Practical Latex: The First Course | Tahir Yaqub | Skillshare

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Practical Latex: The First Course

teacher avatar Tahir Yaqub, I Teach Online

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

30 Lessons (5h 33m)
    • 1. Introductory Video About Latex

    • 2. Getting Started With Latex

    • 3. Doing Latex Installations

    • 4. First Program And Options

    • 5. Using Latex Class Templates

    • 6. Introduction to Latex Compilers

    • 7. Changing The Pdf Viewer

    • 8. Latex Environments

    • 9. Basic Formatting In Latex

    • 10. Lists In Latex

    • 11. Units used in Latex

    • 12. Page Style Headers and Footers Part 1

    • 13. Page Styles Headers and Footers Part 2

    • 14. Paragrapg Line Spacing Foot Notes And Margin Notes

    • 15. Inserting Images In A Latex Document

    • 16. Text Styles And Sizes In Latex 1

    • 17. Putting References In Latex Using Bibtex

    • 18. Creating Latex Tables Formatting and Styling

    • 19. Using Math Symbols in Latex Tables

    • 20. Meging Cells In Latex Tables Part 1 of 2

    • 21. Meging Cells In Latex Tables Part 2 Of 2

    • 22. Introduction To Math Environments

    • 23. Writing Some Commonly Used Math Formulas In Latex

    • 24. Math Equation Environments In Latex

    • 25. Matrix Environments In Latex

    • 26. Latex Presentations Overview

    • 27. Using Colors In Latex

    • 28. Presentation Themes in Latex

    • 29. Making Presentations In Latex Changing Theme Attributes

    • 30. Community-Question-Setting-margins-with-New-Geometry

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About This Class

By the end of the course, you will be able to:

  1. Do the installations and setup Latex System on PC
  2. Typeset a document in Latex.
  3. Make Lists of many types using Latex
  4. Make tables of various varieties.
  5. Using images in your documents which are well-aligned and look perfectly balanced.
  6. Write mathematical equations having complex symbols and structures in latex.
  7. Making presentations in Latex.
  8. Writing report or scientific articles in latex.
  9. Writing a thesis in latex.
  10. Write a book in latex
  11. Using floats and layouts in Latex

Target Audience: 

  1. Anyone who wants to learn Latex to create high-quality professional documents
  2. Educators
  3. Researchers
  4. Students of all levels, graduate students

Future Upgrades:

Following 3 lectures will be added in near future:

  1. Third and final lecture on beamer package (By end of July 2018)
  2. Drawing diagrams and figures in latex using Ticks package. (in August 2018)
  3. Working on multi-file projects (in August 2018)


About the Instructor: 

  • Engineer and Researcher
  • eBook Author
  • Writer, Blogger
  • Develop websites as a hobby

