Procedural Texturing For Materials In Blender 2.9 - Create Any Material Or Texture That You Want | Joe Baily | Skillshare

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Procedural Texturing For Materials In Blender 2.9 - Create Any Material Or Texture That You Want

teacher avatar Joe Baily

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

25 Lessons (2h 38m)
    • 1. Welcome To The Class

      4:15
    • 2. The Basics Of Material Application

      6:48
    • 3. Applying Materials To Other Objects

      6:39
    • 4. Fake Users And Duplicating Materials

      6:36
    • 5. Accessing The Shader Editor

      6:10
    • 6. An Overview Of The Nodes

      9:38
    • 7. Introducing The Texture Coordinate Node

      5:40
    • 8. Creating A Diagonal Line

      13:02
    • 9. Combining Nodes together

      4:51
    • 10. Using The Power Function

      10:43
    • 11. Adding Color With The MixRGB

      4:10
    • 12. Controlling The Axis Of The Line

      9:13
    • 13. Creating A Vertical Line

      5:57
    • 14. Turning A Line Into A Square

      3:31
    • 15. Making A Cross Shape

      2:25
    • 16. Using The Value Node To Control Multiple Nodes

      2:52
    • 17. Using The Power Node To Create A Parabla

      7:31
    • 18. The Color Ramp

      12:54
    • 19. Create A Circle

      6:35
    • 20. Turning Our Circle Into A Torus

      2:30
    • 21. A Second Way Of Doing things

      6:10
    • 22. Introducing The Absolute Function To Create A Diamond

      6:15
    • 23. Using Nodes From Previous Shapes To Create A Leaf

      6:08
    • 24. Mixing Shaders To Create Transparency

      6:06
    • 25. End Of Class Challenge

      1:26
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About This Class

Do you want to become a true artist by creating textures, patterns and materials for 3D objects and scenes?

And do you want to be able to create textures that can then be edited and adjusted with ease?

And you want to do it all inside Blender?

Well you can in this course on using the node system in blender to create procedural materials and textures in Blender. Procedural means to create something that can be freely adjusted at any time in any way. A procedural texture then can have its colors, patterns and shapes all adjusted in real time, giving you as the artist the ability to create a limitless number of potential materials for your projects.

At BailylDesign, our goal is to give you the best possible content and resources for learning new skills in the CG industry, and with this course we hope to give you the tools you need to build your own unique portfolio of textures to apply in your projects, whether it be for personal or professional  purposes.

We start off at the very beginning learning about the process of applying basic materials to objects, as well as the relationships between objects and their materials.

But before long we dive into Blenders incredibly powerful node system. Where we learn how to construct the node trees that give us infinite freedom in how we approach material creation.

If you are concerned about not being able to master specific nodes, don't worry. In this course every node introduced is used various times, in various different ways, allowing you as the student to get a solid grasp on how that node works.

Its time to go procedural in the 3D industry, and begin creating YOUR portfolio of art using Blenders node system

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Joe Baily

Teacher

My name is Joe Baily and I am an instructor for 2D and 3D design. I specialise in 3D modelling using software platforms such as blender and 3DS max to create virtual models and assets for video games and animations.

My alternative job involves teaching sport and PE in schools and so I have 1000's of hours teaching experience in multiple various fields. My goal here is that I always find great instructors in websites like youtube who are great but never give out enough content to really satisfy my own hunger for learning. Therefore, my goal on skillshare is to provide comprehensive quality teaching on any subjects that I cover, such as blender 3D.

