Pre-Intermediate English Level I: Part One | Brigitte Wayman | Skillshare

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Pre-Intermediate English Level I: Part One

teacher avatar Brigitte Wayman, English Language Teacher

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

21 Lessons (3h 51m)
    • 1. Introduction

      3:08
    • 2. Reflection Question

      5:02
    • 3. Vocabulary: Continents and Countries

      27:32
    • 4. Vocabulary: Vehicles

      10:43
    • 5. Vocabulary: Driving

      13:33
    • 6. Vocabulary: Travel

      26:21
    • 7. Vocabulary: Verbs and Phrasal Verbs

      11:39
    • 8. Grammar: Comparatives

      13:59
    • 9. Verbs: Past Simple

      31:51
    • 10. Writing: Antecedents

      18:52
    • 11. Practice Exercises 1-2

      3:39
    • 12. Practice Exercises 3-4

      4:26
    • 13. Practice Exercises 5-6

      4:43
    • 14. Practice Exercises 7-8

      4:59
    • 15. Practice Exercises 9-10

      3:51
    • 16. Listening

      6:53
    • 17. Speaking

      12:50
    • 18. Reading and Writing

      13:20
    • 19. Dialogue

      6:32
    • 20. Review

      3:44
    • 21. Conclusion

      3:19
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About This Class

Pre-Intermediate English Level I: Part One

This class is for anyone with some previous English study. Familiarity with the Present Simple and Present Continuous is helpful, as well as a small vocabulary of about 300-500 basic words.

The course is divided into two parts: language acquisition and language practice

In the acquisition sections, we will learn or review vocabulary words, grammar topics, verb tenses, and writing skills.

In the practice sections, we will reinforce what we have learned through reading, writing, listening, and speaking exercises.

Pre-Intermediate English Level I: Part One will include the following topics:

VOCABULARY (250+ words)

  • Continents and Countries
  • Vehicles
  • Driving
  • Travel

GRAMMAR: Comparatives

VERBS

  • Tense: Past Simple (regular and irregular verbs)
  • Vocabulary: 20 verbs and five phrasal verbs

WRITING: Antecedents

ACTIVITIES

  • 11 quizzes covering vocabulary, grammar, verbs, and writing 
  • 10 Practice exercises
  • Listening exercise
  • Speaking exercise
  • Reading and Writing exercise
  • Dialogue exercise
  • Review exercise

MATERIALS

  • 19 lectures covering vocabulary, grammar, verbs, and practice exercises
  • 23 PDFs including vocabulary lists, explanations, examples, notes, quizzes, and exercises

This course will help you continue building a solid foundation in the English language and prepare you for further study.

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Meet Your Teacher

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Brigitte Wayman

English Language Teacher

Teacher

Hello!

My name is Brigitte. I am originally from Seattle, WA in the United States.

I have spent the past ten years teaching English in South Korea, Thailand, Italy, and France.

I also tutored English composition and French in the United States.

I have taught all ages (from kindergarten through to retirees) and all levels (from beginner to almost fluent).

I have a Bachelor of Arts degree in European Studies from Seattle Pacific University.

I have a second Bachelor of Arts degree in Romance Languages (Spanish, French, and Italian) from Seattle Pacific University.

I also have a TESOL certificate from The American TESOL Institute.

I look forward to helping you improve your English skills!