Meet Your Teacher

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Tahir Yaqub

I Teach Online


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1. Introductory Video About Latex: Hello and welcome to this course. This course is about politic letting his return as latex, but we're lost as related, but you can pronounce it. Hold your light. So what is letting little kids and open source document repression system? That's why we get a bill collector. What is so special about beauty politicus special Because the quality of the document we get out of later is much superior and much of higher quality than any other office competitors such as work and it's free you don't have a vanity is free, it's open source, then why most people don't use later, But in my opinion, because of two main reasons number one late it is not easy, Vic receiving means What you see is what you get. But analytic, you do not get what you see later. Document contains the text with you want to produce and also some other commands, which we have to put their in order to produce their text. And the second reason you'd it is very hard to learn. It is a Lenin carving more, and most people they don't bother to return to much more. Scientists and researchers and engineers then use leading not only because let it has excellent building forms but also the mathematical equations and the algorithms and the diagrams, if we can produce any later are much superior, are much higher. Board. I started using Lee Think when I started my PhD, the Ministry of News, often years in 2000 and three, and the conference paper WAAS, My first document I produced in athletic and most influences and most journals and even universities. They have their employers in little because they know that little produces a true professional document. So it's very hard to copy, exact those phone and typesetting inward oriented, the word processor. They just give a temporary you put your text inside and you document to produce will be exactly same as the confidence our university demands. Also, one of the capability of tech is that you can and back JavaScript and that the programming mackerels into the document. For example, when I make my quizzes, I put job escaped into my pdf oy after the very steps ways they can check what have the correct answers, what questions they have not answered correctly. There is much easier than having a database. The best solution, and also the ability half latex to handle the hard documents is spot. You can publish books, and although this capabilities no included in word Israel but later stem handle all the changes for you. So, for example, if you inside any subsection of section, or they will figure inside your document so later, well, after all of the numbering for you. So it's very easy. Actually, you have to do nothing from this. Little has three component. One is the editor in which we type the second in the letter. Distribution of the letter yourself and the time is the document viewer in which reviewed the documents. For example, pretty everywhere are TV right here. Some other viewers. You're right. The document first then built a document using the later distribution, and so you also use certain packages. They do some specific function active. For example, there is a package for geometric. There's the package Father making dry ground. There's a package for making good. A lot of people are working on these packages. They develop a packet, then it becomes open source and you can take a wattage of this. Latex produces documents off high professional quality and I almost always juice. Let IX this scores. I will walk you through step by step to install all this little system and how to use it or polluted for equations or unit for graphics. Or use it for making diagrams. Thanks for watching. And I want this. You tripped it with you. We make you excited about this course and haven't seen you in said the course. 2. Getting Started With Latex: So this lecture is Billy, an introductory lecture about politic and a little disclaimer that you might not understand many things in this lecture. But this is my promise that you will understand each and everything in detail when I will explain this in my letter lectures for No. If you don't understand anything, just bear with me. So for any type setting in letting any formatting which we want to do in electric we need three things. First, we need something where we can right over next. Plus, some commands typeset the text to formulate their text. So for that we need and a detailed where we can write some text plus the typesetting commands. And the second thing we need is some programs some packages which can unwired their text into a beautiful looking high Quartey Professor document a typeset document. Ah, high quality document. So we right in the eye detail. Then we compile here this set off packages this collection off packages is card later distribution also card later toolbox and it has three things, innit? Compilers which compile over document, which is a kind of program because it has text plus commands. So this document will have some text which we want toe putting our document Bless some commands which will be used toe to form in the document the way we like. So this is the purpose of the little. So for me, the document in a professional, beautiful looking document the distribution has three components. The first is the compiler which understand these commands and understand what we're trying to say to the program. What type of for mating we want. So these air compilers that some of the examples of compilers are beauty of texi fight. This is a compiler. I'm just giving you some names, but we will be explaining this later. So what is prettier, Taxify? It can words our fighting, which is a fixed document which will have an extension of dark tech tech R tex. We will import this file in tow this compiler and we will get a PdF out of it. So there were discarded pdf Tex If I it can Worst a tech document to pdf. The second thing these packages have they have some support programs. One example would be Big Tex And what this does this puts citations in every Such people are in a book at the end of the book, you might have seen some citations. So this program for citation in our document, then a lot off packages, a lot of packages. So what are these packages these air basically aired owns, So they have some extra functionality, some extra styles and some extra functions. Toe over document because later document can have some functions is with some interactive function, some jealous skips, according some macros and some extra styling tables off. Many types text off many types, some fancy headers, fancy footers, some diagram, some graphics. So a lot of things. So these packages, they act this extra functionality we use this packet is as and when required basic in our program. And let me tell you, the Kamar before use package. This is a command which we put in our text fight, and we tell our distribution that we're using this package so over distribution will see if the package is already on over computer. If not, it will install the package from the Internet. This distribution will take care of this package. What are our options for this later distributions or did our to me and options we have one is card McTighe and the other is card check life. So this is the little comparison between Mick take and take life. So, Mick take is normally by default. When you install McTighe, it will install some standard packages first, and then when? If you use some other packet in your program, then it will install that package. It will ask you for permission. It will install you. I will show you this in my next video hold works well in tech life. The standard installation will install all the packages available currently on the Internet , which will be around maybe five g b. So it depends which type off installation you really want. I would prefer make take because I like on the fly packages. The second point is that if you have an individual PC, then we take it better for you because you are in complete control of your Internet, your password, everything. So whenever you like, you can install packet. There is no problem. But if you're in a server environment where other people are using it and maybe your survey administrator sometimes is not available and you need some package and that packet is not available in McTighe. So then it might be a problem Make that might not be able to install the package. So in that case, tech life will be a better solution because you have already all the packages. The turtle comparison point is this me. Take Waas developed form windows from the beginning from the very beginning. So it has a complete windows background. No early next UNIX. So if you have window users like most, then I will prefer this. And if you use Lennox, then you can go for tech life because the good thing about life is that it's a multi platform. You can you can sweet the platform between clinic and windows, whatever you like. No, this point is very important. In tech life, there's a policy off must freeze policy. After one year, they take some time to get the new ones in off tech life. So there is a There is a certain break between the old Western and the night in the new wedge in there is a freeze for some time. So what it means is that after that new Ergin, you will have to do the installation again while it make that dubbed it is not so often the new ones income, but it depends on when it comes just like any of the so for the last point is slightly more packages for McTighe. I have read somewhere on Internet that to suspect it is not available in tech life, you can double check. It might be available now, so these are some of the differences. So these are some off the differences we have between Mick take and take life, so you can decide whatever you like, but it doesn't matter. Both will work fine. And any of these editor will work fine. No coming towards the pdf viewer. So normally we use so acrobat reader. But this Sumatra is also a fantastic beauty of your very simple lightweight. Especially if you're like me. I use mean edit. And with Benedict, this is the best choice. And another thing about beauty of beauties that some of these text editors they have their pd of your insight like this text. Could you textile You has internal pdf view while vineyard. It has an external pdf. Your what it means is that when you make the pdf so Wien added. This is been added. It will open another broke. Um, any of these Whatever you have like folks, it is it other choice. So this is a program where we will compile it, will open another window and it will open your viewer. Good. Pdf Acrobat Reader. Whatever you have in this window while in tech life, for example, you see your program so it will make two portion is your program. It will open an internal pdf we were, and it will show you the output of your program. You're beautiful. Pdf in itself inside the tech studio. So this is another factor of choice when deciding which one you want to use. Another important factor of choice could be the syntax highlighting. And I will explain this later question is, if we first have to write our program in editor, then why I am managing the distribution first? Because first we have to write a program, then compile it and then do it. Then why this order? Because this is the order off installation. You must install the letter distribution first, then there deter, then viewer if you don't have one, because otherwise you might have to set some options in your editor and which at the beginning stage could be difficult for you. So the better thing is just to install the latest distribution first, so that when you start editor it will fill out all the feels about the part and everything where it will be finding been foiled. For example, are there is the executable files for pdf viewer, for example, are deviate viewer. So these were some of the basic information which I want to tell you, but we will be discussing all this in detail in our next videos. 3. Doing Latex Installations : So let me show you what happens if we install editor before the distribution. So here I have installed we needed and I haven't installed me, Tex. So if you go to options and execution moves and here you will see on the left hand side these air compilers and there is question mark in front of this dispute, E f latex pdf Tex Tex If I beauty of tex, if I and in part you will see that it's empties window, take two. There is no Mick Tex. So you have to set these parts. It will waste your time. So just installed the distribution first dentally editor and it will you will be fine. So first of all, we will be starting McTighe so And this is the big tech website, so you can likely go to install make take on windows. But I just want to show you the website so you can find some instructions if you need ever , where it's pretty simple. So no need for that. Just go to down Lord and installed for Windows 78 or 10. So just click on download and I already have this while in my valuables. So probably I don't save this. It just gets it. No, Here I have four boys, all the old unsalable we needed. Tech studio and text maker. That's maker is probably the oldest editor for politic. And then we have text to do you basically much from text maker and when it is another very popular athletic editor. So these three editor I will be using randomly during this course so that you can get used to all of them. Mostly I use when edit. This is a proprieties off here. These two are absolutely free. But I will be sent you some example with tax maker and Tech studio so that you can get used to all the sort of years. And this is our basic mix. Mystics Executable file. So let's start this basic Mattek first. So just double click on this and accept their terms. Next Eastern victims for any user make text 2.9. Next. Next, you just accept all the standard options so the basic Mick Tex installation will install only. The basic package is required for most commonly used operations to produce the documents. But as I mentioned earlier that make Tex installation installs the packages as and when required bases. So whenever you will use any package in your text file by using the come on use package so Mick text will automatically install the package, it will ask for the permission and then it wouldn't start the package for you. So this installation will take some time. So when it finishes, then we will installed in edit and text maker enter also the text studio. So know that we have in started me text, nor we will install editor So we needed This is the executable which we don't noted from the website. So just double click on this. Next he accept their terms. Next. Next, you have to just take the default options. You don't have to worry about anything. So I've been installation that next is it the folder? You can keep a record. Otherwise we needed 10 so installation is finished. So what's the installation is finished. We need it will automatically open. So this is an unregistered copy because this is a proprieties off feel they give you at this trial were him. And if you use this for maybe three months or six months, then they will start sending you a reminder, a very annoying type of reminder. They will just send it when you are working in the text. Boiler dialog box will appear here and it will say register or something. And then the frequency of their Delic books appearing will increase until you say, Okay, let's do the registration or you start losing some other program. But anyway, this is a good program bayoneted for wires. You a lot of options for Centex highlighting You can change it. Whatever colors you like color, different color combinations. Very good. It looks beautiful. So therefore, I used this a liter a lot, but I have used some other. They have used texting center and I have used next story Roosevelt. So any of these editors you can use yourself to you and first you see, because we haven't opened any file here. So everything looks great. Are the options are great, except opening new, similarly in edit. All the options are great. This is because we haven't opened any fight these air over compilers and they're all great and we can't even click on that because we haven't got any fight. So what we do is first open over simplest program. So this is our simples program. You know, you can see the compilers are applicable. We have this compilers, the accrue bit view it is there and But I want to show you something. When you first install here, You make sure go to options and execution wars. An execution ward. Remember when there was no installation? So this was empty. But no, we have make Texan start. So there is a mix four that years. It should be like here. Similarly, we have all the compilers no available to us in this console applications. There are still few question marks because we have not installed packages for these. Remember, we only and start the basic packages in MC Tex. So there are still packages which we have to start if required. But these are the things which we require. Actually, we only required Taxify and beauty of Tex. If i most of the times and then here you can see the part. If you click on part, the part should be set to the mix text folder. And normally, when we needed in stars, it take care of everything. It says the park and first this field already. But if not, you can just type it here. Similarly, pdf viewer since I have to viewer in start on my computer. So therefore it is showing me Sumatra and a crow bait boat. But in your case, it could be probably a crib. It only because if only accrue bitter as a viewer, then this only this will be shown here. But I will show you in later one off. The videos that hold to change activities we do is already on YouTube. But I will show you. I will put that video in my course. And it shows you how to changed. Uh, pdf viewer similarly, you can I haven't or some other things like Tex. If you go here, you will see it takes everywhere. So in text system, you will see that is set to the mixed exporter and similarly, some other make text for the locations. And one important thing you can not here is deviate viewer. So Devia is another form 85 Former just like pdf, it is called digital video interactive. So before pdf Levi, I was used to print the documents because you can print Devia on most of the printers. So this is a This was a very popular former before pdf, and just like a crow bait reader, the program which opens Devia files, is guard ship. So this program is part off Mr Bush in, So you will get case so you can open a DVF file using this year program. So this is the location of the year. So if for example, for some reason you are working on TV, I fight and you see that DVF file is not being printed. So you will come to this location and see the location of this executable for this program , just like we have the executable for pdf, you're here. This is the location of the crew bit executable. So for some student who don't know about executable, executable is simply ah, file which, as I couldn't were re click to start the program that is call executable. So the other things I'm not very important because you don't need to understand that only these two things the beauty of your location and the chip. So only these two things and this part this should be set. So there are a few things in this which I wanted to highlight. No, we will compile this simple program. Remember, this is only one text. So just click on this compiler. It will compile the program so you can see that the program has opened this accrue bit of your for us. And then it showed us that output. No viene start the distribution. We haven't started the editor and we have got the viewer. So these are the three important components. We need it. So no, you are set to program in letting 4. First Program And Options : so not really making over frustrated program. So this is a new installation off we needed. As you can see, that this is the first message you will get when you and starving. It'd so I'm currently currently using Virgin 5.5 because this is the latest was in which you can use without paying for the sake, which is around 30 or 40 bucks. And I think it is one more watch in 516 which you can use. But I like 515 because this is, ah, classical style off buttons available all these weapons in this virgin. So I like using this worship. But anyway, you can use any one of these. So this is the new installation. And no, we have to start a new program. So what we can do fighting you and in every letter government, we have to start with document class. So there are many options available for the document class, but we will be using article in the big leagues, and I will explain some other options. So this is the first essential command Analytic, this is a must come on. And the second must command is begin document. So this is the second compulsory commanding letting and the third compasses, commanders and document. So these are the only three commands which are compulsory in any later document. And there are many formatting options, many typesetting options. But all options are optional. And it depends on your requirement of what you want toe do with that. But this is your basic simplest later document, and we can give it a name in the beginning. There's good practice to save the documents, so we just save it. Save s, I was told my tech file in this. So I give it a name as simplest door tech because this is the simplest possible later document. So I save it here and no, just write down any texture. For example, practical lipstick. The first course. So this is only one sentence, so no, As you can see, there are many options here. So these air basically the compilers if you if you hover over this, it will show you what type of compilers this. So this is Tex If I and this is lipstick, this attack, this is beauty of cortex. If I as I already explained this beauty of Taxify is the compiler, which we will be used because this will create ah, beauty of document for us. But before you complained, your first document, as I already mentioned, you have to go there and you have to look at execution Moore's and look at here that whether you're a crew bit is exists that here or not, this is your pdf viewer. Otherwise, you won't be able to do the document, so just double check again once here. So I'm double checking because I really start this new installation of in a did. So just to explain to you so just double check this and then you can press this pdf Taxify , it will compile. And this is your document because our document only has one line of text so practical, elated, the first course. So this is the simplest document, which we can have any letter. So in this document class, if we put these square brackets in the beginning, then you can assign certain options here, for example, what type of people you are gonna use? What is the paper side for you? So what is the phone size? So these are few options which you can use here, and then you can recombine the document it will re compiled. And no, it has a certain phone size and a certain pace site. So this is a four paper and it has a phone size off then so you can increase this phone side if you like, and know what other options we have for this class because this is one type of glass we're using here. There are many types of class available in electric. So look, these are some off the popular classes in later article, report, book, letter, Beamer, and stand alone. So there are some of the classes also available, but these are the most common classes. So what you were like looking here, Essentially, is that a certain class? For example, this article, this class has certain features which shoes scientific documents. So, for example, the way this glass names the authors, for example, the way this class has its to be fired options the way certain macros behave in this class . So these are the few things that you should be looking for when you are selecting a class. If you're if you're writing a scientific paper, so you should probably used article class. For example, if you are writing a book, so book must have certain chapters. So these chapters are not available in article class because only book class has few chapters. When you write a document, you will find that the chapter chapter is available. Similarly, I report has chapters because report normally has chapters. So these type of things when you select these classes, you will be looking for the switches, the suitable club. But for most purposes of this article, class is okay to use No, For example, this Beamer Club. This is for presentations like Power point style of presentations. If you are making some presentation, you will probably use Beamer class. Similarly, this letter is in the letter former the standalone class, for example because let Tyka Nelson letting you can also make set and figures using using this programming. So if you are making certain diagrams that in scientific diagram that where you want to real estate something and then later you want to put that Ah, that one filing to any other document with some other command. Then you will be using this standalone class. So in standalone class you can draw any figure. For example, if you were trying to explain something and then what you do is then you use certain commands like include an input there certain commands available. You use these commands to put that fight into any of the document which you later prepare. So, in this way you can arrange your documents. You can well organize your document that all my demonstrations are a standalone saved in certain boys. And then you can pour, goes the demonstrations into your men documents. Let me delay to the Saudis. So this is the center cough over first compulsory commanding little document class, then optional. So these square breakers are optional. And also these options are options. If you want to pour certain options, which are I'm explaining here just a minute. And then here you put the name off any of these class. So this is the center of this command. So let's talk about what you can put in these options. What are the options available? So this is not a completely stuff options, but most of the commonly used options I have put material and other option you can find in later documentation. If you like. So the first option is the paper size. So this is the option, and this is the way you can pull this option here. So these are some off the keywords available for this option. For example, if you want to select a four paper, you will put like this air for paper, so similarly letter are a five paper and be five paper you can put in these options and, for example, this form size so four sides can be controlled in Miletic using various matters. One of the matter is that state of a put your option here, for example, 10 point and 12 point. And please know that not all these options are required. If you don't put any of these options later, will take the default option for that particular class, which you're using. So a similarly number of columns, so a number of columns you can put one column or too cold, so the next option is this margins so Martin can be put as one side are poor site, so this is basically the type of document. So, for example, if it's the book class, so it means by defied, it should be to site because book has a certain style. So one, for example, this Martin might be a little bit larger on the end of the book. And while in the for example, this is your page one, and this is your page to so inside these pages, the Martin should be a little less like here and outside. Martin should be a little larger. So this is a to side document. So in book by the fire, it should be to side document while in article it could be one side doctor so you can pick any of these or whether you want this to side document are one side document. So this is basically your margin options and specifically the amount of margin can be controlled using some you using some packages, for example, Jimmy, to pack it can control the PSA Pacific amount of Martin. How much margin you need here? How much you need at the top so much you needed the bottom. So that is something different. This one side into side is something different. So similarly, the orientation of the document you aren't poor, a portrait or landscape. So this is self explanatory. Whether you want portrait or landscape document? No. The next option is draft our finders sometime. If you're working on a PhD TC, is that a very long document? So you don't want to compile all your figures again and again. So if you put your draft option in these and you compile so all your images will be shown as a box. So this is one of the example off or draft will work. So instead, off compiling all the images and showing you all the images the editor will show you, the viewer will show you only box at the instead of the image. And when you are happy with the document, you can use the find a virgin to compile the document. And in addition to that, and in addition to that, if you want toe occasionally, put the images in these boxes so you can temporarily override this draft option as well. With certain, commander. Okay, This image I have seen all the previous images, but this is the latest image. I want to see whether these images being put perfectly in, apart from the location where I wanted. So you can overwrite this command. So there are certain Camara's available for this temporarily overriding. So this was it for this class? The first document and what are some of the options available to us and know what we'll do ? We'll take a semper text from one of my articles, and I will put in a document, and I will show you certain other features off related document in the next class. 5. Using Latex Class Templates : So now let's talk about the structure of a technical documents. So any technical document normally has three parts. So the first part is called the front matter. And then the main parties, the body part and then the back matter in front matter, we have acknowledgements pretty fast forward, abstract, also called executive summary table of contents, list of figures and list of publications. So not all of these air complicity. It depends on what is your requirement and what type off documents you are preparing. For example, for a book, there could be a few of these sections and for our species are some other documents. Report is not all are essential, but somewhere, always there like table of contents and acknowledgement on the list of figures. But this list is not exhaustive. You can add any other thing which you like. Then there is the body of the document where you have parts and the chapters and all your text. Ah arranged in sections and subsections. Then whatever graph. If you want to put you want to do monster, some diagrams, graphics, images, everything it comes in this body section and then the actual tables you want toe a compare thing that whatever you want to do and then there are some formulas Mathematical section normally present in technical documents. So you have algorithms and formulas you can say so. This also includes some algorithms. If you start technical programming type of Bukhara documentary, you might have algorithms. So then there's a back matter where you have conclusion off your PC's are your document or your book or what you want to say. And similarly, index, it does the index where you want to highlight some of the terms in case of a book are also some cases also have index and then the bibliographies, where you put references, references to the books and other papers, for example, and then the glossary of the terms. This is this is a good thing to have a dance off your document. And no, we talk about what is the structure off elated document when we actually prepare documents . So this is our What I did is in my simple program. Still, I have only three commands the document class begin documenting and document. I'm not losing any package at the moment. I just want to explain to you a few things here. And then we will go toe using start away the packages and other type setting things we will be doing. But in the beginning, this is the simple three comm art. These treats compulsory commands, and I have put some text from one of my articles in here. So if I combine this document in this estate so I just press pdf text way of a compiler and it will open the viewer, it will show us what how this document looked like. So this is my document. So as you can see that this is a just a plain text, nothing special. No title, no subsections, nothing in this document. So this is my text. But if you look carefully, I have tested this document from one of my other documents. And you can realize that this is the title of this document. So I want this to be in tighter. Then this is for section. This is the other section. I think this line is extra just Dietrich. And this is also another section. I want these two different section of this document. Then I want this to be my tighter First you should understand one thing that the area between these two document class and the begin document this area is card preamble between document class and begin document and this person signed If you put percent science like me , this is a comment. The compiler will not see this line. So I'm just trying to explain that between document class and begin document this serious preamble. We have to put certain things in this preamble and few things after begin document because the compiler is expecting us toe put food things here in this preamble area and few things in big undocumented between begin document and and document. So if you see any errors, you should realize that you might be putting few thing instead of preamble, You are pulled in after the document area Put this title I will put title here and then I will put the start the curly bracket that and this curly bracket. Then what I do. I just cut this title because this is my title. I paste it just here. This is all your porter title. This started as a key work and as you can see that as soon as you type this, it becomes blue. So this is the forward highlighting. So if this is a class, for example, if you see this is a command document classes a command. So command is in green colors to all these colors you can set in a liter depending on your editor. You can set that combination off these colors. What color you like for the command and what color you like for the keywords. So this title, if I compare this document, so see what happens. There is no title. I have plays the title inside this document. But I have not instructed this document to make this title s part of my document. So in order to make this title, I have to put something like make title here. So make doctors. This is a macro. This we have to put between that begin document and and document. And if I know combined this program, you will see that title is here. But there is also a date in this document. We don't want this state. We only one distorted Toby here. But there's no author name here, so you might want to put autumn name here and we don't want to pour their day. So in order to do that, what we do is we. After this title, we can also put water here and then we can put our name. And if we don't want date, we simply put debt and then empty Prentice's. So in this way, if we comply No, you can see that. No, there will not be any date, but an autumn name is added here. So this is the whole you. Poor, tighter after name. Whether you want to put a date are not because this class by default is putting day there. No, this is our first section. So we want to make this a section of this document. So what we do every simply deck slash and then section. And then we put these things these to the different Whatever. We want to put the name of the section. So this is what is streaming. This is my first section. So this is my first section. Similarly, if I wanted a section here so I can say this is my second section from their toe this point and this is my tired section five of them. But this is my subsection. So how will I put Subsection I just for subsection And then this will be my subsection so no, if I compiled this document, it has a tighter It has a section which is the first section what is streaming than the second section And then there is a subsection so you can go upto I think few levers inside this sub subsection and sub subsection tearfully was inside this so you can check this whole Hardeep You can go so it will number like this to than the subsequent will be 2.1 If I put a sub subsection of this year so it will be 2.1 point one that sub subsection that will be sub subsection if you don't want these numbers So what you do is simply here. After this section you put a star, you put the star So no, If you compile this document, it will not have this number. So the first section is not numbered. So should we Don't number the number thing starts from the second number If you don't want thesis section Toby number you put a start there and dissection will also not be number. So this is the way How you make title the author name and the section and the form it off this title Like how