See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Welcome To The Class: Are you interested in learning how to create textures and materials for 3D objects and becoming a fit that's creating and customizing textures using blenders node system. Hi guys, my name is and I the chews up for this course on learning how to create procedural materials using Blender. Procedural means to create something is fully customizable, giving you the freedom to make changes as UHC visits, we procedural materials, you can create an almost limitless supply of different textures and materials using lenders no system, a path of sets of tones that allows you to create almost any texture that you desire. Meaning that by using this node system, there really is no limits to the number of materials that you can create. Who is this course for? This course is for uses of blender or varying levels. Begin learning about the process of applying materials to objects from the ground up. It is also for those who want to improve their existing workflow for material application by making that Textures procedural. So what are the requirements for this course? We'll put this course. There are no requirements other than having the latest version of Glenda installed on your device. How is the course structured? In this course, we start from the very beginning, learning how materials work at a fundamental level. We look at how to apply materials to objects. What's the relationship between objects and materials are, and the different ways in which we can apply our materials. Next, we move on to the shader editor, which is where we will be spending most of our time learning about the node system, which will allow us to create our limitless supply of textures and materials. We overview the place six of the node system and what the different categories of notes are, and how they might be used with our textures. Once we have a familiarized ourselves with the note editor and how it works, we then move on to using the different nodes themselves and begin creating procedurally textures. In particular, we focus on using math notes early on to create better based shapes that are limitless in terms of their scope and resolution. But as we progress through the course, and more and more nodes will be introduced to us. But each node that is introduced will be covered in sufficient detail so that you know the where, when, and how to use that node. We make sure that she walked competence in using a node before moving on to the next one. And we use nodes on multiple occasions or different textures, too. Practice and understanding of those nodes. Trust me, by the end of this course, not only will we be able to understand exactly what the individual nodes are going to be used for your texture. But you will also be able to structure your entire No trees with full competence in your ability to create any texture that you wish. Our goal is to make sure that you become a master at using blenders node system to create any material and such that you desire. So join me now in learning how to create the CJEU, textures and materials using denote system inland and. 2. The Basics Of Material Application: Our first job is to be able to identify where we can locate materials that we can assign our objects. When you open up blender as a new file, you will start off with a default cube objects. This default cube who already have a material assigned to it. How to access this material will be easiest way is to come over to the Properties panel. Down towards the bottom of the tabs, you will find a red circle listed as material properties. Left click to go to the materials tab. Here you will see that we have one material assigned to R cube objects. The name of it is material. Below this, you can see that we can change various properties of this material. For example, we can change the base color by clicking on this white bar to bring up a color wheel. And then it changed the color. As we do this, you will notice that the color bar changes, but the object is not. This is because we are currently in solid a few ports shading in our 3D viewport. If we change this to material preview, the color of the cube. Now, much is the base color found here. If we once again changed the color, it now changes the color of the cube itself in real time. Here, we can manipulate the base color as well as its blindness. So this slider is the brightness of the color. And then the color wheel represents both the hue and saturation. If you have a look below, you can see that we have free values H, S, and V. The fourth one is alpha, which represents transparency. Whew is the actual color. Saturation is how vibrance that color is Soda hired this value, the more green the cube looks, and the lower the value, the more gray scale the object looks. The value here represents the blindness. A lower value means a darker color, vice versa, for a higher value. You can also use the RGB options to determine how much red, green, or blue you want to use. Finally, you have the hex Valley. Every single color, every single shade has a unique hex value. This light bluish color, for example, has a hex value of 779 EB free. But if we use a different color, say this yellowish color, you will see that the hex value has changed to be free I A33. A good habit to get into is to record the hex values of any colors that you want to reuse. For other projects. So if you want to use this color for another object in another file, then you can recall the hex value now and then refer to it later on so that you can get the exact same value. In addition, we also have this ij or parts. All. This would allow us to left-click and then position for eyedropper over any part of our interface and inhabit the colour when we left-click. For example, say if we wanted this dog grayish color, we hover at the eyedropper over this area of the interface. Left-click. And now the base color becomes the color of this toolbar here, materials can be unlinked form our objects by selecting the appropriate material and clicking on the minus button that you see located here. Left-click on the minus button to remove the material. When you have no materials, you can add a new one by clicking on this new button right here. Objects can have more than a single material. To do this, we can add a second material slot, which is where our materials are stored with each object. To add a material slot, click on the plus button here. This will add an empty material slot. And we can add a new material and store it in this empty slot. Again, we can delete our material slots the same way that we get rid of our materials by clicking on the minus button. We can also reorder our materials in this list by manipulating these up and down arrow buttons. So for example, we can click up to move the MTV to slot up above material Gaziano 01. We can go down to reverse. We can also delete to remove the material slot, which is what we'll do here. Whenever a new material is created, if it bears the same name as another material, it will be given a numerical extension, in this case, dot 001. If we want to change material, would put C0 is ever one back to the original material. We can do so by clicking on this button here. This will browse the materials in our file. You will see that the top of the list is the material. Left-click and it changes for material one to material. We can click in here to rename the material. For example, let's rename this as gray. Let's then go back to material. Put C0 01, rename this as green and changed a base color to green. This white, we now have two different materials to choose form. We can either choose these materials, form the list here, or we could add them in the list in this box here that you see. So we could add the gray material underneath the green. 3. Applying Materials To Other Objects: Materials are separate 2D data blocks that they are stored in. For example, we have our green and gray materials for our cube objects. What we can do here is we can get rid of a material, but keep the material data block. To do this, click on the X button located here. This will unlink the material from the data block that is stored in. Left-click and you delete your gray material, form the object. You keep the data block which you can now use to create a new material. For example, let's create a pink material and set the color. As such. Once again, we have two materials, but the bottom material is now different from what it was before. Keep in mind that when deleting a material with this method, you only deletes it from the respective objects. You don't delete it from the file. If you go back to your brows material menu, you will see that we still have our gray material, which we can bring back in at anytime. One thing that you will notice, however, is that no matter which material we choose, the object still has only one material assigned a to it, and that is the green material at the top. Even if we change the order of these materials, nothing changes with the object itself. The question now is, how do we assign multiple materials to the same objects? Well, the basic rule of thumb is that you can have as many materials assigned to an object as you have faces. Only one material can be assigned to an individual face. Our cube, however, has six faces in its present state. That means that we could have as many as six materials. For now, we only have two in our list. But how do we assign it the pink material to the object? If we go into edit mode by clicking on the tab button, we can go to face select and select individual faces. For example, we can select the top face. From here. We can select the material that we want to assign, which in this case will be the pink material. And then you will notice below the name of the material, we have free new buttons. Assign, select the Select. If we click on the assigned button, we assign it the pink material to the top face. You can now see that the color has changed, the pink. We can also select and the Selects depending on the material. If I left-click away from my objects, select the green material, and then click on this selective button. It will select all of the faces that have that material was signed. We can do the same with the pink material. Select it. Then it click on the Select button to select the face that has the pink material assigned to it. Because materials are separate to the objects themselves, we can actually create a material and use it on multiple objects. For example, we're going to go back into objects mode and just move our cube on the y axis. Then we're going to add a new object. Let's add a torus. From here, we can create a new material, border tours. But if we browse our materials, you can see we still have the green, gray, and pink options. This is because the materials themselves are not directly linked to the object. We simply assign them to the object based on our preferences. For example, I can click on the pink material and assign at the pink material to the tours objects. I could also go into edit mode. Select a loop of faces. And actually let's select multiple loops with controlled and plus. Then I can click on this plus button to add a new material slot to my object and select the gray material that click assign. Now, the grey material has been assigned to the top of our tours objects. You can also link materials directly onto other objects. Let's give an example of this. We're going to move the tours over here on the y-axis. Then we're going to add a monkey objects. What we're going to do is we're going to have our monkey objects selected. But select the monkey first, then shift select our tours. Second, hits control and L on our keyboard to bring up the make Links menu and select materials. What this does is it takes the first material form, our list of materials with our tours object, and it applies it to our Suzanne objects here. It also inherits the second material, which is the clay material, but it only assigns the first one. And the reason why is because blend out doesn't know exactly how we want to apply it the two materials. So by default, It's just going to apply the first material in the list to the entire objects. If I was to hit Control and z a few times to undo, then move the gray material up to the top of this list, hit Control L again and link Materials, Suzanne and now appears gray. Why? Because once again, it's the material at the top of this list that is applied first. Any materials located below will need to be applied manually to the individual faces of the objects. 4. Fake Users And Duplicating Materials: Once you have a library of materials to choose form, then you have the baseline to create even more materials based on some of the similar parameters. For example, let's say you wanted to create a different shade of grey, but you wanted to keep the original grey material. Well, one method would be to just create a material from scratch, but a faster method might be to duplicate your existing gray material. To do this, select the objects that you want to duplicate the material on. For example, the chores object. Then come over to the Properties tab and click on this icon here. This is the new material button and we can left-click to create a new material. In this case, gray dots, you wrote 01. This has the same properties of the original great material. By default, if we select the Susanne objects, you can see that we still have the original gray. This new glide we can rename as lights glide, for example. Then we can go to the base color and just increase the value, giving us a lighter gray. That's a very simplistic example. But it's one where you can see the potential of taking an existing material, especially one more complicated than this, and using it as the base for similar materials that you may want to create. At this point, we're using several materials in this scene and they are all being used. So if we go to this Browse menu, all four materials are currently being used. We can sell this because we just have the name assigned to each one in the list. However, Let's say we created another material, will just keep it as material for now. And then we remove the material from the selected object. If we go back to our Browse menu, this material is in our list, but it has a 0 next to it. So what does this mean? Well, this means that if we worked loans blender and then open it back up again or just open up a new file. This material would be lost. It would not be saved with the current file. Let's test that as a demonstration. What we're going to do is we're just going to say this. And I'm going to name it as Matt, short for material. Click Save as. Then we're going to go open recent and select Matt dot blend. That's basically reopen the file. If we go to our Browse menu, you can see that the material has now disappeared. This is an example where any material that is not assigned to an object will be deleted once you close blender and reopen it, or at least once you close and reopen the specific file. How can you prevent this? Well, you can do something known as adding a fake user. Let's once again create a material. Keep it named as material. And this time we're going to click on this shield icon. When you click on it, you get a tick and it highlights in blue. This means that a fake user has now been assigned to the material. What we can now do is we can't remove the material, form our tours objects, which is the currently selected object. And if we were to go into our Browse menu, we can see we have material, but instead of the number 0, we have the letter F. F stands for fake user. This now allows us, if we go and save our file, to open it up again, map dot blend. Go back to our Browse menu and the material still exists. Let's say you wanted to properly delete a material, but not have to actually come out of your project to do so. How can you delete the material entirely? We're not just talking about the decent formula material slot. If we remove it from the material slot or get rid of the materials law itself, the material will still exist if we want to delete the actual material. So let's bring in our material here. What we can do is we can come up to our outline a panel, and then we can click on this display button here. This will allow us to determine what we want to view in the outliner. For example, let's go with a blender file. Here, we can choose from any of these different types of objects. For example, what materials. We can then select any of these materials that we want. For example, the one is nine material. Left-click to select, right-click to bring up this menu that is labeled as outliner IB data observation. And then we can choose the lead, the material. This is the main way of deleting your materials permanently. If we go back to our Browse menu, that material no longer exists. So if you want to delete your materials properly, the best method is to come up to the outliner panel, change the display mode to blend a file, come down to materials, and choose the one that you want to delete. For now, let's just set this back to what it was before, which I believe was the few layer. And now we are ready to move on to the next video. 