" Spe... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: 2. Reflection Question: Which country are you from? Originally? Are you from maybe South Korea or Spain? Vietnam, Ecuador, Cameroon. What country are you originally from? Now, do you live in your native country now, or do you live in a different country? Maybe you're from Spain, but you live in Argentina or Ireland or Mexico or New Zealand or South Korea. So where do you live now? And is it different from your native country? What was the last country you visited? Maybe you went on a vacation or a business trip to Brazil or Greece? Jamaica? Thailand. So, what was the last country you visited? And how did you travel there? Did you take a plane? A bus, a train, a car, maybe a boat? A ferry? So how did you get to the last country you visited? Do you drive a car? And if you do, What kind of car do you have? So is it an automatic or a manual transmission? Do you have to change gears or not? Is it? Ah, Honda Toyota Kia Volkswagen Kind of car. And what style is it? An SUV. A sedan? Convertible van. So what kind of car do you drive? What kind of transportation do you usually take in your daily life? How do you get around your city? Do you write a bicycle? Do you take a bus? Public bus? Do you drive a car or take a taxi? Do you take the subway public subway, or do you take a train? So how do you usually move around your city? 3. Vocabulary: Continents and Countries: continent, continent The Earth has seven continents Africa, Africa, African North Africa, North Africa, sub Saharan Africa, sub Saharan Africa, Algeria Algeria Algerian flag, Algerian flag Egypt Egypt Egyptian flag, Egyptian flag, cynical Sinegal, Senegalese flag, Senegalese flag Somalia Somalia Somali flag, Somali flag Tanzania Tanzania Tens Indian flag tens Indian flag ASIA ASIA Asian Central Asia Central Asia East Asia East Asia, Southeast Asia Sophie East Asia Indian subcontinent Indian subcontinent Middle East Middle East Middle Eastern, Cambodia Cambodia Cambodian flag, Cambodian flag China China Chinese flag, Chinese flag India India Indian flag Indian flag Indonesia Indonesia Indonesian flag Indonesian flag Iran Iran Iranian flag Iranian FLAG Antarctica Antarctica Antarctic Australasia Australasia Australasian Europe Europe European Eastern Europe Eastern Europe, Western Europe Okay Western Europe Czech Republic, Czech Republic Check flag check flag Greece Greece Greek flag Greek FLAG Iceland Iceland Icelandic flag Icelandic flag Portugal Portugal Portuguese flag Portuguese FLAG Spain Spain Spanish flag, Spanish FLAG North America North America, North American, Central America, Central America, Central American Canada Canada Canadian FLAG Canadian FLAG COSTA RICA COSTA RICA Costa Rican flag, COSTA Rican flag. Guatemala Guatemala Guatemalan FLAG, Guatemalan FLAG Mexico Mexico Okay, Mexican flag, Mexican flag, United States of America United States of America American flag American flag Caribbean Caribbean Barbados Barbados Beijing flag or Barbadian flag Beijing flag or Barbadian flag Cuba Cuba Cuban flag Cuban flag Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Dominican flag Dominican flag Haiti Haiti Haitian flag Haitian flag Jamaica Jamaica Jamaican flag Jamaican flag Oceania Oceania Oceanian Australia Australia Australian flag Australian flag Fiji Fiji Fiji and flag Fijian flag New Zealand New Zealand New Zealander flag or Kiwi flag New Zealander flag or kiwi flag Philippines Philippines Filipino flag Filipino flag Samoa Samoa Samoan flag Samoan flag South America South America South American Argentina Argentina Argentinian flag Argentinian flag Brazil Brazil Brazilian flag Brazilian flag Colombia Colombia Colombian flag Colombian flag Peru Peru Peruvian flag Peruvian flag Venezuela Venezuela Venezuelan flag The Venezuelan flag. Arctic Ocean Arctic Ocean Atlantic Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean Pacific Ocean Antarctic Ocean or Southern Ocean Antarctic Ocean or Southern Ocean. Caribbean Sea Caribbean Sea, Caspian Sea, Caspian Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean Sea. Gulf of Mexico. Gulf of Mexico, Persian Gulf, Persian Gulf 4. Vocabulary: Vehicles: automobile, auto or car, automobile, auto or car vehicle. Vehicle vehicles are used to transport people or goods. Vessel vessel. A vessel is any kind of ship or boat, bicycle or bike, bicycle or bike. Boat, boat, bus, bus, canoe canoe, Classic car classic car coach, bus coach. Bust, convertible convertible. A convertible is a car with a removable roof coop or Kobe Coop or Cooper. A coupe is a small car with two doors. Cruise ship, cruise ship, ferry fairy hatchback. Patch back hatchback is a car with a back door that opens upward. House boat houseboat. Hi yet client motorcycle or bike, motorcycle or bike or or paddle? Paddle cores. Air used with rowboats. Paddles are used with canoes and kayaks. Pickup truck pick up truck race car, race car rowboat, rowboat. Scooter scooter sedan. Sedan sedans usually have four doors. Seat four or five people and include a separate trunk or boot in the back ship. Shit Sports car Sports Car SUV, sport utility vehicle, SUV, sport utility vehicle, train train, tire, tire van. Then wheel the wheel yacht Yacht 5. Vocabulary: Driving: accident or car accident, accident or car accident. Ali or alleyway Ali or alleyway crude prove a curve is a noticeable bend in the road. Detour. Detour. Detour is an alternate route, usually because of construction or a car accident. Entrance entrance. An entrance is how you get onto a freeway or highway exit. Exit An exit is how you leave a freeway or highway, freeway or highway, freeway or highway lane lane. This street has two lanes in each direction. Driver's license or driving licence, driver's license or driving licence, license plate, license plate, median or strip median or stripped a median or strip separates lanes on a road and can include trees, grass and flowers. One way sign or one way street, one way sign or one way street. You can Onley drive in one direction on a one way street path. Path Path is a walkway for pedestrians and cyclists. Pothole pat hole, ramp, entrance, ramp or exit, ramp, ramp, entrance or exit. An entrance ramp allows you to enter a freeway or highway. An exit ramp allows you to leave a freeway or highway rest area or rest up, rest, area or rest. Stop. Rest stops are located near a freeway or highway exits. They usually include bathrooms, vending machines and newspapers. Right of way, right of way. If you have the right of way, it means you can move first. If you are the first car at an intersection like this one, you have the right of way Road, road roundabout or a traffic circle roundabout or traffic circle shoulder shoulder. These cars are parked on the shoulder so they don't block traffic speed. Limit speed limit. The speed limit is the fastest. You are allowed to drive stick shift stick shift manual cars. Have a stick shift. You must change the gears manually. Automatic cars do not have a stick shift. Stop Stop. A stop sign means you must come to a full and complete stop ST ST parking ticket or speeding ticket, parking ticket or speeding ticket. You can get a parking ticket for parking incorrectly or in the wrong place. You can get a speeding ticket for driving too fast. Traffic cone, traffic cone, traffic jam, traffic. Jim. A traffic jam can happen when there are too many cars on the road. This happens often during rush hour, which is the morning or evening commute, traffic light or traffic signal traffic light or traffic signal. You turn. You turn. When making a U turn, you change direction 180 degrees without going in reverse. Yield. Yield. If you have a yield sign, you must give the right of way to other cars or pedestrians. 