PowerPoint 101 for Medical Writers and Scientists | Emma Hitt Nichols, PhD | Skillshare

PowerPoint 101 for Medical Writers and Scientists

Emma Hitt Nichols, PhD, Medical communications

PowerPoint 101 for Medical Writers and Scientists

Emma Hitt Nichols, PhD, Medical communications

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18 Lessons (3h 15m)
    • 1. Introduction

      4:26
    • 2. Inserting slide elements

      23:42
    • 3. Arrange and align panels

      13:34
    • 4. Working With Templates and Master Slides

      17:01
    • 5. Assertion Evidence Vs Topic-Subtopic

      10:45
    • 6. Color

      17:05
    • 7. Fonts

      5:29
    • 8. Builds

      3:26
    • 9. Example of Creating a Build

      21:24
    • 10. References and Slidenotes

      2:24
    • 11. Presentation Mapping

      6:51
    • 12. Introduction to Data Visualization and PowerPoint Charts

      6:41
    • 13. Graphs

      6:41
    • 14. Decluttering

      12:46
    • 15. Redrawing

      11:40
    • 16. Tables

      21:50
    • 17. Case Study

      6:52
    • 18. 18 Conclusion

      1:54
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About This Class

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This course is for you if you want to achieve maximum impact with your own or someone else's scientific presentations.

This course was created for anyone who needs to create PowerPoints or slide decks with scientific content in them, whether you are creating them about your own research or for a client. We will talk about multiple aspects of creating a PowerPoint, from key tools within the program to general design rules for creating compelling, easy-to-understand graphs and tables.

Although we are focusing on PowerPoint, many of the strategies we discuss will also apply to other presentation tools, such as Keynote and Prezi. 

You may be thinking that there are many courses on PowerPoint already, and you would be right, but THIS course is geared specifically towards scientists, researchers, graduate students and professors in sciences, healthcare professionals, and medical writers, who need to create effective SCIENTIFIC presentations.

For medical writers in particular, we are in the business of clearly communicating scientific information, and if you are able to do this effectively in PowerPoint, you will become a go-to resource for your clients when it comes to creating slide decks. It's lucrative work, and you are likely to quickly end up with more work than you can handle—this is a good thing, right?

This course has four sections:

  • PowerPoint basics, including inserting slide elements, arranging and aligning elements, and working with templates and master slides so that you can work as efficiently as possible.

  • Slide Design. This is what sets our course apart, because we really focus on how to deal with complex SCIENTIFIC data by using builds and other strategies.

  • Graphs and Tables, teaching you how to present data in a visually appealing and understandable format, including how to redraw graphs for maximum effect.

  • Case Study. We go step-by-step through a case study to show you how a typical scientific presentation can be recreated for maximum impact.

This course also includes several opportunities where you can get feedback from us and your peers.

Anyone who regularly has to create technical or scientific presentations will benefit from this course. Perhaps you…

  • Write manuscripts professionally as a medical writer, but don't quite have the confidence to offer slide deck creation to your clients. This course will give you all the information you need to start doing that.

  • Are a graduate student, postdoc, or professor and are going to be giving an important presentation to your peers and advisors or at a large conference. The time spent in this course learning how to communicate your findings clearly will pay off several fold in terms of creating a great impression.

  • Teach science or medicine as a teacher, professor, or guest lecturer, and need help making compelling and interesting presentations.

  • Are already competent in creating effective PowerPoints and you just want to level up and create the best presentations possible with efficiency.

This course is a must-take for professors, researchers, scientists, doctors, medical writers, and anyone else who creates these types of slide decks. Your audience will thank you! All you need is a rudimentary knowledge of PowerPoint to get started as well as the need to create impressive scientific presentations. Just click on the link to enroll. I look forward to seeing you in the course!

Please note: the different versions of Powerpoint vary slightly, so some things might be different depending on which operating system and version you use. We use PowerPoint for Mac, but most of the tools translate to Windows well. One notable difference is that Master Slide is not present on the Web-based Office 365 version of PowerPoint.