5. Accessing The Shader Editor: At this point, we have covered pretty much all with the fundamentals as to how our materials work and how they are related to our objects. Now, we're going to set up Blender soda. We can begin actually making some more interesting looking materials and textures. Why I'm going to do is I'm going to select my free objects with the Shift key and left clicking. And then I'm going to delete them. To start things off. Nice and simple. We're going to be working with a single plain objects. Hit shift, I, go mesh and select plane. We're going to add a new material, but we're not going to do it from here. We're going to do it from the shading workspace, come up to the workspace tabs at the top of the blender interface and select shading. Then we're going to go into a top orthographic view. For our plane. You can either press the number seven on your number part or you can click on this see button located here in the top corner. This will take us to our top orthographic view. From here, what I can do is I can click on this New button to add a new material. If we zoom out, you can see we have two nodes. So a node contains specific properties that allow us to manipulate the final output of a given material. Here we have two nodes by default. If we just assess them very quickly, we have the principled BST f node and we have the material output. This is the most basic of materials. And effectively what this is is a material output which is paramount to any material that you create, because all of the data that you create for that material gets outputted using this. Note. If this node it doesn't exist, then the material cannot be applied to any object. This principle, BST f, it looks very complicated. But what this really is is it's known as a shader node. Shader nodes tell blender how a material surface should react to light. For example, we can define the base color of this node. And as such, the actual material, we can enable subsurface scattering. We can define whether or not it is a dielectric material, which is basically anything that is not a metal and a metallic material by manipulating this slider. And you can see we pan our view that it now looks like it's got a metal surface to it, which is slightly different to our dielectric one. We can also dictate the roughness, amongst other properties such as the transmission, which can turn your objects into glass. And also the emission, which allows you to actually emits light from the surface of a material. So there are a lot of things that we can do here with our principal, BST of Shader. There are two key elements that define the effectiveness of a material. They aren't the texture and the shading. The principal BFS DFS shader focuses on the shading aspects, how our material acts when hits by sources of lights. The other aspect is texturing, which is the actual look of our material. What does it look like? Does it look like wood or brick? Or is it a geometric pattern, et cetera? Shading has many different subcategories, many of which you can see with the principal BST F shader, for example, the color, subsurface scattering, metal illness, specular heresy, roughness, transmission, index of refraction, and emission. These are some of the more notable properties for defining the shading of your material. On the other hand, we have textures. Creating textures can again be divided up into several different methods. The F3 key methods are the use of image textures, which you can find on the internet. Procedural textures that you can create using your own system of nodes. And also painted at textures which you can create artistically using these heck sharp pains workspace that is located here. So you can create a texture by clicking on the new button, for example. And then you can use the pain tools to custom create your texture. In this course, we're going to start things off with the one at the might sound with a most interesting procedural textures. This is the use of the node system to actually generate the details of your texture. This is the most difficult one to learn, but it's also the one with the greatest amount of potential as it will allow you as the user to create any texture that she wants, as long as you have an understanding of the node system. That's the reason why we're going with procedural texturing thirst in this course. It's the one best suited to teaching you the ins and outs of using the note editor to create your materials. 6. An Overview Of The Nodes: In this video, we're going to be covering all of the different nodes that are available for creating materials in a blender. Before we focus on the materials themselves, you will probably have noticed that the plane object is this magenta color. The reason why this is the case is because the material output with this material that I have created is not attached to anything. So if I scroll up or scroll wheel, press down on the middle mouse button, I can navigate my note system. Up here we have our outputs and you can see we have a material output, but nothing is connected to this output. When this is the case, the colour of your objects is going to appear as this magenta color. Just keep that in mind, just in case you ever see an objects with this sort of material, it means that the material output is not connected to anything. As for the note editor itself, you can see that we have a lot of different nodes to choose from. What I have done is I have grouped the nodes based on their types. For example, if I was to hit shift and I, you can see we have many different categories. So what I have done is I have bought each of these different nodes into our setup from each of these categories. For example, we have this list of inputs, nodes that I have created and stored in this group of inputs. Now, what exactly do some of these nodes do? Well, we've already seen outputs with immaterial output. There are also a couple of other options, the light output and the output. These are pretty self-explanatory. They will output data to the material. The most commonly used is going to be your material output, which is going to be used to connect up to different shaders and textures. The light output is used to help create surfaces that emit lights, et cetera. But where we have outputs, we also have inputs. Inputs are effectively used to, as it says, inputs, a specific property to your material, no tree. For example, you can use the bevel input here to create the illusion of a bevel on your material if you're using a free dimensional objects. It is important to note that while most of these nodes will be always available to you, some of these nodes will not. For example, the bevel node here, or the lights and the outputs here are only available with these cycles will render engine. Currently? If you take a look in the Properties panel underneath the render properties tab, you will see that we have the render engine is set to EV. Now if I was to attempt to add in might light output node to this setup with shift I, then go to outputs. You can see we only have one option, the material output. If however, I changed to cycles. And then attempt to add my output again. You can see we now have all free options. So keep in mind that while most of these nodes will work with the ED render engine, some of them like the lights outputs and AOV output, for example, will not. At this point because it's just a demonstration. It doesn't really matter which render engine we are in. But for now, let's just move on to some of the other types of notes. One of the most common types that you will always be working with is going to be the shader. The shader is designed to tell your material how it needs to respond when it is hit by sources of lights. The most fundamental, which is the principal BSD F shader, which is commonly used to create realistic materials. There are however, plenty of youths use cases for many of the other nodes that you see here. For example, you can use the tune shader to create a cartoon like seen for your projects. Where you have shaders, you also have textures. So shader will help blend up to determine how a material responds to light. But it's texture relates to the actual pattern that you see on your material. What you see in front of you are the texture notes. They effectively act as the foundation for your procedural textures. For example, you can create waves using the wave texture. You can also use the noise texture to create a very random look. This note in particular is very useful for many commonly created materials. Another one that you will be using quite a lot is the image texture node. This one allows you to bring in an external image from the internet or from another source and use that and map that image to your texture. This one in particular requires your object to have a UV map created. More newbie maps later on. Next, we have color. Color is fairly self-explanatory. So these nodes will help you adjust the base colors of your materials. Each of these nodes affects the color in different ways. For example, you can use the inverter node to invert the base color, or you could use the brightness contrast node two affects both the blindness of the colors and also their contrast. So the difference between be lighter and darker sections. You can also mix colors together using mixed node or control it using curves. Up next, we have the script nodes of which there is only one. The Script node is effectively a scripts that you create that you can use to act as a customer generated material. You can do this internally using scripts created in the scripting workspace located here. Or you could bring one in externally, form a directory on your computer. Up next, we then have vectors. Fetters effectively relates to things like the normals or the actual x, y, and z coordinates of your materials. For example, you can use things like the bump node or the normal and normal map nodes to create uneven looking surfaces to create a sorts of fake displacement look. So that's a material actually looks three-dimensional. Or you could use something like the displacement texture itself to actually make a simple flat surface like a plane into a geometric 3D shape by using the assigned texture as the parameter for defining where your vertices are going to be positioned. Beyond that, we also have last but not least, converters. Converters are, as they are claimed to be, converters that take a single value or multiple values and convert them into something else. For example, we can use the combine RGB node to manipulate the red, green, and blue channels independently. And then outputs all of these values as a single image value using this image node. In addition, we also have things like the math node. Now, this one white, he has many different options to choose forms. So we've got functions, comparisons, rounding, trigonal, metric, conversion, et cetera. In the early stages of the course, we're going to be learning a lot about how we can use the math node in particular to procedurally generate different shapes for our textures. So that's a very quick overview of some of the different node types that we will be using to create our materials. But we're not gonna cover all of these straight away. We're going to take things slow so that we can understand the purpose behind each of these individual nodes and that different parameters. 7. Introducing The Texture Coordinate Node: From this video on, we're going to start generating new textures using our notes. What I am going to do first off is I'm just going to make sure that my overview material just has his own fake user. And then I'm going to unlink the data block since I want to start from scratch. Then I'm going to click new to add a new material. And for now let's just add a fake user to this. Scroll up on the scroll wheel to zoom in and press down on the middle mouse button to pan of you. I'm going to get rid of the principal BSD F shader. We're not going to be using shaders for a while. We get our focus is going to be on creating the textures themselves. To delete a specific note, make sure it is selected. You can sell it selected with a white highlight. Hits x, and that will delete the node. Then we're going to add a new node. Hit shift, I, go to inputs and then select a texture coordinate position about here. And you will see we have many different outputs for our texture coordinate. Note, let's start by adding the generated output to the surface inputs of our material output. You can see the effect that it has on our plane objects. I'm just going to send some my view and zoom in as much as I can. All textures are created form an origin points. This origin point changes depending on which of these options we choose. For example, we can use the uv. So we can plug the UV into here. And we get a different look. Now if we choose the UV as our main texture coordinate for this material, you, these are effectively two-dimensional coordinates for a 3D objects. Over here we have the UV image editor. And you can see that we have our plane objects maps, how on this squid. You, these use a CRO to one coordinate system. The location of the cursor here is 0-0. If we were to position it's at the very top corner of this map, it would be the coordinate system of 11. If we open up the side panel in the UV image editor by pressing N. And then going to View. We can manipulate the location of the 2D cursor. If I set this to one on the x and one on the why, it goes into the top corner. Now it does say x and y here, but really this is u and v. It's a bit confusing, but just consider it to be u and v. If we go CFO ON vx, we end up in this top corner here. And if we go one on the x, but c of o on the y, we end up in the bottom corner. This method of mapping the texture is also applied to the material itself when we use the UV texture coordinate. So the very bottom corner of this plane represents CRO is 0 for the texture coordinate. As we move further on the x-axis, we can see that the cutter gets more red. As we move up on the y-axis, you can see that the green becomes more and more saturated. As we move to the top corner here, opposite to the bottom corner, you can see it's basically yellow, a combination of green and red. If we were to change this form UV to objects, the mapping is different. So if using the object texture coordinate, we actually start from the center of the plane. So the sensor of the plane is 0, is 0. We go up to a value of one on the x axis about here. And minus one. If we go to about here, we can go up on the y axis to a value of one by coming up to here and minus1 down he. As a result of this, you can see that we have basically four different colors on our plane. Where both the x and y are in the minus values, the plane appears black. Where the x is a positive value, but the y is negative. It appears red. Where the Y is positive, but the X is negative. It appears green. And where both axes are positive, it appears yellow. The object textbook Warner is perhaps the easiest to get started with because it's very easy to understand exactly how the texture coordinates are being mapped. So you have 00 in the center. You have the coordinates of 10 here, minus 10 here, et cetera. 