6. Vocabulary: Travel: airplane, airplane or plain airplane, airplane or clean airport. Airport. I'll I'll arrival. Arrival, departure, departure. Destination. Destination. Flights from purse have many different destinations. Singapore, Hong Kong and Abu Dhabi. Baggage or luggage, Baggage or luggage? Baggage Claim. Baggage claim. Baggage claim is where you confined your bags and suitcases after a flight. Luggage hold luggage. Hold the luggage hold is where your checked bags are kept during a flight. Boarding. Boarding boarding is when passengers can enter a plane, boat train or bus boarding pass boarding pass. This boarding pass is for a flight with Kenya Airways from Mogadishu to Nairobi. Booking or reservation, booking or reservation. First class, first class first class is very comfortable, but the tickets are also very expensive. Second class second class. The second class car on the train is also comfortable. Business class. Business class Business class isn't as comfortable as first class, but it's more comfortable than coach, coach or economy coach or economy coach or economy is the largest section in an airplane. It's tickets are the least expensive. Have been cabin. The cabin is the part of the plane where passengers travel. Captain, Captain, the captain is the person in charge of the ship. Carousel or baggage carousel, carousel or baggage carousel. The carousel delivers luggage after a flight. It is located in baggage claim. Carry on or hand luggage, carry on or hand luggage. Your carry on is what you can take onto a plane with you. It isn't checked. Cockpit cockpit, commuter rail or suburban train, commuter rail or suburban train. A suburban train serves the suburbs of a metropolis. It is not a subway system or a long distance train conductor, conductor connection or transfer connection or transfer. A connection or transfer is where you change from your first to your second flight crew crew Currency exchange Currency exchange A currency exchange is where you can change your money. Customs Customs You declare what you are bringing from a foreign country with customs dining, car, dining, car duty, free shop, duty free shop, emergency exit, emergency exit, flight flight, flight attendant, flight attendant, gate gate, holiday or vacation, holiday or vacation itinerary. Itinerary. This tickets itinerary is Montreal to Frankfurt, Frankfurt to Amsterdam in Munich to Montreal. Layover or stopover, Layover or stop over. If you have a connection, the time you wait between flights is a layover or stopover, life jacket or life. This life jacket or life vest, overhead compartment or over had been overhead compartment or overhead. Bin. Passenger, passenger, passport, passport, passport control, passport control pilot and co pilot, pilot and co pilot. Platform platform. Railroad railroad reserved, reserved. A reserved seat is assigned to a specific passenger. Unreserved, unreserved. Unreserved seats are not assigned to specific passengers. Aisle seat, aisle, seat on aisle. Seat is located next to the ill window. See window seat. A window seat is located next to the window. Middle seat, middle seat. A middle seat is located between the aisle, seat and window seat, seat belt, seat belt, single or one way ticket, single or one way ticket. A single or one way ticket does not have a return or onward trip return or round trip ticket return or round trip ticket. This is a return or round trip ticket. It goes from Taipei to Tai Chung, then back to Taipei Runway Runway. The runway is where planes take off and land take off. Took off Flights. Take off is when the plane leaves the ground landing, Landing Ah, flights. Landing is when the plane returns to the ground subway subway, subway line. Subway line. Lisbon has four subway lines. Blue, yellow, green and red. Suitcase, suitcase, terminal or airport terminal, terminal or airport terminal. Many airports are very big. They have more than one terminal ticket. Took it. You must have a ticket to ride the subway. You also need one for a bus or train ticket booth or ticket office ticket booth or ticket office. A ticket inspector. A ticket inspector. A ticket inspector checks passengers tickets on trains, buses and subways, tourism or tourist, tourism or tourist tracks. Trucks, tray table, tray table trip or journey, trip or journey Tunnel tunnel turnstile turnstile. 7. Vocabulary: Verbs and Phrasal Verbs: to book to book. He booked a ticket yesterday with Aegean Air to check to check. I checked the gas level in the car. It still had 1/4 tank to cross to cross. The man crossed the street with his guitar to declare to declare, We declared everything with customs. When we arrived at the airport to drive to drive, he drove to work this morning to enter. To enter. The cars entered the road on the Brooklyn Bridge to exit to exit. The Children exited the bus to fly to fly. We flew on an airplane to inspect to inspect. The conductor inspected the passengers tickets on the train to leave to leave. We left the airport in a taxi to pack to pack. She packed her suitcase last night to reserve to reserve. He reserved four seats on the train to Admira to run to run. He ran along the city streets yesterday afternoon to sail to sail. The ship sailed into the sunset to speed to speed. The motorcycle sped past the cars and pedestrians on the street to stop to stop. The car's stopped for the school bus to travel to travel. I traveled to the Andes three years ago to visit to visit. They visited there grand parents last summer to wait to wait. The patients waited in the hospital's lobby to yield to yield. The white pickup truck yielded to the pedestrians in the crosswalk to check in to check in . Molly checked in at the airport. Now she's looking for her departure gate to check out to check out. The family checked out of their hotel. They had a wonderful vacation to pull over to pull over. The state Patrol pulled over the white SUV for speeding to slow down to slow down. The car slowed down when the driver saw the police checking his speed to speed up to speed up. The white van sped up to enter the intersection before the light turned red. 8. Grammar: Comparatives: comparatives. We use comparatives to compare how to things are similar or different. So two things might have the same quality, but a different amount, number or degree. We compare them by using an adjective in its comparative form. Sarah is 25 years old. Jake is 27 years old. The information is about Sarah's and Jakes age. We add E. R to the adjective old or the adjective young. However. We want to express this, we add, then after the comparative form of the adjective. So Sarah is 25 years old. Jake is 27 years old. Jake is older than Sarah. We could also say Jake is two years older than Sarah, or we can say Sarah is younger than Jake or Sarah is two years younger than Jake. Chiara is 155 centimeters. Marco is 165 centimeters. The information is about tiaras and Marco's height. It's talking about how told they are, so we add E. R to the adjective short or the adjective tall. And then we add, then, after the comparative form of the adjective, Keira is 155 centimeters. Marco is 165 centimeters. So Chiara is shorter than Marco or Cara is 10 centimeters shorter than Marco or Marco is taller than Kiara or Marco is 10 centimeters taller than Kiara. Of course, there are irregular spellings, so some adjectives change their spelling. In the comparative form. There are white I comparatives, and there are double continent comparatives. So with the white I comparatives, we have angry, which becomes angrier so the pronunciation doesn't change. This is just the spelling. Early becomes earlier. Easy becomes easier. Happy becomes happier, heavy becomes heavier. Pretty becomes prettier. Double continent comparatives. So here big becomes bigger. Double the G fat becomes fatter. Double the tea hot becomes harder. Also, to tease, sad becomes sadder. With two D's, Finn becomes sinner with two ends. What becomes wetter with two teas? This is not every comparative that's irregular, so it's just a short list. Some adjectives do not change their form at all. In the comparative. They do not add the ER, nor do they change their spelling. They just add more before the adjective so beautiful becomes more beautiful. We would not say beautiful or that's not correct with a more beautiful Careful is more careful different, more different, expensive, more expensive, important, more important, polite, more polite. I like geology, but I really like astronomy. Geology is interesting, but astronomy is more interesting or astronomy is more interesting than geology. So if you have nothing after, the adjective like astronomy is more interesting than you won't use them. The blue car costs $12,000. The black car costs $15,000. The black car is more expensive than the blue car, or the blue