you are looking at this document. The form eight of this title comes from the definition of the class which class we are using. For example, we're using article classes. So this comes from the definition of the article. So this class which is stored in a file with an extension dot c l s so you can even modify their you can modify the definition of these things how you want to make, But not really. We don't know that there is a class with i e trunk. So this is another class if I put instead of Arctic. And I put this glass and I compiled this document, so see what happens? No, it is looking for for the definition of this class, and it cannot find the definition of this class on. No, it says, because you can see this Gladys is the name of the club. This is I Tripoli transaction class, which, if you are writing our transaction paper for I triple E So the item police and organization for electrical electronics engineers, if you write if you're writing a research paper for far to be published in any of these generals. Then you will be using this class because currently my distribution does not have this class included. So it is asking me for package installation. So this is all Mick take Ask you to install any package and no, we will say OK, install this packet so it will instruct the package. No, it is installing this package. It will take some time. And no, you can see how this title looks like because this is the form eight off by Tripoli transaction which is which is a journal papers or two column. There are two column by default. The alternative is in a certain form it This section is in the middle and this sexual looks like different, which is just starting from numbers and the subsection is not number. The subsection is no starting from ABC. This for mating is coming from the definition of this I Tripoli transaction class, which we are using. So this is how you start writing your general papers because my text is short. So it's only fitting in the first call number. But if I put more text, it will go into the second corner. So let me duplicate this just to show you how it looks like. Just copy again and paste it here and now we re compile this and no, you can see that hard. Looks like I've just duplicating this. But as it goes, this isn't a section one. No, this is second section because it becoming after this It is a second section and again this is subsection starting from a again. This subsection will start from a So this style is coming from the definition of the I triple e class which I'm using here. So this is also one of the classes available. Waas So going back to the article class which is the normal class we normally used for presentation even sometimes And although there is a separate class Beamer which I already explained but we can use this article class a very common class And no, if I compile this again so it will look different just like the previous thing. So this is our title and this So you see that they are how easily you can rebuild the beautifully looking perfect document. You see the corners you can see that is so perfect. They are perfectly aligned. Everything and hope. Beautiful. It looks like every 40 is taken care of. You don't have to mention all these forms. You just use the appropriate class, and the class will take care of all these forms for you. So you see how this forest looked like this was an example of a single column by before the options is in. This is single column and we have seen a an example of a two column document. So this is how easy is toe. Make a document in later. You have to simply put the text in this and then fuckem ours and a beautiful document will be the output. So this was hard to make a simple document using a particular class and knowing the next lecture, we will be discussing hotel typeset electric document and hard to use packet. And we will be using over first package inside this document with another command which is called use package. In the next lecture 6. Introduction to Latex Compilers: So in this lesson, we really learn what are the different ways to generate a pdf in little. So there are a couple of days because sometimes the situation is different. Sometimes we need certain flies which cannot be generated by using the direct pdf Taxify. So there are basically so this is over first simplest program. As you can see that there is only one line of court and I have put a title and daughter name. There is no date, and this is the minimum document. We can have any GATECH. So no, there are three different ways we can generate a pdf. So this is our source scored, and I have added fuel title and accept Robert More or less. It is like this and it has a file name. Simplest door tech. Because every letter document every source scored must have extension door TX. So in this folder, you can see that there is. This is my tech file stored here, and there is no other file here. But when we create a pdf, there will be a lot off auxiliary fires created in this folder by a tick and it's declared the border will become messy, So I just want to show you how this process actually happens. So there are three different ways we can create a pdf. So the first way with mostly reuses from source scored. We just used this Compile all these yellow button these air compilers also card engines. So this beauty of tech compiler, which is basically this button here this is beauty of Tex. If I So this compiler mostly press this button and we create pdf straight of it. So this is the simplest way. And the mostly used to kill yet. Pdf. But there are situations when you are using some special phones when you required this BB I file, which is a special file format we have already discussed. So when you want this DVD form it, then the rock you follow is that from the source court, you use this taxi five compiler and text. If I compiler on minute it is this one. This is Tex. If I so you press this button and then you create a dot devi I file. So don t v I file. Then you used the V I. P s compiler and this is the DVR to PS compiler. This is not applicable at the moment because there is no Devi I file in this folder. So if we could get a DVD file using this compiler, then this will become clickable. And then after creating the Devi I fight, which will be a simplest or DVD, you used this T v i. P s compiler DVR toe piece compiler and then you used to be a stupidity of compilers. So there are these compilers. This is deviate copious compiler and then TV I two pdf you can use either of these if you are using some type of force you might need to create opposed to skip file, which is bought PS because sometimes this while is required. So then you have to follow from D V I. P s first. After clicking this Devia Taxify Devi, I will be created. Then you will prestige here toe ps and you will go from PS to prettify while another situation when there are no special forms, you can state of recreate a pdf from giving a So the V I was the most popular file format before pdf So this is one way you can go so the third where you can create a pdf is by using big tech. So you can see here that this is your big take compiler. This is currently not highlighted because they're no citations in this document. If you have some references, some citations, then this will be highlighted from big tech. Then you press later. Twice. So this is your later compiler. So this is the road when you follow when there are some citations. So sometimes by pressing this one's your citations are not created. References are not made in the documents. So therefore you have to press this twice so twice you press the later compile and then you will get the DVD. So this is the case when there are some references. And this we will have a separate lecture for this this type off creation a period because we will pour some references and we will do this later. But today what? I want to show you these two matters of creating pdf the state of it and using this road. So what we can do is we can follow first this route and see how it goes. So this river simple program and if you look at the border, there is only one tech fire. There is nothing else. No, I press this D V I r Tex if I butter to create a DVD So I just press this So this is the d v i file created for you. So we are using McTighe. So in Mixtec Yap is the DVD viewer far for tribute of deviant I find So this is yet this application is card yet And we I have mentioned here that yep will be open and it will open your d v. I fight. No, If you look at the folder, you will see some auxiliary files simplest dot org's log and back up. Three hours of the files has been created and you will also see one DV I fight simplest dot DVD and no, the next step is if you look here, the next step is after this. Tex, If I you have to press deviate too PS and ps two pdf And no, if you look at when I read it, you will see that the V I p s is highlighting because we can go toe ps wrote are we can go from B V. I toe pdf direct. And because there is no PS filing our foreigners, so this option is not highlighted. So as soon we could get a PS file, this option will become like so I can get a pretty a ps file here. I press deviate too PS and no, because I have not opened the post to skip viewer at the moment. So what I can do is I can show you hear that in the border, you will find this simplest door post escaped. This is opposed to skip fight, which has been cleared to tell from D V I. P s. But there's no pdf in this four order yet. And no, if you look here, you can see the PC. Ps two pdf is highlight. It is another compiling and know you can press this button to create a pdf fight, but at this stage, I want to show you the other matter which we are using already. So what I will do, I will just get pd of using pdf Tex, If I instead of this, I will use beauty of Tex if I so I just press beauty of Tex. If I and increase. Show me the pdf after document. So these are two different ways. You can create a pdf by using the's companion. The third mattered. We will have a separate lecture on this. 7. Changing The Pdf Viewer : So in this lesson, we will learn hope between the pdf viewer invented it. So we are using the donated editor for electric. So sometimes you want to change the pdf viewers. There could be many reasons. So the media reason is that you are getting some errors. For example, let me show you this error, which I'm getting No. So I This is our simple document, which we have already used. Nothing special. Just begin document one sentence and end document. So I want to compile this. It shows me the document here, but then it shows this error cannot open d d link. And this is a bug. And he said it has taken a lot of my time and research, and I found the fix for this. So in similar minute something like unable to refresh the pdf, why are unable to open the DDE dynamic get actually link are unable to generate the pdf without any error. So sometimes it happened. There is no other, but you can't get any. Pdf. It's not showing any media, no output. You looked and have some error, which is very annoying and frustrating. And you want to just change a PD of your So we have lot off options. So, for example, I just mentioned three of them. So one is their Liberator, Which, of course, is not working for some reason, I suppose. And then we have Sumatra, and smart works very velvety. Vin edit. It is very comfortable. It alliance very well with you in edit. Then we also have folks. It folks. It is also good and very popular. Pdf viewer so we can get any of these and install it first. And then we can change it in over. Editor. So I will show you how to do that. You can have a look at some art drop. Pdf. So, for example, let's say you want to install the headstand Stahler touch to return 64 bit. So depending on your computer, you just download this. So I have already downloaded this in my folder. So I just click on this install Sumatra and looking start. Well, you guessed, you know it's running, so I know how to change it. So you have to go inside. We needed and then options execution Mort and eco bait. And this is the executable file for Acrobat Reader. you just have to point this fire toe executable file off. Smart trap. Idiot! Just click on this icon and you go above this for the record, is it afforded where this over this technical over desired Acrobat reader. So you have to go up. This is a no folder and then up under to get program voice and in program for you will get off order with the name of Sumatra pdf, which you have just in start Sumatra Pdf just click on this border. So this is executable. You just click on this and open. So this will come here instead of Adobe Reader. No, we need it. Will Will open Some are Traa Pdf as a pdf viewer. So in order to change the being fordo, you can just let auto detect and it will change. And one time it will run. It will change the bin folder for this, so just apply this certain Okay? No, If we compile this again PD of tex if I So this is your document knowing some are trump Pdf so no, you're using smarter Pdf a za pdf you were once you have run this once or twice, then you can double check by coming into options execution work, and you will see that in this it has changed up you d have been folder too smart. Repudiate. So in this way you can change the pdf we were. So it's very simple. So once again, it's very simple. Just you have to go toe options. Execution. Moore's a crew bit. And then this is the executable, which is wanting toe some Martorano. But before it was pointing toe Acrobat reader, When you change the location of the executable, we just click on other detect, and it will automatically changes the location of the bin folder. So this is how we change the pdf viewer in our latex editor. 8. Latex Environments : So one more thing I would like to highlight here is that these packages for why does sometimes some environments. So what is an environment? So if you see here in the beginning, we are saying begin document. So whenever there is this command, begin document and associate ID and documented the end. So it means this is a document and wire mint. So there are a couple of other environments are also available Analytic, in which we can put a few features. For example, an equation environment. We can pour some equations. So what are those environments? So let us see. These are some of the commonly available commonly used environments in later. So this is the document package which we have already discussed. All the text goes here and then this is the basic elected package. You don't need any. This is the best eclectic environment. You don't need any package toe use for this. Then there is any question environment. Which math package provides you So in this environment you can write some mathematical equations which you normally can it right in normally in a normal document environment. So similarly, then there is an intimate environment. If for example, you want toe a new minute, any list or something? So 123 So what you do? Would you just start this environment begin in a minute and then every line you start with item item and then you put whatever you want toe right here and then it will be the first thing will be the first thing will be will be given a number one and then the second item command will be stored three and so on. Similarly, if you don't want to put a number but you want to put a door like this, so then you can use itemize environment. So this is another environment which you can use. You just start with this, begin itemize, and then so every item will be given this, uh, distort, similarly figure environment. If you want to put any email so you start, begin figure you have to include in the package, which is called graphics package. So then you can use this environment begin figure than you used disk amount include graphics, and you can have mentioned the width and height of the figure and the image file. You can use this similarly at the environment is description where you want toe describe something, some topic and a short description. So these were some of the commonly used elliptic environments which I wanted to highlight because we have to do these packages somewhere in our document. And we will discuss these all all of these environments in more detail in our future lectures. So in this lecture we used one packet, which is the generator package. And we did some off for mating because we have a lot to cover. So therefore I live it'd you. If you have a specific requirement toe for mating more details other than the normal margins in for mating, then you can see the implementation of this package on C 10 Kutan. There's the website. I will give a brief introduction to that Catan where you can find a more documentation about these packages. 9. Basic Formatting In Latex : So in the previous lecture, we have learned that how we can use any class toe generator document very quickly so these glasses can be used if you are in organization and you want all the employees off debt organization to follow a certain for mating style, you can make a class for that organization, a Z we just have seen. And then all employees can use that class to generate a similar documents. So if they don't have put them set, all the phone says that can save a lot of time. And no glasses are one of the powerful functionary tearfully attack, and the other powerful functional functionality can be achieved by using packages, class air, certain phone sizes and forwarding and paragraph styling. And whole you named your section subsections. These type of things are horrible. Normally a good bite, the definition of the class. But if you want to wear certain other functionality so you might need certain packages. A class file has an extension of your CLS, as we have seen and no order packages. They will be having an extension off daughter Esteve White, so they're also sometime called style files. Why we use packages. If certain functionality is not available by default in lipstick, then we can use other packages because a lot of people around the world they're developing these packages and they're making them free for use for later users. So we want to make use of all those efforts. So we use those packages by using US command, which is card use package. So I really use I will start from, ah, very famous package, which is card geometric package. So we just use use package and then geometric. So this dramatic package is used to set the margin off related documents. And Martin, usually the first thing which you want to do. What is the left margin? What is the right margins of it? You can said using this packet. So 1 may toe state of a check. The margin is toe use these square brackets before the Beckett you declaration. And then in this square bracket, for example, if I want all my margins, Toby, one game, So what I will do? I will say margin equals one inch so you can write one inch like this are you can put a space, It doesn't matter. So one inch and then geometry. So it means that all my margin will be set toe Wantage. And but the please give in mind that there are few things which this definition of the class, this article class, it will also set some of the perimeter for example, a space for header in a certain space for footer. So it sometimes you have tow tweak a little bit too. Exactly. Get this one inch literally one inch on the paper. So let me compiled this document will see what I mean. So if I compiled this document so this is our document. So if I put these 200% in this viewer than you can see that left and right margins seems Toby Wantage and also this bottom margin looks roughly the one inch. But at the top, you can see there Dis margin is definitely more than one is because class definition is also they're putting some space extra space years. If you want toe exactly figure out on my deck spaces, you can actually figure this out by using various techniques. One of this could be that you put just zero here If you put all margin zero And then you see how much space you can get really can pre compiled this and no see what happens. So when we said zero, you can see here that this left hand side and right side are exactly zero. I put these 200% view. This is currently at 100 this is 100% of you and you can see that left and right is 100. But at the top you have some space and there is no space at the bottom. But the pain number is also gone. So after setting market equals zero, you can see here that left right and bottom margins are exactly zero, but there is still some space available at the top. So this is coming from the definition of the cloud. You can further tweak this by putting some negative value for the top two. This dramatic packet gives us complete control on all of the margin. So let us use all the margins. So you expect kids we say left equals change. Suppose we need some space for binding and right equals one inch stop equals one inch and portal equals zero point five. So we can So in this way we can assign all these values individually if if we want. So if I compiled this so here you can see that we have the left. Martin has increased two inches, right? Is still wanting and later has automatically center this page number within this touched area. So this type of things let it does on auto. You know, you don't have to worry about these type of things, and title is still in the in the middle of this text area. But there is more space on the top. We have given only one each, but this is much more than one. So, for example, we want to figure out home space. The definition of the class is is living at the top. So we can do this by giving some hitting trial matters of what we can do. We can. Let's say we say that the stop is minus zero point for image, so give it a minus value, so see what happens. And no, we can see that this title is exactly touching the top. So it is. It is basically minus 0.5. So it is 0.5 offset from the true edge of the paper. So if we want no margin of wanting, so we should be giving 0.5, so it will make it Vonage. So this we can do here exactly instead of minus point, fiery free give zero point fight so we can check whether it looks like one inch or not. And no, it looks like a one inch Martin at the top. So in this way you can do this. Hit central matter. And exactly because you have complete control on all the four dimensions, you can even print this once and see whether it fulfills your requirements are not. So. Now let's see. We explore some off other options in the surgeon to pack it. So if your left and right margins are seemed so instead of forgiving left and right, you can give horizontal Martin's, which is much margin at your martini equals. Let's take two inches, and similarly, for bottom and top, you can assign one value, which is vertical margin equals, let's see one inches. So in this way, instead of giving four well use if you're too well user, seem so you can use these options at your margin and we margin So you can see that what left and right margins are same which harder in the margins and then were tickle. Margins are saying so you can use these options if you're bought. Margins are simply want our text. Is it a tinto? 10 inch I And the only thing that that we want is that center. You want this text Toby center So we will say text equals eight inch former time means curry bracket close Poma Centering. So see what happens. No and no. You can see their text is in the center. But because this is a Ford by the far documents, so a four is nearly eight. Angel delivered more than 18 so it's almost feeling all the space, so it doesn't look good if I see 100%. So it looks like this. So text is in the centre based 18 Dwight tending child. So why not make this text 16 instead of 18? If we put it 16 it would look better and no if I compiled this and now you can see their text is well center and looks beautiful. Six inches white, six inches wide and 10 inch height. So this is a perfect sites where you were happy with their There's fine, so you can use these options. So no, I want to show you another option off this Giammetti packet. So let us say that we have said these are gentle margins, means left and right and talking bottom toe these values and then, for some reason after first page, are somewhere here in the middle of a document. We want to change the margins. So then there is a command for this which you can use, which is called new geometry. New directly. And then you start the curly brackets and here you can assign, for example, left equals zero inch. I'm just putting these values so that we can quickly see the result. Otherwise, these are not, of course, the suitable values. But for some reason, if you want to change reading one document, you want between the margin so you can see a new geometry and then you can specify whatever more did you want. But this command should be returned after this begin document and before the end documents somewhere years. If I come by this now and now, you can see that the document started the very book in the beginning. And then after this no, we have the second period where the margins left and right at zero. So in this way, you can you have the flexibility to change the margin at any time, whatever margin you want. For example, you want toe show some figure here. You want to see some diagram here and you want to use this fully space so you you can set the document on the flight. You can set the margins on the flight. So I think this is enough for general margin and for mating because I will be taking another lecture on Ho to customize your header and hold to use some fancy things like decorative lines and other things. So for this, I will use another lecture later. But for this, because otherwise we have to look, we have to cover a lot of things. So I think this is enough for the Jamar t package. If you want for the information you can look at because there are a lot off options in this geometry package. And if you want more information, you can go and look on. Kate and website Catan, Webster CTN and it's ah are kind for letting documentation and there you can find the detailed documentation and options for dramatic package. 10. Lists In Latex : So in this lesson we will see how we can make list in athletic document, so elliptic automatically numbers over sections and subsections. But if we want to make a list in any of the subsection or in a section on any other part of our document, then we have to use one off the few environments available to us. So what is an environment? Any part of a program which begins with this backslash begin at and answered back slash and is an environment. So this document is an environment. It starts from begin document and it ends here. Similarly, there are three environments which we can use to make a list. So the first environment is itemized environment. So we will first practice this and then we will use other and wire dimensions and we will see what options we have. So in order to use these list and Weidman's which are itemize and the second discard in immediate and the third is card description. So these three environments are defined in this package in, um, item. So in, um, stands for immediate and items transfer itemize. So we put a statement of use bracket. So this is a very simple program way. Don't have any of that text just in orderto explore these three environments. So we started in warm. It will begin itemize. Then we put backslash vitamins the first item in our list. Then we put anything the first item in this list. Then again, we put the backslash item and then we for the second piece of text which we want as a second part in over list and the tired one. So if I compiled this first so that you can see how it looked like and now you can see that this is our itemized list. So these are the three piece of text which we want to make a list off and itemize environments. Porter bought here a bullet in front of these text lines. So we have a lot off options in letter to customize this behavior off this itemize environment. And we will look into some of those options so hard to put any options here so we can put an option here by putting this square brackets in front of this itemize. And then we can put many options. For example, if I want my items to be at a certain distance from left side so I can put left Margin equals, let's say three inches. So this could be one of my option after Martinique Austrian justify compiled this program. So you will see that my list has moved three inches from the left side of the text. So let us see that we don't want this dot And instead of this door, we want to use less a hysteric are a diamond. So what can we do that? So in order to do that, we would put a label here, put label equals and then within the dollar sign, we can put any mad symbol. Not all but most will work. Like for example, forest Eric, we have backslash CST. So these are mathematical symbols. If we're using donated, you can click on this mad symbol here. And you can select any of these for example, if you click here. But if you want the stars so I'm using this one at the moment. This is SD, so if you you can click on this and it wouldn't serve, just insert this letters here so similarly you can use this is start. So let's compile this document and we will see that it looks like so you can see that we have a steady care. So instead of their thing, we have no aesthetic. So similarly if you want, this is star. So you can just highlight this part here. This within the dollar sign and you can click on this is start and you can re compile and it will insert star instead off this dot sign. So no, we have start. So in this way you can change any of these symbols which are available within this mad symbols. For example, you can even put this, uh, edl. Are there a lot of other arrows available here? You look at here, these symbols are available. So this was one way to make list. So the second environment is in immediate. So instead of itemized, we said immediate And if we compile? No, you see, So we're using the label option. Here's but we don't want this toe behave like that. So we removed this label option should and we see the defiant behavior of this immediate and wide much. So now you can see that by default this environment forced 1 to 3 as numbers, These air card Arabic numbers. But you can change the way these numbers, for example, if instead of these you want Oh, ABC So what you do again with we will use the label option here. So label requests. Backslash, alpha numeric. So alfa and then hysteric. And no, If I re compiled this, it will put ABC here. So instead, off Arabic numbers, we can use ABC and if, for example, you want Roman numbers. So instead of this alpha you can put instead of this lp it, you can put Roman and re compile it. No, it will put thes 123 in lawyer kiss Roman. So if you want uppercase Roman, you just replace this are with a capital R, and it will replace this lower case Roman with the uppercase Roman nomadic. So these air uppercase Roman no Maddix. So in this way, if you want Arabic explicitly, you can by default it is Arabic. But if you want to write it to connect really right, like this Arabic and it will put the and it will pour these Arabic numbers. But this is by the far, so you don't have to write it So this waas Ah, one way toe, make a list. Know for example that we have some text year, maybe two paragraph off text and then we want to re continue over least we have three numbers and then we want to re currently new from number four. So what we can do? We can just I'm just copying this. But you will just do plea care This here So I remove this day. But I want to feel your something and instead of this, we put a resume. So no, this is a work fourth item and this is a work. They're say 50 item and this is a work Last item last off the list. So no, If I compiled this so you can see that we have one putri there, Then we can write maybe 10 paragraph of test and then we can continue over leased from there. So we are resuming the numbering from where we left it before. So this is the way you can resume unleash Just put a resume option here after the US in the second environment. So this is the first in a minute environment. This is second. You put terrorism and wear. So let's say that we have a Roman style in here. So if you have a room on the stake, so see what happens now? No. You see that we have Roman style here, but we don't have room Honestly. Regard this is by default way haven't given any option in the second part. So what you can do instead of putting all these, you just put a static sign here. After this resume is, you resume and you will he compile it and know you will see that it will follow the same numbering patron, which was before. So in this way, with this star option after the after the resume dissed hysteric, you can actually a continue with the same option which you have given in this label option in the beginning. So let's say that we want something a little bit for their on the right side off after this item, some text. So what we can do? We can put serve item and this is a word text which is not to the item. So this is not over item. This is just another text with if we want to put so how it looks like just compiled, and you can see that this is the text which we can put within any item. So this is not an item which is so vital, so it will be indented from here from this edge, it will be a little bit right side. So in this way, you can put any text year, and you can put any text in the middle and you can still continue making this list. So there are a lot of options which you can have in making these lists. No, let's say that you want to put a box around these number rings. So first I can wear this toe mercy Arabic de for adoption. And then I want to put a box around these numbers, or I do. I just put Prentice's around this and then before these Prentice's I can put F box, and by doing this, it will put a box. It will put a box around these numbers, so sometimes you want to, uh, put any numbers like this. So in this way, you have a lot of customization option with this list indebted. So this is the second environment, which we use for list So these are the two men environments itemized and in image. So if, for example, you want to have a list Ah, horizontally list. You don't want this work, Nicholas. You want a horizontal list like one than to them three in a single length for these two. First you can do is where you have put this command off use. Becky, you just put some option of this bracket. So this package has one option off in line. So this is one of the option of this package. And if you put this option here, then what this packet allows you? I just put these copies. So what this allows you to have? I'm inland environment and the England And where Mitt is defined, Baiyun aesthetic. And I want don't want the city zoom here. So this is defined by s Terek here and a steady care than so when you put in a steady excitement this year and in line and wire it. And if you compile this no, you will see that know the list is a horizontal list. So the first item here four title basically is the first item, then the second item than the target. So this is a horizontal list here. You can individually assign these formatting toe these items. So let me make another list. And this will not be or isn't a list I will remove. This is star Just copy and paste. And they removed this to start and no, I want all my items, Toby with different type off for mating. So for example, for the first item, I want our dash so I can put this this year for the same second item. I want an aesthetic so I can put within dollar sign E s t for the third item. I want a stuff So within their dollar sign, I can put start are you can inside from here. So no if I compiled this No, As you can see, all my items no are marked with a different symbol. This is Dash. This is aesthetic. This is a star. So if you for some reason if you want to change this so you can individually mark these labels. So these are some of the options available And if these are the commonly we have only only need this type of options there is no need for for their fancy type of options. But if you want to let more options, you can any time see the documentation off this package. And but I think that I have covered most of the commonly used things. One thing we can also use in adopting another option in this package is short labels. And if we use this option so what we can do here is that instead of for example, let let me delete these things and I want our uniform numbers here. So what? This short label does that instead of putting these labours like F box and Arabic and all this so you can quickly tell the compiler that what type of formatting you want. So you can quickly say that, OK, just make it like this. You put a Roman letter, for example and you just say OK, just number like this. So if we compiled this so you see that we we just highlighted the first number and the compiler has made the document like that. For example, if you want an arrow so you select an arrow good arrow from somewhere here. So let's say you want this edl so you just select this port part within this and you select this aero so it will insert the symbol. And these symbols are available in any editors. Is not that only the vineyard, but any other editor These are available? No, if I compile so it will put an arrow instead of the numbers. Are anything toe? Know their arrows here So you can put words seem what? I was simple. You want whatever number you want, whatever number style you want. And no, we discussed the tired environment, which is the description environment. So this environment also starts with begin description and description and the former it is a little different whatever you want to describe in detail. So for example, this is your short title of something you want to describe. So you describe that thing here Any definition or any subtitled or anything. This is your second subtitle of second definition off Anything. This is your 3rd 1 So this anything inside this square bracket with will be printed a za bold and then you can explain it like you're so let me compile this here so you can see how it looks like. So here you can see that This is our description environment. So, for example, if you have three options for anything, so you can put the title of the first option and you describe second, you describe it and 30 you can describe. So these were the team in environments which we can use for making list analytic. So I hope that this will help you, and you can practice this with your own preferences and your own style. Whatever you want to do with this. And I think that I have covered a lot off options and this is enough for normal use off elated and you have the option toe. Look into the documentation of the package. If you want toe, see further options in depth. 