8. Creating A Diagonal Line: In this video, we're going to be combining the texture coordinate node with a math node as a means of creating our first shape, which is going to be a line going from the top corner to the bottom corner. The first question is, how do we add a map node? We go shift and I. Then we locate our converter and select Math. We then hover our math node over the noodle, which is the line that connects the two nodes that we have already created. It will be highlighted left-click. To move this math node into this node system. You can see that it has attached to the top value inputs and also the value output located here. This math node is not named as math, but is named as whatever operation is active. Right now, it's set to add. We have it so that we are effectively adding a value of 0.5 to the texture coordinates. To get an idea of how this works, let's set this back to 0. You can see we've created our diagonal line going from the top corner to the bottom corner. We will focus more on exactly why it's doing what it's doing in a bit. But it's perhaps more important to understand how it works, Robert, than the y. The moment the value is set to 0. If we reduce this to a negative value, you can see that more of our material surface appears dark. If we turn it into a positive value, then more of the surface appears, whites. When you see a texture, in this case file formats. Or we need to know really is that black is considered as 0 and whites is considered as one. Any form of gray in between is anywhere between 01. So the darker it is, the closer it is towards 0. Because these colors are based on a numerical system. For the given texture coordinates, we can manipulate them using math nodes. By increasing this by a value of 0.1, we increase the surface area that uses the lighter shade. Now, why is this the case? Well, let's just focus for now on the very center of this texture. The very center of this texture, as we know, because we're using the objects coordinate, has a coordinate system set to 0 is 0, which is the same as the free, the cursor. So we're going to use the 3D cursor itself to help understand exactly how this texture works. Since the plane is focused on a one-by-one ratio. If I set this back to Sierra, You can see the very center of our texture appears dark. As we previously mentioned, anything with a value of CFO or even less than that in this case, is going to be given the black shade because the bloodshed represents the value of CFO. In this case. If we increase it by a value of 0.1, that adds a value of 0.1 to all of the coordinates located around the texture. In the case of the coordinate located at the very center, It's now given a value of 0.1. So it now has a little bit more lights on that specific area of the texture. The further we increased the value, the brighter this specific point becomes. And you can see the transition for the texture itself. Because this value is added to the entire texture. We can reverse this by simply going the other way. For now, I'm just going to set this back to 0. And now let's take a look at some of the other functions that we may wish to use. If we click here, we get access to all of the different functions available. For example, if we go from our two subtracts, we can manipulate the value. So a positive value will make the texture darker. A negative value. We'll make it points up. So this is the opposite to the Add Node or the add function. If you take a look in the tooltip for each function, you get an idea of how it's calculated. For the add function. It's a plus b. So in this case, I is the top value, b is the bottom value. So the object coordinate at any given point is value I. And we in this case, subtract the bottom value, form that texture coordinate. So here we're taking y a value of minus 0.4, which is this basically the same as adding 0.4. because minus minus is the same as plus. Alternatively, we also have multiply and divide. So if we go multiply and set this to 0, the entire surface appears black. Because anything multiplied by 0 in Blender equals 0, which means that we have no blindness at all across our entire texture. To get back to where we were with the diagonal line data sensor, we need to set this value to one. This way, we're basically taking the texture coordinates maps out by the objects and we're multiplying it by one, which is basically itself. From here, we can increase this value. And you can see now that the effect is very different. So we increase this from one to ten. We're taking our coordinate as I and we're multiplying it by a value of ten. Now because we're multiplying instead of adding if a particular coordinate, say the negative coordinates, we're already at a value of 0, then that would mean that the top value is 0. And the bottom value would be irrelevant because anything multiplied by 0 equals 0. So no matter what we do with the bottom value, because all of the coordinates on this part of our texture, our COO or less. The value he won't make a difference. They will be exactly the same. The change occurs on any areas where the value is more than 0. From here, we can manipulate the bottom value to increase that base. For example, if a texture coordinate as a value of say, 0.1, we can multiply that by the bottom value to say ten times and then it becomes ten times brighter. But then what about the divide function? How does that work? Well, if we set this to one, we get basically what we had before because something divided by one is equal to itself. If we were to increase this value to a value of ten, for example. You can see it appears much darker in this top half of the texture, but once again, the bottom half yields no change. The divide function is effectively the opposite to the multiply function. If we set this to 0.1 and press enter, then this top half of the texture appears much brighter. Dividing our value by 0.1 is the same as multiplying it by ten. And dividing a value by ten is the same as multiplying it by 0.1. so they are effectively the polar opposite to each other. Before we finish, I'm going to introduce you to two more operations that we will be using a lot in the early stages to create our procedural Shapes. I'm going to introduce you to the greater than and less than comparison operations. First of all, let's go with greater than and set the threshold to 0. What we get here is basically an instant transition from black to white. So this line is no longer faded. There were no shades of gray here. It's either black or it's white. It's either a value of 0 or it's a value of one. If we take a look at exactly how this works, basically, the value is set to one. If i is greater than b. If it is not, then it is set to 0. So as I mentioned just a moment ago, it's either 0 or one. In the case of the top corner where the coordinates are 11 on both axes, then the value of i is going to be much higher than the value of b. So it's given the whites shade. If we manipulate this threshold, we can manipulate where the line is. The higher this line, the more of the surface is given a value of Ciro. Now in this situation, the blender grid actually helps us a bit. If I just zoom in, make sure that I'm still in top orthographic view and focus our attention on top. You will see that as we go from 0 to one on the x-axis, we have these little squares to help guide us. So each of these represents a value of 0.1 meters. So if we go 12345 on the x-axis, you can see exactly where on the texture the transition goes from black to white. The reason why is because anything below the value of 0.5 is given a value of 0 based on the functionality of the greater Dan. Note, the opposite is true for anything that's higher than 0.5. so in this case, 0.6 on the x-axis is going to be higher, then 0.5. with the threshold. So this little area here is going to be points because it's given a value of one. Now of course, both coordinate systems are taken into account here. Both the x and y. So if we go further down to about here, we are still moving along 0.6.7 on the x axis. But because the y value is too low, for the threshold, it still appears black and it's still given the value of 0. Alternatively, we can't reverse this completely. Boy, changing from greater than to less than. So in this case, one is assigned if i is less than b, otherwise, it's given a value of 0. What this will do is it will basically swap the colors around. So now the value of 0 is given to this top corner here, and the value of one is given to the rest of the texture. We're going to be using these particular nodes a lot. Because what they allow us to do is they allow us to create these much straighter lines that we can use to generate many different shapes. 9. Combining Nodes together: Many of the materials that you create are going to require more nodes than what you see here. In this video, we're going to be looking at the relationship between different types of math nodes. What I'm going to do is I'm just going to create a little bit of space between the texture coordinate node by clicking and dragging. And the greater than no juicy here. Then I'm going to add a Navarro math node shift. I converter math. I'm going to position it's before the greater than mode. At the moment, we see that the line is now focused directly in the center. We have the value for the add node set to 0.5 and the threshold is set to 0.5 is, well, let's just set these both back to 0. So how do these two nodes relate to each other? How do they communicate? Well, the node system is a hierarchy system. We start from this end and then we work our way across finishing with the material outputs. So any calculation made in the app node here is going to be made before the greater than node. Because of this, we can actually use the Add Node as an offset. So we can define the threshold value, which we already know how it works from the previous lecture. We remember that we can use the squares of the blender grid to determine what areas of our flat texture are going to appear black and which ones are going to appear white. But we can offset this with the add node. If I increase this value by 0.1, then more of our texture area is going to have a value that's greater than the threshold that we have set. The higher the value we position here in the app node, the greater the value of the different texture coordinates around the image texture. And so the more of our object appears white because of the threshold set for the greater than load. What happens, however, if we were to take this add node here and position it's after our greater than. Well, what I'm going to do is I'm going to just release position after. And at the moment it just appears whites. And the reason why is because the Quatre dynode is not attached 2D texture coordinate. So we need to do that. And then let's just sets the value to 0 and the value to 0. So we have our default diagonal line here. And we can again move this line using the threshold value, same as before. But this time, if we were to manipulate our add function, you can see that the darker area of our texture is getting lighter and lighter. The reason why is because we used the greater than function to determine which values are 0 and which are one. So everything that you see that it is white is already given a value of one before the Add Node begins to take effect. As such, the anode in this case, is only going to work on the darker area of the texture. Since the dark area is given a value of 0 before the adeno takes effect. If we increase it by a value of 0.1, then this entire area is now given the value of 0.01. instead of 0. If we increase it's a 0.5, then this entire half of our square is given the value of 0.5. So I hope that makes sense. And I hope your highlights the importance of positioning your nodes correctly. The behavior of this Add Function is very different depending on whether or not it is positioned before or after our greater than node. In other words, each just as important to determine where you will nodes go as it is, which nodes are going to be used. 10. Using The Power Function: In this video, we're going to be introducing the power operation. So we're going to start by muting the greater than node to mute a node. You can do so by pressing M on your keyboard. When a node is muted, it is basically ignored. Anything that we do in this greater than node will not be applied 2D texture until we unmute that node. To unmute anode made sure is selected and press the MK. So M is to both mute and unmute. Then we're going to change our antinode here to power. So power is located as a function. We're going to left-click. And with an exponent value of 0.5, you can see we get our diagonal line once again. We can manipulate this value so we set it to two, for example. What we end up with is effectively a line, not the transition is very gradual, going from 0 to one. But what is basically happening is when we have the exponents set two, we are multiplying the texture coordinates by themselves. Now, because of this, we end up with this line going from the top corner to the bottom corner. And that's because when you multiply a value by itself, whether it be positive or negative, it will always end up as positive. So the greater the value, whether it be positive or negative, the brighter it's going to be. Let's combine this with our greater than node. So we unmute the greater than node. The threshold is set to 0 here, which means we actually don't see anything. If we increase this to a value of 0.1, we actually get a diagonal line going from the top corner to the bottom corner where the value has been assigned CRO. Effectively, what happens here is we take our texture coordinate at any given point and we multiply it by itself. If that value is greater than 0.1, then it will be given a white value. If it is less than 0.1, then it will appear black. If we reverse this to less than, than, the colors will be reversed as well. What we can do here is we can manipulate the threshold to manipulate the size of the line that we have created. We can also do something like create an offset with another math node. We can duplicate our nodes by selecting them, hitting Shift and day, and then positioning. I don't want both of these to be power. I