car is cheaper than the black car. You could also say the blue car is less expensive than the black car. You can also use less instead of more, depending on what you are expressing. The room was white, but we painted it blue and yellow. The room is more colorful now. The room is more colorful than it used to be. Okay, well, good and bad. Thes three words are all very irregular in the comparative. Good and well, both become better in the comparative form. Bad becomes worse in the comparative form. I was sick yesterday, but I am not sick today. I feel better today. I'm feeling better than I did yesterday. Janine got 98% on the test. Adelaide got 92% on the same test. Janine did better than Adelaide on the test or you could say Janine got a better score than Adelaide. I was sick yesterday and I am still sick today. I feel worse today. I need to see a doctor. Worse is basically more bad or batter, but those air both incorrect, We would say worse. I feel even worse now than I did yesterday. Ethan ran a mile in six minutes. Colin run a mile in eight minutes. Colin got a worst time than Ethan Carl and ran worse than even although six and eight minutes is a pretty good time for a mile. So they're good scores. But Colin ran a worse time. A slower time so far has two forms in the comparative. Farther is used for physical distance. Measurable distance further is used for non physical or metaphorical distance. Kimberly swam 500 meters, Louis swam 800 meters, so this is measurable. It's a measurable distance. So we would say Louis swam farther than Kimberly. He swam Ah, longer distance. We live two miles from school, but they live three miles from school. This is also a measurable physical distance, so we would say they live farther from school than we do. Selma is bored with this movie. She's going to stop watching it, so this is not a physical distance. This is talking about the time of the movies. We would say she doesn't want to watch the movie any further. It's not physical. It's how much longer she wants to continue watching this movie. The nurse needs more information to give the doctor, so she is asking for further details. She's asking for more information, more details, so it's not a physical thing. There was a fire in the restaurant. They are not open for business. The restaurant is closed until further notice. So also, this is not physical notice. Giving information about something isn't a physical thing, so we would use further 9. Verbs: Past Simple: the past. Simple is used to describe finished actions or actions that took place at a specific time in the past. The past simple is a tense without any relation to the present. The actions are completely in the past. Words that place in action in the past are often used with the past. Simple. These time expressions can be placed at the beginning or end of a sentence, but they are not placed in the middle of a sentence. So we have a go. I went to Istanbul six years ago ago. Needs to be used with a period of time. So here we have six years ago. You could use minutes, days, hours, years, decades. But it has to be, Ah, sequence of time. Last they saw a movie last night So you can use night last night, last week last year. Anything like that works Yesterday we stayed home yesterday so we wouldn't say Last day we would say yesterday the day before yesterday, she went to the mall the day before yesterday. You could also say two days ago, two days ago and the day before yesterday that would be the same day. The verb to be is the Onley past symbol of urban English that has two forms. All other verbs have only one form. I waas I was not or I wasn't for the negative form you were You were not or you weren't he waas. He was not or he wasn't she waas She was not or she wasn't it Waas It was not or it wasn't We were we were not or we weren't. You were you were not or you weren't They were they were not or they worked regular verbs in the past. Simple. Add an e d to the end of the infinitive. However, there are three different pronunciations for regular verbs in the past. Simple. The D E D verbs. These verbs simply add a d sound to the end of the verb. So we have to declare declared So it has an accented d declared to enter entered. So you just pronounce the D is a very basic to happen happened. It's just the d sound. This one gets minutes mispronounced a lot. People often say happen ID. That's not correct. It's happened to reserve reserved, so reserved just ah basic d sound travel travelled. So you just pounced. The D traveled the T E D verbs, the's burbs at a T sound to the end of the verb. They're still spelled with the D. They just don't found the same. So we have to book booked. You can hear it's a It's a very strong pronounced T. It's not a d sound booked to check checked. You can hear the distinctive T checked to cross crossed, so an accented T crossed to talk took. You can hear the t sound talked to walk walked the accented E D. Verbs. So these firms at a D sound to the end of the verb, just like the first group. But the E is also pronounced to exit exited so that E is pronounced, whereas the first group of E D. Verbs the E is not distinctive to inspect. Inspected, you can hear the E before the D to visit, visited to wait, waited to want wanted. You can hear the e on their wanted. So there are spelling changes. Some verbs that are conjugated with e. D. In the past simple do change their spelling's. They're similar to the spelling changes in the present simple and present continuous So we have the white toe. I've herbs, thes verbs change from why I to I And then we add the E G. In the past, simple to apply becomes applied. So we changed the Y two and I and then the E. D. And it also has the D pronunciation to cry. Cried, also a d verb to study. Studied also has the d sound to try. Tried also the deeper to worry worried and it also has the D pronunciation. So there are some exceptions to this rule. So verbs ending in a y e y o why and you why do not change? They do not have this spelling change, so to delay is delayed. No spelling change to enjoy enjoyed doesn't change the I and it's also it also has the D pronunciation to play played with the D pronunciation to stay stayed and the D pronunciation. However, there are three exceptions to this rule. The verbs lay, pay and say have the same irregularity so to lay is laid, so there's no easy on this one. It's ah, it's a deep pronunciation to pay becomes paid, and it's also a D pronunciation to say becomes said. So I prances said some English speakers do, say Sade. Others pronounce it like me. They're both correct. So if a verb ends in B, g, N, p, r or tea, we usually double the continent, especially if it's a one syllable verb. If the verb has more than one syllable, we double the last continent. If the final syllable is stressed, that's a lot of informations. We're gonna go over that right now, so we have the verb to beg this for Ben's in a G. So we would say begged. We double the G on its ah di prince. The action to happen. This verb has the stress stressed syllable on the first syllable. It's happened, not happen. So this verb does not have a double continent. The end is not doubled to plan. This group ends in an end, so planned we double the end, and it has the D pronunciation planned to prefer. This is a two syllable verb. The stress comes on the second syllable. It's prefer, not prefer, so we double the are preferred and it has the D pronunciation preferred to stop stop ends in a p stopped. So we have a double P on the spelling. Anna has the tea pronunciation stopped Verbs ending in l. These verbs It depends which English you are using. So British English always doubles the last continent. American English does not double the l. Both spellings are acceptable to cancel. Canceled one l canceled with two l's to model, modelled and modeled to travel, traveled and traveled. So both spellings are correct. The irregular verbs are the most difficult part of learning the past. Simple because there are so many that must be memorized. However, every verb, except for to be, has only one form. So there's only one form to memorize. For every subject pronoun, they all use the same form, the verb to drink in the past. Simple. I drink, you drink, he drink, she drink it, drink, we drink, you drink, they drink. So