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Emma Hitt Nichols, PhD

Medical communications

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: Hello. I'm Dr Emma. Hit Nichols and thank you so much for enrolling in the scores. In this course, we will be discussing Power Point for scientists and medical writers. This course was created for anyone who needs to create power points or slide decks with scientific content in them, Whether you're creating it for your own presentations or for a client, we'll talk about multiple aspects of creating a power point from keep our point tools to general rules for creating compelling graphs and tables. Although this course will focus on the creation of slight decks and power point beneath the design, principles and storytelling strategies discussed in this course will be applicable to other presentation tools like Keynote and Priz E. You may be thinking that there are many PowerPoint courses. You already, So why should I take this one? Well, there are a few reasons for this one. This course is geared specifically towards teaching you the tools that you need to make effective scientific presentations. Many of the other courses may actually cover more content than you really need for most scientific presentations. Furthermore, this course is geared specifically towards scientists and medical writers and the design principles of creating presentations for a scientific audience differs from presentations geared towards other audiences. For example, there's a general consensus and the graphic design world that a single impactful, graphic and minimal text is the most effective way to utilize a slight deck. The speaker should then be able to discuss and talk about their points without leaving heavily on slide content, however, that this will work for scientific and medical content for several reasons. The content that we discuss in scientific presentations include complex data and ideas that require bit more explanation. Examples of complex scientific content that cannot usually be conveyed without text include pathways, and we often need to explain complex pathways to audiences in order to make sure that they understand the data that they are seeing. We also often need to use tables too quickly and concisely summarise and compare several numbers across Juma groups. Charts and graphs are another important feature of scientific talks. Like tables, they can be used to convey numbers and are often easier to quickly absorb than tables. Finally, you might have visual data like microscopy, pictures of Western blots and pictures of clinical case studies. For example, Although it might seem like visual data could perhaps be presented in a way that a graphic designer would appreciate, this is not usually the case. For example, a con focal picture alone will be meaningless to an audience without labels. What do the various colors represent? What is the scale of the picture? Is there a control picture? What are the various experimental conditions that are being tested? The and so on? This course will teach you about the best ways to use PowerPoint To convey these various types of content. The course is divided into three parts. First, we will have the power point toolbox, and this will be a brief overview of the most important power point tools you will need to create neat, consistent PowerPoint slides. Although this may be a review for some students who are longtime PowerPoint uses, I'll be discussing several tips and tricks that will hopefully make it easier for you to use PowerPoint efficiently. All that move into general slide design rules will talk about the best ways to put together an engaging presentation and how to ensure that you are using PowerPoint slides to the fullest effect. Finally, we will get into the details of presenting various types of data from charts two tables, two graphs. I'll discuss how to create this type of content in PowerPoint and also will describe how to read or graphs to ensure that everything is consistent across slides throughout the course . We will include examples and screen captures to show you how to use PowerPoint, and we will also have exercises loaded into each section that will be helpful for you. There are also videos of us completing the exercises so that you can see how we would do them. 2. Inserting slide elements: we'll begin our section on the PowerPoint tool box by quickly introducing your workspace within Power Point will go over the slide space, the ribbon and the format pains, which will be the two workspaces that you will primarily be using when working in PowerPoint. So here is our introduction to the Power Point Toolbox and our Interface of Power Point. So the first thing that we will do is open up the Power Point application. I am using Microsoft 3 65 on the Mac OS Mojave, which is the most recent version of Power Point on the most recent version of MAC. In recent years, the interface of Power Point has become very similar on Macs and PCs. But if you use a PC, there may be some differences between what you see here and what you see in your own application. But to start with, let's first look at the ribbon area. You'll notice that by default, your Power Point Hope application opens in the home tab. But we can place our cursor on any of thes tabs up here to get to different tabs, much like a Web browser under the home tab, we have several different categories. We have the clipboard group, the slide group, fonts and paragraph, and that insert for shapes, pictures, text boxes, etcetera. All of these categories air in the home section because they're the tools that you will probably use the most frequently many of these categories, including font in paragraph setting. We will not go over in depth in this course, since that is mostly basic knowledge. We will, however, review design principles associated with fonts and colors and Section two in the insert tab . We have options related to inserting various items into your power point sides. Many of these, like the tables and charged We will go over in depth in Section three than inserting shapes and smarter. We will discuss in the next lesson in the design tab. We have options related to designing the sides by changing the slide templates or themes. We will discuss more about templates in this section and in section two of this course in transitions, we have options related to slide transitions and in animations. We have options related to an invasions. Our discussion of these tools will be very light is there are rarely good reasons to use these transitions and scientific presentations. Slideshow gives you the options for when you are actually presenting slides, and there are many useful tools here. For those of you who need to give presentations in general, these tools will not be discussed. Is there more about public speaking than about slide creation and design? But it's good to be familiar with this tab for when you need to give a presentation. Then we have a review tab, which involves things like Spell Check, the Saurus and the Comment Function, which is often used in Microsoft applications for editing documents. Finally, we have the View tab. This is a very useful tad that we will use elsewhere in this course to switch between our normal view here in the slide master view, which is how we will make our sides consistent throughout a presentation. Now let's look inside of the slide pain. The slide pain is the work area where you will incorporate your visuals that will be visible by an audience. Almost everything in your sides will be edited in your slide pain. Then finally, to the left, we have our slide taps, which just shows you have previous of your various slides on the side because we only have one slide in this presentation, there is only one slide in the slides tab. Whoever we go to home and go to new Side. You can see that while we see the main side in the side tab and this is where we wouldn't make edits, we can see all over sides in the slide tabs. So from here on out, we will be discussing in more detail the various ways to use this interface Well, now delve into some of the tools that you'll need when creating presentations with a bit more detail, beginning with some of the tools in the answer panel. In this course, we will primarily be discussing these four types of content that can be inserted shapes, icons, smart art and shorts. Charts will be discussed in Section three when we talk about graphs, so in this lesson will be focusing on shapes, icons and smart art. Let's first begin with shapes and sorting shapes is relatively easy and could be used to make a variety of shapes. And seen here, to the right is the drop down menu that you'll see when you go to insert a shape, a quick tip for when you a drawing shapes. Hold down the shift button if you want to make it perfectly even shape, like a perfect square or perfect. So call the shapes shown. Here are the default blue that came in this presentation. Importantly, you can use the panel to the right of the home riven to change the shape and outline of thes. Using these tools, you can change shapes in a variety of ways has shown here. Another important insert tool is the insert Icahn's option. This allows you to insert a wide variety of free icons into your presentations to make them more visual. The nice thing about the icons provided by Microsoft Word is that the shape, ful and shape outlined boxes can be used to change the appearance of these icons. Justus. You could do for shapes. While Microsoft's icons are pretty nice and they even have some science e ones, I found that they could be a bit limited for somebody who is regularly looking for icons for medical presentations. So I want to tell you about a resource that I use often, and that's called the Noun Project, and that's an icon website that has literally millions of icons to choose from. But basically anything that you can think off here. I'm showing you three different searches for scientific items Petri dish, DNA and vaccine. As you can see in each case, more than 100 icons are available to choose from. Unfortunately, this site does cost money to use, but it is such a great resource and relatively inexpensive that I wanted to include that information about it. I did want to mention that when used inappropriately, icons can be reminiscent of nineties clip art, and not in a good way. However, when used appropriately, icons come help improve the visual quality of your presentations with relatively minimal effort. Who are a few examples of slides that I have created in the past, using icons to improve the visual appeal of relatively dry scientific content. It's also probably worth noting that in many of these slides, I've had to use a combination of shapes and icons to achieve the final look. For example, in this slide, I had to create the circles of shapes and then put icons on top of the shapes. Similarly, in this slide on the right. The icons are included over the top of the square shapes that were inserted separately. Smart are is another tool that's worth mentioning here, as it could be used to help improve slides that may be a bit text heavy or could use a visual aspect. Here are three examples of smart art, but the options of virtually endless in terms of color and design combinations. As with icons, Smart can come off cheesy and uninspired if used too frequently or without careful consideration of placement. But when used appropriately, I think it can really spruce up a slide again. Here are three examples of slides where a smart art was used to improve the way that information is conveyed Now here, we're gonna have an insert example video. So this will be our example of how to use the insert tab. So here we have a slide about a ascena filic asthma with a lot of text that is not particularly visually appealing or engaging. Using smarter shapes and icons, I think that we can make the slide a lot nicer. So here is an example of where we're going with this so that you can see it And now I'm going to walk you through how we can get there. So going back to this slide, the first thing that I'd like to do is find a way to make these four bullet points here more visual. It seems like this is the primary content of the slide, and then this last bullet point is tacked on information. So when I make the slide, where Visual. I'm going to put this bottom bullet point into a separate area on the side. So for now, I'm going to copy and paste this into just a separate text box down here. So I went to insert text box and that will just get it out of our way. And now I can delete it from this box. So I did that using the command C and command the copy and paste commands on my keyboard. And now I'm going to hate thes for bullet points and put them into smart art. So we'll do that by going to the insert tab, and then I'll go to smart art. So as you can see here, there are really tons of options for several different types of smarter already know that I want to use this option, but you can definitely check out the various options yourself. So I'm going to select this one, but quickly so you can see there are process was there are cycles, hierarchies, relationships and so on. So we got a list I'm going to select the one that I'm interested in and it will interest or inserts murder right here. It's kind of in our way, so I'm going to move it to the sides that I can copy these bullet points into the smarter. So when you make smarter, this text edit box here pops up this text edit box is where you're going to put all the tax that will eventually be in your smarter. And each bullet point of this text box actually acts to add, um, shapes to your smarter. So if I copy and paste those bullet points and you can see it actually added another circle and rectangle for my text there. So now that I have this copy and paste it in, I'm just going to delete this, uh, extra bullet points here to get them out of my way. And I'm also going to leave this kind of preset click to add text thing. And now I am going to adjust this to fit the screen. Um, the nice thing about smarter is a kind of changes. The text or fought size and shape size is to make sure that as you change the parameters here, that everything still fits nicely. Right now, the smarter is just kind of a generic blue that comes from the Power point template. Um, in general, the color themes for smart or not super great, but we can actually just come back to this later. Right now, I just kind of want to get everything situated on the slide and sized, right? So one important thing that I want to mention about smarter before we move on is that all of these pieces of the smarter actually just shapes that power point is putting into a specific design. So this will be important when we change the colors and eight later. But for now, I'll just point out that you can probably get a general idea for how this was made. You can see that there four circles. Ah, line here and then four rectangles with text of them will come back to fixing the colors later. But for now, I just want to get this position where I like it. So now I have this text on here, and I want to get it into a text box. So in order to do that, you can either incident the text box and change the colors, or you can insert a shape. So I'm going to insert a shape, and I'm going to use a rectangle. And this isn't my recently used shapes, although you can see there are a lot of different options for rectangles down here. So, as you can see, once I select insert rectangles, a little cross hair appears, and that allows me to draw out my rectangle. Now that I have the rectangle drawn, I'm going to coffee and paste this into the rectangle itself. Now, to add text, you can either double click in the middle of your shape, or you can right click and go to edit text. I'm just gonna double click and copy of a copy of base. And again that's using the command. See commanded E, um, keyboard shortcuts for copy and paste. And then I'm going to delete this so that I have more or less everything situated where I want it on the slide. Now that I have everything situated on the slide, let's return to the color and design aspects to change the color of smart art. I'm going to click on the smart art and go to the tab that pops up once you click on it. As you can see, this is a new tab that was not there before. These types of tabs will pop up to offer additional editing options when you click on it. Inserted object. So if we go to the smart art designed tab, you'll see that we can choose from a bunch of different options. Here is faras colors go so we can change the look of the smarter. You could even do this three d Look. I personally prefer the simpler options. Think in general those air better, and you can also change the colors of the smarter. So, for example, we can change them all to be different colors. We can change them to be, Ah, this kind of hombre. Look, there are a lot of options, but in general I'm not a huge fan, actually, of any of these options. I think that they're all more distracting than they are helpful. So that means that we need to change the colors of the smarter ourself. So in order to do that, you can do it a couple different ways. You can either click on the smarter and then click again on a specific shape. And then I'm going to go to the home tab and I'm going to go to the shape Phil options. And you can see here that I could now specifically change the colors of each of these so I could make the outline black in the shape Phil Orange if I really wanted Teoh. But then I have to do each one individually. And I actually also kind of find the smart art text box a little annoying when it keeps popping up, especially when I don't need it anymore. So what I'm actually going to do is I'm going to convert all of the smart art two shapes, so that actually takes the smart art and converts it to the individual shapes that we have , um, here. So it'll convert it to four circles for rectangles and this, like piece of a circle here. This line. So in order to do that, I'm going to right click on the smart art, and I'm going to go down to convert to shapes. So once I do this, you can see that I now have a grouped shape, which means that all of these shapes are grouped together and each one is an individual shapes. So, um, I am going toe on group these shapes by clicking on the shape, right, clicking, going to group and then going toe on group. We'll talk more about grouping in the next section of lessons. But for now, just I think that you can see that each of these shapes is now on individual shape on its own. So now I can adjust the color of each sleep shape for all of the rectangles. I'd like the background color to be white or no, Phil. So to do that, I'm going to select all of the rectangles and you can see I'm selecting more than one rectangle at a time by holding down the shift button, and then I'm going to go to the shape, fill right here and select White. Once I've done that, I'm going to go to shape, outline and select no outline or it could also select white. And then I need to change the text color because since the text color is white, you actually can't see it. So I'm going to go over here and change the text color to black. So when all of these shapes air selected, I am changing the options for all of them at once. So now I'm going to change the color of this circles. But I'd like to do it different color for each one, so I'm going to do that one at a time. I would like there to be no shape outline, so I'm going to just go ahead and click. And the nice thing about the shape fill in the shape outline is it will always save your most recently used color to be kind of a short cut. So since I just changed the rectangles to know Phil, it's changing my shape, outlined to know Phil, if I just click here, of course, if I want more options, I can always go to the arrow and use the drop down. So now that I have outlined changed to know Phil I'm going to go to, uh, shape Phil. And I kind of wanted to be like a hombre of different blues. I think so. We'll change this one to this color Blue. This one will change the outline to know Phil and will change its of this color blue and so on. Then I'm going to change the outline of the circle. That's right here. Um, let's change that to black. Oops, I changed the fill, so I'm gonna undo that. I used commands Ito under that, and I'm going to change the outline to black. There we go. That is what we're looking for. So now that that's done, let's change the texts box colors to match. I think that what we'll do is maybe change the shape, Phil, toe this lighter blue option. Um, change