want this one to be AD. So here we have it. Adding a value of two. We can reduce this. And you can see the transition of the line that we have created going form this corner up to the top corner. As we increase or decrease the value. If I just set that to 0, it appears in the center. Now, as we touched upon in the previous lecture, the positioning of the nodes is very important to the final outputs. So let's take the Add Node that we've just added here. What happens if we position the Add Node in-between the power and greater than nodes. Well, let's find out. Let's just we plug these into here and position the add node after the power node. Then it lets increase the value. As soon as we do that, our line disappears. Let's decrease it. We can see that as we decrease this value, more and more of the object surface is given the value of 0. The reason why is because of the threshold that we have set here. If you add whatever values you have created from the power node by a value of 0.1, then all those values across your entire texture are going to be greater than the threshold of 0.01. defined here in our greater than Note. That means that none of them can be lower than this threshold. So d entire texture is going to appear whites because the entire texture is given a value of one because of this node. Again, if we set it to 0, the app node has no effects. If we said it's a minus1, then all of the texture coordinates have their values reduced by this value. And so more of our texture appears black because more of it falls underneath the threshold of 0.01. if we increase it even by a value of 0.1, the entire image is given a purely wants aesthetic because every single texture coordinate has a value greater than the defined threshold. If we increase this to 0.2, we end up getting our diagonal line back. Now what happens if we place this app node after the greater than mode? Well, let's find out. We're going to position the AV node here. And with its sets of 0.1, we get similar behavior. That's what we saw in the previous lecture, where we did the same thing without the power node. Anything that already has a value of one can't get any brighter, so it stays the same. But anything given a value of 0, as defined by the greater than node, is going to have its value increased by whatever we have set here. So the higher this valley, the brighter the line gets. But it doesn't affect the corners here because they're already maxed out a value of one. Now, knowing all this, we can get further control over the size of our line by using a different function. One that we have already looked at. What we can do here is we can use the multiply function to determine that the size of our diagonal line. Before we do that, I just want to reposition this add node back to the front because I want this to act as our offset. Then we can add the Multiply node. I'm going to reset the add value back to 0. And also would use the threshold back to 0.1. And I want you to just take a moment and think about where you would position the Multiply node. Think about what we want to use it for. So what we want to do is we want to use the Multiply node to control the size of the line that we have created. Where in this setup do you think you should go? Just have a quick think. The answer in this case is going to be after the power node. Remember at the start of the video, the power node sets to a value of two, allowed us to create the diagonal line in the first place. We're going to want to use the Multiply node after the power node so that we can control the value created form this node. We're going to take one of these nodes that already exist. It shifted duplicates and position here. Then we're going to change it to multiply. Again with the value set to 0, everything appears black because with the Multiply node set to 0, the texture coordinates are also set to a value of 0, and so they fall underneath the threshold value listed here. Well, I'm going to do is set that to one. And that gives us the exact same size as we did before. However, now we can increase the value of the Multiply node. And that is going to make the lines smaller and smaller as we continue to increase this value. So I'm going to set this at a value of 100. That gives us a much thinner diagonal lines you use. And it's also an additional means of controlling the size of this line. Because with the greater than node, manipulating the threshold wasn't that effective without our Multiply node, if you'll recall, with the Multiply node muted, the greater than a threshold value did allow us to manipulate the size, but only to a certain degree. With the Multiply node, we now have a much greater level of control over the lines size. So just to recap, we have the texture coordinate node here, sets who the object texture coordinate. So we start from the very center. The power node here is used to create the line itself. The Add Node is the offset. So if we change this value, we offset the positioning of the line. The greater than node is what is used to effectively create the sharp transition from 0 to one. And the Multiply node is used to control what the size of our line. So each of these nodes has a very specific purpose. 11. Adding Color With The MixRGB: I have a question for you. If you wanted to add color to this texture, where would you position your color node or shader node? Would it be at the front before our antinode? Would it be in-between any of these nodes? Or would it be at the end? The answer is it would be positioned at the end because we don't want our color nodes to impact the relationship between the math nodes that we have created. Because these are in their specific locations to create the specific result. What we're going to do is we're going to add a color node known as a mix RGB node. Hit shift and I go to color and select mix RGB position over here. And left click to confirm. At this point it's actually been connected to the long inputs. We don't want it set to color one. We want to control what color this is going to be. Instead, we're going to take this line here, which is our noodle from the greater than node. And we're going to plug it into this factor value. Now, it looks as if something's gone horribly wrong. We can no longer see our texture. But actually this is exactly what is supposed to happen. The reason why is because both of the colors, color one and cover two are exactly the same. If we left click on this gray bar here, we can manipulate what color the first input is going to be. I'm going to make this a red color. And as soon as I do that, we get our line back. Only this time it's red. We can update this in real-time by manipulating these values. So I can take the second input and make it blue, for example, or green or yellow. So I can make these any colors that I want. The question is, how exactly is this happening? Well, if we were to just mute our mix RGB note, at the moment you can actually see it sets a black because white now we're taking the colour connection and we're muting that. So what we're going to do is we're just going to disconnect this entirely so that we get are diagonal line. Now, these four nodes, as we already know, are used to create the diagonal line. If it's black, it's given a value of 0. And if it's white, it's given a value of one. With our mix RGB node. The first color here is actually given the value of 0. The second color is given the value of one. So it's taking the values that have been generated by these nodes and converting them into colors by using this mixed method. You can change this to a variety of other blending Modes. And it's going to change the way the mix RGB node works. For example, we set it to add. Then we end up adding to the colors by using these two bottom inputs, we get a different result here. We can also set some multiplier. Sets, a Color Burn Color Dodge, et cetera. For now, we're going to keep it on mix because this is the option that allows us to just use the color one input as the value of 0 and the color to input as the value of one. 12. Controlling The Axis Of The Line: Up to this point, we've learned how we can use math nodes to create this diagonal line. But how do we create a vertical or horizontal line? Where we can do this by separating the x, y, and z axes. What I'm going to do here is I'm going to rename this material as diagonal line and press Enter. We're just going to keep this material, any materials that we create, just so that we can refer to them later on. Then we're going to unlink this data block. Click new. And I'm just going to take my principal BSD f, And I'm going to change it to my texture coordinate node, makes sure that the appropriate node is selected. Hit shift and S and switch it form the principled shader to our texture coordinate, which is located here. Then we're going to set it for objects into the surface. And now we're going to add a new node to our setup. We're going to add a separate XYZ node. Hit shift, I, go to converter and choose separate x, y, z. You can see that it automatically connects to the output. And the effect that it has on our texture coordinate system is very apparent. So now at this point, anything on the x axis with a value lower than one is basically black. And as it increases closer and closer to one, it gets brighter and brighter. If we switch this to the y axis, then the line becomes horizontal. So now anything that has a y value less than one is going to be positioned as a value of 0, which is black. And then as that value increases closer to one, it gets brighter and brighter. We can do this for creating many, many different shapes. For example, let's take our x value, plug it back in. And let's start simple. So let's add a multiply node. We've shifted a converter math position. And let's just change this to multiply and increase this value. As we increase this value, it gets brighter and brighter on this half. It doesn't change anything on this side of the line because these values are already negative. And as such are set to 0. And so appears black. But on the other side of the line, it gets brighter and brighter as we increase this multiply value. For now, I'm going to set this back to a value of two. Then I'm going to add another node, which is going to be our greater than node. Hit shift each duplicates and position he. Then add the greater than node. And the fresh holds a bit higher at the moment, let's set it down to 0. And when we do that, we basically get two halves to our texture, either 0 or one. Now at this point that the Multiply node, if we meet, it, doesn't really do much. Because any value greater than one is already going to be above this threshold even when it's multiplied. But what happens if we take the y value from separate XYZ and plug it into the threshold. Well, then we get something different. Here. We have created a formula using nodes. The formula we have created is y equals two x. So y is equal to two times the value of x. How does this impact our texture, however? Well, let's use our 2D cursor or 3D curse. That's helped with this. So we take a look, we have our diagonal line. And if we manipulate this multiply value, which at this point is the only one that we can't manipulate. We can determine the steepness of this line that we have created. So how exactly is this value affecting the line? Well, let's position our 3D cursor in a specific area. So I'm going to go 0.1 on the y and points one on the x. So you can see the positioning of the 3D cursor. Now, what we're saying with the greater than node is that a must be greater than b in order for the value to be set to one. In this case, i is x, B is Y. I'm just going to set this multiply value to one. And when I do that, you will see that the line crosses over the positioning of the 3D cursor. So if I press Enter, you can see it just goes straight through that position. The reason why is because in this example, x is basically x and is effectively equal to y. So they're the exact same values. Because of this, we end up with a transition points where it goes from 0 to one on either side. If I set this back to 2x, then what we're basically saying is that we are doubling the value of x over y. So in this example, because x is going to be a greater value than what wise this specific coordinate on our texture has to be given the value of one because i is greater than b. If we reduce the value to less than one. So let's say c of 0.5, the think it's going to be given a value of 0 or one when it's plugged it into the greater than node. The answer is it's going to be given a CRO value. Because now x is always going to be half of y because of this value. I want you to just ignore the fat that we have. The x and y locations for the curse are set to 0.1. Because in traditional mass, 0.01. times 0.01. is actually going to decrease the value. But he just ignore that and just treat the two values here as one each. So x is one, y is one. And then we, when we multiply the x value by 0.5, we're reducing it to be less than what y is. And so it would appear black at this specific point because it's given a value of 0. If we were to switch this four, multiply it to divide, it would be effectively the opposite. So here, a value of 0.2 for division is the same as if value of 0.5 for multiplication. If we increase this value, then the line will become more and more horizontal. But if we were to do the same with the Multiply, the line would become more vertical, but it would never be completely vertical because of the manner or the multiply function. And let's not forget that we can also create offsets for our diagonal line. So I can add an app node. I can duplicate my Multiply node and position before the Multiply node here. Then set this to add, set this to 0. And now I can move the diagonal line on the x axis by manipulating this value right here. So by adding to this value, we move the line in the negative direction, making more of the texture have a value of one. And if I use a negative value, then the line moves in the positive direction, but makes more of our objects texture appear black. 