it's all the same form to leave. I left you left. He left, she left. It left. We left you left Layla. And to make I made you made, he made. She made it made. We made you made. They made the base form or infinitive of to begin. Has the past simple form of began. Do you break broke to come, came to cut. Cooked cut has the same form in both the present and the past. So if I say I cut, I could mean the present or it could mean the past. So you have to listen to the context of the sentence to drink, drink to drive. Drove two full fell to fly flu to have had to know new So a k n spelling. The K is always silent in English, so it is new, not canoe to leave left to lose Los to make made to meet Mitt to pay paid to put put put is the same is cut saying I put could be the present or the past so you need to listen to the entire sentence to know which time period is correct to run, ran to say said to see, so to sit set to speak, spoke to speed, sped to take took to teach talked to right wrote justice in the present. Simple to do is a very important verb in the past, simple. We use it to form both negative sentences and questions I did, and the negative form would be I did not or I didn't. You did. You did not. Or you didn't. He did. He did not. Or he didn't. She did. She did not. Or she didn't. It did. It did not, or it didn't. We did. We did not. Or we didn't. You did. You did not. Or you didn't. They did. They did not, or they didn't instead of do or does. As in the present, Simple we use did to form negative sentences in the past. Simple. We also Onley conjugated the verb to do in the past. Simple. So did but not the main verb. The main verb. Always days in its base form. He doesn't cross the street. This is in the present. Simple. He didn't cross the street. This is the past simple form. The car doesn't stop at the red light. The car didn't stop at the red light. We don't go to that school. We didn't go to that school. He crossed the street. This is the positive past Simple. He didn't cross the street. This is the negative past Simple. So crossed is conjugated in the negative. Didn't is conjugated. The car stopped at the red light. The car didn't stop at the red light. We went to that school. We didn't go to that school instead of do or does. As in the present. Simple we use did to form questions in the past. Simple. We only congregate the verb to do in the past. Simple with did but not the main verb. The main verbs days in its base form. Same is with the negative sentences. Does the car speed up? Becomes? Did the car speed up in the past? Do you pack your suitcase? Did you pack your suitcase? Do we exit the freeway? Did we exit the freeway? So the only thing you need to change is the form of to do. Is it president, or is it passed? Did the car speed up? If we answer positively, we say yes. The car sped up. If we answer negatively, know the car didn't speed up. Did you pack your suitcase? Yes. I packed my suitcase in the negative. We would say no. I didn't pack my suitcase. Did we exit the freeway? Yes. We exited the freeway or No, we didn't exit the freeway. So remember, we have the wh question words. So who Who did she see at the mall. She saw her cousins at the mall. Then we have what? What took it? Did you book? I booked a ticket to Mexico City. Here we have wear. Where did she travel last summer? She travelled to Auckland last summer. When did you drive to New Orleans? I drove to New Orleans last week. Why? Why did the car slow down? The car slowed down because the light was red. And last one, how how much did he spend? I spent $300. 10. Writing: Antecedents: and decedent's An antecedent isn't noun eso. It's a person, place or thing that can be replaced by another word later in a sentence, paragraph or dialogue, the noun is usually replaced by a pro gnome. The prefix anti means before in English and and decedent is a noun that provides the context for a pronoun. I don't like him. Him has no context in this sentence. It's a pronoun not announce. So who is him? It doesn't make sense. That's Frank. I don't like him in these two sentences. Frank is the antecedent. We don't have to repeat Frank in the second sentence. That's Frank. I don't like Frank. This sounds very repetitive. A native speaker wouldn't say this unless they were trying to emphasize something. So we changed the second frank to him. That's Frank. I don't like him. These are some of the most common pronounce used with an antecedent. I and me, you and you. He and him, she and her. It and it, we and us, you and you. The plural form, they and them. So some of these are subject pronouns, and some of them are not. I got my boarding pass at the check in desk. But I lost my boarding pass. We do not need to repeat my boarding pass. We can use a pronoun instead. I got my boarding pass at the check in desk. But I lost it. My boarding passes the decedent. Where is Juliet? Did you see Juliette this morning? We do not need to say Juliette's name twice. We know from the first question who were talking about? Where is Juliet? Did you see her this morning? Asher isn't coming because Asher forgot his passport. It sounds even more repetitive to use Asher's name twice in the same sentence. Asher is the decedent. So we know we're still talking about Asher when we use he in the second half of the sentence. So we'll say Asher isn't coming because he forgot his passport. When the girl is angry, the girls stamps her foot. This is a sentence using the zero conditional. We don't need to repeat the girl because we know the two causes air related. When the girl is angry, she stamps her foot. Alternatively, you could switch thieves. You could say when she's angry, the girl stamps her foot. It's okay to put the decedent second in some situations. The bus stopped at the station and we boarded the bus. We don't need to use a pronoun in this sentence. We can actually do without it, but we can use it if we want to. The bus stopped at the station and we boarded. That's completely fine. We don't use any program or we can say the bus stopped at the station and we boarded it. Either option is correct. I bought an economy ticket because economy tickets are cheaper, even though the first now nous singular and the second is plural economy ticket is still the antecedent. We will use a plural pronoun for economy tickets. So I bought an economy ticket because they are cheaper. Alternatively, you could also use singular now owns throughout this entire sentence. Both would be grammatically correct. I bought an economy ticket because an economy ticket is cheaper. I bought an economy ticket because it's cheaper, so either option is totally okay. The two girls couldn't find their hand luggage, so we helped the two girls. We don't need to repeat the two girls, but we also aren't going to use a subject pronoun. We already have a subject pronoun. In the second clause, we have we, so we use them instead of they for the two girls. Two girls couldn't find their hand luggage, so we helped them. The captain announced that he would be making an emergency landing. The captain comes first in the sentence, so we know that he refers to the same individual, and it's unlikely anyone else would be making a new emergency landing. The customs officials don't smile. They are very serious. The customs officials are the subjects of the first sentence, so we can assume that they refers to the same group of people in the second sentence, Jose Julian At the gate, they boarded the plane together. They is usually a subject pronoun for two or more people. It could be things, and it can be one person in some situations, but it's usually two or more people. So we know from the first sentence that Jose and Julian are our subjects, so we don't have to repeat their individual names. In the second sentence, we can use they. There's a car that broke down on the shoulder pull behind them. I have jumper cables. Do they work? Yes, they're new. There's nothing wrong with them. The first them is referring to the person or people in the car that is parked on the shoulder of the road. They and the second them referred to the jumper cables. So you have to be careful when there are multiple and decedent's in the same sentence or conversation to make sure you know what the context is. This that these and those