the outline to this darker blue. And then I'm also gonna change the size of the text to be maybe a little larger, that it stands out and maybe do a dark blue tax. No, I don't like that. Let's go back to the white text. Maybe make a bold, still kind of think that's hard to read. Something a dark in the shape, feel a little bit more. There we go. Yeah, so I think that that looks nice. So I think that's all set. So now I like to add some icon, so I'm going to go back to the insert tab. And if I click on icons here, you can see that here are the icons available freely and Microsoft Word. So you could probably go through and find something that would work for maybe each one of these. Um, but since I have a subscription to the noun projects all instead, look there. And so if you have the non project, you can get this cool little button where it actually loads all of the icons s so that you can search them while you're in Power Point, which is really cool again. These icons are only available if you subscribe to the noun project. So you will not see them in your power point unless you have that subscription. So I just want to make that really clear. So I have already found a few that I like, but you can see you can scroll through. You can search for pretty much literally anything. So to start with I'm gonna search blood because this first bullet point characterized by high s NFL level in the blood or sputum, I think will convey pretty easily that were, like analyzing blood by using one of these. Um, sure, let's do this one. So the way the noun project works is I would click on this and then I would change the color here. And then I would click Answer icon usually use, um, 300 pixels. But you can use pretty much any size. Um and I want White because I think that will pop nicely on this dark blue. And then you just go to insert icon. So it's a little different than the Microsoft icons, but it's not, um, not difficult to use a call, But again, these are only available by subscription. And if you know, you just want to use the Microsoft word ones or, you know, you don't even really need icons on this slide. I just think it's a nice touch and kind of adds a visual aspect. So here's how I got the blood one. Now I'm gonna quickly go through how I got the rest of them, So Okay, so now that all of the icons are on the slide. You can see that I more or less got them centered into each of the circles. Know that these air not really perfectly centered, but it's pretty close here. We'll talk about getting these things perfect in the next section. So now I think that you can see that we've gone from a relatively boring slide with, uh, just text and nothing really visual about it. And with a pretty simple, pretty low amount of effort, we now have something that's not just text and much more visually appealing. Basically Onley using the insert tab and then also ah, some at its to the Phil and the lines on those. Now it's your turn. We've have an exercise loaded into this lesson for you called Insert Exercise. In this PowerPoint file, you'll find a slide with instructions and this relatively basic PowerPoint slide. Your instructions are to make the slide more visual. Using smart art shapes, icons and or text boxes, we would also like you to change the color scheme of your smart icons, shapes and text to something beside the default PowerPoint colors. Once you're done, feel free to save the slide as a PdF or JPEG and share it with the class in the Q and a section of this course. I started the Q and A thread called insert exercise answers for you to add your examples to folk beat back from your peers. Once you've completed your exercise, you could watch how I've completed it. Everyone's will probably be different, of course, but that's part of the fun, right? 3. Arrange and align panels: in this section of the course will be talking about a really important feature in Power Point, which is arranging and aligning and knowing how toe work. These true tools will save you a ton of time. However, the only way to get to this panel is to first have an object that you click on. So here I'm just going to insert a couple of shapes that I can show you what I'm talking about. You'll see that right now we have the whole insert design transitions, animation, sideshow review in views, tabs. However, if we click on a shape, we also get a tab. That's a shape format. So once we go to the shape format tab, we have lot more options. And so here this part of the course will mainly be focusing on the arrange and the line options, which you can see right here. He's arranging the line options allow you to bring shapes in front of each other behind each other or to make them need er on the side so you can align shapes with one another. That is what we will be discussing in this section. We will now go through the basic uses off the arrange and a line taps before we go to an example of how we might use the's in a scientific presentation. First thing that we will discuss in this lesson is reordering objects. Sometimes we may want to change the order of objects on a slide so that certain shapes are in front, while others are in the back who are three circles that I want to re order so that they are all overlapping from pink to orange to yellow. As shown here. There's more than one way to accomplish this goal within the arrange panel, so let's look at the options. First, we can bring the pink circle to the front by selecting this option from the arrange panel with the Yellow Square in front of the White Square. We can also send the artist so called backwards so that it's behind the pink circle but in front of a yellow circle using the next button over. Finally, we can use the order objects option, and this is particularly useful in PowerPoint when you're dealing with multiple objects in a single slide that need reordering the reorder objects and reorder overlapping objects, Options brings up this black screen, where each object is on its own plane. The objects can then be moved around relative to each other to ensure that everything is in the correct order. Another important tool is the line option. Aligning shapes allows you to rein shapes or objects so that they are in a straight line relative to a single point within all off the objects, you could align objects relative to the top, the bottom or the middle of the objects. So, for example, here I have outlined all of these circles to the middle. I've also aligned the box that they are in so that they are in the middle of the box. To do this, we would go to the button at the top here with the blue arrow that has a line to the left. If we click on this button, we get the option to align objects vertically or horizontally. In this case, I wanted to align the objects vertically with one another, according to the middle of the shapes. Since the alignment can be a little confusing, PowerPoint provides thes images here that show you have the shapes will be aligned with one another Although these circles are now lined, you'll notice that they're not evenly spaced in order to evenly spaced them. We need to distribute them. There are to distribute options, distribute horizontally or distribute vertically. In this case, we want to distribute the objects horizontally so that they are evenly spaced across the box. Finally, we have the option to group the objects in the align and arrange panel. Grouping objects is helpful because it allows multiple shapes to be moved and resized as a single unit. When objects are grouped, we go from three boundary boxes to a single boundary box for all of the shapes. To do that, you would go to this button with the two overlapping white rectangles here. Once objects are grouped, they can also be on grouped. All of these options will save you a considerable amount of time if you find yourself fiddling with the layout of a slide to make everything look neat and tidy and even in fact , I used these commands so frequently that I've programmed keyboard shortcuts so that I don't have to click in the menu to do them. Although programming keyboard shortcuts is beyond the scope of this course, It's also pretty easy to do with a Google search. So maybe check that out of here. Interested? Let's look now at how we might use the's a line of range commands when designing a slide. So now we will go through how line arrange and distribute options might be used to craft a slide in a scientific presentation. Here is a slide that describes the goals of asthma management. We have some signs and symptoms we want to increase while others that a doctor might want to decrease. In this slide. We have all of the basic information here, but we do want to tighten these shapes up so that they look neat and evenly distributed as can be seen on this slide here. To start with, I am going to bring the text here so that it is on top of the arrows. In order to do that, I would like to try to move the text over, but you can see that the arrows appear to be in front of the text. So to fix that, I will go to shape format and then I will go to the arrange option. I am going to select both text blacks is here because I'd like to do the same thing with the reduced text, and then I'll go to arrange bring forward and I'll click on the little arrow here and then bring to front. Once that's been done, thes text options will be on top of the arrows instead of beneath them. Of course, could've done the opposite by clicking on the arrows and selecting. Sent to back. From there, I'm going to make sure that the text is in the middle of the arrows. So to do that one at a time, I will select the text and then the arrow. Then I will go to arrange a line in a line middle, then arrange a line and a line center. So this. Make sure that the text is in the middle of the arrow as faras both vertically and horizontally. Now that the text in the era was arranged, how I'd like it, I am going to group thes so that they can be moved as a unit. I will then do the same thing with these other two, uh, text and arrows. Okay, now that that's done, I'd like to make all of these various text boxes, even so that they look meat on the slide. Although I could probably use grid lines to do this, it would be very difficult to dio. As you can see, some of the text boxes are different sizes, and each column has a different number of text boxes that would make it difficult to align by grit. However, I'm going to leave the grid lines on as their occasionally helpful during the process will be sure to point out where I might use grid lines to arrange instead of the align and arrange commands. Note that, at least at first, I'm only going to worry about where the text boxes are relative to each other. I'm not going to worry about their final placement on the slide is that is easy to do last . Once everything is grouped together, the first thing that I'm going to do is arrange all of these text boxes, including the arrows, so that they line up on the top. To do that, I'm going to hold down the shift key and select these four shapes. From there, I'll go to arrange a line in a line top, as you can see this creates an even line all the way across the top. Well, then do the same thing with the arrows in the bottom two text boxes that this time I'll select a line bottom. Now that this is done and I have a baseline for the top in the bottom of these text boxes, I can select all of them and go toe arrange and distribute vertically. So it's like all of these text boxes. I don't really need to do this with the arrow. We'll do a range line and then distribute vertically. This. Just make sure that there's even white space in between each text box. Now that I have them there, I would like to arrange the line and actually align these so that they're all centered with each other. So that means that we have a nice straight line all the way down here. Now that I have these arrange how I'd like them, I'm going to actually group them together so that they could be moved as a single unit. Well, then, do the same thing over here. So again, I'm going to select all of these, distribute vertically, and then I'm going to align them to the center. Now that that's done, I'm going to group them Now that these are grouped together, I would like there to be an equal amount of space between each of the arrow's and their respective text boxes. So you can see that thes text boxes are closer to the improved arrow than these text boxes are to the reduce arrow. And I'd like this to be even although I could destroyed review all of these columns and the two arrow so that they are all equity distance from each other. I'd like there to be a bigger space in the middle than there is between the arrows and the text boxes. So to do that, I think it will be easiest to use the grid lines to make sure the spacing is even So. For example, as I move this around, you can see these red grid lines appear and disappear as I move things. If you don't see these in your power point, you may need to go up to view guides and dynamic guides. So from here, I can see that I have, um, pretty equals This is the spacing I like basically on the yellow side. So I want to replicate that spacing on the blue. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna select the group text over here, and I'm just gonna move it until I see these grid lines appear that suggests that the spacing is equal between the yellow and the blue. So then I think I might actually select all of this and just move it in a tiny bit once again using the grid lines. I'm not getting off of my nice alignment on the top of the bottom. Well, then select everything and group it all together. Now that this is all group together, I can finally center this image on the slide. So to do that, I'll go to a range and then, um, a line and you'll notice that when Onley one object of selected because we only have a group object selected here that the line selected objects is great out and instead we can Onley align to the slide. That means that this when we select which alignment we want to dio, it will be aligned to the slide and not to another object. So here all I want to do is align centers. This is aligned with the center of the slide. I could theoretically also go to align Middle. But I don't really want to do that because I have this blue header up here that it would get in the way of. So I'm not going to do that. I'm just gonna leave it in the middle of this white space, and that is how we use a line and arrange to quickly make sure that everything is neatly and evenly spaced. We may also want to just for the final thing changeless toe white. And there we go. That is our complete slide. Now that you've gotten to see an example of how the arrange panel is used, you have the opportunity to give it a try yourself. If you open up the a line of range exercise, you'll find instructions along with the slight, which we are asking you to make neat. You will need to send to the icons on the circles group the icons and circles together and then aligned the icons and text into rows and columns that are evenly spaced. Once you've completed the exercise, you can see how we would approach it in the next video. We also encourage you to add a PDF or J pack of your final slide to the Q and A section to share with the class and get feedback from your peers. 4. Working With Templates and Master Slides: in this lesson, we will go through the advantages and disadvantages of generic PowerPoint templates, and we will review how to set up massive slides for optimal consistency across slides. This lesson will be especially useful for anyone who does slide cleanup for clients as it will make your job much faster. There are tons of PowerPoint templates available, and you can see here some of the options, and you can also download even more from the Internet. You get to these templates by going to the design tap in your PowerPoint ribbon. So should you use PowerPoint templates? There are a few advantages to PowerPoint templates. For example, they can give you a consistent looking feel across slides, and they may add visual interest. That said, there are several disadvantages to PowerPoint templates. They may distract from the data that you're trying to present and any messaging you'd like to convey. If you find yourself relying heavily on PowerPoint templates to make your PowerPoint more interesting, it may be a sign of a boring presentation, and finally, these templates have a distinct PowerPoint template feel that could be a little tacky. So in response to a question about whether you should use PowerPoint templates. The answer is no. Probably not. In my opinion, you don't need templates. Toe. Have a consistent look and feel across slides. You can get consistency across slides by taking the time to set up a master presentation for all of your slide decks before you begin. This will give you the advantages off PowerPoint templates without any of the disadvantages . Alternatively, you can also use massive slides to clean up slide decks that are provided to you to make them look neat and consistent. This is a much better option than using PowerPoint templates. We will now go through an example of how you might set up a massive slide for consistency in a scientific presentation. Here we have a five slide slide deck that I'd like to clean up by setting up the master slide, according to some brand guidelines. So here are some brand guidelines that I just made up. But for example, perhaps the client wants an aerial font for titles Helvetica light font size 13 for body text and then references at the bottom left and size 12 font color bullet points all circles a logo at the top corner of the side. And here's the color scheme that they want us to work with. So, using all of these guidelines, we could go from something that looks like this to something that looks like this So you can see it's just a little more consistent across all of the slides. Additionally, all of the text, for example, all of the reference text of located in the same place on each side, which makes all of the sides look a lot neater. So in order to do this, we need to first go into the master slide view. In order to get the master slide view, you're going to go to the view tab and then you're going to go to slide Master. Once you go over to slide master, you will be able to see the templates for all of the slides. So once I click on Slide Master, I am no longer editing the Power Point presentation and said, I am Onley editing the template of the Power Point presentation so you can see in the slide tabs that left. I have several different slides styles which are options to insert in the main view. The first thing that I usually do when I switch over to slide Master view is I delete all of the slide styles that I'm not gonna actually views. So, for example, I have this title slide layout, and I know we'll use that because I have a title slide in my main presentation. I also have this content slide, and I know also used that. However, here's a section header, and then we also have this comparative slide and displaying slide. So I know I'm not going to use any of these. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to delete all these ones that I'm not gonna use. And I'm gonna use the command button to select multiples at the same time so they can delete all of the's. So what I left are these three slide styles. I have the title style, the content style, and then I also have this blank style that maybe I would use for a slide with a picture on it. Um, wish I believe I have one off. So those are the three styles that we have. I also want to point out that we have this larger slide up here and this is the master slide. So anything that I change in this side will also change in these three slides. So it's just a nice, fast way to change kind of global things that I want changed across the power of weight presentation in a single slide. So if we go back to our guidelines, you can see that I have some guidelines for the font and the references and the colors. So the first thing I'm gonna do is change the fought for the title. And since I want this to be a global at it for all of the slides, I'm going toe change it on this master title slide. So once I go to the home tab, it will actually just change this exactly like I would change it anywhere else So I can change it to Ariel, which already waas. And then, um that's all I really need to do here. And then I want this to be held medical light fond. So I'm going to select that and go down to oh Belgica. So we have that. And then if I go back and look at this, I also want to use these colors. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna change the slide background for my slide background, and then I pull up the format background pain on this, the right here, man going to pull this up, I'm going to use one of these colors. And so I'm just gonna use the, um, picker right here to get that color. But you'll see that changes it for all of them. So part of all, and then I also want to change the bullet point color. So in order to do that, I'm going to go to the bullet points here, bullets and numbering. And I'm going to do the same thing with the slide. Uh, color picker. So more colors. And then I drop her. Okay, so that's that, Um I also want to add the logo to the cop top corner of the slide in the coffee and paste this logo, and I would add it here, except you'll notice, since it adds it to all of the slides, including the title slide, which might be a little weird. I'm not actually gonna want to do it up there, because once it's added to this one, I actually can't remove it from any of the other ones, so you could see I can't select it here. So I'm gonna take this out of here. It will remove from all of the other slide templates, and then I'm going to copy and paste it into just thes two, which is the only place that I really want it. So that is added. And now I am going to also remove this bottom stuff because I'm not gonna be using it. The footer could theoretically be used for references, but I actually don't want to use it for my references, mainly because I think it's easier to just add a placeholder. And what I mean by a placeholder is if I go to the slide master place, I can go to insert placeholder. But I have to be in one of these slides. I can't do it in the main master side, so go to insert placeholder and I'll go to insert content. And then I can just draw a rectangle here, and it will allow me toe indicate what kind of content I want it to be. So I'm going to remove this bulleted list, and then I'm gonna go to home and I am going to actually set it up so that it's bottom justified, meaning that the text will appear from the bottom up. That's important, because, remember, we want our references to be consistent across slides. So if we have multiple lines and our references, it won't make a whole lot of sense. If some slides, it starts up here, whereas some sides that starts down here. So anyways, this will make a more consistent I'm also gonna change it to size 12 you know, change it to Ariel. And then I'm just gonna write references so that I know that this is my place holder for references. And now, on every single slide that is this content, I'll have a references box and all of the references will be in the same place and will be the same font size. And it will look really nice from side to side. The final thing I'm gonna do here since we had several graphs, as I want to change the colors of this template so that it's on brand. So I'm going to go to customise colors and then we'll have all of these different scene colors and you can see in this preview what the's theme colors will be used for. So what I want to do is change these accent colors so that they match with these colors. So again, using the eyedropper will be the easiest way to do this. And so now I can see that my graphs will have these different colors in them. So the pink, the yellow, the green, the black. And then, you know, maybe I'll just repeat this. Um, although I don't think these last two accent colors will make a difference for our needs. So then I can save that. And then we can go ahead and leave the master slide and go back into the normal view to see how our changes look in the final copy. I can actually see one more thing. I'm going to want to change before I go in. And that's that. I don't want this title to be overlapping our logo to the right, so I'm going to pull this in, and I'm gonna do the same on both sides. And then there's one more thing I want to dio. I also wanna have space for references on this slide. So I went to the slide selected thus and copied it. And I'm going to pace that here so that we can actually have it in both places. So now there are two ways to get back to our normal view. We can either go to close master, which is from the Slide Master tab, or we can go to view normal. So we'll close, master. And you can see we're now returning to these slides and they are actually set up so that, um, they have our logo and they have our colors and they have the correct fought and you could see our bullet points or even changed. However, you're gonna notice that our references don't be seem to be appearing in the box. And that's because, first of all, we made the references placeholder. But there's no way for power point to know that our references should be in there. And secondly, we need to basically tell power point that we want that layout applied to this side. So we're gonna go here and goto our title and content layout. You can see this fills in the title in the content, but then we also have the references box now down here. So what we could Dio is actually copy and paste this content into the references box. And now we have all of our content. We can delete this So it's not is easy as the references just automatically populating this box. However, it is really nice because I know that when I copy all of us over, it will be the same from side to side. So we're gonna need to do the same thing in this slide. We're gonna go to slide layout, and we're gonna tell Power Point that we want this to be our title and content layout. I'm actually gonna copy this graph into the content so it fills up the whole area, Then I can delete this other graph. And now I need to copy this information into the references blocks and delete this other slide. And so it get. We now have our, um references nice and consistent from slide. Just slide. You can see that as we go from side to side. The references are in the same place. So I'm just going to do the same thing for the next few slides so that when this one I've added this picture to the content box. But I still have this other shape here. I want this shape to be in the layout theme. So in order to do that, I'm going to go to shapes and change the color so that it matches the rest of our lay. Oh, Then again, I need to add this to our references. So in order to do that, I need to move references out of the way so I can copy and paste it because it came up over it. So now you can see with just a little bit of work, we've been able to increase the consistency across all of our sides, and we're also able toe make the template one that is in accordance with these brand guidelines. I think that this is an important tool toe have in your back pocket, mainly because almost every scientific presentation is going toe. Have a references box that you're going to need to use, and it's really nice if this is consistent across all of the slides. Same with the title. The title is another one that's really important to get consistent so that as you move from side to side, the title text and position is not moving around now. If you download the massive slide exercise, you have the opportunity to work with templates yourself. Follow the instructions on the video to create a slight template with the three provided slides. When she finished, you can save each slide as a PdF O. J peg and uploaded to the forums so that you can see what you appears have done and get feedback on your own slides. 5. Assertion Evidence Vs Topic-Subtopic: in the section of Power Point design. We will go over general design principles for creating clear and engaging PowerPoint slides that will complement the presentation off your data. If you're a scientist or, alternatively, make your clients very happy if you are a medical or scientific writer. As we discussed in the first lesson, there are lots of different types of scientific content that you may want to present. Some scientists and doctors think that it does not matter how your slides look, since the main point of your presentation is the data. However, this couldn't be further from the truth. Given the complexity of scientific data, adhering to general design principles to maximize the clarity of the presentation is key to ensuring that the audience is able to easily follow along, spending their time absorbing your message and not decoding your visual aids. In this lesson, we will discuss general slide design for Power point presentations. We will begin by talking about the way that slides are commonly designed, which is in a topic sub topic format, and then I will show you how I recommend that you design your slides using an assertion evidence format. Here is a typical slide that you might see in a scientific presentation. It's a slight about deaths from influenza and pneumonia. The topic of the slide is deaths from influenza and pneumonia, and this tells us that the bullet points on the slide will likely have to do with influenza and pneumonia related deaths. But it tells us little else. There are no conclusions or main points that could be Jordan from this topic heading the sub topics are presented in bullet points. We learn that deaths from influenza and pneumonia a seasonal and peak in the winter. We then learn about a particular season from January to March in 2014 during which an epidemic occurred. These sub topics are related to the topic heading, but a somewhat I'm related to each other. The bullet points give us a general sense off the important information, but there's no apparent relationship between these sub topics. Instead of using the topic, sub topics slide design, we recommend using assertion evidence side designed for your scientific and medical presentations in a session evidence site design. The headline is a sentence assertion, and the evidence is presented below that, preferably in visual format Let's take a look at redesign of the slide that I just showed you buy influence of deaths Here we have a headline assertion. Deaths from pneumonia and flu exceeded epidemic threshold for eight weeks in early 2014. This headline gives us an assertion about a particular period of time and, as shown here, headline of sessions should be written and sentence format to convey a complete assertion. This means that your headlines will include a subject and a predicate below the headline assertion. We have visual evidence that supports this assertion. There is a graph that shows trends in deaths caused by influenza and pneumonia from 2009 to 2014. A red box has been placed around a peak in 2014 during which time the DATs presumably exceeded the epidemic threshold. There are arrows indicating the epidemic threshold level, which provides additional support that the peak in deaths in 2014 are above the epidemic threshold. Here we have conveyed essentially the same information in a much cleaner and easy to read format using minimal text. Let's look at another example. Here is a topic sub topic slide about breast cancer progression. The sub topics and the bullet points discuss how breast cancer progresses from normal tissue and also the prognosis for early breast cancer and metastatic breast cancer. Here is an example of have a slide might be changed in assertion. Evidence format We have made in the social in the headline, and we have provided visual evidence for our assertion. Genetic and the epigenetic changes lead to carcinoma inside, too, which can metastasize. That's the assertion the five year survival rates have shown below the images. 80% to 90% for early breast cancer and 5% for distant, metastatic breast cancer. Now we will go over some overall guidelines for assertion. Evidence slides first, Each slide should be created as a single message unit, meaning that it will have a single goal. This will allow you audience to focus on the most important points without becoming distracted by other topics, numbers, visuals and texts. This brings us to our next point. If you are struggling to come up with the sentence heading, chances are that you're trying to cram too much or too many ideas onto a single slide, take a step back and simplify the contents of your slide by breaking up the bullets into two or three slides, then try to come up with the sentence headline for each single slide and one that conveys a single assertion supported by visual evidence. In general, Slide should have enough content on them to be presented for a single minute each. This keeps presentations moving and prevents you audience from tuning out while they stare at the same slight for too long. Or, in contrast, it prevents audiences from feeling like the presentation is rushed. If you're flying three slides too quickly now we will break down the headline of social and visual evidence. Parts of the slides beginning with headlines First, headlines should typically be short no more than two lines any longer, and you're probably trying to cram too much information into a single headline. 20 words is a pretty good length for most headlines, but that's not hard of last rule. If you have headlines that are longer than two lines, just try to make sure that there's a good reason for the length. Another guideline for the headline is If the headline goes more than one line, you should break the first line such that phrases stay together for easier reading. For example, here's a headline about HIV pills. As you can see in this headline, pill, burden is broken between the lines. Since decreased pill burden is a phrase, it should stay together. This is easy to accomplish by simply increasing the size of the font. Alternatively, you can also keep the font same size and create a line break after the word infection. The third guideline for headline assertions is that they should be left justified. Since we're recommending the use of a complete sentence in the headline. We also recommend left justifications, since that is how audiences are used to reading sentences. Now we'll talk about visual evidence for these slides. Visual evidence includes relevant photographs, drawings, diagrams, graphs, films, equations and short tables. I have relevant folded here because it's important that evidence that is included is relevant to the headline. Insertion in some way, if it's not relevant in mirrors, will be left out as pictures will be distracting. Almost all clip art and stock images are irrelevant to the headline assertion, so you may be asking, Where can you get official data? There are many options. The most others of which are your own data or your clients data. If the data is presented in table format, see if there's a way to change it into a graph or diagram. You can also get visual evidence from previous studies or from websites with three photos. Another option is to create your own visual evidence by making diagrams or smart art as discussed in Section one. If text it's necessary in a slide, limit the number of words that are included and use them only when necessary. Using visual evidence decreases the number of words that you use. Common wisdom suggests that you should project no more than 20 words per slide, which converts to no more than 20 words per minute. If you have too much text on your slide, two things will happen during the presentation. Won. The audience will be the slide instead of listening to you. And this means that they're not listening to your message and to once your audience finishes reading the slide, they'll end up listening to you present things that they just read. This makes for a boring and uninspired presentation. I know that when I'm in a presentation, when this happens, I end up watching the clock on board than listening to the presentation. Unfortunately, if you must use text as visual evidence tried to avoid bulleted lists, bulleted lists are easy to create because they could be used to connect several related or unrelated ideas with equal efficiency. The often does not have to go through the work off determining the relationships between the bullets, leaving the audience to do the work off discerning connections. So instead, we would encourage you to consider alternatives to the bulleted lists. Think critically about what you're trying to convey and selective visual representation of your list that will give you audience information about the relationships between the items here. Just a few examples of the different alternatives to oppose it list that could be used. You can use arrows, graphs or pictures to convey it. Various ideas without needing bullet points will sum up this rule about bullet points for the quote, according to Michael Alley, Ortho off the craft of scientific presentations, he says bulleted lists represents surface thinking, not deep thinking. You should aim higher, make a bulleted list your last choice and not your first good advice. The final guideline for visual evidence is to use the full slide space by making images full screen or unifying and arranging images and text. Here's an example of a slide that has a headline assertion and some visual evidence in the form of various pictures. However, the slide is not making great use of the space. There's a lot of random white space and the pictures appear cluttered. Let's look at some alternatives to this set up. You could keep all four pictures and make them bigger to take up the whole slide space. The headline is then moved to the middle of slide to unify the images and create a visually appealing slide. Another option would be to select a single image, such as in this life. We then added a filter to the image to make it darker and added the headline and white again. This option makes the slide more visually appealing, while also maximizing the use of space 6. Color: in the next section, we will continue discussing ways to ensure that slides are visually appealing. By discussing colors and fund choices, scientists and medical writers often mistakenly believe that the content of their presentation will stand alone, regardless off the visual appeal of the slides. The reality is the audiences sitting in Power Point presentations will likely see the slides before they hear you talk about them. This means that the look of the side is just as important as the content within them. In this lesson, we will discuss slide design with a focus on font selection and use of colors. The goal abusing color and talked a full effect in scientific presentations is to unify the various elements on the screen and is designed to focus your audiences attention. Teoh. Most important points for that distraction well, therefore focus on good design as it relates to color and font, which are the two primary means of achieving a certain aesthetic. We'll start by discussing the use of color. We'll begin by going through three basic guidelines for using color and power point. The first guideline is to use color strategically to engage audiences and highlight important parts of your message presentations that are entirely black and white are boring and will not engage anyone. Big, full use of the color options that you have. The second guideline is to use color to draw audiences attention to important parts of each slide. Let's look at an example here we have a graph that's in black and white. If we showed this graph to an audience, they might not know what a look or what conclusions To draw. A better way to use color in this graph would be to highlight the bar. That's it the most importance. So here in this graph, we're highlighting a bar and, sure the audience where they should focus their attention. The final rule of using color is to be consistent with colors throughout the presentation. Use a color palette. This will serve to unify your presentation and also unify similar elements and related topics will spend the rest of this lesson discussing color palettes in more detail. Now I'm not a graphic designer, and you don't have to be one either. To select colors that are impactful and visually appealing, I'll go through some tips and tricks for choosing the best color palettes. For starters, I recommend avoiding the default Microsoft color palette is nothing necessarily wrong with any of these colors, but they are a bit boring. Since most people use the default color palette, many slide decks look alike. You could use a different color palette to stand out from the crowd. This is also an opportunity to set a tone for your presentation. Do you want to use bright and cheery colors or darker colors? Do you want to use different shades of blue, or do you like using colors from several different color families? There are so many options that it could be overwhelming, so let's go through the basic contents of a color palette. When she's in colors, I recommend that you choose no more than