13. Creating A Vertical Line: In this video, we're going to be creating a straight line, going either vertically or horizontally, using the same sorts of setup that we did earlier with the diagonal line of material that we created. So if you recall with our diagonal line, we use the power function to create this line here. We then combine it with other math nodes as well as our mix RGB node to get this final result. What we're basically going to do this time is have a straight line, either vertically or horizontally. So let's go back to our material and we're going to take this step-by-step. So we know that the separate XYZ node is what we're going to need in order to create either the vertical or horizontal nature of the line. For the moment, we're just going to delete these free nodes. And we're going to plug the X into the surface. So we get this. We can see that we've got our vertical line straight away. What we can do is we can then add a math node and set this to power. We can increase the exponent value to two. So the x is effectively multiplied by itself. Now, when used in this way, it doesn't matter whether or not the value is positive or negative. Because if I minus value is multiplied by a minus value, it will become positive. So wherever we go in the negative or positive directions, it will get brighter and brighter, which is what gives us our line on the x axis. If we do this on the why, we end up with our horizontal line. Now, we want to create a smooth transition going from 0 to one. We want it to go from black to white instantly. We know how to do that at this point because we've used this particular function numerous times. We're going to use our greater than node and set the value for this node to be 0.1. Just for the moment. We can manipulate the threshold value to increase the size of this vertical line. For now, I'm going to keep it set to 0.1. From here, there are free, more properties that we want to control. We don't want to use the threshold to control the size. We only want to use it to control whether or not the value is set to 0, black one. Which is why what we want to do in this case is we want to add a multiply node. We also need to create an offset to control the positioning of the line on the x axis in this case, which is going to be an odd node. And then we're going to want to create our own custom colors by using these nodes. And we can do that with a mix RGB. So what I'm going to do is start with the offset. The offset should ideally be positioned before the power. So I'm going to duplicate my power node, change it's an ad, and then set to 0. Now, we can't manipulate this add value to manipulate the offset. Then I want to control the actual size of the line, which I can do with EVA, a multiply or divide node. I'm going to duplicate the AV node and position here. And then let's set this one to divide. Said it's one by defaults. And now if we increase the value, we make it larger. And if we decrease it, we make the line smaller. I'm going to keep this value set to 0.01. finally, let's add the color. We want these five nodes to be kept in place. So we want to add our color. Afterwards. We're going to hit shift. I. Go to color and select mix RGB connected at the end. And make sure that it's positioned in the factor input, which you can see here. Then changed the two colors. So let's this time go green for the line. And pink bought the rest of the texture. Don't forget that color one represents the value of 0 in this case, and color two is the value of one. And there we go. So now we have been able to create a vertical line with color using these nodes. We can very easily shift this to the y axis by plugging it into here. And also making sure that the x-value is disconnected. So click and drag, release. And then we have our horizontal line on the y-axis. I'm just going to name this as vertical line. And then just reposition the x value back into here. 14. Turning A Line Into A Square: In this video, we're going to be taking the vertical line that we created and we're going to be turning it into a square. Now how do we do this? Well, we can do this by duplicating some of these nodes over to the y axis and then adding these values together before they go into the mixed node. I'll show you what I mean. So you can book select multiple nodes by clicking and dragging over those nodes. Then we're going to hit shift and D and a position them. Dan here. Take the output from the separate XYZ node and plug it into here. Let's move these two nodes back to give us a bit of room. I then want to add the values on the x-axis with the values on the y. I can do this by using a nova Add Node. So select this Add Node here, he's shifting. And position here. Then take the bottom greater than node, which is connected to the wire output and plugging it in to the bottom inputs board the Add Node. As soon as you do that, you end up with a square. What we can do using this setup is we can adjust the offset on the x axis with this value, making sure not to go too fast. And we can also adjust the offset on the Y-value as well. We can use the divide values to determine the length on both the X and Y axes of r-square and turn it into a rectangle on either axis. So we can customize this square into any size on either axis. We're able to do that very quickly now because we have a general understanding of how our math notes work together. So let's recap. We've got our separate XYZ node and connected to the X output, we have an ad for the offset power to create the line divide to control its size. And greater than two position, it's at either a 0 or one value. We do the same thing on the y-axis and then add them together. If we were to just mute the mixed node by pressing the MK And actually disconnect it entirely. You can see here that what we actually have is the square shape here, but we also have these lines. But with the mixed node, we're able to use the fats half value so that we just end up with the two colors. So we get the green inside and the pink for the outside. And we can change these as we would like. So we can change to bottom input as well as the top input. And there we have our square shape on our square playing. 15. Making A Cross Shape: In this video, we're going to transform the square that we created in the previous lecture into the two vertical lines, both poverty quantile and vertical. So we're going to have both of these lines visible at the same time. The question is, how do we do that? Well, before we answer that question, we're just going to click on the new material. Name this as square. Click fake USA, make another new material. And we're going to name this as cross. Now as you've had a moment to think about what we could do to make both the horizontal and vertical lines where we already have everything. We need he for both the X and Y axes. This is exactly what it needs to be. And this is exactly what it needs to be. The only one that we can really change is I have this other node at the end or the mix RGB node. But the mix RGB node relate to the color, not necessarily the operation used to create the shape. So that leaves us with one option, this odd node. Let's see what happens if we change this from add to subtract. When we do that, we get an interesting looking shape. So we've got the blue areas, but we've also got to pink lines coming form where the Square used to be. Now this is interesting, but not exactly what we're looking for. Let's try it. Multiply. There we go. So now we've got a vertical and horizontal line. And we've been able to achieve that just point changing the function here. The reason why we had to change this node specifically is because this is the node that allows us to connect the x-axis to the y axis. So if we wanted to both the vertical and horizontal lines to be visible, it had to be this node that we needed to change. 16. Using The Value Node To Control Multiple Nodes: In this video, we are going to be introducing a new type of input node known as a value. What we're going to do is we're going to use a single node to control multiple parameters at the same time. For example, here we have the divide values on both the X and Y axes. For our square texture. We can increase these and decrease them independently to create rectangular shapes. But what if you did not want to do that? What if you wanted to increase both of these values are the same time? Well, you could just go and select one value, name it as 0.4. and then do the same with the valley below. But of course this takes time if you're constantly going back and adjusting these values independently. So we're going to use the value node. I'm going to bring those back to the value of 0.01. hit shift, I go input and select value. Then I'm going to position the value node about here and just create a little bit of room for it. Next, I'm going to set the value. If we just zoom in, I'm going to set the value to 0.1, which is the same as the values that you see here and here. And press enter. Then I'm going to plug the value into the first divide node and then into the second. Note that when using nodes, any outputs can have multiple noodles attached to them. However, on the input side, you can only ever have one noodle coming in. So for example, if I was to take, say, the output form this power node into this bottom socket, you can see it disconnects the value node because only one input can go in at a time. So we're just going to click and drag to get the quip positioning. And now if we were to increase this value, you can see that it increases on both the x and y axis, allowing us to keep our square shape. This is a simple example of using the value node, but despite how simple it looks, you will find that it is very popularly used in a lot of procedural materials. 17. Using The Power Node To Create A Parabla: In this video, we are going to be creating what is known as a parabola. A parabola is effectively a curved line. So we're going to create a parabola that goes from the top, curves down to the sensor, and then back to the top in the opposite corner. To do this, we're going to add a new material and we're going to name this as parabola. Then we're going to start things off easy by getting rid of all of these nodes. For our parabola material, we're going to keep the separate XYZ node, select the others, and hit the Delete key to get rid. Then for now, just plugged the X into the service. Just so we have something to start with. Creating a curved line may sound like a step up from what we've been doing so far. But it's actually really easy. Again, it just requires a couple of nodes. They just need to be the correct ones. What we're going to do is we're going to hit shift high. And we're going to add a math node, which is going to be our greater than mode. We're going to position it here and turn the add function to greater than. Then set the threshold back to 0. So we get a value of 0 on one side and one on the other. Next, we need to create the formula necessary to create the parabola. The formula that we will be using will be y equals x squared. Now how do you create x squared? Well, you multiply it by itself. In other words, you're going to be using a power function. Let's take our greater than node and duplicated position here. Did it connects to both the x outputs and the original greater than node. Then change this function to power. Set the exponent value to two, and press enter. Now at the moment the threshold is set to 0. If we increase that, we simply end up with a line down the sensor. Now this is hardly a curved line. But watch what happens when we take the wire outputs and position it into the threshold. We end up with our curved line, starting from the top corner, curving down to the sensor, and then back up again. This here is our parabola created using the formula of y equals x squared. We take X and Y as the same value from here. Y remains why? As it goes into the threshold. But x will be multiplied by itself using the power node. We can, in addition to this at other nodes to control. For example, we can create an offset with either add or subtract, which is what I'm going to do now. So shift the position here. And you can see that When we use multiple power nodes, we actually create more of a straight line down here for our parabola, it is still curved, but then it hits the bottom quicker. If we were to do this again, shift d position. You can see the line that sits on the x-axis here gets longer and longer as we add more and more these nodes. I'm just going to reset that. So I'm going to select my power note and delete it. Plugged the x into this power here, and change it to add. Set that to 0. And now I can manipulate the bottom value to manipulate the positioning on the X axis. I can also do the same on the y-axis by duplicating and positioning, then I can increase and decrease the value on the y axis. So to review so far, we have the separate XYZ node, which allows us to separate the x and y axis. We use the formula of y equals x squared to create the parabola by using this greater than node as the base and using this power node to multiply x by itself. We also use these to add notes to offset the parabola itself. If you're wondering exactly how this works, remember that when we multiply a value by itself, regardless of wherever the original value is positive or negative, the final value will always be positive. So the greater the negative value going in this direction, the more likely it is to be a high enough value to pass the threshold of Y. So a high art x-value in either axes is more likely to be higher than y because it will always end up as positive, which is what you see, the shape that's in front of you right now. We can also edit the shape of the parabola using a Navarre function. So this time, let's use a multiply node, will take the odd node and duplicate it. And then let's multiply with the value set to 0. It basically has it set on the horizontal axis of the line that we are either 0 or one. If we set this back to one, we get the original parabola shape. But as we increase this value, the parabola gets narrower and narrower because the final value is going to be higher depending on how much we multiply by. And therefore, more of the texture is going to get a value of one assigned to it because it's going to be greater than y. We could also do this if I just set this back to one on the y axis itself, shifting position, and then manipulate. And it basically does something very similar regardless of which of the two axes you plugged the Multiply node into. So by increasing this Multiply node, we narrow the shape and we end up doing pretty much the opposite with the Multiply node connected to the wine, but it's the same sort of functionality. So in this case, a higher multiplication value on the y axis will mean that more of the texture gets the 0 value. This is how we can create curved shapes using math nodes in Blender. 