11. Units used in Latex: impolitic there of commands and many commands use certain length units. So these are some of the length units used in politic in various commands. So faster for you will find a unit card point. For example, the thickness off our line can be represented with certain number of points. And similarly, some of the commands, like paragraph in Dan, tend to paragraph spacing line Victor and all these commands they use certain land units similarly, text with Patriot margins. All these units day or these commands, they use units. Although submariners are very obvious, For example, there is no need to explain millimeter millimeters the unit of land Everybody knows similarly centimeter and inches. These are the units and very easily understandable. But to make it a complete list, I put it here. So what is the point unit? So one inch roughly this is one INGE. So in one inch there are 72 point something, so roughly 72 points in one inch approximately, so you can get an estimate off. How many points you are putting in the unit? So this is one unit use and no come toe. The X X is a unit which is the height off the lawyer case X in the current phone whatever phone you are using. So whatever is the height off this lower case X, this is this is the land of X. So from between between these two. So this is the unit off X E x similarly e m. This unit is commonly used This is the height off uppercase letter m in the current phone. Whatever phoned you are using. So the height of the latter m is e m. So this unit this height, how much is the height? Whatever is the height in this phone that will be your m unit similarly sometimes not very common, but we lose mu. This is basically one do already by 18 part off the height off em the height of em. But this M is sometimes only applicable to the math. Moore and the match text him amused in match text. So these are some of the units 12. Page Style Headers and Footers Part 1: So in this lesson, we will learn ho toe, make some friends see headers and footers in a document. And we will be using the document class off book because book offers us a lot off varieties so that we can explore all these features. And the package which we will be using is card fancy header. So which is denoted by every and see why tragedy are. So this is the package. So only this package we will be discussing and then later maybe we will use the package geometric, which we have already discussed in one of the previous lectures. So only with the help of these two packages, we will so we can achieve different forms of headers and footers in a document. So in this document, this is some text nothing special about this, uh, this last paragraph, this adjusted dummy text which I have put here just to increase the number of pages. I actually just copy and paste to some text wife so that we can get some pages in this document. And there is some detail about this package which we're discussing. No. So this will be helpful for you later as a reference. So if I compiled this document and but before we start, I want to show you for a few pages styles which we have by D. Ford Athletic. And then we will come back toe this program. So by default we have four page tiles athletic. So the first period, the style is empty. So if you use this pages style and I will show you hope you can use these braids styles at an empty pedestal. There is no header and no footer. And please know that when we talk about period style, there are two main things. One is the head and the other is footer. So these are the two main things which basically are just a style of a page because other, all other things are minor. You can former the paragraph and other things, but these are the two major things with Jane the look and feel of a page. So what type of Heather we have? Do we have had are not and what type of food and we have our don't have a foot. So if if you use empty pages style in a document so this page will not have any header and no foot. And if you use plain pretty style so there will not be any headed. But there will be a footer and the pier number will be at the center of the footer. So probably you all know that if this is a page, this'd, for example, our text area inside this page. So this part here is guard header and this part it is guard foot. So in plain style, we have only page number at the bottom in the middle here. So there is no heather. So if we lose this heading pages type So in having played this style, we don't have any food. But we have headed and our pain number will become here at this left of the page And then there will be a chapter number because we're using, we will be using book glass. So article last class does not support chapter, So please, no distinct. So in this heading style, we will have over page number here and then chapter after book our report and then we have a section so it will show like this. It will show that your Grammy show you in a minute. Hard looks like if you are losing my heading style, so it will contain the chapter name and plus any information you want to include in this. So these are four D five pages styles in letter, but because these four have really limited capabilities, as for a styling is concerned. So what we can do? We have a couple of options. The first option is that you can actually really find all of these pages analytic. And the second option is that while making the pdf, you can use certain output variables. And by using these output variables, you can change the look and feel of the the airport document. So your letter document can use any of these pages styles. But while creating output, you can change this with certain very was which you can use, and the third in the easy vase to use a package, any other package which can give you an extra style. So this is the simplest where you have four already styles. If you're not happy with this, then you can use an extra package which can provide you another style. So one example would be if you use this packet fancy header, then we can get another style, which is guard Francie Brady style. And this is what we will be doing in this lesson. Another thing I would like to highlight is that these are some of the commands which affect the style of the page. So we will be using some of these commands in this lecture. So I just want toe give you a brief introduction of these commercials. So the first commanders pages style. Whenever you put this command pages style in these curly brackets, you can put any of these styles available to you empty headings. My headings are if you're using that package so you can also use the frenzy pages style here. So this is one thing, the second Come on, it is you can use temporarily for any particular page, and that is displayed this time. So when you put this command so only that paid will be affected, in which you put this Come on. So in this way you can temporarily change the style of a page while the other pages of the document will stay any of these states, whatever is the default, the style of the document and another important commanders page numbering. So there are different types of numbers. For example, Arabic numbers like one to in this way. And then there are Roman numbers. If you write Roman with a lower case are the numbering will be like this one two And like this And with this capital are you will get numbers like capital Roman numerals like this. And with this off a l P h. If it starts from lower case, you will be having numbers like page numbers will be A B and C So these type of numbering, sometimes you need for appendices are some glossaries are some terms some part of your documents. So if you use this capital, the numbers will be a B and C like capital. So you use like any of the style by using phe no Marine Kamar no backs less the page when you put backs, alleged appeared. So basically it inserts the current pH number. So if you inside this inner footer in a header so it will insert the current page number wherever you insert this so similarly page break. Obviously it forces a pale break. No paid break means if even if there is a paid break, It will not make it a break. So when you put clear pace, clear Page means that appears ends with very, very sees this command and all the tables and figures they will be sent to float pages. And this we will discuss in one of their wants topics later, somewhere in this course. So this will send these two tables and figures. All tables and figures will be sent to the floor pages and but no text will be sent. So these are some of the commands which affect the style of the page. So I just mentioned briefly. But when we will use these commerce than you would understand how they behave. 13. Page Styles Headers and Footers Part 2: because let's start with this book loss. And if I compiled this document to show your heart looks like at the moment got into the book loss. So it has certainly Ford features. Like, as you can say, this is the name off the books. So it is on a separate page and this this is the chapter for this, the first chapter. So because it's a book, so we are using if you look at here, we're using this chapter because this allows us this chapter command the article class does not have this chapter command available in that. And hold this chapter. Looks like it's like this. So this is the name of the chapter in a big phone and then chapter one like this and this is just for some of the reasons why you would like to use this fancy had a package which we are going to use in this lesson. So because it put wise that some decorative lines under this header. So this is the head. So by default, the book class provides us this header and this is a just left. You look here. So I'm using the pages style of headings So this is the pages style currently I'm using. So with this heading pledges style, we don't get any footer. But we get ah header and appears Number is here on the head and this is the chapter name and then the section. So the same style follows all the all the document. So know what be why we're using this fancy Heather? Is that because off a few reasons One is that we want some decorative lines under this header. We can get these lines from fancy headed so similarly we can have a different type off headers. For example, this is a even page and we can have even one type of head on even number pages and another type of headache on order number Pretty. So this is old number. So we can have different headers for these two. So this is one of the reason we used this fancy header and it has to provide some other options or to modify these headers and footers and we can get more control on this. As you can see here that our header contains only one part which is on the right hand side , but with fancy heather packet we will be able to use Ah, header and footer which has three parts one on the left, one on the middle and one under right inside So three part header and three part footers. So this is another reason why we use this package. So these are just I just summarized these reasons here so that later on this will be your reference So no hope to use these headers and footers first, I want to show you how an empty page ist I looked like. So if I put headings empty instead of headings and I complained this No, you can see that there is no header and footer. Although this chapter page is still the same. It has a pair number here, but other than that, there is no header and there is no footer. There's no page reference number only the page containing the chapter because this is coming from the definition of the class. They have the page number so that the pain number is meant change. But in the third chapter here, you can see that when there are two consecutive pages so we can see that there is no other on this there is no footer. And the difference you can see in the margin of these two pages is because of the book class. Because by default, the book is a two sided document because when this book will be published so there will be some binding so it could be on this side so that it means that there is a larger cap required us to some space will be lost White making the book. So one side has the largest margin. And this could be the right side page and this could be the left side bridge. So this half off this maybe going inside the binding. So then these margin will be balanced. So this is the functionality of the book loss that it has. But we will attend a lecture. We will see how we can actually align is if you want to align these to how we can do that to using the Jimmer to package, and this we will see it don't. But before that now, you can also check the Planus style as well to let let me show you the plane pledges style God, either before we started using fancy headed, I want to show you some of these styles? No, the plane pages style. It will be more clear at the end of this document playing pages style. As you can see that there is no head there. But we have a footer and the period number is in the middle of the footer. So this is the commonly used style and no, we will be mortifying these header using this Francie Heather package. So this fancy had a package provides us an additionally style, which is God fancy style. So I will take this to fancy first. And then no, we can use certain commands which are available in this package. So what are those commands? So we can have commands like, for example, the first thing this packet provides us a three part header. So there is a left portion off ahead of a center portion of harder and the right portion off ahead. So if we want to put something on the left portion of the header, we will say backslash l head. So this is the command which we will use toe put something on the left part of overhead. And so we have a similar command for the footer as well, which is l foot. But first let's talk. Let's talk about the header part So L header means I just put this is left side of my I heard that So it's a bit long Sinton but we see how it looks like. So then we we have see head See Head is a command which we can use to put something in the middle. So, for example, I want to put my name in the middle of the header. So I put my name there and then we have our head back slash our head which we want to put on the right side off my head. So let's say I put right stuff header something like this. So no if I compiled this and before I do that because we have been using this book class and other pretty style. So if we want toe delete all the previous pages styles, whatever here, Wasim Previously we want toe delete all those of what we can do is we can put fancy head excellent friends see head and then report these empty parentis curly brackets. So what it will do? It will clear all the fields If some residual from the class or something is in the field off header and footer had and for the have three fields each. So I just put a comment there, Clear all fields, so no if it compiled this and this is the page number and this is our header because the tempter pays will not It will not be affected because this is the definition of the book class that it has a separate page for a chapter. So this is our head of the left side of my head. Er then my name is in the middle and then right off the order. So this is what I put in the head. So this is a common header for even an ordinary pigeon. When, Later, in this lesson, we will hope to change or to have two headers, one for the even numbered pages and the other further order of pages. But currently we have seen so no less put off food out here. So similar type of commands for food. L foot is the left inside of the foot and we can say left off four. Don't Let's see. Then we can put see foot and we can put something in the middle of the footer. So let us say I put just the word middle and then we have right off the footer, which is our foot, and we say right field. So no. Similarly, for this fancy head, we have a similar command, which is a fancy foot and fancy food. We clear all the fields for a footer and we can also have instead of these two common. We can also have fancy at Jeff, which will clear all friends he had there and foot. So let's do this and re compile this document. And no, you can see that we have ah, header and we have a footer. So there is no line in the foot and I will show you how to put this line. But currently we have a header and we have a footer, left footer, middle and the light of the foot. And this foot I will continue all bridges except a chapter name, beaches, or to put a line here. So what we do? We put a command which is every new command back slash the new command. And then in this command report, if we want to put the footer lines of report foot roll of it. What rule with and then in the next parentis is obviously for example, one point. So we specified the foot rule of it one point and no, If we compiled this, you will see that this is a photo line which is one point white. So there are 72 points in one inch. This is 1/70 two off inch. You can increase the risk for exam. Just want to show you that you can increase the rates. Four point is too big. But you can just have like this. So it's four point white. No. So I think this point as 0.5 is okay for us 0.5 point and she will relieve. You want a ticker line at the header? You can just similar command we have for the header. So instead of foot rule, we put had rule of it. So when Mr Duff one point, let's say 2.5 points. So no, we can change The weed covered the line at the head of so you can see that that were headed lightness, very tick Just 2.5 point tick. So in this way you can have these header and footer mortified And no, let's say that we want to separate headers for order, even numbered pages. So in some books you might have seen this arrangement that the left side pages there were different harder and the right side pages have are different headed. So before you understand that, you have to I understand few off the things which I have written in this document. So I just show you here, so there. I don't have to write this again in the game, but this is the thing which you have to understand for for designing a separate header and footer, you have to understand these seven characters that e stands for even pH Austin's for or Beach l for the left field left Well of the header left Feed off the foot are for the right field. See for the center food, hedge, foot, header and therefore food. So these are the characters which have been used by the programmer of these this package. So they have used these letters. So we have to use these letter in order to instruct the compiler. However you want over header and footer. So no, we have to headers and two footers. So one head that is on the even pages one another is on the or pages. So we will use these letters in order to make the commands. So how we make those commands? Let's I have given this to example here. So, for example, this is the command which we will be using fancy head and then inside a square brackets, we will say R o. So what does this? Our means are mean the right field off the old pages office for art. Then we will see a coma left field off the even pages. So we're instructing the compiler. That right field off the header off the old pages is whatever is returning this bracket. So whatever we want here, we will right here. And that text will appear on the right header field of the or Bage and the left header field off the even page. So just I put one example here, let me commend this all this so we can go at it and move, intervene, edit, and then insert comment. If you put inside Comet, it will put this person mark in front of these. So No, we're not losing any of these. Header and footer. All are gone. No, we'll be using toe separate header and footer one for even pages one for or bridges. So we will be writing like this. They're safe for us to talk about friends. He headed fancy, heard it. And we want something the right side of the hour pitch and left side of the even peach. So this will be in the square brackets first of fog and the next text will be in curly bracket. So this is hoping Give the compiler the instructions, the text weeks we want on the right side of the head and often orbits and left side of the head of uneven pitch. Your idea. So we right? This is the right old and left you one So left feel of the even pill right feel of the or pay and feel is off. Header. So this is head So a similar statement we have for our food. Let's say copy this and I pasted here and changes to food or the statement instead of heard I know puts a foot so no right side of the or pay the footer of the right side of old and left side of even. So this is the right order, left even food. And similarly, yet I put heading. So this text will appear according to this instruction. So no. If we compiled these, see what happens. Any paid these two pressure together? Because we can check both? No. So this is a page number eight and this is the right of the order left of them. So this is this should be on the left because this is even page. And this is correct in both cases, when we go to pay the night. So no, this is on the right side of this page because this is an or page or number page. So this is how you change you? Did you get two different header and footers for order and even number of pages. So this is only the left field. You can do the same for the center field. You can do same for the ah, right field. So let's do this for the center field. So instead, off the right field, we say center of the old and center of the even so Heather, so similarly center of the order and center of the even. So instead of putting these to command, if you want the same word in the center of order and even then you can use this command center off head. So if I want to put my name in the middle of what anyone so I don't have to write these two command, I can write just this. Come on. Center of the head of this and similarly center of the footer For this one I read these two commands instead of so then take amount. I can write only this. So this is only useful when you are trying to write different. Come on. So for example, eyes right that the center of the old beach, you just right ord. And then I change this to head a large changes to head as well. So, head and I say center of the even. Bitch, You just right. Even so, I want to see how it looks like. No, I'm But I'm too saying that on every old number page the world or should be written at the center of the header and at every even number page the world even should be written at the center of the Heard It. So let's combine these. This is a three. This is build four. So this is out even paste. So even is returning the middle of the header. This is even number, bitch. This is paid fight because chapter pins to know Heather Footer this Egypt off six even is written. And then we did So This is big number eight even, isn't it? Time paid Number nine orders return in the middle of the head. So no, you might have seen that we had not putting any footer here. We're not putting any foot. So it is taking the d Ford. So therefore it is putting this page numbers. This is how you can. I have many combination of these letters and everything, and you can write to separate headers for order, even pages so knows sits about modification. We can, for example, we want this page number to be on the right of the footer here. So what we can do? We can just see here our foot right of the foot and the command, which we have learned just in the beginning of this lesson. the DUP Age. So disco. Marge, this one. So I'm using this command here. The page. So with this, the pain number should be on the right of the foot. So know we have this page number on the right of the photo. But there is a still another page numbers coming here so we can clear this by using the command. This one just uncommanded this command Fancy food. So we clear old off, uh, feels and no, you can see that we have clear all the field and we only have the pain number on the right of the foot. So keep in mind this command. Excellent fancy foot. If you have any enter their double period number. There's something you can clear all these page numbers with this one. Similar leave is there is some problem with header. So you just keep in mind Disc amount on. There is another command which I can put here, but I can commend it, which is fancy, Jeff, This basically combines these two commands frenzy head and fancy foot. These two come on. So it says that clear old in the year heard and for dead fees. So this will clear all six fields, so you can use either one notice. I just commend this here for the moment. So in this way you can have any combination off headers, footers. One header, 202 footers. Whatever you want. In these six field, you have three other fields. Three footer fields. If you're using one header in one photo. Can you have six? Header six footer fields. If you are using two headers and footers for order, number and even number pitches so you can control all these feels by using these commands, you can use this seven letter. You can make many guns, whatever you like. Wherever you want to pour certain text, just make sure that first brackets are the square records and then the cuddly records. Your text should be in the curly brackets and this is the command you can use only two corrector you can use for mine. Then you can use our E, for example, right of the even page so you can do whatever you like. So there are so many possibilities and so many ways to modify these header and footer using fancy header package? No, The last thing I want to show you. So if you look here and you want toe, make these two margins equal instead of this. So you can use a very simple command by using the humor to pack it, Which I have a separate like lecture I have taken already. Before this lecture, you can use used package geometry and with this option and the option we want to use is horizontal margin. Every few equals one Colin one and it's square bracket close for gentle marginally. Show one call and one. If you use this option of geometry package, you will get the same margin on both sides. The best illustration will be at the end were to have two pitches. One is even. Number one is your number and know you can see how perfect is this. You have equal margin on both sides perfectly real and beautiful, and you can have a complete control on your headers. You're footers, your tick nous what you want in the center what you want on the right side? What want On the left side. Ah, for header and a footer. So if your pages have the same margin on both sides, then you should probably be using only one header in one Focus. What is up to you? You have a lot of flexibility. So I think this is enough for this. Her demand for donor styling. 14. Paragrapg Line Spacing Foot Notes And Margin Notes : In this video we will learn ho toe change, the styling of paragraph or poaching lines, pacing and how to put footnotes and margin notes. These are all native commands. You don't have toe use any package. First of all, I want to compile this document so that you can see it in the current state. So this is our document which has a title and two section. This is just meaningless text. And the second part is some meaningful text so that we can explain something. No, you should understand the basics of paragraphs. For example, this is a paragraph which has an indent in the beginning, some space and then ah, the line current stars. While this is not a paragraph, this is just a new line which has been created by entering double backslash at this location. The first thing I want to do with this document is to change the line spacey I know to increase the lines pressing the commander huges backslash line spread. And in the curly brackets we put a number so 1.2 would mean increase the lions pacing by 20%. So one is the current status of the line spacing to 1.2 means increased by 20%. So if I re compile no. But as you can see no, the lines pressing has been increased by 20%. The next thing we want to do is tow Change the space between paragraphs. So currently, when the next paragraph stars is very close to the previous paragraph. So I want to increase this is space. So in order to do that, we use a command which is card backslash b r skip better graf skip equals and no, I have to put a unit later. Unit There is a separate lecture, Really short lecture about relating units. You can watch that video, but I will put 1.2 e m 1.2 am So m is the uppercase letter m the height of the uppercase letter M in current phone. So 1.2 means 20% more than the height of the uppercase letter M in current form. So this is what I want to do. So let us compile this. And now you can see the distance between paragraphs has been increased. The next thing I want to do is tow change. This Indian paragraph indent. So I would give us, like, silly, very lofty centimeters something like this. So you can see the difference currently is around one centimeter. For that, we have a command backs less PR indent equals large cities. And do we do? And Demeter is also a unit uses later. So if I compiled this now you can see the engine has been increased to three sentiment. So no less talk about foot nor so, for example, here is a word life steaming. And I want to explain this world. So what I would do? I will put ah beg slash and footnote here and then appear of curly bracket. And I will explain life broadcasting off videos. So this is my explanation. And no, if I compile no here. As you can see, that this is the world Life is streaming in our document and there is a little one. This is our footnote reference. And at the bottom you can see that this is the explanation off life extreme. So this is all you add these footnotes So no letters say that you don't want this one instead of one. Do you want your foot north, Toby numbered as ABC. So the command you used for to change the style of your footnote is a renew command back slash the new command. And then you start to peer of curly brackets and in the first period, really breaker you put back slash the footnote Duff footnote. And then in the second political record, you put vax slash and the style name. I want to change it to lure, say, room on our alphanumeric. If you want alphanumeric, you can put a L. P. H. And then you start another pair of curly bracket, and here you put footnote. So in the first record, you put duffel note and in here you put footnote. So this is for second period of criminal record. Inside, Decked It is another pair, and this is first won titles available are Roman one with your case and capital letters and at every kids by default. So this ties are available to you. If I compile now, as you can see that no, we have elected here instead of a number. Look, it's letter and similarly in the text, we have a lower case letter. So this is you additional how you changed from numbers, too. Letters. The last thing I want toe show you his hotel. Put a margin. Note the margin. Warts are useful when toward More authors are working on a book, for example. And they want to communicate with each other while they're getting the book. So if they want to put a comment on the left or right margin off a page, then they use marginals. For example, I want toe put a margin note here, so I would do back slash Mardin par. And then I will start a pair of curly breakers and whatever might see they want to convey. For example, I want to say for you please in certain reveal here if I compile it. No. So, as you can see that a margin note has appeared on the right margin off this text in front of this world, you too. So, no, If you want to change the direction from right to left, you can do that by using a command here at the top of the preamble and the command. These reverse backs dish every worse Morgan part Very simple command, just the western direction of the margin note. So if we re compile it, it would appear on the left hand side of the pitch. No, you can see it's on the left inside of the page. So this where you can put margin north. So in this lesson, we learned how to put footnotes hard to put margin north or between the style of the foot lords or to increase the lines, pressing hard to change the paragraph, inventing and hopefully change the space between paragraphs. So I hope this will help you quickly style your document without using any package. 