five colors for use in your color palette. In addition to black and white. In general, you won't need more than two or three colors per side, but a couple more colors could be useful when you're displaying complicated grass or multifaceted ideas. Here's an example of a five color palette. The contents of this palette include a dark color and a light color, having a dark and a light color in your palate is a good idea because thes conserve as background color options for your slide. Dark background colors are usually useful when slides were presented in a large dark room like for a keynote address. Light background colors are useful when you're presenting in a smaller, more brightly lit room. This is because dark colors can look washed out in brightly lit rooms, making it difficult to read white text on a dark background. I'll occasionally use both dark and light backgrounds in the same presentation as sometimes . Be useful to use a dark background when presenting dark images like conflictual, microscopy, images or dunk photographs. When choosing between a dark and light background, think about where you are presenting your sides and the tone you'd like to set with them dark backgrounds often more dramatic than light backgrounds. In addition to using dark and light colors as background colors, they can also be used as text colors on white and black backgrounds. Respectably. You'll notice that I have three other colors here. I usually have three colorful options, some of which would contrast well on a light background and some of which would contrast well on a dark background. This is important so that you have contrast ing options for both types of backgrounds As you're developing your slide deck. These more colorful options are useful for adding emphasis to text to highlight certain points. They were also used the shapes, icons, graphs, tables and diagrams. When choosing colors, I recommend that you choose no more than four colors for use in your color palette in addition to black and gray. In general, you won't need more than two or three colors per slide, but 1/4 cover can be useful. When you are displaying complicated graphs and multifaceted ideas. Here's an example of how you might use these colors for a light background or a dark background slide. Here is another example of a color palette that could be useful for a slide deck. You'll see that it has many of the same features as the last color palette, a dark color and a light color, and then three contrasting colors that could be used for other items. While developing a color palette, it's important to keep in mind the importance of contrast. You should use contrast and colors to your advantage to ensure that your Texas easily readable and the colors pop. Here's an example of four slides with same background colors at different tents outside of the background color. Nothing changes on this slide. You can see that the light background and dark text is the easiest to read, whereas the dark background with dark text is the most difficult to read. This because the Dark Tex contrast on the light colored background, obviously similarly white text contrast well on dark backgrounds. The lighter that we make the backgrounds in this example, the more difficult it is to read slides. This is again, of course, due to the contrast in nature of the colors. Another important reason to use contrast in colors is that colors with contrast, arm or distinguishable to people with vision impairment or color blindness. Approximately 9% of all men have some form of color blindness, and 90.5% of all women have some form of color blindness. This means that if you're giving a presentation to 100 people in a room, there's a good chance that nine of these people will have colorblindness. The most common forms of colorblindness are protein Appiah and jittery. No, Pia, these conditions are often called red green colorblindness agency. Red green colorblindness is associated with difficulty discerning red from green. Difficulty with this sermon primarily comes from a lack contrast between these colors. Let's look at some examples to give you an idea of how slides might look to someone who's color blind. When we use low contrast colors like the ones that I've showed you that are difficult to read. You can see that to someone who's color blind. They are even more difficult to read and comprehend. In contrast, when we use high contrast colors, it's likely easier for someone with color blindness to see the colors. When you compare these slides directly, you can see that the ones made with high contrast colors are far easier to look at and see the colors. There are several free tools for checking the contrast of your colors. See the lesson handout for a full list of websites that could be used for most of these websites. You would save your slides as pictures and upload HM, which will analyse the pictures and give you information about color contrast based on an algorithm. A low tech method of checking contrast is to print or print. Preview your slides in black and white. This will quickly make a parent if your colors don't contrast enough as they'll likely be difficult to read in black and white. One more note about colorblindness. No matter the contrast, red and green are difficult to distinguish for people with color blindness. Avoid using red or green to highlight or focus audience attention. Finally, you may be wondering how you actually select colors that a complementary to each other when developing a color palette. There are lots of courses available that cover color theory, but most co theory is beyond the scope of this course. Now, since I'm not a graphic designer, I prefer to use color palettes that have freely available to the public through a variety of websites like Adobe Color Wheel, which is shown here. Most of these websites will allow you to download the color values for a color palette. Well, now, quickly go through the mechanics of used in color and power points. Here is course co creator Jessica Martin, giving a presentation on the subject. So in this video we will be reviewing our various options for setting color themes and power point and selecting colors. That's one of my favorite places. To find a color theme is the adobe color wheel, so I'm going to go to color dot adobe dot com. And then there are multiple options when you pull up the adobe color wheel. The first is to set your own colors so you can basically play around with these different colors, and it will choose complementary colors for you. You can go with an analogous color scheme where they are all in a similar or close color family. You can go monochromatic, where they're all have different shades, or you can go through any of the various options. I am not a graphic designer, and I would imagine that most scientists do not have a skill set in this area. So what I usually do is what I recommend that other people do unless they have Ah, Mac for selecting colors is go to explore. When you go to ext floor, you can look at other people's color themes, and usually they're pretty nice looking, so you can see that there are a lot of options here that all look really nice together for this slide. Let's see, I guess I will go with, um Let's go with this top one. So I think it all looks nice together. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna goto edit copy. And when you go to edit copy, you can get the six digit hex code here, which gives you the color codes for each color so that you can get an exact color in your power point. So if you come over to Power point, you can either use a hex code. Like I said, to insert the colors so you would go to more colors and then click on this second option here for the RGB sliders. And then you would copy and paste the hex color here to get it that way. So forgettable. Copy this one. Go over here and I would paste it and and hit OK. Once that's done, that color will always be available in my recent colors right here, even though I did it in text, it will also be a shape fill option and also a line fill option the colors right here in recent colors. The other option is to do a, um, color theme using the Master slide format. So I think that using the recent colors option if you just have a few colors and a short power point, it's fine. And I think that's fine for anyone who doesn't want to mess around with a master side. But honestly, I think you'll find it's a lot faster and simpler to use the slide master to set up a color theme. So if you recall from Section One, I just went over to view and I clicked on Slide Master and now I am going to delete all these extra slides because they don't really need them. So I'm just gonna keep the title side and the title and content slide, and I think that's all I really need. So in order to change the colors in these slides, I'm going to click on this main slide right here, and I'm going to go to colors and then I'm gonna go to customise colors so you can see that we have a dark option, a light option and then a dark two and a light to I. I recommend leaving the dark one and the light one is black and white because this will be kind of a default set up and then setting your second dark and light options to the dark and light options from your color palette. So in order to do that, I'm going to click on this square and I'm going to use the eyedropper. Well, I'll use the hex code. You can either use the eyedropper or the hex code. The hex code is going to be a little more accurate, but the eyedropper will probably get you pretty close. So, for example, that I drop her is this option right here. So I could use that to just select this like color so that you can see here. And then I'm gonna go through and set these break accent colors as our three bright colors from the, um palette. And then there are two extra accent colors. So I'm actually just going to go through and change those two. Well, actually, there are three extra accent ones. I just so happen that before was a yellow. But let's make sure it's our color yellow here. You could also change the hyperlink colors. I don't usually recommend having hyperlinks and flied, since your audience can't exactly click on them. So I'm just gonna leave those unchanged. Now you'll notice that even though I have saved the color settings, the color theme, it's this custom one right here. Nothing has changed about this, and that's because the white and the black will always be your default unless you change it to something else. So, for example, we can go over here and I actually would probably leave the white and black as a default. I might just change the title style to be one of our, um, one of our accent colors. Let's see. So now you'll notice all of the theme colors. Air changed and I'm going to set the title to be this dark teal, I'm also going to bold the title, but I'm gonna leave this text blue and you'll notice that since I changed in the top master title, our title for the other ones there now automatically Teal. We'll get more into far, um, selections and colors for titles in the next lesson. But this is just a new example of how you might use this. I'm gonna leave this black, but then I'm going to do one more thing, which is to make a dark slide layout. So that is just going to be so you'll see I have a white one here. I might actually change the white background to one of our colors. Let's see, let's to really the light version of her late one. Um, I don't like this, Grady. It So I'm gonna change that. There we go. And then the only thing that that is nice about that is if you're in a bright room, then I think white is fine. But I figure in a dark room, having a slide background that's not 100% white can actually be a lot easier on your audiences eyes. So then, for this one, I'd like to make this our dark style. So I'm going to select our dark color. So once we have our dark slide setting, you can see the power point actually automatically uses the light two color that we set in our custom color palette. So that's one of the reasons it's really helpful. Toe have that set up. Um, e think this blue looks fine here, but, for example, you can change it so that this is a different color than the light color palette. Teoh maybe yellow or something else. And so now I just want to show you kind of how this works in the normal view, once we have our palates set up. So here we have our graph slide, and you can see that this has already changed to the light color side layout. And I just wanted to show you what it will look like. If we change this to a dark one. You can see the color stay the same, the accent colors. But the title in the font changes color. So this is just kind of an example of how you can use a color palette in your sides to make sure that you're drawing attention to the right aspects of your sides, and you have everything that we'll capture your audiences Attention. 7. Fonts: In this lesson, we will discuss text design and PowerPoint presentations. It's easy to overlook font choice when designing a PowerPoint presentation. But just like with color funds influence the way that an audience response to and focuses on your presentation. Although we generally recommend using less text on your slides, keep in mind that text you do use will be a focus point for audiences and should be a good size, color and typeface. My first piece of advice for text on your sides is to make text Bigger. Text is very rarely too big butts, often too small design slides as if they are billboards. Tents should be large, memorable and direct. When adding text to your slides, think about the people sitting in the back of the room. Will they be able to read it? A good way to test this is to reduce the size of your slides to 50% in power point, using the slider at the bottom right or using the command key and might a sign key together is everything easily legible? If not, your font size likely needs to be increased or else you audience will not be able to read it. Here's a slide that was created using the default settings for a common PowerPoint template . You can see that there are the ubiquitous bullet points, which we recommend against, and the text in the body is difficult to read. The title is 44 points. The Bullets are 22 points and the supple it's 18 point. We have a lot of white space at the bottom of the slide, which tells us that we can increase the size of the fought by quite a bit. Who is how I would redesign this slide? First, I'm using some of the principles from the assertion evidence lesson. By deleting the bullet points, I also introduced a colorful title to draw the ID of the headline assertion. Finally, I increase the size of the font to fill the space. Increase both the title fund and the bullet font. To do this, go some general guidelines for font sizes. You can see that headline should, of course, have the largest bond between 36 60 points, usually and usually bowled ID. The slide body should have Texas between 24 36 points, and references can be anywhere from 12 to 18 points. These are just general guidelines, and you can use smaller or larger pond. But if you're finding that you need to shrink, the font size is to make all of your content bit on a slide. Consider the fact that perhaps you have included too much text. The second guideline text design is to make use of songs. Serif typefaces, San serif typefaces are thoughts that do not have serves. Sounds literally means without in French. So the letters are without Sarah Ifs serves our little feet that have found at the bottoms and tops of letters circled here. Here are two slides. They have the same content, but the top one is a son Serra fund, and the bottom is a Serra fund will slide with Sarah Fonts could be more difficult to read your presentations, because small serves of or feet don't project well on projectors and lack uniformity across letters, and the lack of uniformity across letters slows readers down. It's important to ensure that your font is easy to read, because that will increase the audiences ability to quickly read your slight text and then focus on what you're saying. The third recommendation I have the text is to create a font hierarchy. Ah, fun hierarchy distinguishes between headlines, body text, bullets, some bullets and references by using different fonts, font sizes and colors. Here's an example off the difference that fun hierarchy can make in a slide. We already talked about the font sizes, and most people know that headlines should be a larger font than the body text. But you can see here that we've also used bolding color and typeface to distinguish between our headlines and body text. The top example exclusively used unbolted calibri font, whereas we use a different fought for the title and different bolding in the body slide. Creating a fun hierarchy using consistent fun hierarchies throughout your presentation will help to unify your presentation. The final guide for text is to use boldface to highlight ideas or focus audience attention , but avoid italics underlying and all caps. Let's return to the same slide that we've been looking at. Here we use all caps for the title and an underlying for the three diabetic eye disease conditions. These all caps are bad idea because it slows down audience reading. And as we discussed previously, we want audiences to read the slight text quickly. Furthermore, the underlying does not call us much attention to three eye diseases as the bold does. Here's a slide that has written in all italics. Now these attacks also slow down, leading. Yet for some reason, there are many people who use the talents for the body text on their slide shows. Here is how we recommend the slide be created with older titles and bold to draw the eye to the important concepts. Using font effectively is an important part of creating an A a pack full slide presentation . 8. Builds: We will discuss using builds in slide designed to further focus your audiences attention on important ideas. The easiest way to understand builds is to look at how they might function in a slide. Who is the slide that we looked at in the last lesson? If you were to project the slide when giving a presentation, your audience would immediately begin to read the slide, and they could be reading about glaucoma while he was still talking about diabetic retinopathy, causing the audience to miss key points. A better way to project the slide will be to use builds to build the slide. You might begin by projecting the headline. Only you can introduce the concept of diabetes and eye disease before introducing the first eye disease. You could then pause to allow your audience to read the sentence before continuing to describe what details about diabetic retinopathy. You can then introduce cataracts. Notice that we did two things in the slide. We grade out the diabetic retinopathy sentence and introduced the cataracts sentence. This helps to further focus your audiences attention on the new content by signaling to them that you're done talking about diabetic retinopathy. Finally, you can introduce glaucoma, continuing the trend of graying out the older information. This strategy will prevent your audience from jumping ahead and keep their attention focused on the topic at hand builds a helpful for slides with a lot of text, but they can also be used when presenting data. For example, here's a graph slide. We're talking about how diabetic retinopathy is expected to increase in prevalence over time. We begin by showing the data for 2010 which shows the current prevalence. You can then introduce the 2030 bar and gray out the 2010 bar. You can now discuss this increasing prevalence in more detail. You could then draw attention to 2050 projected prevalence using this method of covering up upcoming data. While graying out, old data could be used for essentially any type of visual, including tables, diagrams, line graphs, scatter plots and microscopy images. You can also use boxes so calls on highlights and builds as shown here. For example, if you wanted to only spend a little bit of time on this type of slide and focus on the overall trend, you could simply introduce a box to focus the audiences attention on the year 2050. Alternatively, you could use color to highlight certain features. Finally, there's one last type of bill that can be useful for people who have a lot of visual data, like Western blots, microscopy or large micro arrays. To draw the eye to the important features, you can magnify those features while graying out other areas. Let's look at an example. Based on these calm focal images, you can gray out the background and zoom in on the most important aspects. This way, you can draw your audiences attention to comparative details. You can continue to use the call outs as you work through the slides, although boxes or highlights could also be used in a situation like this. I think that visual data looks best when it says large as possible so that all audience members concede the details that you're talking about. 