18. The Color Ramp: In my opinion, the math node is one of the most powerful knows that you can use to create your materials because of just how much functionality the math no possesses. But there is a another node that, that I consider to be extremely powerful for creating your materials. The node we're going to be looking at now is going to be the color ramp. Well, I'm going to do is I'm going to use the color ramp to adjust my shape. I'm going to hit shift and I go to converter and select colorRamp. Now where we position this is very important. While I'm going to do is I'm going to position it before the greater than node. You might think that because it's a color ramp and it's related to color, that we may want to position. It's after the greater than node, like we did with the mix RGB. But as we've mentioned a couple of times before, the functionality of a node is dependent on its position in the node setup. For now, I'm going to position it in between the power and greater than nodes. By default, nothing happens. But if we take a closer look at the color I'm node, you can see that we have these two points which we can slide across and even change color if we wish. So what happens if we begin to edit our color ramp? Well, let's start by grabbing and moving this slide up with the black color. Click on the arrow and drag. As we do that, you will see that we end up with a very flat line at the bottom of our parabola. As we continue to slide this point across towards the whites. The closer we get to it, the longer that line becomes until it pretty much reaches the end. Now if we were to do the reverse and move this white value, you can see we're now pulling in the corners of our parabola at the top of the texture. So from here, we can actually better customize our shapes. You can see here just by manipulating the positioning of these two points, we no longer have a single curved line. Instead, we have what looks like a bit of a square. But what happens if we were to use a color ramp on the y axis instead of the x. Let's take our color ramp and hit shift these duplicates and position before the greater than node, but this time for the y axis. Now let's zoom in on this second column and manipulate the values. So we drag the black value in. It pulls our parabola up until it basically reaches the top. If we were to pull this white points in. Then it actually drags the corners of the parabola down on the texture. Again, we can do this to create a variety of different shapes just by manipulating the control points for either of these colorRamp notes while working with the colorRamp node in this, why it tends to be used as a marker of manipulating the 0 to one values. Of course, as we know, black represents 0, whites represents one. But what happens if we were to begin at changing the colors of these points? Let's take this white point, for example, that a color ramp on the x-axis. We can left-click here where we have the color bar and changed a cutouts, whatever we wish. As we increase the saturation. You can see that the parabola actually comes down here. So changing the color, at least in terms of its saturation, thus seems to have an effect. But this isn't the correct way to use the colorRamp node. Even though it does have an effect, it's generally best to just use the black and white values if you aren't creating the actual shape with the help of the Caravan, note, if you want to change the colors effectively, then what you can do is you can use a colormap node after this calculation has been made. In other words, after the greater than node. If we do this, the functionality of the colorRamp changes completely. I'm going to hit shift D and position here. Now nothing has changed. And if we click and drag the color ramp in this position, you can see that the two points are not really doing anything to the final output. However, if we change the white value to red and the black value up to blue, you can see the color ramp. Purpose has now changed from being able to manipulate our parabola, to being able to manipulate the actual colors, the texture. So what happens if we move the color ramp elsewhere? Considering that it's pretty clear that the positioning of the cut about node will change how it works with regards to detector itself. Let's try, for example, positioning a color antinode before this odd node. So let's take this colorRamp, hit shift and data duplicates and position here. You can see the shape of the parabola has changed. So to cartogram is now used at this stage of the calculation. What this means is that we basically have a straight line going from blue to red. When we are using the negative values, as we move in to the positive x, we start to get this curve. And it goes up to not quite the top, but pretty close to the top. If we were to manipulates these two points, for example, the black point here, we can actually increase the length of the straight line and as a result, increase the gradient or steepness of our curve. And we can do that up to a certain point. We can also bring this white point back towards at this end. And you'll see that that brings out the curve towards the center of the object. Now it takes quite a bit of plants is just to get used to exactly how nodes work. And that's exactly what we need to do. We just need to practice the different locations in which we can position our different nodes and see what we end up with. Another thing that we can do is we can change the interpolation method of the color ramp, which is another way of changing his behavior. For example, where company sets a linear. What happens if we change this to something else? For example, constant. Where as soon as we go for linear to constant, all of a sudden we end up with basically a TOP blue and a bottom red half. However, if we move this white value across to the other side, you can see the shape take effect, but it's no longer a curve. It's pretty much a right-angle going straight up. The reason why is with this method of interpolation, as we zoom in on our color ramps, slider, which you can see here. It's IVR, completely black or completely whites. This is different to when we had it set to linear interpolation, where it actually starts off black, and then the shade gets lighter until it becomes white. He, this is also the reason why we get the gradient up to a certain point. But then it flattens out. Because going from this point all the way to the end is just pure whites introduced the value of one. So at this point, the curve doesn't go any higher. We can change this to avert methods of interpolation. For example, we can use ease and that gives us a slightly different shape. Once again. We could also go B spline, which gives us a much more rounded shape at the top. And we can also go Cardinal. So the interpolation is going to change the shape that you create in relatively subtle ways. For now, let's just go back to linear. But let's take it one step further because there's even more that you can do using the colorbar node. You'll see that we have two points to play with, but we're not limited to these two points. What if we added a third points? We can do this by clicking on this plus symbol. This is going to add a new points to the color ramp. You can see that the curvature is now slightly smoother. Y I'm going to do is I'm going to take this middle value and I'm going to make it pure whites. It's difficult to see behind the color wheel. So I'm just going to zoom out a bit and then change the color. But you can see how it changes the curve in real time. I'm going to make this pure whites. And this is basically the same as when this point was positioned here before. But now what happens if I actually make this third darker? Let's take the brightness and lo it than what we end up with. With regards to our texture is a spike. It comes up, hits the plateau, and then comes down again. And we can manipulate this middle value to manipulate where that spike is positioned. Now because of where the color ramp is positioned, it can only go between the value of CFO and one on the x axis. But changing the position might actually changed a result. That's something that I'm going to lead to. You. Try positioning the colorRamp, it a couple of other locations, and see what results you can come up with. You can also delete selected points by clicking on this minus button. And you can also add as many points as you wish. So here we've got four points. Let's make this one. And that's putting this one out, this one in. Make this boy as well. And let's also add one more point which we can move over here. Bring that down again. And you can see we now have two spikes because we start with a darker value, moved to a blotter value, which is the first spike. Come down here with this spike, then up again, then Dan again. So that's what I want you to do before the next video. Play about with the color map in terms of both where you want to position it in your setup, see how it affects your setup. And try manipulating the values of the color ramp. So try adding some additional points, playing about with the shading of the points and see what results you can end up with. 19. Create A Circle: The next shape that we are going to be creating with our math nodes is going to be a circle. So we're going to be creating a circular shape in the center of our plane. To start with, I'm going to create a new material and rename it as circle. Then I'm going to delete all of the nodes, with the exception of the texture coordinate, separate XYZ greater than and material output nodes. I've selected. All of these were box select and hit the Delete key to get rid of them. Then do the same with the color ramp at the end. Next, I'm just going to connect the x to the value. And wanted a value or whiter the threshold, I should say. And then connect the value to the surface just so we have something to start with. Now to create a circle, what we need to do is we need to multiply x by itself. So we're going to be using the power node once again. And we need to multiply y by itself. We then need to add these together and position that value into the value input. So even though we've got the y value plugged into the threshold at the moment, it's not going to be like that for long. To start with, let's create our MF node position over the x and change it from art to power. Then changed the exponent value form 0.5 to two. This, if you'll recall, creates a parabola. If we do the same thing for the y axis, we end up creating what almost looks like an hourglass shape. So this one here is another shape that we can create that we easily using nodes in the white. Why? But we're not looking to create this hourglass. We're looking to create a circle. And to do that, we have to add x squared and y squared together. Take the power node and duplicate it position here. And you'll see that this again changes the general shape, our texture. We're going to change this power function back to Add. And then we're going to plug the bottom power into the second value. We're then going to disconnect from the threshold. And just like that, we have a circle. We can't manipulate the threshold value to manipulate the size of the circle. If we go all the way up to one, then the edges of the circle will hit the edges of the plane objects. Now the circle itself doesn't expand the way that I want it to. So I want a little bit more control. What I'm going to do is I'm going to add a Nawab MAF node after this odd function. Before we created the X and Y axes and we basically multiplied them by themselves. What we're going to do now is we're going to effectively would burst that. But after the add function, to do that, we're going to take our power node duplicates and position and then change it from power to square roots. As soon as you do this, you can see that the circle becomes much smaller. But actually what this is doing is it's giving us more control over the threshold value. So now I can go up to 0.2.3, et cetera. And what it's doing is the size of the circle on the y-axis, for example, is now following the size of these individual cubes that you see in the blender grid. If you will recall. If we go up ten of these cubes on the y axis, we end up the top of our plane object because it had the original dimension set. Without our square root node. It doesn't follow this method of re-scaling. So with these square root node enabled, we're actually able to more easily control the size of the circle using our threshold value. If we said it's a 0.5, then it goes up to as high as 0.5 on the wire and as low as minus 0.5. Now a question I have for you is how would you go about creating an offset for this circle? That you could move it only x and y axes? The answer is to use an add or subtract mode before the power. Take the node that you see here, and duplicate it. And position here. Then set the value to 0. Duplicate this add load and position on the y axis. Now, you can offset on either the x or y axes if you wish. Then we could also use the color of our node. So let's use the colormap node not to artists and more control to our objects texture. Hit shift, I, go to converter and this time select Color Ramp. Let's try positioning. It's before the greater dominant node. If we begin to manipulate the two points that we have accessible to us, we can much more easily resize our actual circle. So bringing this point in or increase the size and bringing the white's point in is going to decrease the size. So we can manipulate the position of each of these points to control the size of the circle. 20. Turning Our Circle Into A Torus: In this video, we are going to be turning our circle texture into a tourist texture. In other words, we're going to be creating a ring. We're going to be doing this with the help of our trusty colorRamp node. So the big question is, how can we use the cut of antinode to create a tourist or a wind shape? The answer is going to be to add an additional points and a transition from 0 to one to 0. In other words, we're going to position one in the center and then one at the end. We're going to click on the plus button to add a new color stop, which is technically what they're actually called. So they're called color stops. I tend to call them as points. We're going to take the middle value. We're going to make this Whites. And then we're going to take the end value and make it black. That helps us create the tours objects. And then we can adjust the threshold value to create a better shape for our tours if we set it to one, keep in mind that the entire texture is going to be given a value of 0 because nothing hits the threshold or goes beyond the threshold of 1.00. But if we set this to noise, we can create a thin ring that we can use. From here, we can manipulate these free color stops. So this first color stop is going to represent the inner radius of our wing. This second color stop is going to be the size of the ring. So the closer to the first color stop, the smaller the ring. But it gets bigger as we bring it towards the third color stop at the other end. Then this color stop here is going to represent the outer radius of the ring. So inner, outer. And finally, the general size. And of course, we can do things like manipulates the odd functions at the front of our node setup to reposition the offset of our wing. 21. A Second Way Of Doing things: One of the most important things to note is that there is nearly always more than one way of creating something in blender, whether it be an object or a material. In this video, I'm going to show you a second method of creating a torus shape for our texture. With this, I'm just going to duplicates and we name as Tours. Then I'm going to make sure it has a fake user. And go back to my circle with myCircle object. I'm just going to for now delete my color amp and position back here. To create the circle as it was before, may be reduced that threshold creates a fake user for that as well, and then duplicates and rename as tourists to. So in this video we're going to be creating the exact same shape as the original tore us, but we're going to be creating a slightly different note setup to achieve this. So as we give our tours to material, the fake user, how do we go about creating our tours without using a color map? Well, to start off with, what we're going to do is we're going to take every single node after separate XYZ and before Material output. And we're going to duplicate the lot. So we're going to box select all of these nodes from the AP nodes ordered weights, equator done, hit shift, day, and position down here. What we're then going to do is we're going to add this set of nodes to the same separate XYZ node. Don't forget, that's the outputs of our nodes can go to multiple different places at the same time. So we're going to take the X output, plug it into here. We're going to take the wire outputs and plug it into here. Then what we're going to do is we're going to go shift control and left-click on this greater than node to bring it up as a viewer so we can preview what this looks like. If we were to select another node, say this power anode, we have a shift control, left click. Then blender is going to tell us exactly what this node is doing. As we create more and more textures will be using this particular hotkey combination more than more. Keep in mind, the node wrangler add-on must be unable to do this burnout out. Let's just go back to our greater than node. And let's take the threshold value and reduce it slightly to 0.4. Then what I'm going to do is to take the greater than function and turn it to less than. So now we end up