hosting this course. Then I make it. Well, you tell me, did you find this course on the first page? I don't know. I'll have to check and get back to you soon. Anyhow, those were the colors I've set for this course. And I hope they give you a good reference on how to get good goals for your prompt? Let me just throw in some examples. Has mentioned for YouTube, it can be to monetize your channel, which means you have to have 1000 subscribers and 40 thousand hours of watch time. For an e-book, it can be say, 200 copies sold. For epilogue, it can either add revenue or the number of likes or visits to your blog. For stock photography, this can be the number of downloads or income. Well, you said it's up to you to decide on good goals and following them through. That's a skill you need to grow slightly outside my guidance, you have to grow your product management skills and setting goals is one of them. With that being said, let's go to the classifier. 81. Module 10, class 5: Vision and strategy: You have lots of groundwork done. Let's close this up with vision and strategy. Obviously also based on the classes in Module 3. But you have to set one, especially vision and strategy to, of course, for your upcoming product. I suggest that on one hand, you look for similar products that were small and grew. Look for success stories, look for what works. Work for them. And try to mimic, try to find stuff that will help you product. But at the same time, you need to sign something unique, something special about your product. Something that will help differentiate your work from any other work that came before. It's all about that market analysis that we spoke about earlier modules. However, one thing that I need to stress is that you need to make sure that you're having fun while the spot. If it's an absolute torture for you and thanks away all your energy, then seriously doesn't make any sense. You don't want to overwork yourself. You have to enjoy being a product manager for your product. If you don't, maybe you didn't choose the right product. But if it fun for you, then it will be much easier. And you will hold to find the time to work on it, not force yourself into it for more practical and actionable advice on business strategy. Go back to module 3. But for now, let me present you an example all how I shaved my vision and strategy for this course. So my vision was to provide the calls that gives actionable and practical lessons for aspiring young product managers. The courses I used to watch before I decided LUMO really fell. Like encyclopedic reading of what the product manager position is and really didn't feel like they were helpful. Thus, I decided to do something better. My strategy involves promoting myself throughout Facebook and LinkedIn groups and use Facebook ads. By the way, those ads 0 sales. I don't know. Everyone says that they are super effective for me. They absolutely were a waste of time and money. I also chose this newscaster style like the John Oliver Last Week Tonight Show, where I'm in the middle. And there are graphics that are sometimes populating the whole screen or just the Coleman. I really didn't like the style where there is a PowerPoint presentation with a small head talking in the corner. It fell like they are or not that genuine and reminded me of the most boring courses on the university. I decided not to read the script one-to-one. Instead, I have the bullet points here can show no evil. No, I hit the microphone. See, this is exactly what I'm talking about. This is being natural, this is being reliable and honest. So sorry, let me fix this up. Now. Yeah, Normally I would cut those from the feedback. It illustrates my point exactly. So I'm talking to you from my heart and I'm not talking to you from a script or a prompt. So I also decided to have a community that We'll support each other and I will run so that there's constant exchange of knowledge and that is the sql Server. So this class was to convince you that you need vision and strategy for a product. I've shown you my vision and strategy and we're ready to move on. 82. Module 10, class 6: Plan your work: Just before you do the actual work, you need to plan it out. That means that you'd have to split the product, the product into small chunks. Whether those will be chapters of the course or the e-book, whether that will be levels in your game or the theme of your first stock photography photo. It's really up to your product, but you have to plan it out accordingly. So you can create a small chunks of work that you can complete in a finite amount of time that will really help you to deliver on that product and making coastal progress towards their release. That also means that you have to structure your day and week to find time to do that. That might be super hot if you have work, family, other obligations, and then you try to squeeze in the hobby that may or may not pan out. So this is also something that you have to be realistic. And maybe it will take much longer for you to complete your product then you The liked but still periodic review. The family and your day-to-day job are simply more important. And you have to shoehorn a little bit of time for your project when that's possible and not be your top priority. That's just how it is. Finally, choose an MVP for your product 8th would be very, very beneficial to be able to know whether your assumptions are correct. What are the direction you have taken? Is the right one or do you need to make adjustment? Is the product the way you picture it, able to reach the goals you've set for it. This is all. You need to figure out, the MVP. And if you are not sure on what to do, please go back to the NVP class in an earlier module, it will really help you to refresh the knowledge you need for this. When I was working on this course, I dedicated one hour each mode before my actual job to do something. Whether it was brainstorming classes, writing early scripts, or recording or editing. It always had a small timeframe that either allocated to it before the morning and if I could in the afternoon for another up to three hours, but that wasn't too often. I also tried to put as many hours I could over the weekend path. Again, it was only bound to my availability. And the most reliable time I could work on that was before their work and a little bit during the week. When it comes to MVP. Well, be honest, I had no idea. That was my cardinal mistake where the course. But when I think about it, I then want to make an MVP. I always seen the course as a whole complete many hour list of videos that create a common theme. And the EVP was actually a gigantic calls that I then started to improve it based on the feedback. You could have said that despite the size, it was the MVP because I intended to continue on the work and improving it. But at the same time it was such a big N repeated. Perhaps I should have started with smaller cores, perhaps cheaper one or F31 and just set myself goals that will encompass the popularity and the rating. And only based on that stuff, to devote a year of my life to create the actual. I also seen Les, they're a great way to MVP or course by creating a landing page and just collecting pre-sales based on which you decided to do their course or not. And if there were too few people, you just give them money back and no harm done, the clients would have been found on many events where you'd be giving our knowledge from the course for free. And then ask people to visit the landing page to find out more and perhaps sign up before the course even has a single class. Recall. That's also something that I'm not through with the work correctly for me because oh my God, those would be terrible due to lack of experience or camera. It's much better now. And I think that the yearly investment in that very complex entropy was actually the right call. Though. I'm not sure if I did and over make it. However, the course is successful and well, I was right, was my strategy and vision. And the way I organize the world, will you be with yours? I certainly hope so. That's the end of this class. Let's carry on. 83. Module 10, class 7: Launch and running the product: So now there is a slight gap between classes 67 because, well, the work has to be done. So it's up to you. I can't help you here. I can only tell you how to proceed to their release and lengthening your product. So before you release, make sure that you transform your vision and strategy into some kind of a marketing message that you can pass on to your client. Whether that's through a landing page, product page, and obviously only do that if it makes sense if you are selling your stock photography, you'll be at the grace on the third argument. And here is a very important advice. Make sure you know what to do to make your product visible in whatever system it can be found in. Whether that's the course Provider page or a place where you show your book, or the place where you can find different blogs, find ways to optimize your position in the search results, the so-called SEO. That's a really hard job. And it took me a lot of effort to bring my course to the right visibility. But again, it's a product per product basis efforts. So you'll have to do the research on your own. You can work to prepare the communications with your clients, different templates of emails. You can consider preparing a video pitch that you can send to prospects and leads to present your product. It's, again, it's vision, your strategy, and whatever you find suitable to share in other, to get a conversion. Whether that's sail, a read, or anything like that. Of course, that also means that you need to find places where your marketing make sense. As I said, I was planning to use Facebook ads. I did didn't work L, and I had to do other stuff. One thing you can do is to set up a webinar, find clients, and tell people about something related to your product, but not like a sales presentation. And I know you have to do something that uses value. Say like I go to different events and tell people how to break into product management. And then in the final moments of that webinar, make sure that people know that you also have a product cell that is related to this webinar. And that can be a good place to start. Once you have released your product. And that product is live, you can track its goals, you can see how it's going. Please come back to this class, come back to Skillsha