9. Example of Creating a Build: So now I'll show you how I actually create the builds. If you were wondering during the previous lesson how I go through making the boxes and the great out text, this video will show you how to do that. So first I'm going to start with a graph. And the reason I'm starting with a graphics because using builds with a graph and using builds with text is very similar. So I will show you how I do that. Now I'm going to begin by saying you can, of course, use animations to make your builds. Animations can be found in the animation tab here, and there are lots and lots of options. You can see you have appear blinds, checkerboard, dissolve in fly in Pekin and so on and so forth. If you're gonna use animations to make your builds, I strongly recommend Onley using the appear feature. That's because all of these other features are really kind of overused and distracting, and your audience has probably seen these before and doesn't think that their innovative and they don't really add anything to the presentation. So if you're gonna use animations is strongly recommend just using the appear that said, I don't usually use animations to make my builds, so I'll show you how I make them. So let's say that I want to start with this slide. I actually usually start with my final version of the slide. Remember, when you're using builds, you go from a little content to a lot of content. So the final graph shown here would be my final slide, and then I usually work backwards. So what I mean by that is I'm gonna actually make a copy of this slide over to the left on the slide viewer, and then I'm gonna go to the slide that comes before this final one here, and I'm going to edit that one, and I will go backwards by adding side. So I think it'll make more sense as I get started. So the first thing that I'm gonna do is I'm going to insert white triangles for sorry, white rectangles. So this is blue because that's the default. I'm gonna change it to Hawaii, and then I'm gonna remove the outline over here. And then basically all I have to do is cover up these sides, and now how you create the build is really going to be dependent on what kind of data you're presenting. So in this set up and basically assuming that I want to take readers through each group one by one. So I'm going to be talking about maybe the untreated first, then the M 25 then the them then the M 25 plus them. There are, of course, other ways to create builds. So this is just one example, and then I'll go through another one. So the way that I'm making this building, I'm just covering up the M 25 plus van bars. And of course, I also need to cover up. I'm 25 plus them in the legend. Once that's done, it's really up to you whether or not you want to make the other bars great out little go ahead and show you how that's done. So now that I have the old white boxes made, I'm actually going to take this white bucks and cover up these bars. But then I need to go and change the transparency of that box. So I'm gonna go to shape format and I'm gonna open my format pain. Now I'm gonna update the Phil and I'm going to just change the transparency over here to the right, so you can see. I mean, it's really up to you. How different want to make it? I'm gonna make it pretty light so that if you were talking to an audience about that, it's clear that you want them to poke it focus on the pink bar. So once I have that, I can copy and paste it and cover up the other bars course, always re sizing it to make sure that it covers it. And here's our second slide. And so I'm gonna copy and paste this slide over it to the left on the side sorter. And I'm going to go to the 1st 1 and I'm just gonna basically do the same thing. Except now all I have to do is shrink all of these different rectangles and I will have my build already created. So this goes pretty fast. And then I'm going to change where my white ones are at the cover of this pink bar. And you can see that, like, if I mean this is a really fast way to do what I think that usually for me at least. If I find myself fiddling with animations to make my bills, it takes just so much longer. So I really strongly recommend doing it this way. You're also a lot less likely tohave kind of, um, mess ups during your presentation where things go wrong or things appear out of order. And so this will be the final slide that I do the build on. So I don't need that great out text box any more, So I'm just gonna delete that, using the delete key to do that. And then I'm spreading this old Andi pulling this up. You could even make maybe one more, depending on how you want to structure this and delete the chart entirely in this 1st 1 So now let's take a look at Hollis. Will book. If you were to go through it in a sideshow, so you would start with seeing the headline. And then as you worked forward, a new bar would appear each time with the previous Barbie and great out. There's one other way, of course, that you could do this graph. It's pretty straightforward, but I'll just go through it quickly. So again I'm going to start with the final one, Gonna copy and paste this one. Go back to the previous copy and pasted one, and I'm going to insert a rectangle. I'm gonna change that rectangle to a white fill in no shape outline. And then here's just one example of how you might do this graph differently, depending on how your structuring your talk. Maybe instead of talking about the different treatment groups instead, you want to talk about the different proteins that were looked at all as one group. So you want to talk about the untreated that I'm 25 of em the M 25 plus bam as it relates to this specific protein. So if you wanted to do that, then the build would look something like this. Of course, you're not covering up the legend in this build. So let's look at how this goes. So maybe you go from here, and then you open up the next build and then you open up the next one. So these air just kind of two options for how you would use a build on a graph using of her text is pretty much exactly the same you're gonna use an all white rectangle that either has a 100% Phil, if you want something completely blocked from you or a transparent. Still, if you want something that is great out, I'm now going to go through some of the other options for calling attention to things during presentations. I'm going to use a Western blood to do that because I think the Western blot is a really classic example of something that has a lot of information on a single slide that could be really confusing for people to look at. So here's a Western black from the same paper and the first way that you might use a build . And I think that this is a good way because it's simple. It's pretty common, and most people are going to be able to know how to do it, even if you're a scientist and you're not very good at using power boy. So the way to do that is to use boxes or highlights, and so again, we're gonna go back to our rectangle shape, and we're gonna change the shape Phil to know Phil. And then we're gonna change the shape outlined to a color. Um, this is, of course, going to depend on the color palette of your presentation. But I recommend using something bright, not black. Definitely Red is good or another bright color. Then we have this blacks with no Phil and kind of a thin line. So I'm actually going to increase the weight of the line to three point and three point is probably the minimum you'd want to do for this technique. So the way that I normally will build with a highlighted box and a power point is to highlight the individual lanes and perhaps to individual lanes that I want people to be comparing. That is easy enough. Or you could also highlight just an individual band even like this. So say you want people to compare the PM tour Floss correlated M tour band. You might put a box here toe highlight that you're comparing the PM tour bands, and then you might put a box here to show the differences. And then in the next slide, say you want people to have compared this band right here. The Emmett six are to this one. You might move this box over here, and then As you walked through this, it would look something like this. This is an easy way to do a build for a Western plot or something of the like. However, I don't think it's actually the best way. I personally think that the best way is to do a bit more work, but use great out text and use magnified views of your Western blood. So let's go ahead and look at how I might do that. Here's another example of this slide. As always, this is gonna be the final version of the slides. I'm going to copy and paste it over and slide sorter and make a new version. And then I'm actually also going to copy and paste those western blot. Once I have that copy and pasted, I'm going to include a great out text box over the back of the slide. So I think you'll get an idea for why I'm doing that in a minute. So I don't want a shaped outline, and I want the shape feel to be white, and then I'm going to want to bring this to the front, so bring your front hope that really anywhere and then I'm going to form up with state text . Bart's lead ups slightly transparent Now what I'm going to dio is I am going to blow up this credit bet until it's as big as it can really go on the slide that I'm going to go to picture format and I'm actually going to crop this so that it's really adjust the information I want people to focus on. So perhaps I want people to begin by focusing on the 1st 2 lanes, going to crop this to be on Lee the 1st 2 lanes once it's cropped and said about that. And you can see actually, whoever made this Western but picture didn't do a good job of lining up these black, uh, bars at the end. So I'm just gonna go ahead and add an outline to this. I don't want outlined. I don't like here to my Western blot box, and I'm gonna make it sick. Probably two and 1/4 point sign update the crafting a little bit more to clean this up. So I'm gonna take a little bit more off the top, a tiny bit more off the bottom, and this is just me being picky. But now, once I have that, I can actually blow it up more. And then I'm going to make a copy of us. And I'm going to crop this so that the text shows this way. We have labels for our lanes. Even though we cropped it, this attractive little. There we go. I'm going to remove the outline on this one because I don't really want it. Isn't this a little? So it lines up and then I'm going to group this together just that it's easier to move around, no group. And now I'm going to add drinking a little, and then I'm gonna add labels to the very top with another text box. So you can see, since we're graying out this and we cropped it off, we're gonna need to add that there's no way to have added it. So we're gonna firm, and then we have ah, negative And the negative 25 we have. I'm not gonna positive and I want to make sure those line up sold it. That and I want the background of us to be white so that there's nothing behind. Ah, probably bold. Thus you can see I need to make it quite a bit quicker to get, uh, signs tow line up over the bands you can see. I mean, this is taking a lot of time, Yes, and I totally get. But, ah, lot of times you don't have the time to spend this much time on every single flight. That said, if this is the big presentation or if you're doing this for a client, I really think it's worth it to make everything look nice. There's no point in giving a presentation if you're not going to spend the time on this kind of stuff because it really makes a huge difference to your audience. So now that I'm thinking, I think I'm gonna take the shape outline off and I'm going to put an outline over the labels and the boxes. And so I'm gonna do that by just making another rectangle going around it, removing the shape cell, changing this to black and then changing the weight as well. So I'm gonna change this to three, and that will keep everything together. And then I'm actually going to do one more thing. That's completely optional, but I think it will make a difference. The first is to make this, um, white and make it encapsulate the labels. You can see this is kind of an iterative process. As you go through, there's going to be things that you want to change and, you know, that's totally fine. Just spend the time to make sure that everything looks nice. So I'm going to do the reorder objects option and let's see, I want this White Square to be behind this, and that's so in this town, you conceive of wine, you know, a little bit. So what I'm doing right now is making sure that this box look box looks nice and neat around the data. And then I am now finally going to do that one last thing where I put box here and I'm going to make this box see through. So no Phil shaped Island black and I am going to put the box perfectly around the lane that I am calling out on and really increase the whip of the line. Tiny but 1.5 points is fine. What I'm doing right here is adding lines to make it clear that we have blown up a piece of the Western law again, like I mentioned earlier, this is kind of optional. But I do think if you're doing kind of a big presentation, it's worth your time to make sure that it looks nice. Reorder objects. Gonna move this behind all that? I'm gonna move it behind the transparent box. Oops, I hit. Undo. It means do that. Let's move it back behind the transparent box and hit. OK, so there you go. Actually, I think I'm gonna move in front of the transparent box, but behinds other items. There we go. I like how that looks, and that's that. So I'm going to move this up so you can still see the reference. And it's actually up to you Whether you want to gray out the title or not. I think I won't. I think I'll move it in, um and yeah, so that is how you would do that. And then the good news is, once you have this done, it's a bit faster to kind of go through and do the rest so forgettable would copy and paste this side over inside sorter. And once it's copy and pasted, I can ungroomed thes cause you're gonna need ungroomed. But if you want to change the crop and I would go to picture format and select this and go to crop, and you can just move the Western blot over till whatever you want to highlight. So maybe you want to highlight, um, these two lanes now, once you have it centered, you can do that. You don't need to change these labels because they are not any different, because this is still the right rose. But you will need to change the top labels. So we have changed it to let's see them plus plus M 25 minus plus. So we'll just update those plus minus plus. And then I will move all of this to the right friends. I will just show that we're boxing a new part, so we're kind of moving through the western lot, so it's a lot faster once you've done one lane to then go through an update, the next lanes. And like I said, I think it's worth the time to do it. But it's really up to you, whether you like to do this or just use boxes. So let's take a look at how this might look, if you were to use this in a presentation, you would start with maybe the full Western blot. And you would say you November Refa nib and you pyre knocked down inhibits melanoma cell proliferation. Here's the western blot. For that, I'm now gonna walk you through each of the lanes in this western blot, and then you would move on to the builds. And here you would begin by explaining these two lanes and comparing them, and then you would move on to explaining these two lanes in comparing them, and it really helps to target your audience is attention. It's so worth the time, I think, to just make sure that your builds their on point, and it will also help you to think about whether or not your story is truly organized. 10. References and Slidenotes: in this lesson, we will discuss references and slight notes. Citing the work of others is an important aspect of creating scientific presentation using other people's data, graphics or words without giving proper credit. Is that best considered unprofessional and, at worst, considered left or plagiarism? Even if you re draw graphs or summarised ideas, I'd recommend citing your references on the slide. Just think, if you're presenting your research and a large enough room, you could have audience members who contributed to the work that you're referencing. Things could get very awkward if you don't include references. Unfortunately, it's pretty easy to reference sources. You would include the references at the bottom of the slide and truncated reference format , as shown here. I recommend size 12 to 18 fund. For most references for presentations in large rooms, err on the side of a larger font size. Here's the generally accepted format for a truncated reference that appears on a slide. You need the author name if there are three or more authors who only include the first author and at out if there are two or fewer authors include all author names. The journal should be included. An abbreviated format, followed by the year volume issue and page numbers. Basically, you want to give people enough information that they can find the reference paper without any trouble. The website is used usually including a hyperlink is sufficient. If there's an author listed on the website, the author and date should be included as well. You should reserve pulling citations for slide notes and a ably biography side here. I've included a M A style references, but you should use the style that is most appropriate for your presentation of note. I don't usually recommend a bibliography slide unless you are required to include one they usually pretty useless in the context of large presentations, and the references are much more useful on the slides. Finally, although copyright rules are complex and beyond the scope of this course, we've included a handout on copyright that will be helpful to you as you navigate whether it's OK to use graph for image without altering it. Even if something is free to use according to the copyright, it still needs to be used. With attribution. 