with a white circle on a black background. Whereas before we had a black circle on a white background. What we can do from here is we can basically join these two sets of nodes together to create our tours shape. So let's add the two sets together with an add node. I'm going to take any of my adenoids that already exists, duplicate them and position here. Then I'm going to plug each of these values into the AV node. And that gives us our tours. Now from here, if I manipulate the less than values, we can in a white, adjust the size of the tours. And the same can be done with the greater down as well. But this doesn't give us the best control. So let's add one more node. We're going to add a multiply node. Take the Add Node once again, hit shift day. Let's position here. And then let's go to multiply. Let's also set the threshold back to 0.5. Press enter. And now as we manipulate the multiplier value, we can't manipulate the inner radius of the circle. Of course, if we go below a value of one, it's going to cross over and give us a slightly different look. But if we use the Multiply node correctly, we can successfully adjust the inner and outer radius of our shape. So let's duplicate this Multiply node position up here. Everything disappears because the value is set to be the sign. And we can lower this multiply value at the top to increase our outer radius. So now we can increase and decrease the radius of both the inner and outer parts of our win. And that there is a second way of creating the same tours object that we did before. I think the only difference in this case is the fact that the colors are switched. But of course, that's an easy fix with the color ramp. We can just go white, black. And then once again, and then manipulate how we see fit. 22. Introducing The Absolute Function To Create A Diamond: The next shape that we are going to be creating is going to be a diamond shape. We're going to start things off by just adding a new material, naming the material as diamond, and creating our fake user. Always important that you get into the habit of doing those steps first. Then we're going to take the nodes that we don't need straightaway and delete them. Then I'm going to plug the separate XYZ is x output into the surface inputs. The node that we're going to be introducing in this video is a math node known as absolute. Let's take a look at how the absolute function works when we use it by itself. The x-axis hit shift I, creates a math Node plugin and change it to absolute. We end up with something that's similar to the power value. What we have here is a line that goes straight down a sensor. The absolute node is actually fairly simple in how it is used to calculate. Basically, the closer the value is 0 on the x axis, the darker it becomes. And this is true both positive and negative. So minus one is treated the same way as one when it comes to our absolute function. Because of this, anything really close to 0 appears black, hence the line. And as we move further away from 0 in either direction, it gets brighter and brighter. It's as simple as that when it comes to be absolute node. And we're going to use this to create our diamond shape. So let's duplicate the absolute node and use it with the y-axis as well. Let's see what happens if we add these two nodes together. So shift and I had a math node position here. And connect absolutes and absolute together with the add node. We get what looks like a star that is appearing in the center of our texture. But we want it to have some sharp edges, likely other shapes that we have created. To do that, we know by now that we can just add in a new type of math node, which is going to be our greater than node. And just like that, we have created our diamond shape. Because with the greater than node, depending on our threshold. The value can either be 0 or one. We cannot manipulate the threshold to manipulate the size. But as we know by now, an easier way of doing that is to use either our color ramp node or a multiply node. Be careful not to duplicate anything that's already selected. Select the appropriate node. It shifted, duplicates, changed this to multiply. And then you can use the Multiply node to control the size of the diamond shape. Combine it with the threshold value to further increase your control. So I could set the threshold to one. And then from there, use the Multiply node to increase or decrease the size as required. There are of course, other things that we can do to manipulate our diamond at this point. For example, we can create the offset on the x and y. So let's take how I'd note duplicates and position. Then we have an offset on the x. We can also do the same on the y-axis as well. We can also change the shape of the diamonds using something like a caravan node. So where would we position the color bomb node to make the diamond finner on one axis but not the other. Well, that would need to come after we create the function that has the absolute variable, but before we add the two together. So in between these two nodes for the x-axis, if we create our color ramp here and manipulate the white value, for example, the white color stop. We can make the diamond thinner or thicker. We can also change the shape using the other color stop. So we can turn it form a diamond to a hexagon shape. We can do the same thing on the y axis. So from here, if we manipulates the second color, stop with the y-axis. Again, we're making the diamond thinner. And we can manipulate the first color stop to create our hexagonal shape, but on the opposite access to before. And then finally, we can add some color. And we can do this using different nodes. For example, we could use the color ramp node or we could use one that we haven't used for quite awhile. And that is mix RGB. So we can position this after the greater than node. Use the factor. And then we can manipulate the colors of the diamonds as well as the background to create the shape and even give it some additional color for the texture. 23. Using Nodes From Previous Shapes To Create A Leaf: In this video, we're going to be creating a slightly more interesting shape. We're going to be creating a leaf shape. You could also consider this to be the shape that your eyes Mike. The way we're going to do this is we're going to be combining the techniques of two shapes that we have already created, the diamond and at the circle. So I'm going to create a new material and name this as leaf. Then creates a fake user. Now I'm just going to delete all of these nodes, bring the material output back in and just connect the x to the surface. Always just to have that starting points. Now the Shea we're trying to create, we want to have basically a point at the top and bottom, but we want it to curve as well. So we're basically inheriting properties form our diamond shape located here. So you can see that we basically have four points, but a diamond. And what we want here is we want to keep the points top and bottom, but we also want it to curve. So we want it to curve like our circle shape, which you see here. Well, let's assess these two shapes under nodes that they use. We can ignore the add nodes because they're just used for the offset where we use them anyway, once we've created the general shape. But the circle uses the power function on both the x and y. If we go back to the diamonds, this shape uses the absolute function on both the x and y. Which means that maybe we can create the shape that we want by having a combination of the absolutes and power nodes. Let's just go back to our new objects, which was our leaf. If we can find it. Here it is. And then let's begin adding some nodes in. We're going to add our math node. And pretty eggs. Let's start off with its set to absolute. This is the axis where we're going to want the points to occur. Then we're going to hit shifty and change this second node from absolute to power and set the exponent value to two. Let's position the war outputs into the base and just hit shift control left click to view. So we have the power value here, and we also have the absolute value here. And they work in similar ways, but the absolute value of the line is much tighter towards the value of 0. What we want to do though, is we want to add these two together. So we take a look at the circle. We can see we add them both together. And if we take a look at the diamond, again, ignoring the color ramps, we use this function to add at the absolutes together. So let's do that here. We're going to go back to our leaf shape, duplicate one of these nodes, set it to add, and make sure that they are both plugged in. So at the moment, it doesn't really look like a leaf shape, but of course we know the exact reason why we're not using our greater than node to create that 0 to one relationship. Let's just duplicate the anode with shift dy. Change it's a greater than and set the threshold to 0.5. Press enter. And here we have our leaf shape. So we've got the points on the top and bottom, but it curves in-between. That's because of the positioning of the Absolute and power nodes that we created. So we use the absolute node on the x axis to create the points. On the top and bottom, we used a power node on the y-axis to create the curvature. If we were to swap these around. So make the absolute power. I set that to two and then set the bottom of power node to absolute. You now see that we have the points on the y-axis and the curvature on the X. So this is how we can very easily create our leaf shape. And we've been able to do this by learning form the shapes that we have already created. Even though it looks more complicated. It's just a combination of the nodes that we have already been using. I'm going to finish off now with a little bit of a mini challenge. By this point, you should already know how to create an offset for your shape. How to control its size, and also how to manipulate the colors of your shape. I want you to add some nodes to do these free things. So create an offset. Better control the size, and also change the colors. That's going to be your mini challenge for this video. And then I will see you in the next one. 24. Mixing Shaders To Create Transparency: In this video, we're going to be taking a little bit of a break for learning about the math nose and creating all of these different shapes. And we're going to be having a little bit of fun. So what we have here is we have our leaf shape and I've actually left it exactly as it was before. So I haven't made any changes like adding the offset, controlling the size or adding any color. And that's just to keep things a bit simple. What we're going to be doing in this video is we're going to be using transparency. We're going to be giving the leaf a green color. But we're going to be setting things up so that anything that is white on our texture is going to be invisible. Now for this to work, you need to be using the Cycles Render engine. So come to the render properties and then set you'll render engine to cycles. It won't work by default in EV, the device you choose doesn't really matter. But just make sure that the render engine is set to cycles. What we're going to do is we're going to be introducing some shaded nodes. The first node we're going to introduce is the mix shader. Hit shift. I, go to shader and select mic shader. What this node allows us to do is it allows us to mix two shaders together so we can take the properties of one and mix it with another. The factor value is a slider that goes towards either one or the other. So I believe 0 is the top one, and then one is the bottom one. So if I was to, for example, create too different shaders, will create a principled BST F shader here, and will also creates a transparent shader. So here what we have is we have our normal shader, which we use to create realistic materials. And we also have a simpler looking transparent shader that basically makes our object invisible. We're going to take the principal shader, plug it into the top, take the transparent shader, plug it into the bottom shader input, and connect the shader output to the surface. At the moment, you can see that the entire object appears black. The reason why is because we are currently in material preview for our 3D viewport. Now, the material preview still uses the EV render engine to display our materials. It doesn't use cycles. What we need to do is we need to go to rendered view, which is located here right next to it. When we do that, we can see that if we pan of you, our plain objects has disappeared. If we go into our top orthographic view, you can actually still see the outline because the blender grid seems to stop as it reaches the outline of the objects. At the moment the fatter is set to one, so it's now leaning towards the transparent shader. The principled BST F shade out does not have any effect at all. As we move this factor value closer and closer towards 0, it becomes less dependent on the transparent shader and more dependent on the principal shader. So with the principal shader, we're going to change the color to green. But we have a problem. The moment it's I7 are all Queen or all transparent. What we need to do is we need to tell blender to create the shape. And we're going to use the shape as the factor value. So we're going to take our greater than node here and plug it into the factor. As soon as we do that, you can see we end up with a green leaf with a transparent background. If we orbit of you, it almost looks as though we've just created a 3D model of a leaf. But you can see with the objects selected that it still applying. It's just that now the shape appears as if it's an actual objects. Now, you may end up with the opposite. You may end up with the green background, but the leaf appears transparent. There are two solutions to this. The first solution is to change this node from greater than to less than. That's a very quick way of inverting the colors. The second way of inverting the colors is to invert the positioning of our shaders. So if we take the principal shader and plug it into the bottom, hops from ground. And in my case, I end up with a green background and a transparent leaf. But you can see here that there are different ways in which you can solve the issue of the incorrect color placement. So to recap, you can't change the positioning of the shaders or you can change the greater than node to less than as a way of reversing the colors that are applied to your texture. And that's how we can create a transparently objects. 25. End Of Class Challenge: Congratulations on completing the course. Ladies and Gentlemen, we're going to finish with an end of class challenge to test the skills that we have been developing throughout this course on procedural texturing for materials. For this challenge, you must complete the following projects. I want you to create a texture that has multiple different shapes on the surface. Things to consider as you complete this task. How are you going to offset the shapes from each other? Could you position shapes inside of each other as well? How can you apply color to the texture when it has multiple shapes? How we bring different shapes into the same texture. What nodes can you use to control the size of your shapes? Think of all of these things as you consider how you would go about creating a single texture that has multiple different shapes. You already have all the tools needed to complete this task. So give that a go to complete the course. Thanks for joining me guys, and I hope to see you next time.