the's forwards are demonstrative pronouns they are used indicate either something obvious in the context of a sentence or conversation or something that can be seen. The person you're talking to concede it or or a person. So if you say this is my friend, your friend is right there, they can see them. This is used to introduce a singular thing that is closer to you. So he said, this desk, it is physically close to you. That is a singular thing that is farther from you. So if you said that desk, it is far away from you. These that's used for plural things that are closer to you. So these desks are more than one that is close to you. Those are plural things that are farther from you. So those desks over there farther away these bags aren't ours. Those are These bags are closer to the speaker. Those air farther away, perhaps on a trolley Our connection isn't in this terminal. It's in that one over there. This terminal is the one the speaker is currently in. That one is another one. Perhaps on a map that they must find our connection is the antecedent to it. The second sentence means our connection is in the terminal over there. Do you want to take this subway line or that one? This subway line is closer to the speaker or the one that they're currently in. That one is farther away. Which exit do I take? That one there. You missed it. It's OK. I can take this one coming up. That one means the exit That exit over there they missed it Refers to the same exit. This one is another exit. A closer one. The next one rewrite each sentence or a pair of sentences to include a pronoun with its matching antecedent. Lima is the capital of Peru. It's a country in South America. Peru is the antecedent to it. You could also say That's a country in South America. They're both okay. Number two Zoe has a first class ticket, so she's sitting in first class. You could also flip this. You could say she has a first class ticket. So Zoe is sitting in first class. Number three. I don't have my suitcase in the airline. Lost it. Where are our tickets? I can't find them. Number five. Don't forget your passport. You can't board the plane without it. Number six, The great car stopped at the red light, but it didn't stop at the stop sign. Number seven. I bought these chocolates from the duty free shop. They were on sale number eight. There are life jackets under your seats. The warning light goes off. Please put one on. You could also say if the warning light goes off, please put them on one. You are talking to each individual person. Each person put one on them would be collectively put them all on everyone together. But they're both correct. 11. Practice Exercises 1-2: exercise one. Give the past simple form of each burb. Number one to drive. Drove number two to enter. Entered number three to run. Ran number four to slow down. Slowed down number five to speed up. Sped up. Number six to travel traveled and you can spell traveled with one l or two l's number seven to leave. Left number eight to wait. Waited number nine to fly flew and number 10 to check in. Checked in exercise, too. Congregate each verb in the past. Simple number one. The car stopped at the red light. Number two. The driver yielded to the pedestrians. Number three. The conductor inspected the passengers. Tickets number four. It took a road trip and drove from Los Angeles to New York. Number five. The ship sailed through the waves. Number six. I flew to Cairo last week. Number seven. You declared everything you brought from Japan At Customs number eight. We booked a hotel in Paquette for two weeks. Number nine. The car left the freeway on the exit ramp. Number 10. She slowed down in the school zone 12. Practice Exercises 3-4: exercise. Three. Choose the correct verb to complete each sentence conjugated in the past. Simple. Some verbs may be negative. Number one. The police pulled over the sports car for speeding number two. The girls crossed the street with their father. Number three. He traveled to eight countries last year. Number four. The truck broke down on the side of the road. Number five. I left the party early because I had a headache. Number six. She offered him a drink, but he didn't want one. Number seven. Chris broke the bathroom window, but he hit it from his parents. Number eight. The car didn't yield to the pedestrians, so they got a traffic ticket. Number nine. The car slowed down as it approached the curve in the road. Number 10. We studied for six hours last night for the test exercise for change. Each sentence from positive to negative in the past. Simple number one. I didn't book a hotel room in Las Vegas. Number two. The truck didn't cross the train tracks. Number three. Jackson didn't visit Barcelona and Madrid last summer. Number four. The car didn't yield to the other drivers at the intersection. Number five. We didn't pack our suitcases last night. Number six Amelia didn't drive to work yesterday. Number seven. They didn't stop at the rest area off the freeway. Number eight. We didn't check out of our hotel room number nine. The car didn't slow down when the driver saw the police. Number 10. Exhibitor didn't fly to Mexico City on Tuesday. 13. Practice Exercises 5-6: exercise. Five Congregate each burb in the past. Simple. Then change each sentence into an appropriate question. Number one, I reserved a room. Did you reserve a room? You could also say, Did I reserve a room? But in a conversation, it would be you. And then I number two. The police pulled over the car. Did the police pull over the car? Number three. The waitress filled the glasses. Did the waitress fill the glasses? Number four. He talked to his brother. Did he talk to his brother? Number five. Kim visited the pharmacy. Did Kim visit the pharmacy? Number six. You borrowed books in the library. Did you borrow books from the library? Number seven. She drove to the casino. Did she drive to the casino? He spent too much money. Did he spend too much money? Number nine. The car sped up down the street. Did the car speed up down the street? Number 10. They crossed the street. Did they cross the street? Exercise six. Create a question in the past. Simple with the given words. Number one did. Anita opened the window. Number two. Did you fill in the form or did you fill the form in some phrase will verbs. You can separate them so you could say, fill in the form or fill the form in there. Both correct. Number three. Did Mr Santoro teach Italian number four? Were they angry? Number five. Did she act in the school? Play number six. Did he fly to Paris? Number seven. Did you walk home number eight. Did you cross the street in the crosswalk? Number nine. Did you walk home? Number 10. Did the car stop at the red light? 14. Practice Exercises 7-8: exercise. Seven. Give the comparative form of each adjective number one bad becomes worse. Number two beautiful is more beautiful. Number three big becomes bigger. The spelling change before cheap is cheaper. Number five cold is colder. Number six difficult becomes more difficult. Number seven Easy is easier with a spelling change. Number eight expensive becomes more expensive. Number nine Fast is faster. Number 10 Good is better. Number 11. Hot becomes hotter with a spelling change. Number 12 intelligent becomes more intelligent. 13. Near becomes nearer 14. Nice nicer 15 short shorter number 16. Slow becomes slower. 17. Small is smaller. 18. Smart, smarter 19. Strong, stronger. 20. Ugly becomes uglier with a spelling change. Exercise. Eight. Right, the correct form of the comparative for each adjective. Number one. The red car is smaller than the black car. Number two. You're a better runner than me. Number three nights in December are longer than nights in June. Number four cats are smarter than dogs. Number five. Sarah's house is bigger than Abigail's house. Number six Gold is more valuable than copper number seven. I did worse on my English test than my math test. Number eight. Calculus is more difficult than algebra. Number nine. Diamonds are more expensive than emeralds, and number 10 Alice is shorter than Alexandra 15. Practice Exercises 9-10: exercise, and nine choose the adjective that fits best in each sentence, then give its correct comparative form. Number one. Children are shorter than adults. Number two black is darker than gray. Number three addition is easier than division number four. The state of Alaska is bigger than the state of Hawaii. Number five. A. BMW is more expensive than a Ford number. Six. Brazil is hotter than Iceland. Number seven. Shakespeare is more difficult to read than Dr Seuss. Number eight. Tortoises are slower than cheetahs. Number nine. The North Pole is colder than the equator. Number 10. Malta is smaller than Russia. Exercise. 