11. Presentation Mapping: in this section of the course will discuss presentation mapping, which requires three slides that you'll find in almost all presentations the title slide, the outline slide and the concluding side. And in almost every single presentation, you'll find that these slides are lacking impact and without substance. Let's look at an example who are a typical example of a title slide outlined, slide and concluding slide. The title slide often uses a topic headline instead of in a social headline, and the outline slide follows suit. Then we usually have a concluding slide that Millie asked for questions or says, thank you. It's unfortunate that people often spend so little time developing these slides because when used correctly, you'll be spending most of the time on these three slides during your presentation. Let's look at why that is and how we can improve these slides. First, we have the title slide. Title slides are often the first thing that your audience will see when they walk into the room. Most presenters will leave the title slide projected while they wait for everyone to sit down. So the title slides often something that your audience will have the opportunity to look out for a few minutes before you begin your presentation. The title slide is therefore a great place feed, including exciting visual and a take home message. This will allow you audience toe have a sense for what you about to talk about. And audience members who arrive early consents in time thinking about the topic Before you begin talking. This will help you get your audience up to speed quickly. Let's take another look at this title. Slide the structural herbology off a Quebec proteins. This title gives us very little information about what the talk will be about, although we know it's about the structural home ology off Apple bet proteins, we do not know how the presented studied home ology or what the conclusions of the study were. So, as with the body slides of your presentation, I recommend that you use the title slide as an opportunity to write an assertion and provide visual evidence. Let's look at some examples. We've changed the title to mammalian apple. Back proteins share a structural home ology despite divergent functions. This tells the audience a little bit about Oppa, bet proteins and a little bit about what the talk will be discussing. We also have a picture of a virus in the background, which will allow the speaker to discuss the functions of apple back proteins with a general audience in case they're not familiar before ever moving onto the outline slide, which is usually the next slide in the presentation. Here is another example of a visual way to create this title slide with images to catch your audience's attention and provide a Segway to discuss in the functions of Apple Vac proteins. Thes title slides would be appropriate for a more general audience as they provide speaker with a way to talk about basic apple back functions at a relatively basic level. There is another option. If you're speaking to a scientific audience, you may not need to present such a basic view off Apple Bet proteins. Instead, you could consider including an image like the one shown, which walks the audience through the role of Apple Becks in the viral lifecycle. This will likely be useful for audience with some kind of scientific background. Finally, here's one more example. This is an example of a title slide that might work well for a fairly expert audience of structural biologists or protein scientists. With this title slide, you might be able to go into the details of Apple Beck structure before moving on to the more important features off your talk. In conclusion, you can see that your title slides should orient, but it's important to consider who your audience is to ensure that you are appropriately orienting them to your talk. Outline slides, which usually follow title slide, should map your presentation and also unify the presentation to keep your audience on the same page. This slide is a typical outline slide and informs the audience rather than uselessly, that they will get background information, some information about structural modelling and X ray crystallography and conclusions. For the most part, you audience could do without this slide because they're unlikely to remember the text, and they probably expect to receive background information, results and conclusions in a scientific presentation anyway. A better outlined slide should use visuals and mapping as much as possible to guide your audience through your talk, for example, you might start with why do we care and then go through an overview of that, then moving on toe how the results were achieved. Finally, you would discuss results and we charge of inclusions, which is really more about why we care. Of course, you should not put up the slide on the right all at once. Instead, use builds to layer in each component and walk your audience through the slide the first time that they see it. Another important use for outlines slides is to unify your presentation. Once you've introduced your outline slide of the beginning to give up your audience a map of your presentation, you could then return to the outline slide throughout your talk as you progress to each section. This serves two purposes. First, it allows you to take time to summarize what you've just told the audience and use a repeating visual to signal to your audience that you're moving into a new section. It also allows you to briefly summarize what you're about to tell them so that you can follow along more easily. Additionally, repeating the outlines slide will allow audience members who may have gotten a little lost in the previous section to reset their attention, and it lets them that there's a new topic at hand so that they can start concentrating again. If this strategy looks familiar, that might be because we've used it throughout this course. We've used these guidelines slides to walk you through each portion off the section and repeated the slides throughout the lessons. Finally, concluding slides should emphasize because we usually take questions at the ends of presentations. The concluding slide is often the one that's displayed for the longest. Yet people frequently display a slide that simply says thank you or questions. Instead of displaying something with meaningful content, you can simply verbally thank you audience and ask the questions at the end of the talk. There's no need to project these words or directions onto the screen. Let's look a more meaningful concluding slide. This slide has a heading assertion and visual evidence that summarizes the main message of the talk. If you do not have a single main message in your talk, consider carefully whether you're presenting too much information and whether you can pull out the most important message for this final concluding slide 12. Introduction to Data Visualization and PowerPoint Charts: because graphs are such an important part of PowerPoint presentations for scientists and medical writers will spend the next few lessons exclusively covering graphs. Then we will move on to other types of data visualisation and talk about tables. When we discuss grafts, we will talk about three main guidelines for creating graphs in Power Point. The first guideline is to choose a chart, type that clearly and effectively communicate your message. You could make many different types of charts in Power Point that there will usually be one chart type that is best for your purposes. The second guideline is to de clutter graphs and charts. We will go through some simple methods of doing this to ensure that your graphs of visually appealing. Finally, I always recommend redrawing graphs to unify presentations. I will discuss ways to do this in the final portion of our section on graphs. Let's begin by looking at the basics and Sergio graph in PowerPoint. Now we will discuss how graphs are inserted into Power Point presentations. In order to insert a graph into a Power Point presentation, you'll go to the insert tab in your ribbon and then go to chart once you got a chart, you'll see that there are a ton of options for different graphs, but mainly when you're using a Power Point presentation, I would recommend sticking to column line high X Y scatter and maybe sometimes one of the statistical charts, like Box and Whisker hissed a gram. But that's a bit less common. I'm gonna start by inserting a bar chart, because I think that this is a really common graph type, and you will probably be familiar with looking at it. When you insert a chart into Power Point, Power Point does two things. It first inserts a chart onto the slide, and then I also pulls up in Excel Sheet that you'll use to actually change the data that goes into the chart. So you can see if I were to change this to a 10 right here. It will also change in the chart. It also changes the access labels so that the 10 is visible. So when this was a five, for example, you can see that it automatically shrinks the why access to fully fill the page, which is a nice feature of Power point going toe exit out of the excel she right now, because I think that using these example Data's will work just fine for going through how this is actually used. Once you go into the slide and click on the chart itself, you'll see that two additional tabs appear in your ribbon chart design and format. Let's take a look at what these different tabs have to offer in chart design. You'll see that you have the option of adding a chart element. Here is where you'll go toe at a variety of elements, including primary, vertical and horizontal axis labels, access titles, chart title data labels and various other options. Even error bars when adding in features. This is the easiest way to do it. However, if you want to delete of future, I think the easiest way to do that is to just simply click on the future in the chart and click delete. It's really simple. So you complete the legend. You can even delete the access labels like this and basically only have a graph with bars. Obviously, for a scientific presentation that's not ideal. And then to add them back in hell, just goto ad Sure element, and you'll add them back in one by one. Another way to change the chart layout is to go to quickly out. This will give you all of the different features in different recommended formats. So, for example, in this layout one you have the legend to the right, the category access labels on the bottom and this on the top. You could also change it so that you have the legend on the top no y axis. And instead the data labels are shown at the top and so on, so you can see that there are a lot of different options. I would not recommend this version with the table at the bottom. I think it just looks really clunky. But other than that, I mean, most of these are gonna be pretty good options. You can see you can even make the bars over laughing all. Just go back to lay out one, because I think that that's the most basic option that we have. Then you also have the option to change colors. This is using the power point templates, so usually it's the generic power point options for colors, but there's a lot of different options, and then you can also kind of change the look in the feel of your chart using this design feature here. Uh, I'll let you take a look at these on your own, but there are a lot of different options. Once you get over to the right side of the chart designed ribbon, you'll see that this is where you can actually change the data that's in your chart. You can goto edit data in Excel to go through and change the options here. And you can also go to select data, which will allow you to actually select data from other Excel sheets. This is a bit complex, I think, for that this lesson in particular. But it's something toe be aware of in general. Finally, over to the right. You have this option option to change chart type. So, for example, maybe I decide instead of doing a column. Sure, I want to do a line chart, and so I could do this and it will keep the same data, but change it to a line display. Go back to the column chart. For now, that's pretty much it for the chart designed Tab. Let's go over and look at the format tab. The format tab works a lot like the Foreman tab for a shape or an object, so it's very similar in general. This is what you would use to perhaps change bar colors. You can change the color of the fill. You can also add an outline or get rid of an outline. You can change all of the bars in a certain group by clicking on them once and changing it . Or you can change a single bar in a group by double clicking. And then, if I change this, you'll see that this is the only bar that's changed in general, I would recommend, especially if you have multiple bars in your chart, keeping all of these the same color because that will make your legend actually make sense . If you go to the format pain at the far right, you can also add it the way that the bars appear on the chart so you can change the overlap so that they're farther apart or closer together. Even overlapping, I usually set us a zero. Then you can also change the gap with so that the group's actually appear closer together. I'll let you look at kind of the rest of these features on your own, but you'll see that there are a lot of ways to customize the way that a chart looks, which means there is usually no excuse for just using the power point default. The default can be pretty boring, and I wouldn't recommend it for most uses. 13. Graphs: because graphs are such an important part of PowerPoint presentations for scientists and medical writers will spend the next few lessons exclusively covering graphs. Then we will move on to other types of data visualisation and talk about tables. When we discuss grafts, we will talk about three main guidelines for creating graphs in Power Point. The first guideline is to choose a chart, type that clearly and effectively communicate your message. You could make many different types of charts in Power Point that there will usually be one chart type that is best for your purposes. The second guideline is to de clutter graphs and charts. We will go through some simple methods of doing this to ensure that your graphs of visually appealing. Finally, I always recommend redrawing graphs to unify presentations. I will discuss ways to do this in the final portion of our section on graphs. Let's begin by looking at the basics and Sergio graph in PowerPoint. Now we will discuss how graphs are inserted into Power Point presentations. In order to insert a graph into a Power Point presentation, you'll go to the insert tab in your ribbon and then go to chart once you got a chart, you'll see that there are a ton of options for different graphs, but mainly when you're using a Power Point presentation, I would recommend sticking to column line high X Y scatter and maybe sometimes one of the statistical charts, like Box and Whisker hissed a gram. But that's a bit less common. I'm gonna start by inserting a bar chart, because I think that this is a really common graph type, and you will probably be familiar with looking at it. When you insert a chart into Power Point, Power Point does two things. It first inserts a chart onto the slide, and then I also pulls up in Excel Sheet that you'll use to actually change the data that goes into the chart. So you can see if I were to change this to a 10 right here. It will also change in the chart. It also changes the access labels so that the 10 is visible. So when this was a five, for example, you can see that it automatically shrinks the why access to fully fill the page, which is a nice feature of Power point going toe exit out of the excel she right now, because I think that using these example Data's will work just fine for going through how this is actually used. Once you go into the slide and click on the chart itself, you'll see that two additional tabs appear in your ribbon chart design and format. Let's take a look at what these different tabs have to offer in chart design. You'll see that you have the option of adding a chart element. Here is where you'll go toe at a variety of elements, including primary, vertical and horizontal axis labels, access titles, chart title data labels and various other options. Even error bars when adding in features. This is the easiest way to do it. However, if you want to delete of future, I think the easiest way to do that is to just simply click on the future in the chart and click delete. It's really simple. So you complete the legend. You can even delete the access labels like this and basically only have a graph with bars. Obviously, for a scientific presentation that's not ideal. And then to add them back in hell, just goto ad Sure element, and you'll add them back in one by one. Another way to change the chart layout is to go to quickly out. This will give you all of the different features in different recommended formats. So, for example, in this layout one you have the legend to the right, the category access labels on the bottom and this on the top. You could also change it so that you have the legend on the top no y axis. And instead the data labels are shown at the top and so on, so you can see that there are a lot of different options. I would not recommend this version with the table at the bottom. I think it just looks really clunky. But other than that, I mean, most of these are gonna be pretty good options. You can see you can even make the bars over laughing all. Just go back to lay out one, because I think that that's the most basic option that we have. Then you also have the option to change colors. This is using the power point templates, so usually it's the generic power point options for colors, but there's a lot of different options, and then you can also kind of change the look in the feel of your chart using this design feature here. Uh, I'll let you take a look at these on your own, but there are a lot of different options. Once you get over to the right side of the chart designed ribbon, you'll see that this is where you can actually change the data that's in your chart. You can goto edit data in Excel to go through and change the options here. And you can also go to select data, which will allow you to actually select data from other Excel sheets. This is a bit complex, I think, for that this lesson in particular. But it's something toe be aware of in general. Finally, over to the right. You have this option option to change chart type. So, for example, maybe I decide instead of doing a column. Sure, I want to do a line chart, and so I could do this and it will keep the same data, but change it to a line display. Go back to the column chart. For now, that's pretty much it for the chart designed Tab. Let's go over and look at the format tab. The format tab works a lot like the Foreman tab for a shape or an object, so it's very similar in general. This is what you would use to perhaps change bar colors. You can change the color of the fill. You can also add an outline or get rid of an outline. You can change all of the bars in a certain group by clicking on them once and changing it . Or you can change a single bar in a group by double clicking. And then, if I change this, you'll see that this is the only bar that's changed in general, I would recommend, especially if you have multiple bars in your chart, keeping all of these the same color because that will make your legend actually make sense . If you go to the format pain at the far right, you can also add it the way that the bars appear on the chart so you can change the overlap so that they're farther apart or closer together. Even overlapping, I usually set us a zero. Then you can also change the gap with so that the group's actually appear closer together. I'll let you look at kind of the rest of these features on your own, but you'll see that there are a lot of ways to customize the way that a chart looks, which means there is usually no excuse for just using the power point default. The default can be pretty boring, and I wouldn't recommend it for most uses. 14. Decluttering: In this section, we will discuss some of the common power 0.2 faults that can clutter up your graphs and charts. Removing clutter is an important part of visually appealing slides because it will help Gioia audiences attention to the parts of the slide that you want them to focus on. My first piece of advice would be to avoid three D charts. PowerPoint usually has two options for each type of chart. The three D H. R and the two D chart always select to teach arts, as three D charts do not at your message, but they do take up more space and add distracting visual features. They can also make it difficult to interpret the values of different data. You can see that when we change these charts from three D to two D, we immediately have larger graphs that are easy to interpret for the audience. Another feature of that can really add cluttered to grass are the grid lines often extend from the X and Y axes. These guidelines are usually not very helpful during presentations. When the present aken discuss trends out loud and precise, values aren't usually important wherever your audience will likely not have the time to use grid lines to make estimations of exactly the points here. We've deleted the grid lines, which has improved the look of both of these charts. Unfortunately, PowerPoint does not allow grid lines to be entirely removed, so the lines that go along the X axis on the bar chart and the X and Y axis on the scatter plot cannot be deleted. If you'd really like to get rid of these lines, you could consider placing a white box over them. Another power point default is to include chart titles at the top of each graph. If you have a headline assertion, however, you probably don't also need a chart title, but therefore recommend deleting these chart titles unless you feel that they are really needed. As with grid lines, we simply click on the chart titles and delete them with the keyboard. Once they're removed, we have more space for our graphs, which is what we want the audience to focus on. Some PowerPoint chart designed defaults use both access labels and day labels. In general, you really don't need both of these. I recommend only keep him one. I think it looks neater to keep the Axis labels as shown on the left. However, there are some situations in which the precise value of a number is important. In those cases, it may be appropriate to include data labels. Another important consideration when getting rid of clutter is to emphasize the trends in line graphs. I recommend doing this by deleting the markers, which air the circles that mark each data point and becoming the lines. As you can see, this emphasizes the train without adding