15. Inserting Images In A Latex Document : in this lesson, we will learn how to put images in electric document to put images we have toe use a package card graphics. So, Fuster, we put a command use package graphics with an ex. So first, let me show you my file structure. So these are my images and my program is this one inserting images, analytic document. And this is the folder part. So in C, I have a Ford, a letter in which my text file is residing and there is a folder, My images. And in this warder, I have all these images. So this is a simple part I designed for this lecture. So there are different ways to include animals. So if you want to have your images in the same folder in which your program resides, then you don't have to give any part in your letter document. But since I have a folder inside, so I have to include apart so that all my images are well organized, a separate folder. So I will include a command card graphic spot and I have to put a pair of curly brackets. And inside these curly bracket, another pair of curly bracket and since my folder is in one step down. So I will put this daughters for current directory and then insert the current directory. I have a folder, my images and then I have to put another backslash known Forget to pour this. You can also put an absolute part if you want and I'll show you after this. So no inside a document where I want to put an email. So this is just a dummy text, for example. I want to put my image years. So in order to put an image, I should start an environment which is God figure and one moment so begin figure and let's end it first. And within that environment, I have to use a command, include graphics, and then I can put some options it can put were tight scale angle. So these are some of the most used options. And in this curly bracket, I have to pull the name of the fight. So these are my files. So image dash 1-23 and four. So these are the names of the images. So let me include the first image. So image dash wants or what is here So first, let me compiled without any scale are greater heights. So see how it looks. So my Texas aligned and my images of this size, which is covering nearly order text word and it is going toe worth right. And this Emily looks a little bit bigger in size. How can I scale this? I can put a scale of 0.9, and if I re compiled now, we'll see if it comes a little bit towards center. Still, it looks big. So let us put the scale of 0.5 to reduce the size of the image on. No, the image size has been reduced. And let's see if we can center the image. I know the image has been centered, and as you can see, that this text is going a little bit beyond this Esquire. So in this case, you must consider that your image starts somewhere in this area. So if you even if you center it, it looked this. The whole image will be center. So keep in mind that what you really want to center if you want to center this is Squire. Then you have to give your text within this limit. Otherwise, you will not get their desire to that. Even this trail wondered, is going a little bit out of them outer than a square. So you should. When sometimes I am. It doesn't look like center, although it is centered so fast you should prepare your image with an exact dimensions, and you should also know those dimensions. And in order to find the current dimension of damage, you just right click and properties and these details. So these are the dimensions of the image 749 pixels into 5 63 height. So we're tonight. So you should know these dimensions because sometimes, for example, if I support this second image, so let's see the dimension of this image. So, as you can say, this is a very wide image. It has 1100 pixels, and it is up roughly a square image 1100 by 10 76 or so square image. So if I put this so see what happens if I put image to So let me change this to image to and if I compile no. So see this image is going out because it's very big image. It is centered, image and it is 19 scale, so it's nearly awfully the full image. So let me produce it 2.3 of the Skillman, 30% of the size, and then it will appear more like a as we want. And no, as you can see there, this image is looking in the center and appearing much better then before. So you you have to prepare this image in exact dimension, which you want. And then you will get the expected results because sometimes you don't get reserved because there is some image the blank part of the image which is going outside this visible area, and you think that it's not properly centering. So therefore, you have toe take into consideration all these type of things. You can rotate this image by putting an angle, for example, were so 30 degree and no, your images rotated. This is making 30 degrees with the horizontal that left bottom in the center point of rotation, and it rotates to 30 degree on the doors counterclockwise. If you want the other direction, you can put either minus 30 degree are treat 30 degree, so this is minus 30 degree. So in this way, you can rotate dime it. No, if you want to have any major of our a particular size so you can put Britain height Where teak waas Ah, six centimeter high teak waas, five centimeters. So, no, you are forcing later toe. Pull these dimensions and these dimensions sometime. If you look carefully, this may distort your image if it's not in a proper proportion. So we to height ratio should be appropriate so that you can get, ah, good image. So keep in mind that's with two height should be the same. So first prepared I made in proper dimensions, and then you will be able to get the results. As for expectations, putting images is very simple. Just begin this environment. Even if you don't begin this environment, let's remove this and try to compile. You can still pour the images, but within the environment. No, if you look here, your whole text is centered and it looks really good or because we want only image. Toby Center. We want to play with the image. Therefore, it's good tohave this beginning and environment of the in figure and if you want to give absolute part, so look at my absolute parts. So the absolute part of my filings see excellent latex backlash my images. So I can also put this in part here. So c colon, backslash latex and back slash my images. This will also work. Let me re compile. And this part also what's fine so you can give the part from the current directive dot are the absolute part of the image folder. So you can also put another part toe this graphic spot, for example Let me create another Ford is that this is my images. If I want to have my images in two folders like in create another folder and let me name it my images dash to And no, if I put one of these image, for example, this image four. I just got this and I put in this Ford let's say like this And no, I want to add the 2nd 4 order into my part. And no, I can include this folder from the current directory my images dash to and then put another back slash at the end. And no, there is only one filing this folder, which is for let me re compile, and hopefully I will be ableto extract that image and not you can see this is image four. So this is from the other folder from this forger. We have four. So in this way you can add multiple part in tow. This graphic spot command if you want to put images in a separate page so you give option toe this begin figure and where men, if you put t, he means the top off the big. The other options you have, I can put here b means the bottom of the page and be MEES on a separate big decidedly on the top of the pace that there's people Don't a separate Papeete compiled as you can see, that after all their text my images on a separate page. So if you want all your images on a separate page, you can put it here and the other had wanted of be figuring more money that you can also give some captions and some labeling. If you want to refer this image somewhere as you can put a label here and you can also put a caption here if you want the put caption at the end. So just before and figure you can put your caption as you can emit. For example, this is my title of damage. So no, If I comply it as you can see that this is the caption of the image. If you want the size of the image to be equal to the text of it, which you are not sure how much is so you can put rid equals next word backslash extra it. So no, this is the four text with image, so you can put 0.5 backslash text ways and the figure will be half of your text with. So if you want to scare a figure like this, you can do that. So this is half of your text with So, for example, if you have two figures so you can put half of your text with it and then the other figure has besides this half off the text with. So let me copy this and faced here, and I put the image number one here. So the best thing is poor the with a little bit less than 10.5 when four is better, because otherwise it will be at the very edge. So we want a little bit of margin on both sides and then instead of include graphics, we have to use everything. Come on back slash sub float and then you can put this command inside your some float I understand will be the 2nd 1 that followed. And you have to include a package used back. It's up thick. So pick and this will give access to this common self load. No, If I re compile, I don't have respected at the moment that this is a new installation. So no, As you can see, the later is asking me to install the packet and I simply starlet. And no, as you can see, they're both of our figures are ah, side by side. So this is all you for two images beside each other going this way, you can insert images 16. Text Styles And Sizes In Latex 1: So in this video we will learn hope, toe style text athletic and some off the sizes Text sizes available to ask in later documents. There are three basic styles which we use normally. One is card, board, text and italicize text and then the typewriter style text. So this is a sentence and we want this to be bored. So there is a command card backslash text two b f And then we can insert this text within the curly briquettes and this will be bored similarly toe italicize or text, which is also called emphasize. So you can put a command which is card text I t. So this will italicized text whatever you want within the curly brackets. So this much text will be italicized and then in typewriter style, you can use the command text tt and then put their text with you Want to be in a typewriter style and this will be a typewriter styles. If I compiled this now you can see No, As you can see that the styling has been applied to these three sentences. So the first is bored and italics and then the typewriter style. So if you want some other sizes So there a lot of sizes available in later. So the biggest size which we can use without using any package, is guard huge. So if you want some text to be in huge size or your put huge with a capital edge So this is huge sighs. So let me put this here. So this is the largest size available in electric. And after that if I just copy this few times, I will show you what other sizes are available. There are a lot of searches available to us and we don't have to use any other package for getting any other forms because it is so much variety. So after this capital huge, we have a huge with the lowercase edge. This is also available to us. So we just put a backslash huge and then whatever takes you want. And after that we have large with all capital letters. Then we this let me change this as well so that we can see there difference and then we have large with l capital. This side is available then large, with all lower case is a little less than large with l capital, so you can see which ever size you'd like for a particular reputation. And then there is a normal size. If, for example, you have changed to larger huge and then you want back to your normal size. So then you used this command. Normal sites to normal size text is also available. Then, after the normal size, the these were all the large category in decreasing order until the normal. And then we have the smaller category, starting with size, smart, small sizes available and after Somalia. Then we have a footnote size footnote. Size command is available. It may change this so that we can see the difference. So for north size and after foot north side, we have to Further side is available. One is called script size and the other is guard tiny, which is the smallest size available. So I just copy paste this twice more, and this is called script sized, which is a less than the footnote size. And normally you put all the subscript and exponents in this size, and the smallest size is tiny with you. If you I really want a very small text somewhere in a figure, there's not much space available, then you can use the tiny size. Let me compile this so that you can see the difference in these sizes. As you can see that this is the largest size and this is the smallest I saw. A huge variety is available to us, so there is not really no need to install any extra packages. You can select one of these sizes and one of these tiles for all of your applications, and normally this is enough for text styling and sizes. I hope this will help you Stylin size your text. 17. Putting References In Latex Using Bibtex : in this lesson, we will learn hoe to put references in the later document so references are required when you are writing a research paper and you are refering toe the research work of some other researchers. Then you pour the reference of their paper Recite papers are in books you can put. References are other books are other resources, which you're using while compiling that book Inlet tick when you want to put a reference. So the best approach and the most modern approaches to use a big tech fight. So here I have my research paper in which I have reviewed the research work off some other authors. So this is just a dummy paper, only one paragraph one in which I'm reviewing the work off other researchers and this is my big tech file. These are the references which I want to put in my research paper. So what is in the big tech file? A big tech file is composed off various entries. If he's at least a book reference, So it is a book entry. If it's a conference paper reference. So it's in proceedings entry similar leave, which the general paper reference it is an article entry. And there are also some other end two types available to be used in big tech fights. And I will show you in a minute. So every entry. So this is one entry which starts from at the rate off and then the name of the entry, which is allowed and let me show you what entry types are allowed. These are the some off the entry types, which are allowed in a big tech file Article Entry book booklet, conference in proceedings Manual Master T's is Piaget Eases Tech Report. An unpublished is also a valid category. There are a few others, but but those are not very common. So the in this article entry there are four compulsory feels and I have seen their sometime later can compile a document without these fields as well. I have seen that, but sometime it shows error. So these are some compulsory Feliz article interest must have author title journal and here . Similarly, a book must have water year title and publisher. So in proceeding a conference paper and he's a very famous entry in which you must have a title author year and book titled Book Title is the name of the confidence were paper waas published. So these are some of the valid entries and then in every entry did our fuse. So these are all fields arteries. Airfield editor is a full title is a field and book title is a field. There are two ways toe put a field in this big tech document. Normally, what happens? You can get whole of this entry from Google Scholar are from my to Polly database. I Tripoli explore our any other database, which you're using for where you have got the paper. Normally, you get the big tech reference with the paper, and we've taken offence mean all of these feels so this entry descent, it will have a field. So when I will show you how to get ah, reference from Google Scholar so they need to get a big tech reference. You get this entry for that research paper. So this one entries for one research paper? No, The important thing is that they should not be a better in big tech foil. So other means if you're copy, pasting this entry from Google Scholar or somewhere and then you messed up and you remove this. One of the quotation marks are awarded one of the coma. Then you will get better. So what is the Centex antics is very simple. So this, for example or turn is a field. So then you put equal sign and then there are two options. There are two options to put a field. One is within their double quotation marks and the second option is to put a few with curly braces. But what about this young want? So this is a label which you can assign based on your own choice. So this label you use in the document when you refer this this entry are this research paper. So you used this labor. So this level is whatever you are, you can put this label. But all the following feels must be number one correct and number two there Centex should be correct as well. So the Centex is that every field should be within the ball. Quotation marks are within a pair of curly braces like this. Both are correct and every field must end at a coma. So you should be taking care about the streak Things number one that the information is correct. Number two, The Centex is correct. And number three, all the must have freeze should be in the entry. So these are the three things here. Then your big tech file will be correctly compiled All the references which you want to put in your research paper. You first put in your big fight. Put all references here. Half of the job is done. Now the second half is no coming towards the such people where you want to put the reference. This is not a compulsory thing. I can comment this packet and even then we can put the references. So this is not our campus reported, but you can get some extra fun Option if you want to use this side packet and no inside the document, you have to put the name of the file. So there are two commands you are going to put inside their document. The first is bibliographies style in which you put one of the reference styles and I will show you what styles are available. So this is I Tripoli style. Then the second command is bibliography. And inside the bibliographies you will put that name of your file without the extension. So my file is by big file is my references door bib So I will put my references only. So these two things you have to portray it the bibliographies style and babe take five at the end of your dog before the end of your document. So these two things have to be done here and know when you want to cider paper. For example this algorithm I want to side daughter here. So what? I will do backslash site and then appear off curly braces you're using weinergate. It will show you hear what aunties you have in your big tech fight so it will show you on the right and you can select any of these. For example, this that work was from this guy you never see. So I reflect from here and I can then inserted so it will inside this label. So these are the labels which are basically this is the label which I just inserted. So the first thing is the label labour totally depends on you. You can put any labor if you have five papers of this after you can put his name a hardening of 12345 So let's say any other reference I want to put here and other reference , I'll say, Okay, site, pair of curly brackets and then the Lord. Still, I want to put this reference. I can insert this. No, I have put these two references. The final step is to compile the document. Then you don't have the references. You state of a compile using this beauty of text by. But when you are compiling these references, then the steps are like this. You press latest a couple of times two times. Sometimes you have to press more, and then you press this button. Bebe, take. This is a compiler. You press, babe, take and then you press pdf text file. And no, if you look at the document here, So this is our reference, the first reference. And similarly, this is a word second reference and at the end, both of these two references have been placed at the end of the document. So this is how you put references in later? Very simple. There are few steps involved. Preparation of the big tech Foy and putting these two command and sell your document and then a compile relation procedure pressed elliptic twice. And then we take, then pdf Tex, If I know, I will show you. What are the possible feels we can have here? So these are the tree types we have? No. These are some of the formerly used field in an entry. So authorities, the field book turtle name of the conference edition of ESPN number. Whenever you publish a book to get a number, institution institution is required feel for technical reports. Generally, the required fuel for articles are general papers. Then similarly, for unpublished, you have to put North organizations pages for general papers. Normally, if you want to put a website, you are really is also an acceptable field. Similarly, the volume off a journal are the era Publish mint. All these foods are normally we use this in entries. Okay, let me show you how to get a big tech entry for your big tech files. So this you can get from Google scholar letters. Goto, Google scholar, annoying Google scholar. If I type my name, these are some of the papers. So let us I click on this paper. So here the right inside you will see site paper. So click on this side paper and and here at the end you will see big tech. So if you click on this pick tech, it will give you dot Be fine. So this is basically dog before only this paper so you can save it at anywhere Because when you open this file, you will see here that this is your big take entry So you don't mark this abstract so big abstract So what can So you can just delete this abstract field from this point? Tow this point, you can just delete this and the rest of the we've taken tree. You can just copy pressed here from Just just copy this on then I in my big tech foil here I can place it at the henge. Just put it there. So this is my new entry and the level you can change it. For example, I have my people, so just less give it to you know, this is your new entry. If you want to refer this entry this paper so you can know cited here as normal. So there sit. So normally this big entry you get, you can easily get from wherever you are. You have got the paper. You can get the big taking too normally from that database. If you are using our Tripoli are any other database you can get the big tech country from there. If you don't get this big tech for you can just type All these feels keeping in mind ascetics off the fuse that the field must be within the curly brackets and then the coma. Every food except the last one. You can omit the comma from the last one. So this is it, I hope. No. You can put any reference in your little documents. 18. Creating Latex Tables Formatting and Styling: So in this lesson we will be creating tables in later when creating tables. There are some best practices which I have like highlighted here. So the first of all it always trite were where the worker lines, for example, this is table without vertical lines and this is a table with vertical lines. As you can say, they're dis table looks much more professional than this one. So these are the mat tables. So let's take an example of a text table. So again this table, it does not have a vertical line, and it looks more professional than the one with were tickle lines. This is another example, our table with vertical lines and a table without vertical lines so you can compare these two and you can see that this table looks much more professional. So also double lines if you can have work, so you should have warned their double lines. And if you have to pour the units of some quantities, so always try to put in the top row off the table and do not put units in all of the individual sense. So this is one of the best practice, and don't try to over format your table and try to put a lot off like colors and other features in your table. As simple as possible normally works best. So no, let's start our first table. So, in order to make a table in letting me use the environment card tabular. So begin. Okay, Bueller and in tabular. And here in these curly brackets, we have to give the arguments off this table. So how many columns we need? So, for example, I need three columns, so I will say, See, see, See. So these are three letters, so these letters can take values either see for century Central center line column l for left line column and are for right align columns. All my columns are center line. So I am hoping three c. So if I want tohave ah, lines around these columns so I can put this bar so this bar will put a vertical line like this. So it means there is a vertical line at the left outermost column and the right order. Most column and inside each column there is a working online. So if I want vertical lines, I can put like this. But if I don't want. I don't have to pour these vertical lines. So in order to make a role because this there are three columns, so it means each row should have three entries. So all those and entries are separated, with an M person saying so. One entry should be before this. So this is our first elements to let's say I did not. I put a texture, even one. This is a text. So first row and first called entry of the first row. First column, then entry of the first or second column and then I haven't attacks that fast roll third column. So I'm putting these Matic like numbering so that we can easily see how it looks like. And then in orderto end, the role we have to put double backslash to double backslash means the end off a room in a corner in a table. So this is our first role, and I can put as many rules as like because we're not declaring roles in this declaration. There are only three columns, So second row, first column, then an M person saying, and second or second caller, this is just text you can put any text. I'm just putting e second row, third column so that we can easily see the position of their text. So no end of the line, Normally the last line. We do not put this end off the line here because this is our last line. So I'm just making a very short it will here just to show you. And if I compiled this? No. So you can say this is our short table. Only three columns and two rows. So know this table is part of a paragraph. And this is the beauty of this tabular environment that tabular and where you can put anywhere you can put inside that paragraph inside. Ah, figure our insider table because people environment is another environment and we can put this table, our environment inside the table and women and stable environment gives us some other features. Like we can put the title of the table. We can put the label of the table and some other commands. So I just put started people in Weatherman No, and I will put my tabular environment inside the stable environment and no, I have the ability to give a tighter toe this table. So with the caption command a simple table. So this is the title of my table. I can put this at the top, are at the bottom. If I want to put out the water, I will put the caption command here at the bottom. So this will automatically number my table as well so that I can put this in my index if I like. So no. If I compiled this, you will see that because of this table environment by defied it is putting this at the bottom of this page so you can put this table anywhere in a page at the bottom of the page , are at the top of the page, are on a separate page because if you want all your tables on a separate bid, then you can put all your table on a separate page. And so the first option we can give if you want to place it at the top off a pit, we can give a T option demon stop off the page. And no, If I compile, you will see this table will appear at the top of the page next page available. So no, this is at the top of the next page. And no, If I want to put our together on a separate page, then I can give her option off. Be so whenever you give options. So these are in square brackets. Whenever you get, give argument these Aaron Curly braces. So this is the difference between off option are in our women are women's our complicity. What options are options? So in this table environment, if I put a piece so if I compile, know this table will be on a separate page are together table only. So not this table. We can do a styling of this table. For example. I want working girl and horizontal line in this table. So for vertical lines, I can put as I mentioned earlier, I can put these bars here for all vertical lines if I want. All were digger lines and for horizontal line. After each line, I can put Atul line So first, for example, before or after the last line I can put at the line. He it. And if I compile? No, it will show me this error because there is no line. There is no line. And so, if I want to put the horizontal line. So I have proof and this rule first. And if I compile? No, it will successfully complete. And no, As you can see, that destabilizes in the center of the page. And so But we don't pour the top line. So before the first roll, so we can put catch line before the first room, there is no problem. So if y compile it No, we have a table with all lines. But no, I want this to be under this table in the center, not on the left side. So in order to do that, I can put centering. Come on here. And this centering command will put this table in the middle underneath the title of the table. No, over table is in the middle. So this way you can style this table and you can form a this table in various way, but no less. They ever last column has a much longer text. So I put any text, for example, I just gopi it from here and try to put in my last column See what happens now? No, As you can see No, my for mating is out because I have a much longer text in my last cell. So in this situation, if I want to limit this to a certain point, let's say after four centimeter so I can do that by instead of putting this see, I can put here B and B can pick an argument off Richard, which is, for example, force intimate. So So I'm saying that my first column centered second center, but the third had a weight off four centimeter. So this way I can give it a perfect and no if I comply it as you can see that our third column is no four centimeter wide, perfectly aligned. All Oliver text is inside. So this way you can change the way it off a column if you want. And then you can manipulate the victor of the total table average of each of the columns. No. What about if I want this text the middle of texts Toby aligned with these two entries. So, in order to do toe do that, what I want is another package which gives me some more commands. So I currently I'm not using any package all this basic functionality of table and tabular environment is available in basic installation of later. But if I want some more commands, which I'm gonna show, you know. So I need some other packages and there are a lot of packages available. You don't need all of them. Try to minimize the number of packages you are using. So there's your program. Can compile quickly. What package I need. I need a package card. You speck it, Harry. So this airy pack, it gives me some more commands. Like instead off P, I can have access to know M commerce means middle alignment with four centimeter wreaked. So if I compile No. So, no, As you can see, that middle of my text is aligned with other column entries. So I can also have excess toe bottom alignment if I want to align this bottom of the text with this. So for that, I can use instead of m. I can use be and no over text is bottom aligned with these two. So this m and B commands we get from this area package. So any packages almost always you useful toe have. And there is one more packages which I normally including my later document, and that is card book tabs. So use package book, Debs. So book taps back. It gives us some more commands. So the three most commonly used our top rule middle and bottom rule If you look at this table. So this line, this fancy line at the top is card. Oh, Prue. And this is mid rule and then the border brewery. You can have these lines by using a book tab stable. A book taps package, and you can change the thickness off these lines. And this looks very professional. So we use this book cabs package in order to get access to the top rule bottom rule and mid rule command. So, no. Instead, it's off. Let's say why not try to make this table? So I just copy this quickly paste it here, and I delete everything within this tabular environment. So that and instead of simple table, I say our text. Okay, but I change the name of this table. I want this table. So this table has two columns only. The second column is wider column. So we have to specify some victory here. So what I do it is the first column is see in the second column has some wit and they're nowhere tickle lines. So I said, This has a ripped off four centimeter and the first column is centrally line. So and what is the entries? So it's a product one and then N person And then some description, which we can copy then then the end of the line and then brought a food in person saying and the description. So instead of this, some what we can do, we can copy paste from here. We can copy paste from here. Great glee, corporate text. And instead of this song, we can put this text here. We copy this text and place it here. No, if I compile So this is our table. The width is not enough so we can increase the with first. Then our target table is bored. These to Auntie is our board. And there are some lines. So what we can do? We can increase the wit from four players s seven centimeters and no. In order to board these twenties, you can border state of A using the letter command this board, But then if the column is very long, so you have toe make a lot of boards, and in during this process, you might make some mistakes. And also this this command looks very ugly within the programming environment. Athletic. So there is a simpler way to board all the columns of a table. So this is what we will be doing. So instead of doing each individually board off all these column entries, we can do another mattered and which we can use like this report greater than sign and then a pair of curly brackets and this within the curly bracket report back slash B F series. So this will board all the first column because this is applicable to this first see here because he's our first call. So this command is applied to the first column. So all the colon will be bold and in order to pour the lines. So because this was the purpose of using book temps packets so that we can have access to this top rule so we can say top rule. So this will put our top line. And in the end, we can say Borkum rule. And after this first line weekend, put mid room. So there is the other here. So what could this be? So Because there is no line ending here so we can end the line. And then and no, As you can see, that our table is perfectly Bennis in the center. Very suitable, I tell his. Okay. And we have three beautiful professional looking lines. Top rule, mid rule and the bottom rule. No, these alliance have our default thickness, which is a different. I think that talk one in the bottom one, they have 10.2 e. M. Unit athletic. We have a separate video for later units, so you can watch that with you. So the top and bottom lines, they have 0.8 e m e m unit is basically the height of the uppercase m letter in current phone. So what is whatever is the height of the M letter m like this m here supporting zero. It means 8% of this height. So this is the thickness off this one. Open bottom rule and the mid rule has a thickness off something 10.5 or something. So we have We can change this ticket list if you want. So know this top rule. We can specify. For example, this is 0.8 E. M is by different, so we can increase this to, let's say, double this. So it will be 0.16 year and no if I compiled this so the thickness of the top rule has been changed so similarly, you can change the thickness of mid rule whatever you like. But this is another way toe style, the tables. So these were some of the basic for matings off tables, and in the next lecture, we will see some other for mating and styling. Options for tables and also the or to write mathematics are mathematical formulas in tables . 