10. Write a sentence using the given comparative that logically follows the situation. Number one Jackie left the party earlier than rose. Number two today is colder than yesterday. Number three. Gabriela did worse on the test than Jose number four. The green car is driving slower than the red car number five. The store brand is cheaper than the name brand. Number six. It takes longer to fly to Seoul than New York. Number seven. The Brown family checked in later than the Smith family. Number eight. Fiona packed her suitcase better than Emily number nine. I waited longer at the doctors office than the dentist's office. Number 10 David ran farther than Steve. 16. Listening: You should have your listening worksheet. It looks like this. I will say each sentence two times and you fill in the blanks for the words that are missing. Number one. We booked two tickets to visit Egypt this autumn. We booked two tickets to visit Egypt this autumn. Number two, the conductor inspected everyone's tickets on the train to Philadelphia. The conductor inspected everyone's tickets on the train to Philadelphia. Number three. Did you forget your passport? You can't check in without it. Did you forget your passport? You can't chicken without it. Number four. Omar bought a new pickup truck for working on the farm. Omar bought a new pickup truck for working on the farm. Number five. The speed limit was 80 kilometers per hour on this road, but now it's 100 kilometers per hour. The speed limit was 80 kilometers per hour on this road, but now it's 100 kilometers per hour. Number six. Why didn't you bring the oars? We can't use the rowboat without them. Why didn't you bring the oars? We can't use the rowboat without them. Number seven, Our flight was delayed, so we had to wait another hour at the gate to board the plane. Our flight was delayed, so we had to wait another hour at the gate to board the plane. Number eight. Did you buy a sedan or coupe? We bought a sedan because we need more room. Did you buy a sedan or coupe? We bought a sedan because we need more room number nine. Did you declare everything to customs that you brought back from Cuba? Did you declare everything to customs that you brought back from Cuba? Number 10. We almost missed our flight because we started packing our suitcases at the last minute. We almost missed our flight because we started packing our suitcases at the last minute. So review the correct answers and fix any mistakes that you might have made. So number one, we booked two tickets to visit Egypt this autumn. Number two, the conductor inspected everyone's tickets on the train to Philadelphia. Number three. Did you forget your passport? You can't check in without it. Number four. Omar bought a new pickup truck for working on the farm number five. The speed limit was 80 kilometers per hour on this road, but now it's a 100 kilometers per hour. Number six. Why didn't you bring the oars? We can't use the robot without them. Number seven, Our flight was delayed, so he had to wait another hour at the gate to board the plane. Number eight. Did you buy a sedan or coupe? We bought a sedan because we need more room number nine. Did you declare everything to customs that you brought back from Cuba and number 10? We almost missed our flight because we started packing our suitcases at the last minute. Once you've finished your corrections, go ahead and rewrite each sentence on the lines given. 17. Speaking: speaking practice building conversation skills so these questions can be used in a one on one conversation or in a discussion group. You can use these questions face to face physically face to face. You can also use them in video conferences, chat groups or phone calls. Possible platforms include What's that face time? Facebook Messenger, Zoom House party, Microsoft teams scape, etcetera. Whatever you like to use, you can find conversation partners online through Facebook groups. Instagram, Twitter, meet up. And what's up? For example, Conversation one. Did you visit any other cities or countries last year and which ones? So maybe you visited New York City or Paris or Istanbul? Or maybe you went to a country. Spain, Italy, Mexico, Japan, New Zealand. So where did you visit last year? How long did you stay there? So you're talking about the duration? Did you stay for one weekend? Three days? 10 days? One week, two weeks, one month. How long did you stay? What did you pack in your suitcase and your hand luggage or your carry on? So you probably packed clothes and shoes. Maybe a swimsuit. If it was warm. Weather computer, Maybe your phone camera So what did you take with you? How did you get there? And did you book tickets or did you drive? So maybe you took a boat, Maybe went to an island Or did you take a bus or car? Did you carpool? So it's sharing a car. Or maybe you took a taxi. Did you fly? Did you take a train? So how did you travel there? How was the trip? Were there any problems on your flight or on your train? Your bust? Your taxi ride. So did you have any problems? Was there a delay? Was your flight delayed? Was there a cancellation? Was your flight cancelled? Was it over? Booked your flight. So if there's 100 seats, the airline sells 150 seats. Was the weather bad hurricane or snow? Storm? Or maybe there was a traffic gem on the freeway. You, Mr Flight or a car accident? So were there any problems getting there? What did you do? What did you do on your trip? Did you go to the beach? Did you go boating, hiking, sailing, sunbathing, swimming or whale watching? Or if it was a winter vacation, maybe you went skiing snowboarding. So what? What did you do? Physical activities. Did you do? What did you see? So this would be sightseeing. So did you see castles, famous places, historical sites, monuments, museums, parks, pyramids. So what famous things did you get to see? What did you eat and drink? So these are What kind of local specialties did you eat if you went to Italy? Did you have pizza? Did you have pay a in Spain? Tacos in Mexico, Curry in India, Sushi in Japan? Or did you have barbecue in Sex? Korea? So what kinds of different foods or drinks Did you get to try? What was the best part of your trip? So did you like experiencing a new culture? Did you like the local cuisine? Did you like the physical activities? Hiking, swimming, that kind of thing. Did you just, like relaxing or the sightseeing? Do you like to see museums, monuments? Historical sites? So it was the best part of your trip. What was the worst part of your trip? Did you have delayed transportation or food poisoning? Did you get sick from the food? Did you have jet lag? If there's a big time zone difference. Was there a language barrier? You couldn't speak the local language or were there pickpockets? Did people steal your wallet or your money or your camera? Your phone. So it was the worst part of your trip. Okay. Conversation, too. Do you know how to drive? Or do you have a driver's license? What was your first car? What was the make the model or the color? So the make, for example, would be Toyota Kia Books, Wagen, Ford. Anything like that? The model. So a Toyota is the Make Priuses the model or Ah, Kia Sedona, Volkswagen Jetta or a Ford Mustang? What was your first car? Did your car ever break down? Or did it have any other problems? Did you have a broken alternator or a dead battery? It's pretty common. Flat tire grinding breaks overheating? Or did you just run out of gas? So what kind of car problems have you had? Were you ever in a car accident? So serious or minor? Any kind of car accident? How do you go to work or school? Do you drive, take public transportation or walk? So how do you most often move around your city? If you take public transportation? Are there ever problems? Traffic jams are very common if you drive or take a bus. Electrical problems so subway systems can