19. Using Math Symbols in Latex Tables: So in the last lesson, we learn some basic for mating and styling and making some basic tables. And in this lesson we will learn hope to put Ramat symbols in letter tables. So there is no difference except that we have to use Matt Environment normally in line environment. So which is a created by putting dollar sign at the beginning and end of the next week. You want to put in a cell so in the similar manner so we can put any question, any mess, symbol, anything in the the in the cable. So this is again a very similar document. I have just deleted some of the dummy text. I want a very short text. So no, we are using only every package and book tab Specter. So these are two my favorite packages. And please know that for Matt tables, you can also use an environment card, airy environment instead of the tabular environment and environment. Some people feel more comfortable with every environment. I personally don't use it, but most people prefer a environment and you can use it so I will show you how to use tabular environment and today is no different The only difference is that tabular environment can be used anywhere where an arian where men can only be used in Matt Environment. So this is one of the big differences you can put tabular and worm it inside a figure which is very flexible. And that's why I prefer this environment. It's up to you. So this is a normal empty table at the moment, as you can see that only three column has been defined, but nothing entered. Okay, let's start with some, uh, table enhanced. So they're dis assume that this is the table which we want to make America Table, which has only two columns and two rows, and every entry has a mathematical equation, so there is no difference in these equations just a little bit. But I want to show you the basic functionality of the table because we have a lot to cover any discourse. Then you can experience this to any number of rows and columns. There is no difference. The only difference is that we have to use the math and wherein, in order to write equations for which we have a separate Siri's off two or three lectures on math equations and hope to use matin warmer. So if you feel any difficulty, you can go there and see. But we will also see some couple of other options of using tables. So therefore, this lecture has been separated from the previous lecture. Let us put this table beside our editors so that we can see what we are trying to write. So it's a two column and two rows, so we only have two columns here, then the first entry and then an in person, sane and then end of the line and then an in person thing. It's always useful to have this in person first a line so that we don't do any mistakes. So, no, these are the four places where we have to pull these entries. So first of all, because the Met so weak have through what dollar sign. And we have to write this equipment inside the daughter saying So I'm just better be writing down equations and then we'll before we will try to form it this table. So Tito, under square a teeter This credit equals in P grill. So we go toe, do you don't then under square here, then the integral sandwiches, Backslash Yankee. And then after the integral sign, there is a fraction. So whenever there is a fraction, it means therefore is the fraction. And there are a group of curly breakers for numerator and denominator in the new military is why in the drome, inner dates X and then b X B y. So this is a world first entry. So we can just copy this in place it here, replace this A with B and this y with X and X with y and then in the third entries. So I underscore. Yeah, equals again the friction Here, off Gottlieb records in the numerator we have capital, we under the square, a race to the power tools and in the denominator we have he and I So no, we can copy this. Listen, two years replace it would be and he plays this David B. And no, if I compiled this because we have to put our dollars and hear some mathematical equation. So we made this mistake. So it just put her daughter sign here. And now if we look at this table as you can see that this table looks okay if you compare it with our table. There is a line here, Corporal. Mid Rule Board of Rules will export these lines. First of all, top rule. So we can just put here drop rule and we are already using this book taps Beckett, which is required for this command. After the first line, we can use mid rule and after the last line, we have to put up double backslash and then we can use bottom root and no had. You can see our table looks fine. No, but the only problem is that these lines are too close and we want these lines, Toby a little bit more wider. And this is a common thing. When you are putting mathematics in table, you will see that sometimes you have to open up these lines. So ho toe make the row high different. But there is the command for this which you can use here before the tabular environment in the preamble part of their table. So what do you do it? You stay the new command and then inside the curly bracket backslash every stretch at a stretch. And the second argument say I say two for two means the height of the road will be twice so very compiled. This where you can see that our table is looking much more professional. Then the before. So no, For example, if you want a bigger, integral sign Currently, it looks fine to me. But sometimes you might think that this looks a little bit smaller. You want a big, integral signer, You have to put certain Emerson open bottom of the integral. So for that you can use a package called Begins. So you speck egx. It's a nice little package. So this packet give you access to some of these integral. So this is this. I am taking this figure from the documentation of big inspected so you can go on seat and website and you can see that. So these are the commands. Instead, off int you will give begin begins, begin with double s. So these are different type of integers available with this package. So I'm using, for example, begins so I can instead of this inch, we can say big inch and no, if I compile it, you will see that our integral sign has bean increased. So know where you can see the phone sizes You just month. But you can increase the phones and using all the forms phone size commands. So this looks more professional. So in this way you can make mathematical tables. No, no. If there are a lot of tape, a lot of rows and columns and you don't want to put this dollar sign each and every time, so then what you can do is you can actually define a column type in the preamble of the table. So, for example, I just remove all these dollar signs. So instead, off putting this dollar sign at each and every entry we can. If there are, for example, 25 anti so you might miss something in it increases the chances of errors and editor with time. So instead of doing that, we can actually define a new column type here in the preamble of the table. So we can say new column type, and we say Nemacolin, like a first columnist A. And then we have used this column type in our declaration. Well, we said tabular, but we say new column type. And then we started curly bracket and and this curly bracket. And within this curly bracket. What we have to do. We have to put this sign and then beer of two pair of curly brackets and dollars saying each one of them dollar sign here and dollar sign here and then see si means the center really sent a Central Line column, which we use in the tabular environment. So this seat So we're putting this see here in their definition of the column and giving this column a new name it we're seeing that make a new type of column e, which is just like see, But it has inside a dollar signs on both side. So this is the new definition. So no, instead of the C, I will say use A and also for the second column, my baby and I just copy this again and defined another column Be the same man and no, I can say OK, use end began. No, I put and be inside the table. So know if there are maybe 100 rose, I don't have to put a dollar in those 100 rose. I have defined it here, just state of it, And one more thing. We have to go inside the opposite sign here here. Yes. So what we're saying this is that define a new column type, which is exactly like this. See centrally line column and put daughter stain on the side so greater than and then less than after this. See, so it will insert dollar staying in each of the entry in all of the columns. So no, if I complain, I'm not putting any dollars saying here, and if I compile it with successfully compiler, it will show me the mathematics. As you can see, it has complied, and over Matt is there. So this is a good way to put mathematic using the tabular environment. Just define your columns here and then you can use without their daughter saying, But normally tabular is best for text environment, and every environment is good for math and weierman because a uses matin warmer. So except to you, as I mentioned earlier, whatever environment you want to use the next two lessons, we will be using their take tables in which there are merging of cells inside the rules and inside the corners 20. Meging Cells In Latex Tables Part 1 of 2: Our next task is to create this table and you can see there. Dis table has eight columns and four rows are married in these two cells. 1234 and then six columns are married in this cell. Hardness and factors there. Six. Calling my dear while two columns are being murdered in these three sets soft made human heart. And if you look when the left side, these two rows are much into this cell. Similarly, this cell has two rows much and the 3rd 1 as well. While the says in these six columns, they're just like single cells. In orderto do this kind of tables were cells are being merged. We have to use a package which is card Marty role. So you speck egx multi role. We just get here some space here, so let us start or table first. And inside this table at the water, we have description, which is table affect er's for using speed for Mourners. Then we start the nebula and nor let's place this table here so that we can see it on the left side. So the the first cell at the left top chord has four rules. So if some multi roles way say backslash multi role and Marty Row has to be Gottlieb records three pair of your records and in first curly brackets we have toe put home any roles. This column is taking place, 04 rows in the second curly brackets. We have toe put the wit. So if you want the weird equal to the weight of the text, whatever text we've put in that cell, then we can just put hysteric. We didn't present stuff natural width of the text and in tired column we have to pour the next. But currently we can leave it empty. We can fill all the text later on. First we try to fill the table to make the table first, and then we will feel the text. No, the next cell is again a multi Rossell. But before that we have to put an end person sign and then Murray Teoh three pair of curly records. Again, this has four rules. As you can see here, one toe, three and four so four rows natural reeked of the text and then we will fill this later. Then another in person sign and no we have to look at this top cell, which is this hardness. So this has 123456 columns. So there is, um, article himself. So Marty, column here, Marty Cola. And then we also have three a pair of car lawbreakers. And the 1st 1 is home. Any columns? Six columns and then the second in the second curly bracket. We have to put the position off this next within the cell. So it can be l means left just to fight C means center justified armies, the right justified So we can put See, Because we want the text to me in the center of the city. And then in the next cell, we have to pour the text which we put her in the end. No, After this cell, the first line is finishing. So we have to put backslash you. Then we come to the second role. But because the first cell which you can see here, the first still has four rows, so the next three rows will be empty. So what we can do? We can put an m person here just underneath this n percent, because this role will be empty. Then we can put another one here. This is the third row and then we can put another one here. This is the four. True. These four through four rows will be empty rows on. These are These are 123 and four. I don't know, in the second column the similar situation. Because under this material, there are four within this material. Therefore, Rose. Currently, we were at the top. No, we're here in the second rope so we can put an in person here. Here. And here's three m percent here, clue in person and then in front of this as well. Empty and in front of these as well. So no, we have four rules. This cell is four rules. So this cell is four rows, four rows, four rules and no here. This is the second rule. So in the second row, we have this soft soft is in the second row. So this is the second row starts from here. So here we have this word soft and soft takes two columns. One is this one. The other is this one. So it's a murky column. So well put, Marty Coolum. And how many corner again. Three people records So first, how many columns to then center justified And we can put the word soft here. But we will pull this later because we want to check the the construction of the table first and then and in person. And we had a disappointment here. Noise. The medium medium also takes two columns. So just like this, I can copy this again. I can place it here. Similarly, this heart has two columns. So we can again really picked based one. It's here. No, come into the third. But this is the third row. So this point is here. But we have all these six columns combined in this factors. So this is our third Does this factor we can place again paste here. But this time this factor contains 36 columns Just six columns, Amy three times six and no, We are done with these three rows. No, these are individual cells. So we don't have to worry about because we have to put all these starting from. I didn't need this tired rope. So this here we can fill it here from ABC. But this we will do later this will be a work 4 12 inches in front of these. So what we can do here is that these four rows 1234 the last rule of this disease before through. So we can actually put these 10% for these six columns because no, we're done with the 1st 3 rows. We can say, OK, let's put an in person for this. First A. There was a gap, then another 10% school to be for work five. No, we have it. Be it be a and B and then we can put a little bit gap and then end of the light. So this will be an end word in here and an end of the line because this is our 1st 4 lines . 1st 4 rules. So first row, second row, third row and four through. This is the fourth rover here. We will put a and B later, no, coming towards the fifth roll. So 50 through means that we are no at this point. But this base metal is covering two rows. So therefore on fifth row meaning after this. But in the beginning here we have a murky rule and today a marginal object. Three Peter Breakers and this murderer has two rows and natural extra it. And then we will for the text. Later this basement, we can put an end person just underneath this one so that well aligned. But no, we can put the next row empty here as well. So this next role is empty because this is covering Turow's? No. Then after this, we can just copy this again and paste it here and this also cover Screw rose, the word dressing and another one here and percent. And then we can paste this another on the left side here and then again in m person in front off it. Another one for the last and no, we have covered all these three. This one, this one and all these? No, for these two, we have to put the words here in individually. So these are all individual says no. So we just have to complete the eight columns. 10 rules. So 123456789 10 rows already complete. So for this we have the first column so we can put an M person under need up each of them so. Second column, Article four So all these does not have to be exactly in the same manner. But this is just to make us I understand better. What? So that we don't miss anything. But this is only for us. So that we don't do any mistake in the Centex off the table. So just compiled this Hopefully it will compile. So there is something wrong more dear. Oh, so we have to put an end percent here. We missed it. No, really, really refined. So we have to define the tabular here. So it's eight columns. So we say that Let's all these center line 1234567 Hit. So you haven't defined the tabular yet, So we have to define it here and hopefully it will compile. No. So now this is our table. Of course, there is no text here, but the table has been compiled successfully. So it means the structure of the table is correct. So no weaken feel entries in tow. All these let us start filling these entries so no, we have filled all these interests. So I have removed that feeling part. So we do not feel on the fly when we are making the structure. Because otherwise you as you can see that this alignment become this trip and then we can make a lot of mistakes. The best thing is for us to make the structure of the table. And then once you have checked the structure that the structure is okay, then you just start feeling the entries because the only source of energy is that if this person is misplaced, are is there one m percent extra. So the thes air, the only sources are fairer. So when these all these M persons are aligned, so then there are less chances of making any other. So therefore, we don't feel this table in the beginning. We just check that there are eight columns and 10 rows or whatever over table is we check it, we compile it empty, and then we start feeling these just watching out that we don't delete any of these 10%. So now that we have field entries, so just compile it and see how it looks like. So this is our table. And if we compare it with the word target, and if we compare this with over target table so you can see that our table has lines. While this table does not have any lights, neither were taken or horizontal because we haven't put any lines on this table. Otherwise, this table pretty much looks like, Ah, the target table. So because this will do is getting too long. So in the second part of this video, we will put all these horizontal and vertical lines in this table to complete this. 21. Meging Cells In Latex Tables Part 2 Of 2 : In the last video, we were ableto build this table and our table and our target table. There is only one different that this table if I combine this this table does not have any lines all these horizontal and vertical lines. So in this video we will be making these lines. So first of all, because we have all these working lines across all the columns, at least some part of them. So this is a complete line, these three, Then there are some partial lines. So first we can do is we can put all lines, all vertical lines across these column definitions where we're declaring that we have eight columns. First we for these and see what happens. And then another thing we can do is this top line. Of course, top line goes all across so we can put before the first line. We can put a statement etch lying and at the very end, we can end this line here and put edge line. So no, If I compiled this and we will compare these two again, no, as you can see that our column is our table is looking a little bit better. We have all these four lines. This is not going complete. So we have to make this complete by using the definition off these sets. And then we have to put some horizontal line or isn't the lines are also not going all true . Some are going partially and we have to put a lot of for mating here. So how to make these lines? In order to do that? We have a command. We just card see life. So how we use them. So let's say that this is the word harden and underneath hardness, this is the horizontal line. We can it put this land using backslash each line because it will put the line all across the table. This line goes from column three two column it the line underneath this hardness from treat Wait. So this is the line in our program where this hardness that so if we go to the next line here and instead of each line, we use a command card, see light and see line takes the argument and we can say three toe. It means put a line from column three to it. So no, If I compiled it so know we have this line column treat with it after this hardness. But this right side is missing year. So auto, fill this in the definition of hardness. Here I will put a bar and this bar really fill that gap for me. If I re compile this and know what you can see that this gap has been filled And this line is there No, the next lines After the heart, we can say they're draw See line from column tree to it so it will feel all this space So very is hard. Heart is here after hard we see a sea lion treat week This will put this life but no, There is no vertical line between soft and medium. So because in the definition of soft we have to put a vertical board after the Si article body and after medium we also wonder line here. So vertical body here after hard We want this little line so it's already not there. If we look at our current result, there is no line here. So we want this as well. So we put a C after a bar after the sea off heart. He has went so Similarly after factors, there is no line here and below the factor. There is no horizontal line. We can put a vertical bar here in factors definition and this is the in the next line. After factors we can say See line three to it. So let's draw these first and see, because there was we won't be able to detect our other. Just compile it. And no, all these lines are set so it means there is no area. If we come compare this with the original table, it looks perfectly correct. No, we have to draw these lines under the cost around three line these three lines and then lines Understood Face based matter, little These So no, let's draw these lines. No, in order to draw this line after the surface, this toe underneath the surface. So this is after this lane, as you can see there, after factors we have this life and after b we have this line. So if I look at our current table, there is no line after B. And if I draw a line after B, that line goes state from this edge to that, it so after B, I can say draw horses Underline. That will be the required line which we need. As you can see here. If I draw a line after B it really with this line which will go under surface and material . So this is me. So I can draw simply each line after B. So that will be fine. No, we have this line. This is fine. No, we like we want a line after 60. It goes from column to do it and that will be from under this car starting to 60. So after the 60 you can say blacks less. See line. Good wit. No, If I compile again no, we have line after 60. Call him. So do it. But for your fine. No, The line after 1 20 should be a complete line because it should go from this edge to that edge. As we can see here, that line after 1 20 is going all across the table. And this is what we want here. Complete horizontal line. So we will drive one horizontal line after 1 20 and other order interline after this 1 20 So then we will get these two large lines after each 1 20 we simply sietch line. And after this next 1 20 we can also have edge, light. And after for these two little lines, this one under this Coster an. And with this cost Iran, we have to go under 1 80 for this line came under 60 for this life. So these lines for our from to do it So after 1 80 we have a C line from to quit and after 60 we have a C line from to do it. So no If I compile hopefully and no, as you can see, that over table is perfectly complete and matches this one. No, we can put this to table a site by site. As you can see, they're perfectly find. The only thing is that this is not centered. So we have to center this table. This is center table, so they have toe center this table. And for that we can put a centering command before their tabular. And no, this is our table. And this is our target table. If I pulled this 100% of you so you can see that board there was a perfectly same. So in this way you can make complex tables. This was a really very complex table because it has a lot off merging going on both in horizontal and vertical directions. So this will be, hopefully a good exercise for you and know you should be confident of making any type of complex table. 22. Introduction To Math Environments : this video is an introduction to writing mathematical statements and formulas in later. So in this video I will explain what are some of the tools which we have in Let it, which can produce a professional Quartey mathematical documents. So when it comes to mathematical statements, there is no other software are what processes which can compute later. So this video is an introduction to what we will be doing in next few videos. Whenever you are writing mathematics, there are three very important Commons, which you will be using again and again. One is under school, the other is a hatch sign, and tired is the symbol for fraction. So these three symbols we will be using again and again in mathematical formulas. So make sure that you understand hole Fraction operator works and hope we can you underscore in heck symbols. So underscore is basically used for sub scripts, and hat is used for super escapes our exponents. So when it comes to writing within our text, there are two types off environments. One is card in line, mathematical environment, and the other is garden display mode. So this in the first paragraph, I am showing you three examples where I'm writing some mathematical formula inside the text , so the first is distraction. It was one to argue a B plus C. So this one and the last example these two examples show how we can write in line with the text. So the first example and the third example there is no increase in the line. Spacing the lines pressing stays the same and later, perfectly alliance your mathematical statement with your text. So this is card in line, Mort. The second more is this is also within their text. But in this case, the lines pressing has been increased in order to make the formula more prominent. So this is card display, Matt Mood. So these two moors are the moors, which we use when we are writing inside a text. While if you're writing outside a text on a separate line around a separate rule you can see are on a separate space. And when it comes to writing on a separate space, there are so many mathematical environments which we can use to write equations and mathematical formulas on a separate space. So these two were the in text Morse, and no, we will talk about some of the other functions which we have, so we will learn photo right fractions in later. Then we will learn ho toe right the sub scripts and super escapes in later. So these are the two most commonly used operations. Then we learn ho toe put some off the very commonly used mathematical statements such as this some sign of the product site. So this type off formulas occur very often in mathematics, and we will learn how to write these later then. This is another variation of this some formula in which we have to sub scripts instead of one which is normal. After that limit formalized also very common. And we will learn how to for these type of formal assimilated. And after that we will learn about integrates and then this right side for any question. You can leave this without any tech are you can put your own tech are you can leave it for later. So there are so many options we have when it comes to putting tags on the right side of your formulas. Then this is another example. We will be learning how to use this type of Marty value function formulas where a function can have three different values for different intervals. So this is also very common formula. Then there are a lot off mathematical environments analytic, and we will be learning those environments for writing equations. So the first environment which we will learn is card equal in a equation, every environment. So in this environment, you can align equations and the equations are numbered at every line. So whenever you inside a new line, a new equation would be number. So this environment is suit, so table for many applications, then there is a split environment. When the formalized very lenti are you want to a few steps you are solving something. Are you are doing a proof or something like that and you don't want toe number each and every step of that so you can use split environment and this can accommodate very long formulas as well. So here I just made up an equation which is very Lenti, and I want it to be on two lines with only one number. So in this case, we will use split. And while then there is in a line environment and this, like this airline in wear mint can be used in various ways. For example, if you look at these three questions, all these equations are aligned on the left in mathematical statements and mathematical formulas. The most important thing is the alignment of the equations and hold a questions. Airline and whole and normal provide us vase, toe aligned equation are to split that question are to make Marty line equations. All these things are very important for us. When we were writing mathematics, for example, in this first case, we have three questions. All are off different land, and we want all of them to be aligned on the left hand side. So flush left while in the next case we have three set of equations. So on the first line we have three questions, but we don't want tea numbers for this role. We only want one number for the for the for these three equations. Then on the next row we have three questions, but all these three sets they are working, really aligned at an equal sign, So this equal sign is sometimes called natural alignment symbol natural. I'm a symbol means that normally equations should be aligned or equal sign. But in this case, we can use it toe a line on the left side, our line on the right side as well. So, Elaine, environment is very flexible and very useful environment. And the difference between a lane in wear mint and Beekman environment is that equal environment has to alignment. In person signs are two alignment possibilities. We can align two different things while in a line. In our environment, we only have one alignment option, and both of these have its own space. But most for most beginners, align environment is better than the equal environment. And we will discuss this when we do these examples. No, the next environment is aliant environment, and the difference between allying and aligned is that this alliance chairman takes all the heat off the text area. So this is your text area just a little bit after this number and and this on with these numbers out there. So this is card check, stereo aligning. Weierman takes all this text area. So sometimes we have to write something on the right side off of our equations. For example, these air tour of our equations and we want them to be aligned. But we also want something to explain these equity. For example, these two are energy questions, and I want to put a note here that these are energy equations. So what? This facility is not available in a line environment because it takes all the spare, so we cannot put any bracket on the right. And the second thing is that this alignment align and wear military works at this own Elaine in women cannot be nest nested within an equation environment, for example, or any other environment. While this aligned environment can be nested inside and another environment, which is a very useful functionality sometimes and therefore this environment is also available, then the area environment. Every environment is a fantastic environment, and if you want to put decent just ah, simple example. But if you want to put mathematical formulas in each and every sell off these areas, then you can use every environment. It has the ability to put mathematical formulas in all of the sell off the table. So this is just a replacement over tabular environment, which we have already learned so every environment and tabular and were meant the difference is that every works in a matter environment. You can use this environment in different ways. For example, here there are no vertical horizontal lines here. There are vertical lines and water lines, and you can also put these type off lines. So it's up to you. They're very flexible environment, then later also offers many metric environments. So in these environments, what what is the difference? The difference is only the appearance off the outer parentis is because some books are some authors you like to use. These type off brackets and mostly mattresses are like this square brackets, and similarly, sometimes these matters can be used with these curly brackets are this sign is normally used for determinations and you can use it like this. So all these environments, they are same in Operation Cinnamon Centex on the difference is that the way the bracket star place? Then this is a generator forms and we will learn few things or to put these doors when there are a lot of entries, you don't want to put all the entries. I hope that after doing all these type of formulas, you will be able to write all type of mathematical equations and in next few videos we will be learning or to write all these formulas 23. Writing Some Commonly Used Math Formulas In Latex : Okay, so let us start writing mathematics. So in order to write met, you can use this use package AMS met dispatch It gives you are full functionality and lot off environments. You can also write Matt without any packet, but that will be limited. So we will be using this package so that we can get full features. So first off, I'll hold two right in line in text. So this is in This is a text and we have to write this Perfection equals one. Do other baby policy within the text. So this is card in line mode, this example in the lot. Tired want These two are in line, Morse. And then in the middle, we have more, more prominent display of the formula, which is called a display style. More so how to lie right in line. In order to write mathematics in line, we have to use a $2 signs and all mad statements will be within these $2 signs so the statement says, equals and then affection starts. So unite flexion by using the command back slash f r a c for friction and then to pair off curly brackets in the first period report the numerator, which is one in this case. And in the second, a pair of curly brackets we put their denominator, which is Capital B plus capital C. So this is our statement on No. If I compiled this program, as you can see here that this is the region and this is perfectly aligned with the rest of the text with no change in the line spacing. So this capability off later is fantastic. No other word processor gives you such a ease and such a perfect alignment and everything. And no, be right. This their display style formula and for display style formula. We still have to use the dollar sign good on her side. And within these $2 same, we have to write a pair of curly bracket in which we have to put display style command. So backslash display style. And then we can copy paste the same friction with ordered understand, because we have already put the daughter same here, GOP and based and no, if I compiled this no, it will give you the display style dessert, which is a little bit more prominent, but no, the line spacing has been changed. So these both of these styles are in line styles. Whether it's normal in line, our it's our displaced I What if I put our double daughter sign here? So see what happens if I put a double dollar here and no re compiled this program? So no, as you can see that this is on a separate line. If I put our dollar, this will become on a separate line. Let's land hard to put. This is square root and hope to put a squared plus B squared. So it's a in line statements or never sort or a sign. And within the dollar sane know if you're using win edit, you have this. Some sign here. If you click on this, some sign you will get this access to a lot of mathematical commands. And from these commands, you can, For example, this is the square root. So you click on this within this dollar sign, you will get the square root statement here. Now this is square root has been taken care of. No, you have to write within these curly breakers, a squared plus B squared, so hope you're right. Is quiet at any power we put the simple first and then we put this had signed this had signed in Ortho power and then to so this means is quiet. Then a plus sign and then be here too. So this will produce this result. So if I compiled this No, no, you can see that this is perfectly aligned Square root, a squared plus B squared. So you can imagine that if you're writing this equation in any other word processors or you may be clicking a lot to make this align with this text, and you will never get this result. So let it really shines when it comes to writing mathematics. No, we go further down and we have these fractions. So this fractions? Hopefully, no, you can write these fractions, but I'll just write Don't again here and no, we will write this statement. So in order to write this statement because reuniting this statement on a separate space on a page so we have to start Matt environment again. So the one means toe this double dollar sign our dollar sign. But there is another way to do that and which is back slash square bracket and then backslash closing square brackets. A pair of these two gives you the method environment. Within this, every anything returned within these will be treated days. Mathematics. So we will be doing this because the simplest way to write Matt and No. Four divided by five tours a fraction so backslash for action to a pair of records four do nt by fight and then plus again a collection Croupier brackets 70 word by 13 plus no three and then a fraction 12 word in by 65. So this is Matt Equation So or no, you can also write this equation by starting equation environment. But we will be discussing music environment later and no, If I compiled this no, we get this now coming to the next hard to write these statements in met. So what I do? I just delete this because you will get all this in one program When I made this document, I have written all this and you will get that with the content of this course. So far, no, we will be doing all of these one by one so that you can more focus on one farm. ALeiter time. But you will get this all in one program in course materials, so don't worry about that. So the next one is two X is very simple noted toe just to x and then excess score X under skip to So for example, if the linear equation in X one and X two. So you have to write this off so far subscript we have to use under his court under his court and to so this is basically just like extra Then for X squared I already mentioned that X rays to the power to means X had to And then when both are together then we have to write X and you can write under the school two and then hacked through. So if there is only one, for example the power is the one digit and subscript is one digit. Then you can write straight away like this And first I will show you this as you can see that this is X understand escape subscript two, then X rays to the power to and then both And no, if you want to write, for example X subscript 12. So then what you do you have to put this in curly brackets and similarly the power you have to put him curly brackets when there are two digits, then you have to put this curly. But if I compile no, it will be okay. So as you can see that X subscript to help raise toe the power 12 coming over formulas toe The next is submission from icicle toe one toe and ex ice core. So this we have already learned so hard to put this together. And no for this summation Icicle toe, one toe end. So backslash some is the symbol for this submission sign and then this eyes equal to one. So this is at the subscript level. So what we do, we say underscore And because there are more than one items here so we have to put a pair of curly brackets in the Can you break it? We say I was one and no, this end is acting just like a superscript our power. So then we have to put ah head and then inside the head we whatever the return is here is and so we just write in. So this is this part No X and the A C X I raised to the power too. So this will become besides this so x underscored by and Hecht. So this is hope we will write this. So if you want some space between these two, for example this formal and this formula you want to side by side. So the very put space in mathematics is there are two or three spaces available. So one is one spaces achieved You you ready? So this will insert a space. So this place is equal to three m writing three m little units and then we have a separate video for letting units. You can watch that toe Know if I combine this so you can see that we have the first formula and no, After a space, we can write the second formula and the second formula is the product formula. So it's backslash broad pr od and then again seem underscore. Inside the bracket, a couple of breakfast I equals one and then the hack site and inside the calibre guests we have in and then we can just copy paste this export from here because it is same. So no need to this time. And if I compile it? No. So we have these two formulas here, And if you see that the space is not enough so you can use another space command, which is instead of Futurity, you put kill que double you and no, the space will be increased the little bit. No. As you can see that the space has increased a little bit. So in this way, you can write this formula. No coming to the next. No, we have to sub scripts here, so I just delete this again. And no, In order to write this double marty line sub scripts, we have to use another command, which is card substance, because no, we have two lines in the subscript, so the command is used, his card sub stacked, which will be under this some sign. So we start like this some and in some, Then we have to put under this court. So underscore me that this whole two lines will be under this submission sign, and then we start this curly bracket. And in this curly bracket, we start sub stick S u B S t a c k sub state. Because these the two lines no sub stacked when started. Then we have to put a pair of curly brackets again, in which we will be writing these two lines. Zero is less than eyes less than M. And on the next line, zero is less than J is less than M. So for the first line, we'll start writing the first line and zero and for less than equal. If you hover over this sign, you will see the command. Either you can click on this or if you're not using being edit. This this is available on our editors that maker story or whatever you're using. But if not, so you can use backslash, Alec, you less than equal So back slash l e que and then we have I. And then again I and then again backslash el que and then we have em. So this is our first line of the sub state. So you see, the sub state command is in this curly brackets. So this is the first line of that. And no, because there is a line ends. So we have to put double backslash, so they're the next line starts. You can actually go down because letting ignores all these blank spaces. And then you can write the zero less than Jake zero. And for less than if you over on this, you will see that there is no Come on. Is this simple? You have to use on your keyboard. You just press less then and then Jay and bless them. And so know your both of your lines have been completed. The first line here's here and then this double backslash means until the lines of this line enter deal And this holies under the score some underscored means under the some. So this is your This part is complete. No. For this superscript you have to use the hat sign so head sign and then because there are two values so we will use calibrates is here and we re type and coma. And so know this part is complete. No, there is X beside this so we can type Capital X and then in directed we can type I coma g so no, If I compiled this hopefully it will be perfect. And as you can see that this formula so no for two lines you use sub stick. No, The next formula we have is the limit formula. So again, in this formula, I just first delete this formula toe again in this formula way have a limit which is back slash and I am and then X and then X and this aero and a this is in the subscript so subsequent means under its core. And then for this arrow, we have a command backslash two x two it just like redid like this And then we have a fraction. And in the numerator and then in the dominator we can type just disease so very simple. So for limit backslash limit and then under the scored because X attention toward is in the subsequent. Then we can put this car Liberators. And inside this caliber wreckers, we can say X And for this arrow, we can say backslash to space e. So this is X goes to a and then we can close the curly bracket. And then there is a friction on backslash collection is for for action and freakin has two parts one Pirro curly bracket for the numerator. This one. So in the numerator, we type f x minus f off e. This is a new militar parentis. It actually breakers and this is what the denominator. Very type X minus eight and no, Combine this and as you can see, that limit X e if x minus. F a perfectly aligned and balanced in sector center. Next formalize integral zero to Piper to sign next DX equals two. For integral sign. We can have backslash I and P and in one of another video, I have shown you hard to use a various type off into eagles using a package so you can walk that with you in table section. So there is a video where I explained, If you want to use different varieties off integral so you can use from there as well for simplest type off integral, you can just use back slash I m p and then No, this zero is Edgar Bottom. So it means this is just like underscore. So we say underscored. And then we put zero. There is only one number, so we don't have to put any curly brackets. And then this bye bye too will be treated as a super scripts for super skipped. We use hat, but no, because the friction. So we have to put curly breakers because there is pie and there is too so in fiber to his affection. So we started the friction symbol and then fraction has two components numerator and denominator in the numerator type I so by you can find here pIease backslash, pipi I buy it must be somewhere here. But the symbol for pi is backs left b I fight, and in the denominator we can type just to So this is bye bye to so integral means this integral underscore zero had by by two. And then besides this, we can just take on this Prentice's like this, that you are not putting anything extra that you can go through these parentheses and check that one yellow and one green. If you are using, you need it. Otherwise, in your editor, whatever is the color and then we can put sine x dx. He was two. If you want to put anything here, for example, if you want to explain anything, so what? You can do a little bit space and then you can put back slash tech and then curly brackets , so whatever you want to write, But then what do you want to right here? So you can write like this is attack. I just showed it here. But you can use with any of the formula. No, if I compiled this We have this formula. They wrote a paper to sign next year. He was two. And your check now The next four Rula is murder function, will you? So as a written here uses case environment so there is environment card case and warm it which we will be using here. So just like we used m percent toe, separate two entries in a row in a tabular form it So we will be doing the same thing First value comma than n percent sign. And this We will be writing this as a text so far writing text we will be using text command and inside the text if there is a mad symbol So we have to pour the dollar Sinek like this whole other text but within the text just like this. As we don't have the year within the text, we have to put a massive will put dollar sign and we will put this is statement. We can state every right FX if X equals and then no be right on the next line. You can write it if you want, so that we can understand that this is an warmer. So begin guesses just like begin document that anything any of the environment. And we can write and kisses because these are the three cases off a function value. So know what is the first value? The first value is minus X tree excellently power three so minus x their to the power three . So this is the first value. Then we have to put a comma so we could coma and then we have to put an end person saying and no, After this, we have to put this whole as a text. So for that we use a command fixed X'd. So this command is a reliever. Tow us and then we put a pair of curly brackets. So this stairs later that no, you were putting some text in this environment and within the text there is if other text if and no, there is a mathematical statement, X is less than minus five. So for that we have to put $2 saying in X for less than like this, then minus fight and then we have to put the same in colon. So you cook salmon color whether inside their dollar sign are you can put all settled orders and doesn't matter. You can pour some cooler and no, this is your first line ends. So you put a backslash so that first line ends. So this is your first case. Okay? No, the second kisses teeter plus two weeks so you can find out Teeters on. We're here as well. Like this is a cheater, but simple 40 tight. If you put press on this Tita, it will enter this symbol of teeter back selected. But you can tie backs left. It doesn't matter, Tita Plus two weeks plus Prue X. So this is your second value than a coma. And then an empress insane then best like text. Because, no, you're writing text. And because there are more than one letters, then we have to book early records and normally say if and no again mathematics. So mathematics should be in dollar sane. Can we say, minus fight and less than equal Celeste unequal. We have learned that Alec u backslash like you there's done equals X ex then l e que again ? Back slash l e que. And there is a spirit. There should be a space here so that and you can see the color off color changes because this is the color for command and then zero. And then we close the dollars and and then after dollar send, report the seven cooler, easy to readable. Understand? No double backslash to enter line. I know the tired case express to you power for so ex head for Dana Coma. Then an M person sign invests less text. And then within this bracket, we have toe right just otherwise so no mathematics here so we don't have to put any dollars . And no, if I compiled this our kisses out perfectly big, so you can write as many cases 345 Doesn't matter. You still have to use just one line for every case. So these were some of the most commonly used formulas and no, in the next video we will be using at these equation environments matin warmers for writing equations 24. Math Equation Environments In Latex : So in the last video we have done up to this point were we used cases and no, we will be using some equation environment so ho to write equations. Inmet. So when you are selecting one of these environments eso you you should be looking at a few things. The first thing you should be looking at the holder environment Alliance your equations whether it uses the spaces toe make a line, Mr Hotel and Khomeni alignment options it gives you. And also how many like alignment places, poor wires. You, for example, this e two and a raper. Where's your to alignment to places for any question. This equal sign is a natural alignment place so called nature because we want all of our equations to be aligned at equal sign. So but sometimes, if you want toe do otherwise you can do that. For example, in this case, I have aligned my questions on the left hand side and the second important thing you should be looking at when selecting one of these environments to write your metallurgical equation . Is that how in and wire mint gives you numbering facility? For example, this week you narrow environment acquitting environment. This numbers every line is a separate equation. So whenever you enter a new line, it will be numbered the next equation. So 1st 2nd 3rd equation. But sometimes you don't want that. For example, here, if you are proving something and there are 45 steps I just mentioned two steps, but there could before 56 steps and you want you don't want every step to be number separately. You want all these equations to be numbered Onley one number. And similarly, if you re question is very long, this is the same equation Two different steps. But if your equation is sometimes very longer, you want to split on two lines. You see, there's no equation call sign on this line because this is the same equation going on on like this. So in this case, you will use a certain environment. So this is your choice that whole then workmen numbers. They question, hold on Arment Alliance that William and there are also some Midwest issues related to the numbering which I have the intention toe make us separate video, but after this course sometime, but that this course is only for beginner to intermediate level users. That is, at once topic that hold early. Take it actually controls this numbering. There could be many options you want numbers, Toby, section based chapter based are so many things. The third thing is, they're told and warm. It handle spaces. One of the complaint people have this equal and area environment. Is that the handling of spaces in this environment? So let's start doing these using these environments. Let's type this first equation, and we will be using this equal an arian wear meant So I have copied and pasted that equation from my other program to save some time. This is no equal in every environment, so because it is an environment, we don't have to use that square brackets said First, I compiled this and see how it looks like at the moment. So it is aligned at the equal sign. So this environment provides us to a alignment places. This M percent sign is the airline alignment place. So, for example, I want to align this at equal sign. So in this environment, we are kind of forced to put this in percent on both side of the equal. If you want this to align it equal sign Say I want I tell letting that align the first letters and align the equal sign So this cannot be aligned board together without disturbing the spaces because this has six or seven digits and this has three digits. And I am asking latex toe a line equal sign and align the first digits because I have to alignment places with this m person sign. So if we compile, see what happens and see what happens. The letter choline that equal sign. But for the 1st 10% it optimizes these three digits and it aligned from them in the center like this. So this is the decision off this and wire minty. What happens if I put this in percent from here and place it after this equal sign, which was the beginning situation? Or you will better understand their difference by fiery compiling. And no, you can see that it is landed the call sign and these airline flush on the right hand side . So by changing from this too, after the environment has presented us, they're different option for alignment. So it depends on whether you want this or whether you want the previous one. So you have to alignment places available in this environment to M percent side. So this is how we culinary works? No. I bring the next equation, which is this split environment and show you how to use the split environment. So in order to use the split environment, what we do here is we begin the equation and well, so let's first do a brilliant environment instead of the queen. And they know we are using equation a simple equation environment. And I tried to right? Don't this e questions week Waas week was there is a fractions of backs that fraction a numerator and a denominator in the numerator. I have war by our cubes are head three For this in my numerator and the denominator I have on the denominator, I have just three. So this is my equation first, and let's see, I press this enter and I tried toe do it with the equation environment and no, again. I have a fraction connection And this time I have four in the numerator and train the denominator And then with this I have backslash boy and then are hurt. Three. Okay, no if I compiled this. So this is my equation environment. As you can see, that I have placed a new line. But it's still type like this because equation environment ignores that entering off a line . So this is a hold a question and where medically environment is for one equation. But what about if I want this to be on a separate line for that? In order to do like this, we have to use the spirit environment and hope to do that. We just After this equation, we start begin lit. And before this equation, we have to end this, of course. And the split. If I compile it, no, you will see that it has pleaded it into lines and this is what we want it till the number is one. But we wanted this to show each and every step on a separate light, so there could be 10 steps. So this is a hobby. Use pretend we know the next environment is a line in Westbridge. Okay, I just bring this equation and explain how to do this. Align environment works independently so we can start a line environment just like this. It doesn't law the nesting. So begin a line and no and the line so you can nest, align environment within a question. Environment are equal. In Adrian Whiteman, you have to put it independently and no. For example, I have to write three X equals four y. So I write three x equals for a while. And then I enter a line, for example. And then I two x minus. Fight equals white. And then I interline. And then I said three x plus four y equals 12 plus three extorted 300 X plus 34. But these are my questions. So the online environment gives me one in person saying one alignment place. So the norm alignment places equal signs. What I can do, I can see. Okay, Elaine equal. Sign off this one with equal sign of this one with equal sign of this one. So in a line. And where, Mitt, I have one name person saying in equal area environment, I had to know I have only one or two x minus five equals. Why? So you compile it and now you can see that our equations are aligned perfectly, are equal sign. And this environment is wonderful. If I want to align at the start, I can see okay in person saying here only. I have one name, person sign, so I can't do it. Twice the weight will show Eric. So no, I say OK aligned the 1st 1 If I re compile it with a line at the beginning No, all equations are aligned at the beginning. On the left side, I can also a line on the right side. If I put em person saying here and they become boiled, it will align their the right and service and warm. It is very useful, very easy to use And no, let's say we have three pair of equations not one, but three, just like in our example, just like here. Here we have three pair of equations. So how this works. So this is because this is three peer. So this is just like a tabular. So it means No, we have this m person sign one for every question. For this with this so one name person saying for the alignment of equal same. Then there is one person saying in between these two to separate these two elements one in person saying for this equal and one in person signed to separate it from there and then 1% signed for this sequel. So into in total, we will be having three m person signed for these three equal signs and then to 1% signed to separate these 21 for this separation and one for the separation, just like in every environment. So this is how it will work. So I just copy paste from my other program this whole three questions I don't waste time and then I will show you how it works. OK, so no, I have a copy pasted that this set of equation This first M person sign here is saying that align this m percent with this 10% this equal with this equal and this equal with this sequel. Then the second in person saying separates this whole equation from this equation. So this is online environment works. So in one row, if you have four equations so you will need three m person separators. No, If I compiled this, all these equations are aligned at the equal sign. So if you want to align these two equations, for example, if you want to align these two equations flesh left. So you can do that. You can do that by taking this m person. Same. All these three in person signs from here to the beginning. And if I compile? No, the first column will be aligned Flush left. This column is flush left. If, for example, you want this column toe flush, right, you can put them percent sign from this same person saying, which is that they quit this one. But I'm here. If you change this, delete this from equal. Put it at danger. Don't take the separate 11%. This is the alignment and person. So if I compiled it No, no, These are flush, right, And these are flush left, and these are flush at equal sign. So hopefully this will explain everything about the line and warm and very useful environment. Whether you have three equations in a role for equation in a row are one equation in a row . So we have seen example with one example with three. This gives you complete control on each and everything. The sources of error is this m percent. If you missed this separated in percent on this alignment and percent. So take the count camp. Okay, so next one is Aliant environment. So whatever Use aligned environment. As I explained earlier in first with you that this environment takes all the text wit you see from here, you hear? It takes old. If you want to put any bracket here, big parentis is you don't have space. Let it will show you an error. It doesn't allow you. So in that case, we use this a line judge a normal instead of a lime aligned and weapons. So how we do that aligned and wherever the second advantages that aligned environment can be nested in equation and wear it so we can say that beginning, region and then and equation And inside that we can have this aligned and will begin a line and and delight. No, I'm deleting all this equation and I will write these equations so this thistle lined environment gives us one n percent. So I put here that I say OK, line at equal sign. So in person, in person. So I say line at these equal signs and no, I want to put this bracket So for that after the Aligned environment. I after the line environment here I have to put beck slash and then right, Right. And then Becks alleged this one. So it has right and left commands. So left command is here. So I have left. And again If I put a starting breast years and know you can see that before lined environment you can have this type off calibrates as well left backs Alaska Liberate bracket. And on the right side, this is the right one. Right back slash calibrate. If I compiled, Lloyd will put both viruses, so just have a look. So you see, we have both bread, but we don't want this left one. We only want right one so Or to do that. Just put our daughter after this here. Left after this left about Dr No. If I compiled this, it was only though Oh, sorry. We have to delete this one. This bracket is well, other ways. Just just daughter and delete that bracket and then it will Sure, you only one bracket on the right. So this is the one bracket on the right. So no, for example, You want to explain something here, whatever you want. So you want some space here? Cuc Ward are quite space. And then you want to write a text as we did before. So the same you can right after this right bracket. Okay, after this right bracket, then you can write again for space. You can write you quarter quarter, whatever. Double guard, double space. And then you can put text just like before and whatever you want. What they were You want, for example, you say energy, energy question that something? No. If I compiled this, it has this. No, if you don't want this number, I forgot to tell you in the beginning. But if you don't want this number in any of the equations that any of the environment so what you do, you just put star in this equation and at it at Diane Desmond, a Quillian star like if you do equally in star, you will not see the number. No, there is no number here And know this reduce has become a little bit Lenti. So maybe I will just discuss these metrics environment in our next video 25. Matrix Environments In Latex : Okay, now let's talk about Matics environments. Medics and weapons are very simple to understand and it's just like any in wet went an environment is something like a tabular environment and the difference between area environment and tabular environment, which we already lying, is that every environment works inside Ahmet environment. First, let's start with their environment and I will show you the difference between area and other metrics. Environments are this area Onda and any enlightenment unless delete all these and we started the math environment here and and the method where mint here. So not this Aryan wear meant just like table that environment. It takes argument. So argument means we have to tell how many columns. Let's say we have three columns and these columns are center line. So therefore see and no less support Dantes 1st 1 and then the second n percent in the second entry in the in person in the third, so end of the line. So this is the first row, then four n percent, 5% 6 and of second line 7% 18% 9 and no, this is end up over any environment. So if I compiled this it will show me this type of results just like this one. As you can see, this is our simple Arian. Women know in this environment you can put anything. I mean, you can put a hole for Mullah in this. You can put any Squire route and infraction. So let me put a fraction in this. So backslash, Frank. And let's take any number to the worded boy to be and let's put ice choir route here. So for square root, we can go to Matt Years and take us quietly from there. Unless we say the previous one is quick. They had two plus b had to. So this is a squared plus B squared. If I compiled this no, you can see whole later, perfectly aligned this formal and everything without attending any line spacing it had adjusted the fraction by reducing the size of the digits in the friction and perfectly balance of metrics is here. No, this is a table, er our table like environment. And some people prefer this environment over tabular and women. When you are putting Matt formulas in this. So it's up to you and you can use this environment if you want to put these lines, so it's very simple. Just put where pickle bar here and you will get all these lines available to you. This I already explained. In tabular environment, the same thing applies in Arian wear much and for horizontal lines. You can also put the horizontal line. For example, at the top, you can put each line, and if you want a horizontal line after every line, you can do it like this. That line and then again backslash edge line. And if you want to put it down, you have to first enter the end of the line, and then you can put that line and this will be up full box full of horizontal and vertical lines. So, just like that, So this is your horizontal and vertical lines if you want. If you want any few of them, Recep to you. No, what is a mathematics environment? No, if you look here, these are Matics and warmers and political for thus five metrics and warmer, which are named as P metrics. Lower case. Beamer takes up against Beamer, ticks lurking, swimmer ticks, uppercase v metrics. And these five and wire man's basically only differs in the type of parentis is around the metrics. Otherwise, there is no difference. So it's just time to change the name because all these are required in mathematics. Most like Mattis mattresses in these type off square brackets. But some also used this type off. Similarly, some use these curly brackets, and these are used for determinant type of martyrs in linear algebra. Any other math courses, you will find these type of return Miller's and also these double lines. So these type of murders is only differ in the name and the bracket. The offer there was there is no difference. No hold these metrics. Mattresses differ from any environment is that these metrics and wire mesh do not require these arguments. You don't have to put these number of columns upto 10 columns, and you can change. This counter from this becomes into advanced topics, and I am not discussing those things here. But the simple thing is, if you have less than 10 columns, you can you don't need toe declare these si, si, si, si, si si. 10 times in Matics environments, it automatically takes whatever columns your you are making. So let's start with this P Matics environment, for example. So what? I do it instead of head it? I write p metrics. Then I don't put any of these arguments. And let's say I because in matters we don't have these horizontal lines. Just remove this look really a glean Matics environment. So just believe these. And then we are done with this Very simple. Just change the name and you will get another peer brackets. And no, If I compiled these, you get this P metrics. No, there is no difference in any of these. If you want be metrics this one. Just change this to B metrics and you will get any other type of break it. If you compile this, we will get another type of bracket there set so simple. It's only the matter of me. What type of name you put in the and your program. You will get the same type of my trick. No, I think this is enough for metrics. Whatever Martic you want, you can use it. No, this is a gym, Rick Statement. General Containment of march. So this is nothing special. You just used the metrics. And then instead of all these want to you put a and very square And then in curly brackets , 111 tau the position of the Ruin column. So this is basically just a four problem by four rule be matrix in this entry instead off. And like any number or anything, you just put this back slept, deducts back sliding doors, and this will print these d does. So no need toe further. Explain anything. I think this is enough for metric environments. And no, we have done all the equation environment. Most of the question what? They're still fume or equipment environments available. But with this split align and kisses environment and equal and area and the question environment, you can write each and every type off equity impossible in mathematics. So I hope that you will be confident in using all these equations and murders. Is 26. Latex Presentations Overview: in next few lectures, we will be looking at how to make presentations in later let it offers you a lot off functionality, and you can choose a lot off teams and colors in allergic. And the best thing about later presentations is that you can take this presentation with you wherever you want, and you don't have to buy any expensive software. For sure. Your presentations only representations are PdF based and PD of Yuri's free so you can show your presentations easily. I'm using one of the teams, which is called Ann Arbor. This team offers you three pallets at the bottom, so the right pellet shows the Progress bar that I am. It's like one of 20. The middle is the short title. Off the lecture, you put a long title and a short title. The short writer will be displayed here in the middle pellet and on the left elect. You have daughter name. So here is the beautiful title in the middle daughter name and and the institute name and the next light we can see that there is a list of the topics which I'm gonna cover today. You have the ability to browse to state away. Go to any of these topics. If you want, you can go to the next light by tending your mouse wheel. The two parties card free. This is the title of the free and the inner part. This is a block, so there are few blocks available in Beamer package. One is example. Block while is a normal block and one is alert block, so there are a couple of blocks available by default. They have certain colors, but you can change these colors, and I will show you in the following with use whole to change these colors, and then you have the ability. For example, if these are the topics you want to discuss, but you start from the 1st 1 you have the ability to highlight the topic, which you are discussing at the moment, and the rest is great out. And then you can move to the next topic and to the next and sore. So this is a very useful functionality. And then there are beautiful text boxes, so these textbooks is you can have off anywhere it. If you want this week to be equal to this belong, you can increase it. You can have full control of the color, the background color of the text boxes, and you can have any colors in between these two. Then there is This is another type of block which is looking different. And if you compare it with the example block, this is example Block and this is the block. So then, in this case, there is no frame, and only block is there. So if you want more area to display any image you can inside images here as well are you want a bigger area for your example Block and you don't want free him. You can put the example block state of it instead of the free. Then you have the ability to jump from one slight to any other slight. For example, I want some more details about this topic so I can click on this, and it will take me to the other slide where I have some details about the topic. And then you can put any word here like go back or go to slider. I just put it course so you can click back and you will be bet the slight. Then there is another useful feature athletic is that you can use another package, which is card pigs, and I will have some lectures about picks later on. So that takes package. You can use toe, make some diagrams. If you are going to explain something, this is not a picture. This is not any me. This is a diagram made in Arctic expected and I will show you Froome or diagrams later in this lecture. But this is one of the diagrams made in takes. You can have arrows. You can have this block. You can have mathematics inside. So all these functionalities available. You can put this colorful textbooks inside the example below. You can write mathematics there, then, for example, in the dessert table, and you want to reveal that table step by step. You are explaining something in the first row, and then you want to go to the next row and then toe the next draw. So you have the ability to reveal the table in steps so you can take few quizzes in class. For example, if you want to take a quick quiz in the class, you can write a question without the answer, and then you can ask the students toe, give you the answer and and then you can reveal the answer to the first question and then toe the second question. So this is a very useful functionality if you're taking lectures and then you can also realist in step. So this is a topic. And then there is a list of questions. Assignment questions, or you can we will step by step. First question. Second question entered question so listed in tables. Both can be revealed in steps. Then you have the ability to put mathematical equations very complex. Equations are even more complex than this world. You can put all these questions in your text box colorful textbook inside our textbooks. So there is outer textbook with a background color, and then you can put any other textbooks and then match in that area. So you have lot of functions and a lot of options available. Then there is a powerful functionality off integrating pigs diagrams into your Beemer presentations. So this diagram is a married using pigs package, and I have put that diagram inside the Beamer presentation. Other picks diagrams are very powerful, but it takes some time to make this type of diagrams. These are not complex at all. But the only thing is that you have to figure or certain coordinates to draw these lines. So there is no complexity at all in these takes diagrams. The only thing is that at times they could be time consuming. If you have a lot of lines like in this, if I go to the next one, I have to draw these lines using the coordinates. So I have to figure out what is this card in and what is this card? And then I have toe draw these lines so similarly I can put So this is an environment on Lee out off lab environment and the robot here. It has to go to the next position on the right side and then a couple of ways to go. So I'm trying to demonstrate that this is one of the way that I can say, OK, this is the other where to go Reach there. And this is the tired option. So you can use these type of interactive diagram for any of your purpose. Whatever you want to show, however you want to show those things, then you have the ability toe brows at the top. So this is your presentation So you can click on any of these part like you can go state away, toe that slight, and this is very powerful. When you have tow re explain, anything are which you are. If you are answering questions, so you have to go to any slides. So you have all that on your dashboard and these are pdf presentations, which is the best form it available to us. So in next two or three lectures, I will be explaining hard to make these presentations. 