have electrical problems, weather delays if it snows or if it's very windy or flooding. So what are some public transportation problems you have experienced? What was the worst problem you ever experienced on a bus train or subway? So was there an accident? Bad weather? What was the worst problem you've experienced? Did you ever lose your ticket on the subway? What happened and did you get in trouble with the ticket inspector? So sometimes, if you don't have a ticket, you have to pay a fine. Do you prefer the window, the middle or the aisle seat? And why so which seat do you prefer on an airplane or a train or a bus? Did you ever lose your luggage after a flight? So when you got to your destination, was your luggage somewhere else? Did your airline lose your bags? 18. Reading and Writing: paragraph one past simple verbs took is to take. Waas is to be spent is to spend. Tried is to try. Kat is to catch. Load is to Love. Went is to go Visited is to visit. Walked is to walk. Had is to have wished is to wish number one. Which countries did Sofia travel to last year? You could say Sofia traveled to Spain and Portugal. Your verbs travel. You could say Sofia visited Spain and Portugal or Sophia went to Spain and Portugal. Number two. Which museums did Sofia visit in Madrid? Sophia visited the Prada and the reign of Sofia or Sophia went to the Prada and the rain. In Sofia, you can use either visit or go. Number three. What did Sofia have for breakfast every morning in Madrid? Sophia had rich coffee and toast with tomato for breakfast every morning in Madrid. Number four. Where did Sofia go? Every day in Barcelona, Sophia went to the Gothic quarter every day. Or you could say Sofia walked through the Gothic quarter every day. Number five. What did Sofia like to eat and drink in Lisbon? You could say Sofia liked to eat pastries and seafood in Lisbon. She liked to drink port wine. Or, you could say Sofia, eight pastries and seafood in Lisbon, and she drank port wine. Paragraph two Past simple verbs Did is to do Drove is to drive. Gut is to get broke down is to break down. Waas is to be used, is to use. Headed is to head spent is to spend. Rented is to rent. Took is to take had is to have were able is to be able stopped is to stop. Didn't Win is to not win. Arrived is to arrive and wanted is to want number six. What kind of vehicle? The Julian and Jose Rent Julian and Jose rented an old Volkswagen van. Number seven. Where did their vehicle get a flat tire? Their vehicle got a flat tire in Colorado. Or you could say they got a flat tire in Colorado. Number eight. Where did their vehicle break down? Their vehicle broke down on a freeway in Utah, or they broke down on a freeway in Utah. Number nine. Why did Julian and Jose have to pay $40 in Las Vegas? Julian and Jose had to pay $40 in parking fines Or you could say Julian and Jose got a parking ticket in Las Vegas for $40. Number 10. Where did Julian and Jose stay? In Los Angeles? Julian and Jose stayed in a cheap motel in Los Angeles. Paragraph three. Past simple verbs Pact is to pack. Had is to have chose is to choose. Dipped is to dip. Booked is to book. Got is to get forgot is to forget Took off is to take off. Were is to be located is to locate Checked is to check Boarded is to board Moved is to move Came is to come Wasn't is to not be but is to buy Got up is to get up Ordered is to order Drove is to drive Checked in is to check in Included is to include Went is to go drink is to drink took out of is to take out off Found is to find walked is to walk Entered is to enter Didn't arrive is to not arrive Hated is to hate Put down is to put down So this burb doesn't change In the past tense eight is to eat Number 11 What did Julie and have for breakfast. And Jose, you could say Julian had pancakes with bacon and eggs for breakfast or Julian ordered pancakes with bacon and eggs. You could say Jose chose French toast with coffee from the menu, or Jose had French toast with coffee for breakfast. So any variation of those is correct. Number 12. Where did they go before the airport and why they went to the coast to see the California beaches one last time, or they drove to the beach to dip their feet into the ocean. Either of those answers are correct. Number 13. Which airline did Julian and Jose book their tickets with? Julian and Jose booked their tickets with Jet Blue number 14. What were their assigned seat numbers? Jose's a scientist seat was 14. A. Julian's was 14. B number 15. Why didn't Julie and want to sit in the middle seat? Julian didn't want to sit in the middle seat because he doesn't like them. He hated middle seats 19. Dialogue: What doesn't Jose want to eat anymore and why? You could say Jose doesn't want to eat fast food for a bit for a bit means for a short amount of time. Jose doesn't want to eat McDonald's anymore. You could also say that, or Jose doesn't want to eat another Big Mac for at least a week. Anything any answer with anything like that is correct. What is a steering wheel? A driver uses a steering wheel to direct where they want the vehicle to go. So if you want your car to turn right, you turn your steering wheel to the right. What does I can't handle mean cannot handle can mean cannot succeed, unable to do if you feel overwhelmed or if something is too difficult. So I can't handle in. This dialogue means that Jose can't do something well or successfully. It's too hard he cannot eat another Big Mac. What does swerve mean? When you swerve a car? You change the direction quickly. You usually swerved to avoid hitting something in the road. So a person, another car, an animal, something like that. It's not just a turn because it happens very fast. What are the two words that make up the contraction. Something's, Jose says. I think something's wrong with the tire. Something's means something is it's the contraction for something is some things can also be the contraction for something has, like something's happened, something has happened. So you have to read the context to understand which meaning the contraction has. What is a flat tire and what is a spare tire? A flat tire is a tire that has been popped. It isn't full of air anymore, so this is a flat tire. You can't drive with it. A spare tire is an extra tire that you keep in the back of your car, the trunk or the boot of your car. So it's just a extra tire in case you get Ah, flat tire. Why does Jose go to the Shell Station instead of Julian? Jose knows how to change car tires so he can pick out the right kind for the Volkswagen van . Julian is not familiar with tires. So Jose goes, What does the acronym a sap mean? Asep is the acronym for as soon as possible, you take the first letter from each word to create a new word with a new meaning. Asep means you will do something as quickly as you can. How is Jose going to pay at the Shell Station? Jose is going to pay with his card. So a debit card or credit card? Why is Julian going to buy two dinners for Jose Julian is going to buy. Jose won dinner for buying the new tire, and he's also going to buy. Jose won dinner for changing the tire, so two dinners. 20. Review: review question one. Where did you go on vacation? Last. So city or country? Which place did you go to? What did you see? So right about what things you saw and what did you do? What kinds of activities did you do? Question two. Where did you last travel on a train? And did you buy a one way or a single ticket or a round trip or return ticket? And did you sit in first class or a second class Question? Three. Do you know how to drive? And do you have a driver's license? Do you prefer on automatic or a manual transmission? Which one do you like better? What was your first car, and what kind of car do you usually drive? Question four. Where did you go the first time you ever traveled by plane? Did you fly first class, business class or economy class or coach class? And do you prefer aisle seats, window seats or middle seats? Why, why do you prefer that kind of seat? Question five. Right about a bad experience you had flying so any kind of negative experience Did the airline lose your luggage? Was your flight overbooked and you couldn't get on the plane. Did you miss your plane? What happened? What happened to make your experience negative? 21. Conclusion: way.