27. Using Colors In Latex: in this lesson, we learn how to use colors in later. So there are four types off colors which we can use by their names. We don't have to define any colors if you want to use color by names. First of all, there are some based colors for these colors. We will use only this color package without any option off this packet. Because in this practice we put options from here. But here report some option. We can put some options so these basic colors are available if we use this color package and without using any option. So these are always available. So there are around 19 colors which are available to us. I will show you in a minute. Then there are colors which are available. If we use this option. The V. I. P s names with a command like this use package color and then we say use names common D. V. I. P s names. Then we are able to use the these colors. So there are a lot of colors which we can act to these colors. We get access to the V. I. P s names, option at colors, then there are few other color names available to us, which are SVG name. So they are more than the V I. P s names. A lot of colors available if we use this option. But this option is only available to X color package. So the V I. P s names option of a liberal color next color packet. So these are the two men packages which we use whenever we want produce colors in later. So initially it was color packet and they added some more colors and ex calories the word wants to package so and with using SVG name option in X color package, we get access to some extra colors which we can use by name. So here we're talking about if you want to use colors by name, then using X 11 options, we get access to some more color options and this option is also only available in X color packet. And no, let's look at those colors which we have access to using these options. So these are the base colors, these 19 colors, as you can see that they all start with a lower case blag blue grown and all these these colors are always available, then these are the D. V. I. P s name option colors. So if you use this up this option in the package x color color, then you get access to these all these colors. And if you see here, all these start with a capital letters. There are some differences here. If you look carefully. For example, this green. This green is the lure case screen and we have an uppercase green. So these two are different colors. Of course, there is no difference in black, but there are some differences in other colors. These are the SPD name colors, a lot of colors available. Then there are X 11 names option and you can see that list is even bigger than SPD names, variations off yellow and similarly maroon variations, and you have Lord off option. This way we can use 100 of these colors by their names. Let's start using one off some of these colors and then we will discuss how to define over own colors later in this life. So, first of all, we have to use a packet, so the color is the big basic backing. So I am using the color package and without any option, there is no option. So we get access to some basic colors. So let's say that we want to use red color. So I will say backslash color and then in curly brackets, read with a look. I know if I compiled this program so text off all my document will be changed to Rex. All this text has been changed to direct. Similarly, you can use any column and no, if you want to use the capital red color with this, which is it could be different and which is accessible by using the V I. P s names. If I complied, like this program will not complain because it cannot find the definition of this capital wreck. So we have to use the other option, which is the V. I. P s names option. So I will say use names D V I. P s names. It's a coma. So then if I combine this, no, you can get that I No, I am able to compile this program and this radical it is almost similar to that one. So let's say, for example, if I don't want to change the color off all of my text, but only this line. So for that we can use a command guard, text, color, text gunner and envy mentioned the text color of the text me if you want to change and then we poor start the curly records and then whatever it takes, we want to change the color off. You just put it within the curly brackets. And no, if I compiled, only the first line will be changed. In this way, you can change the take the color of any specific text. So let us say that we want to change the background color of the page. So there is a command for that which scarred period collect and you put the color, for example, see on. So this will change the background color of the page. So, as you can see, the background color of the chain has been changed. So no letters say that we want to define our own colors in order to define our own colors. We must understand color mortars because we will be defining colors based on one of these motors. So there are two kinds of models. So first of all, there are some appropriately mortals like Pantone and HKS colors, so these colors give you very predictable results when you print them. So the problem with Collins is that when you bring the color what you see on the skin, usually you don't get when you print that color. So these type of colors, the appropriate repent on an SKs colors they have. They have been designed for these predictable results. Whenever you print on a cloth, not paper. So what type of people you are using? Where there's a quoted paper are unquoted people, so they have all type of variation they will give you. Okay, this is over courted color variation for this color, so they have certain books. So you you buy those books and you look at the book color, and whatever you can see on that book color, you will. You will get on the We will get that collect printed, so this will give you a predictable results on different mediums. Where there's courted color page, whether it's a cloth with unquoted, Page is subject to finish page. There's a fine finished page so you can get some predictable desserts by using these colors . Then these air the perimeter based model. These three are there other mortals? But these three are most important. So therefore I mentioned only these three. So these three are card perimeter based mortar where you give the perimeters of certain colors. So, for example, RGB model is based on red, green and blue. So in this model, the white is shown as 111 So if you if you define this color if you want to define the articular in later you will just use this command. Define collect backs like defined color. Then whatever name you want to give this color to, For example, this my own cars to Michael. Then you pour the name of the model which you're using. So RGB Then you give the variations of these red, green and blue as that decimal between zero and 10.2 0.8 and Europa into. So as you can see that there are indefinite options you can give here, this will be a certain color which we can see when you just print it. But this collectibles only see on the screen if you want the same result, which you can see on print medium then Geo. Don't use RGB mortar because RGB will be printed differently. So if you are making electric document which will be printed later on, then your option is to use the C and Y Kim order because CM waking model is the industrial printing mortar. This is used by the industrial printers. So in this way, used see on magenta, yellow and black black, the key, the card key color. So we use CNN, magenta, yellow and black variations. And so therefore, we have no four different options to giving this so we can define the seem like a color like I know what you see on the Scream. Most probably that color will be printed, but senior white color space cannot give you as bright colors as available in RGB mortar because these air light best killers, so you will see the difference when you're you seem like a killer. So if you are only using for webpages, your document for webpages, then you can use RGB colors are HTML colors, and for HTML colors, there are a lot off. If you, for example, you like any webpage color so you can use a chrome extension like I drop or this is a chrome extension. And this extension we captured the HTML code for that color, and then you can used their killer in your related document. By defining like this, you can define countless colors at Geron with your own names, and then you can use them in the same freshen as we have used. The other color, like text color, are page called or anything like that. So things are some of the models I wanted to highlight to you. So not let us say I defined my own color. So what I will do? I will put define color and then I can give any names, for example, my color. And then I have to give the mortal name of G B lair sick and then I would have to do for RTB. Model requires three perimeter. So therefore I have to give three parameters. So 0.2 I said, you know, point it and 0.4 So these are the three parameters for are typically and no, I have defined this Michael, but because I'm not using at the moment, so why not use it for this first line of text? So instead off this red, I use this color name, which is my color. I can use this name no and no less. They removed this page. Color command. I have seen you have already seen that and no effort combined this. And I know as you can see that this is my color. So this is the color combination which I defined with my color, and this text has been changed to that color. So in this way you can define any color by using this. Define color command with different models and then you can use that color. So let us define another color. Define color. Second color, let's name it second color. And then we used the model cm like it this time. And then you have to give four perimeters letters. A 0.20 Ponti. You're playing for Andy Roper and fight. So these are the four parameters required. And no, I use here second color and see how it looks like when he does, you can see there is almost great. So it's a It's a variation of great and no, let's change this to something else. 0.4 It says you don't play one 0.6 and why do and see the difference? And no, as you can see, no, it is turning towards green so low. If you give this seem like a killer, toe the company from where you are printing something so they will be able to wear just their color of the ink so that they can get this color printed for you. So in this way you can define colors from various models, and you can use them. So let's use X color package. So I just copied this and paste and changed his two ex color excuse Package gives us access toe SVG names and the X 11 names option. So let's say I want to use this cocky color as my page color, so I will use SPD names option. So I will use s weedy names option and then I can use cocky color has my peach color, so backslash is cooler and then cookie so nobody wanted to use is that my text color at them are the color of my or text should be. Let's say brown. So I say color and I choose the brown, which is available from the basically this, so no, no. As you can see their cock ease the pace killer and brown is the basic bronies. The text, color and no letter say that I remove this color command in order to say I want to change only this text I want to highlight in a box so I can also use a command car color books. Then I can assign the color for Let's say good, Dean. And then I can assign this fixed. So this will put a box behind this text and where you can see there. This text has been highlighted so you can use it if you want to highlight the text. So there is another way toe change the color off any text on the fly and which is by using command color. And then here, for example, I want this color Toby 40% of green and rest black. So I will say Green Commission Maher, 40 the commission more black and know where you can see that our text has been changed to 42% green and 60% black. This command color, this type of command, you might see somewhere inside other later command where the command is expecting a color Toby input so you can use backslash color in this way. You can immediately define a color and then put it in another letter command. So this one, this is aware to use the color as well, so there are some other packages no available. Give access toe Google colors, color designs and some other colors so you can have a look at those if you want really interested in. Some would want stopping, but normally we just define our own colors are we used some of the existing colors, and this is enough for most of politic application, because we have access to so many colors that there is no problem getting any colors we want. So if you want to get looking, feel off some colors, so there is a website car later color dot com. So on this website, there are a lot of colors available so you can go through any of these colors and see what color you like for your document. And then there is a definition available for this. So this color, for example, has dis RGB variations, and this is dashed email court for this color So while putting the team record, you don't have to put this high sign. Just put the number. So in this way you can select any color and use them. So this is a very useful website. Lee to color dot com You might refer to this website so these are some off the matters To use color. You can either use any of the packages like color on X color package, with some options to get access to some other colors are. You can define your own colors using some of the color models available to us, and this way you can manipulate the documents, look and feel. If you want to change the color of only the text and you can use this text color, come on. And then with parentheses, you can change whatever color you want, so I hope this will help you in using colors in lipstick 28. Presentation Themes in Latex: In this video, we will learn ho to make later presentations. And when we say that we're making presentations in later, it means that we are using some off the team's analytic. We don't usually program each and every element off the tee, but we don't normally program even the templates off a team. So what we do is we try to make use of the teams which are re Liberto us and there are so many teams available. And then we have so many options toe change, the Templars and the elements of the presentation that we don't have to programming Miletic ever. So this is a simple presentation, which I have I have already shown to you and all the function which this has. And the purpose of this video is to show you how you can change the teams and what are the teams available and how they affect the elements of the presentation. So, first of all, you should understand that all these functionalities and everything which is inside a presentation is called the element off a presentation. And these elements are gwen by certain teams. For example, this is a dashboard which shows the progress of the presentation, and it has a certain former. Sometimes one frame can have more than one slight. So on the right lawyer bottom, you can see that there is a progress bar. So you should understand what element is God and then hope to modify that element, our hope, itching the color of that element. So these three elements at the bottom there cars pellets. So the blue one on the right is called the primary pellet, and the second, the Middle East card. A second repellent on on the left is Skarda, tertiary pellet. Some teams offer to pellets some off for three pillars and some more for four pillars. So you have toe check the team, which teams want, and then you can see which best shows your application. Because no one has used all the teams. For example, I have mostly used three or four teams, which I like. I have tested vanities, but mostly I used three or four teams. So I know those 34 teams better than any other teams. So you might not like those teams. Depends on you what type off teams you need. So in this we do, I will briefly introduce to you What are the teams and what elements? The effect. So these are some off the presentation teams in letting, so these teams are divided into five different class. So the first list on the left these are the teams which you do not have any navigation park , so in which you don't see the progress off your presentation. Then there are teams which have the tree like navigation Bob, in which you get a connected sections subsections on the left corner. Then there are teams with the table of contents sidebar on which you have on the lever. Inside. You have a table of contents on your presentation. Then there are teams with many frame navigation and also teams with section and subsection tables in which you have all the section and subsection going at the top off your presentation. So the best way to understand these teams is I will show you in a minute. It's very simple. Just one command coaching the team. So you just change the name of the team in your used team command, and you will instantly see the difference. O R team without navigation bar looks like and how are things with a table of contents. Sidebar Looks like with just changing a single name off the team in one command, you can see all these effects. These are the five team types in Beamer Package Memories, the package in which will make presentations So there are some things are card presentation teams, and we have. I have already shown these teams are clear to you. So there are five team types in Beamer, so some are card presentation teams. Some are card color teams, then four teams, voter teams and inner teams. So presentation teams are those things which controlled all the elements in a presentation . They control all the elements in the presentation, then the color teams color things dictates colors. So which colors are used in a particular team? Then there are four teams. We dictates the phone directory books than there are ultra teams. And when we say outer outer means anything which is outside the main text. So men text is usually inside a frame, so everything outside the frame is controlled by outta teams such as headlines, foot lines, sidebars, airframe titles, while inner things control everything which is inside the text and inside the text means that I have shown you already in my previous present pre previous lecture that there are some blocks like example, blobs, colored blocks. So all these type of blocks there inside the text. So these are controlled by inner team, so you can select representation team. Then you can also select the color teen outer team our energy. So this is their. This gives you a lot of combinations because there are 10 15 presentation teams. Then there are 7 to 10 maybe color teams and auto time. The teams are also 10 to 15 so you can calculate that khomeni combinations you have. So in normal circumstances you will never need toe program. Anything you will never need toe hard court anything. So this course is also not for these type off wants used, so we will only discuss hard to use these teams and hold to change certain colors. Certain many elements of the presentations 29. Making Presentations In Latex Changing Theme Attributes: So let us come back to this presentation and no, I will show you what teams I'm using in this presentation. Ho, I'm using them and how you can change them. And then we will discuss hold to change these colors. And then we will also see some off the functionalities which we have already discussed. It holds changes, for example, color which you are discussing, how to change this color to blue and gray, all the little things and similarly other functionaries which we have seen in the first video. So team's colors and then some of these functionalities we will discuss in this video and then you will be able to minutely attack presentations. So first off, the first thing you should know is that hope to defined colors, and the second video in this section of the scores is about defining colors using colors in . Let it so you can refer back to deck with you if you don't know how to define these colors , and I have already explained how to define these colors, what are the color mortars available and hope to define these colors? And then this is the command which you can use to change the team. So currently I'm using the Ann Arbor team which is one of the teams which we have discussed . What? One of the presentation teams. So this is the team I'm using. And then this is the color team I'm using at the moment, Maroon and structure is the structure of the presentation. And then there is the outer team which affects everything outside after text area. So as I explained earlier, so the outer team I'm using is called smooth bars and then I'm using the energy. So in our team is card circles. So let me show you this example Here This is the presentation we get from the Karan program which I have. So as you can see that these circles, these circles are drawn with this Kamar use inner team circles. Well, my old example, which I have shown in my first video, has these rounded spheres very color bold ship things. So these these were drawn when I was using rounded here instead of circles I was using rounded. So if you use rounded, you will get this effect. Well, if you use circles, you will get the effect off a circle like this and your numbers will be inside the circles . So this is the inner team which is controlling this behavior because this is inside the text. So this is how this inner team works. So you just play with different anything like you have three options here, circles around it and rectangles. So if you put a rectangles here, then you will see there we will see a rectangle here. So this is all inner teams work. Similarly, this altar teams affect certain things. And when you change, these alter teams toe some other older themes which are available, which I have shown you earlier. So one of those order teams you can use and you can see their difference. So this is how you change that? Using these treek are four commands. Then you have second options within a team like maroon. Are these desert? Basically, if you want to know what options you have ability available, you can see the documentation of the class. But normally, using a certain team is enough because there are so much different that so much variety is available that we don't need anything else. No, these are some of the commands which you would use when you want to have certain colors change, for example, I want to change the front off the title, the phone size of the tighter, so I will say sent, said Beamer. Phone off title size equals backs alleged large. And what are these sizes? We have discussed this in a video. It has the title of using texting later or something like that. So this is one of the video in discourse, so you can refer to that video and you can see what size is we have. So whatever size you want, you can put it here. Then B f series. We have discussed this that this makes all elements board face this command. So this we have discussed writing in table section then. Similarly, there are some commands which can can be used to change the color. For example, set Beamer color title. So FG means foreground and BT means background like this. So when you say, said Beamer, killer title four grounds or this changes the text. Normally the color of the text. When you say background 13 is the background color, you should see here that these are given in curly brackets. So these are our woman. These are not options. You have to give these within the curly bracket. Sometime you give option like this one. This is an option. Use Beamer color foreground for Lincoln and which is black. So whatever is in the curly breakers are arguments. And these ropes take care of these. That whether you are using an argument or you're using an option, then you will not do any mistakes. So this is to do It means that whatever is your institute you mentioned here in your title , for example, here my institute is you X ways at university effects ways there. So this is the short institute, and this is the full institute. So we use short institute because sometimes, as you can see here that in the pellet we don't have much space. So we use a short title which is shown here. This is for this to two. So this is the title of the presentation. So this is not the full tight. This is my full title of the presentation. But this is a short title which which will go into the middle palate of this team. If you're using a different team. So sometimes your team might show Author in the middle and your title on the left are Maybe it doesn't have any progress. Bar this one so it depends on the team. So coming toe this highlighting effect If you notice here that I am at the moment here No, I my friend, is still the same. But actually I am on a difference light. My slight has changed So this functionality is achieved by using this command. So in this what is happening is that there are two pair of curly brackets. One is this one from there to there and the other is the next ones to within these curly brackets, we are just duplicating the same thing. So you can see that the text is same and we're just duplicating their text but with a different color. You are You're saying that during the presentation whenever we are at this item, this color will be shown the first parent pair of brackets which is blue. And whenever we're not here, the other color will be shown. So this is how this works. So you have to give this command item one and then backslash Artur 234567 And then only one will be soon blue at a time And the rest will be great out because only item one is shown as below So I dont want is here Indicating is when we are at decide So this is how this works then the next thing which was in this presentation is this box. This is made by your takes package. So this takes back. It is not part of this course, but you can learn it at your own. But I have the intention to put one lecture about takes which I have mentioned in the description of the course that I will put one lecture of takes in which you will be able to make these type of some art. Simple text blocks are some simple figures. So I will put one lecture later on in this course. No coming back to this. I have explained this that there are few blocks available to us as you can see that this block has a little shadow here at a corner, these two corners and it has a white background. While some blocks have a green background as you can see here, this is This is an example, Block. And this is an alert block, so they have a little bit of difference. And you can control these colors. I'll show you in a minute, and this is alert block. So this is started with begin alert below command and an alert blow command. So this is your and alert block. So within this block, you have simple list command begin, itemized and atomize. Similarly, the green one was the example. Block. And then you have this list within that if you want to go from one friend to another free. If I click on this, I will go toe this frame, and if I click on this, I'll go back. So, in order to get this going from one to other frame, what we have to do, we have to do two things here and two things on the other friend where we're going. So, in this frame, what we have to do, we have to put a label of the frame like this label equals outline. So this is kind of a name off the frame. You can see this is the frame from where we're jumping and This is the command which we have toe give here. So what is this? Command? This is hyperlink. And this is the name of the block. We're we're going toe from this petition. The label of the other friend. I'll show you when we go on that friend. Then this command is saying beamer butter. So create a bottom. So this is the bottom. And there is some text inside the border. So whatever it takes you aren't you can put here. This is the text of the bottom, which is inside this Lib records. And then there is the outer curly bracket from here to here, which says makeup, but so make a Beamer button, Put this text inside and link this to this frame. So this is what we're saying here. So this is the other free. As you can see, this is the name we are using dip and no, we have the same command here which will take us from this frame back to the previous free . So, no, you're saying create a beamer bottom for this court text on that course. As you can see that when we go from this tour that we have this text in the bottom and when we click this, we go back. You were saying poor this text and go back to the frame Name outline So which has a label of outline One of the powerful feature off later. And this is all happening in pdf? No. The next thing is ho to revealed this table step by step like this when you turned the veal of your most are when you rest there don't at this table will show the next group photo do this step by step. Very simple. You just have to give up past command here. So this is our table. So what you have to do here is just after the horizontal line after table. This is the line of the table and then this is the horizontal night. After the horizontal line, you put this command backslash pass. It will not move to the next rule off the table until you turn the wheel of the most are until you press the down arrow and these arrows are drawn using the picks, picture environment, this one and this is your arrow. So just draw arrow and then you can give the pretend everything and NoHo toe make this quiz . So in this quiz, we basically have first off all this slight with new answers. Then if I rotate the well, I get the first answer. Then I rotate the well. I get that second answer So there are basically three different slights so hard to achieve this. So this is over frame. This is a work class quiz frame here. We're using this command. Only 11 means that when we air at first slight, then you show in color white the answer stability. This is our answer. But this is written in color white, so we cannot see it. So what is happening here is that at our first slightest over first, let's stability still written here. But it is returning white color, so we cannot see it. When I turned the V, no, I am ex lied to. So what I'm telling the program is that only it's like to and later on, you see, here is a little only X lied to and afterwards this era means afterwards, so only had slight too, and afterwards show this stability in green color. So this is what I'm telling them. Program So program one, slide one. There is no there is only closing Bracketed, closing sign here. So only our slide one It is in color white, then two and afterwards. Because this is zero cool and afterwards it is shown in green. So no, in the next answer what I'm seeing only on slide one you showed in white and then three and afterwards. So it means not into no action there too. But three and afterwards show it in green. So the second answer will be shown at slight number three. So this is how this works. No, this is a game of textbooks and then we can reveal these one by one using the past command which we already discussed. Now you have learned how to change the teams. No, let us see hope to change the collapse. For example, you want to change the color of the title of the free. So said be Mulcair a title for ground. You look similarly You can say background. Similarly, you can change the color of subtitle using this command said Beamer color subtitle and then you can say foreground is equal toe dark hockey vitriol already defined here. So you define a color and then you change the color using any of these commands. No. The last thing I want to highlight is ho to change the colors of these pellets. So some teams have group alert. Some have three, so this is primaries can read tertiary and quarterly. So these are four types, so you can see that you can change the primary color by using this command said be Malka paillard primary and it's better works and you put this inside a macro. This is a more backslash more presentation, and within these curly breakers you change the color of this. These pillars so said women Color start palette, primary used a cure foreground white background bill and you can define this color early. So this is all you change the primary color than the security color than the treasury color . And if the beam offers further colors, you can. There is 1/4 me. There are four colors you can change and similarly frame title, background, color and frame tighter on the right background color, so you can also change this. Similarly, you contain the color of the example. Block Carol currently is dark green in my case. You can change this to anything which I already shown you this example Block, So you can change the color of these. So these are some off the command. You just put these commands and you will get the file this with the course. So you can just use this file. You can change these colors. You can play with different type of team combinations. There are so many teams around 30 30 40 teams available. You can ah change one presentation team you can. Then you can use color thing. You can also have a command which I have not used here. But there is also come are available for use phone team. So use for team is also available so you can change the front of the team. So if you use different for team so these phone style will change in mathematic environment and also outside in warmer, so you can see if you like it or not. I know you know hope coaching all these colors and ho toe define colors and then hold to get some off the functionality in this letter. And I hope that this will help you make some awesome letter presentations. Thanks Were attending this course 30. Community-Question-Setting-margins-with-New-Geometry: Hello. My name is started and welcome to my channel three days ago, one of my student nor Off rolling Ask a question about geometric package of related and this package doesn't come on new geometry. And she wants towards something about this. So let's first have a look at the question. So it is what your asses. Then, using the new dramatic to change my margins, the text jumps to a new page. Is there a way to a wide debt? So this is a common problem. Store and face. When using this new dramatic commands, I thought, Why not make a short, quick video about this? So let's your pulse on this issue. This is a really simple program in which I am using only two packages. One is lip some package to pour some dummy text into my document and the second packages junior to package. So I start with the left margin to sentiment Terry and right Martin, three centimeter. And then within the begin document, I put one paragraph off dummy text from using to slip some package. So back side lip, someone means put first paragraph after dummy Laura Ipsum text, and I just want to make sure that this paragraph is less than a page lent because I want to see the effect of this new Jamar T command when I change the Martins. So after this one paragraph, I change the martins toe, four centimeter on the left and zero centimeter on the right. I should change it toe one centimeter Writing, you know, looks really bad. Let's combine this document. So here, as you can see, that after the first paragraph, the beauty Marty Command is entering into the new page. So the text is running to the next page. Although the margins are change successfully, you can see that this Martin has increased and right margin is just one centimeters. That is fine. But the only problem is there the text goes to the next day. This is because this new dramatic command careers a new page. So if you don't want this, they have to use a packet which is called change page. So we will be using at just winked environment off package change page toe do this. So let's do it. Use package change, bitch. And after the first paragraph, very want to change the margins begin And just and after this paragraph we have put in the environment and in this environment we have to past arguments off left and right margins. So how much change do we want? So we want to go from two centimeter toe, four centimeters. So we are increasing the margins by two centimeters. We will say who? Centimeter and on the light side, we are decreasing the margin from two centimeter toe one centimeter. So we will se minus two centimeters. And there's no if I compiled this so it will install the package because you might not have this package installed, So I'm using the McTighe distribution. So it is asking me to install this change page package. So I will say in start and no, as you can see that still there is no effect. And this is simply because that we were in a hurry. And we are still using this command inside our just with environment. So we have to either delete this are making a comment. So just I'm making this a comment because when we were using this adjust wit environment, we should not use this. Otherwise this government will supersede everything. So we have to command this command and then we complain. So if we compile No, we will be fine. So know where you can see there over. Margins are perfectly as we wanted them to be. So left margin Waas two centimeters. So we are increasing it toe a further two centimeter And this is what is happening years from that extra centimeter. So this just weird is basically an incremental commander environment in which you give the incremental values. So you are a two centimeter. So you know you want to give two more. So here the same thing. So we were a three centimeter and when we said minus two So basically it from three to minus two means that the margin has gone toe one centimeter. You should be a little bit careful about the sign here that whether you want plus or minus , otherwise, it's a very easy way to are just this margin if you want to do it within a page. So I hope that this video will help you if you have the similar kind of problem. And if I produced about later car control systems, or please consider subscribing to my Jenna and still you next time