to the clutter of the chart. In fact, the combines on line graphs draw the eyes to the trends, which reduces the impact of other noise in the chart. My final piece of advice for de cluttering grass would be to choose the simplest graft style that you can. Sometimes that might even mean using more than one graph to represent data that could theoretically be displayed on a single chart. If it were published in the paper grafts that a published in papers often prioritise conveying a lot of data in a small amount of space In presentations, however, it's more important that the graphs are immediately intuitive for the audience. Audience members are not able to really sit down on looking at graphs during presentation as they can with graphs and published papers. So we must do the work of displaying the data in a comprehensible manner up front. For example, let's look at the graphs that shown here, Can you see any trends in the data for the various groups? I would guess not, except for perhaps the bottom dark blue bar. Let's look at another way to display these data. These values can be broken up into multiple graphs to better show the trends. Among the data. You could see that once the various data sets are broken out into different graphs, that we can see that Siri's to is decreasing while serious three is increasing. This is just one example. But remember that it's always better to choose the simplest grass style, even if that means using more than one graph to arrange the data. Now let's look at a real world example. Here's a slide with a graph that was pulled from a paper, you can see that the graph has quite a bit of clutter. It's a three D graph, even though there's no need to display these data in three dimensions. Furthermore, there are grid lines across the entire graph, which is likely a result of the three D nature of the graph. Finally, there's a lot of information displayed all at once, So if you were to project this to an audience, they'd likely have a hard time focusing. I'm now going to show you how I would redraw this graph using builds to better convey the information. Here is the redrawn graph. Since we're discussing changes over time, I chose to use a line graph. I've changed the colors to match a color palette, and I've increased all of the text size. I've also chosen to layer each line one of the time to allow the audience time to digest information. You can see that even without the layering, we've come a long way in terms of visual clutter. With this graph, Now it's your turn. We haven't exercise loaded into this lesson for you called graph exercise. In this PowerPoint file, you'll find a slide with instructions and three basic tables. Your instructions are to make these tables into graphs of your choosing at a headline assertion and apply a unique color palette once you're done. Feel free to save the slide as a pdf O. J peg and share it with the class in the Q and a section of the scores. I started that Q and A threat called graph Exercise answers for you to add your examples for feedback from your peers. Once you've completed your exercise, you can watch how I've completed it in the following video. Everyone's will probably be different, and that's part of the fun, right old. 15. Redrawing: retrying grass is an important part of making a PowerPoint presentation unified and visually appealing. When figures are copied and pasted directly from papers, you can end up with unnecessary clutter, poor quality images and a lack of uniformity, and possibly more information that you need on your slide. Let's look at some examples here here slides that I pulled off the Internet and change slightly and all of these slides You could see that figures have been copied and pasted in from papers, which not only doesn't look great because of the white on the differently colored backgrounds, but it also likely provides too much information for the audience. Redrawing these graphs would be a better option in most cases. Here's a slide where graph was copied and pasted in from another paper. You can see that the quality of the figure is poor, with lots of picks, elation. There's also a random shape over here to the left that appears to have been cut off from the image. Although you could theoretically leave the graph like this and get the point across just fine. It's always better to read or the graphs to both. Use your own color palette and to avoid the quality issues shown here. Here's an example of the same slide, but with a redrawn graph, you can see that side looks much cleaner in this version. Let's look at one more example. Here we have four graphs in the same slide. You can see the graph background is a different color from the slide background, and it's difficult to read the text because of how small it is. By redrawing, the grass were able to get clean looking graphs that look visually pleasing without color palette. You may be wondering, though, how we were ableto accurately redraw these graphs, since there are no numbers on the original to pull from. Although you could try to eyeball the graph values and input those into the power point, I'd recommend against that, especially for medical and scientific writers. It's important to be as accurate as possible when preparing slight expert clients, which includes accurately displaying data to reach all these grass accurately, I use a browser program called Web Plot digitize er. We will now go through how this is done in the next video, so the first thing that you need is a graph that doesn't have any values. You can see I have a graph here. I got it from a website, and while it gives good information, it's not a very high level of quality. The picture isn't and it also doesn't really go with a color scheme. I don't like the way it looks, so you can see that I don't have any exact values for each of these bars. So while it would be, I guess reasonable to perhaps try and extrapolate the numbers for each barb, I just eyeballing it and saying, Perhaps this is 1.18 This is 1.2. This is one point 15 Maybe if you're a medical writer especially, I don't think it's very ethical to do that. I think that your client is depending on you to be as accurate as possible. So I recommend using graft digitize er software. I prefer the wet plot digitize er software. This is free to use, and you use it entirely within a browser. You don't have to download it all, So once you go to the website, you then click on launch now, and it's offered in English as well as a variety of other languages, and you have to upload your image into the software. So once your image is uploaded into the software, you have to tell the software what kind of graph you have put in. So this is a bar plot. So I'm just gonna select two D bar plot and then align axes in the align axes process. You are just telling the software of where exactly the y axes air at on the graph. So you need to select a 0.1 in a point to you can see as you move the cursor in the image. You also have a blown up image with cross hairs to the right. You can use these crosshairs to find the exact points in the graph and make sure you're being as accurate as possible. So I'm gonna select the 1.0, here is my first point. And then the 1.1 is my second point. Definitely. Take your time on this and just make sure you're being as accurate as possible. Because if you're already going through the trouble of redrawing a graph, why, um, well, I have any inaccuracies in that. And so then there's point to, And then you can click complete, and you have to tell the software what those values represent. So I'm typing in 1.0 for 0.1 and 1.1 point two. Once you've done that, you can simply click on the top of each bar toe, have the software tell you the values of each bar. So this to and since this is a bar graph, the X values don't matter. So I'm not going to spend a lot of time making sure I'm on the middle of the bar. Instead, I want to make sure that I'm getting the accurate Why value Based on this blown up image to the right, then once I have those values, I can actually view them right here and you'll see that I have bar zero through five. So this is six bars total, and it has values for each of them. I'm gonna come into powerfully and just move this out of the way. And now I'm going to insert my chart. So remember, I have three categories. I have normal blood pressure, medicated high blood pressure and non medicated high blood pressure. And then I have two categories and those are according to this, those without genetic risk factors and those with genetic risk factors. So once you have that inserted, I'm gonna go ahead and just fit this nicely into the slide. And for some reason, Category one and category two aren't showing. There we go with genetic risk factors without genetic risk factors. And then, of course, you always want to add a by access label. I'm gonna click on the chart, go to chart design on chart element in the access title. So primary vertical and that was me and amyloid level. And then I'm going to remove the chart title because I don't think it's necessary. And now that I have to graft looking on the way that I want it to look, I am going to input the numbers from over at the weather the hot digital Kaiser software here. So I know that I'm just gonna be going left right, because is that still the way that I just set up? Uh, labels That's up to you. How many decimal points if you go out to it? I think that if you are a scientist or a doctor, um, you'll have a feel for how important it is to get those decimal points, and and then the last step that I would recommend doing is to actually go over and make sure that your graph makes sense with the graph that you were originally using. Now you can see that this does not exactly look like the original graph. But that's because the Y axis of the original graph is slightly different. In order to fix that, that I'm going to to go to access options by going to the format pain, access options and then over here. And I'm just gonna set the minimum and bound up one, and you can see that we have something that more approximately. It's the way that the original graph looked. Now it's your turn. We haven't exercise loaded into this lesson for you called Vidro, Graph exercise. In this PowerPoint file, you'll find a slide of instructions and a graph to be redrawn. Instructions are div. Each for all the square off using Web plot digitize er or a graft digitize er of your choice. Once you're done, feel free to save the slide as a pdf O. J peg and share it with the class in the Q and A section off this course, I've started a Q and A threat called graph Exercise Answers for you toe at your examples to for feedback from your peers. Once you've completed your exercise, you can watch how I have completed it in the following video. 16. Tables: because your audience is more likely to remember information that's presented visually. Tables are not always ideal for conveying information. During a Power Point presentation, however, there are times when you may want to call attention to something that does not present while in a graphical form. Thoughtful use of tables can be useful in some presentations. But keep in mind that every number, word, shape, lion and object that's included on the slide is one more thing that your audience can look at. Instead of concentrating on what you're talking about, we will now go through my recommendations for making tables and power point first, as we graphs, I recommend that you read role tables instead of copying and pasting them from papers. Let's go through an example of how that's done now. So now is probably a good time to go through how to insert tables and power point. In order to show you how to do that, I'm going to use this slide here, and I'm going to redraw this table using a power point table. So in order to do that, I'm going to coffee and place the slide and make a new one and then I'm going to go to insert table and then I tell it, how many columns and how many rows I need. If we want to make an exact copy of this table, we can just count the columns and rows here to figure out how many we need. So perhaps 123456 789 10 11 12 rows and you can see I can only go down to eight. So add the rest of the rose at the end, and then we have 123456 columns. So for now, we'll do a six by eight table and just keep in mind. I need to add 12 more rows. So in order to do that, maybe I'll just highlight this and click Insert rose below. And since I highlighted four rows when I was doing that, it's inserting four rows below to give us a total of 12. Now we'll begin by just in putting the data into this table, you'll see that there's a lot of different features of this table that aren't immediately convertible to the power point table. So, for example, we have this merged cell right here that says OS training cohort. So in order to get that data into the table, we're going to have to highlight the cells. We'd like to merge, right click and go to merge cells. And we need that again down here for validation cohort. So I'll go down 12345 rows and I'll highlight these cells and I'll click merge cells. And then I am just going to change this color toe white. So let's be a little bit easier on the eyes and easier to look at. And then at the end, we can play with the coloring a little bit because I do think coloring is important. So in order to change the color of the cells, I'm highlighting the cells I'd like to change. And then I'm going up to the table designed tab that appeared when we inserted the table and selecting a white color shading men because I'd like to see the outline of the cells. I'm gonna add borders. So to do that, I go to borders and then all borders, and at the end we can go through and take these borders out. But I think it's helpful toe have them just so that I can see where the boxes are. For now, you can see that it inserted really thick borders. And that's because I was playing around with something before I started this video. So I'm going toe undo that action and then I'm going to change the border size over here. So in order to do that, I'm going to click here. But a one point which I think we'll just be easier to look at. And then I'm going to insert the borders again. You can see that by selecting the square with this hash marks in the middle. I'm selecting all borders, but you can, of course, customized where exactly you're adding borders with the borders check boxes. So now the next process in this is to input all of the data, but and I'm going to change the text color here to make sure that it's readable. Let's just change the color of the whole box to black, so I'm not gonna make you sit through me in putting all of the text. I think you get the idea of how to do that, so I'll go ahead and get that completed, and then we can talk more now that I have all of the text inputted, you can see that not all of it fits very well. So, for example, intermediate wraps around here because this last e doesn't fit and hazard ratio wraps around and you can see it doesn't even fit on the slide because it's too big. So let's look at how we're gonna change this around. I'm going to start by deleting this other graph. Since we don't need it anymore, then I'm going to adjust the size of the table in order to justice eyes the table. You have two options. The first option is by selecting the table and then using these outer boxes with the white era or the white boxes. And when you do that, you can see that it kind of averages the size change across all of the columns and all of the rows. That's fine, but sometimes there are times when you might want to just change a single column. For example, I think we can make this end column smaller while making the hazard ratio column bigger so that this does not wrap around this 95% confidence interval. So in order to do that. What I'm gonna do is select this actual column border, and you can select it by hovering your mouse over it and you'll see that the mouse changes and then moving it in. And since I have emerged still here in the middle, I need to do it for both cells. Fortunately, the dash grid lines make it pretty easy to make sure that you're getting it aligned all the way across. You can see that now. This is automatically added space to the hazard ratio area. But if I wanted, I could also adjust this and adjust the other ones. Another really useful feature of table design in Power Point is that you can go over toe layout and then you can actually make certain columns equal size. So, for example, say I wanted the Hazard Ratio column. P Volume column, three year overall survival column and three year relapse column toe all be the same size. I would select these columns and then go up to distribute columns, which is this button right here. When I do that, you can see that it makes all of the columns equal size. Whoever I don't really want that to happen because again the 95% c I is wrapping around to another line. So I'm just going to increase this one. Just a touch enough so that we have everything on one line. No, I'm going to keep working on the design of the slide. I'd like toe bold thes subheadings because just like when you're making sides when you're making tables, I think it's really important to use ah hierarchy. So the heading has one color and size. The subheadings have another color in size, and then the content have a completely different size. This will help your audience distinguish between headings and subheadings. The other thing I'm going to do is I'm going to center this text in the middle of the slide box so you can center things so that their center justified using this as you would for text. But it's also helpful, I think, especially in tables to align the text to the middle of the slide vertically. So in order to do that, I'm going to select all of these, click here and go to Mill, and then for these subheadings, I'm also going to center justify in the other direction. Now that we have that, let's make the heading colors consistent, and to do that will go to the table designed tab and change the shading. I'm going to change it to a dark blue cause I think that looks nice. But then you can see I also need to change the color of the fault. So for the heading, I think that size 18 bond is a pretty good size, so I'm going to leave that be. But I am going to change the size of the subheading fund 2 17 I don't want to go too much smaller because I'm gonna also make the data itself a smaller size. We want everything to be legible to anybody who's perhaps sitting in the back of the room. Once I've done that, I'll also change the color of the sub, heading the same way that I changed the color of the heading by going to the fill options. So I think for the heading, I showed you you could go to table design. But you can also do that from the home tab and then also go ahead and change the color of the tax. Let it pops on that color. And then finally, since I kind of want to highlight these different groups from load a very high I'm going to Botham. Then I'm also going to change the color of the US I already had this color palette selected , so that's why these air already set. But if you didn't have a color palette selected, you would just go ahead and use the colors that you like or set a new color palette, whatever you'd like to dio. Now that I have these colors set, I'm going to go ahead and get rid of a lot of the clutter here. So I'm gonna get rid of these lines in between all of the different cells. And so to do that, I'm going to go to table design borders, and I'm just gonna click here to get all the border set and then I'm gonna click one more time to remove them. Once I've removed them. I think that this looks pretty needs. However, it's still a tiny bit too big. So I'm going to probably have to change the size of the Scott one more time, maybe to 15 and then I want to squeeze this in together so that it fits on the side. So this is kind of a basic overview of how you insert a table in power Point, and the next part of the lesson will talk more about making these tables look nicer and have less data in them so that they're more digestible for your audience. As you can see, redrawing tables is important for improving the look of your slides. As with graphs, the second guideline for tables is to de clutter them. Tables can be overwhelming to look at during slide presentations because they're often full of words, numbers, brackets, portsys, asterisk and super scripted footnotes. De cluttering is important to allow your audience to focus on what's most important and give them time to listen to what you're saying. Let's take a look at how we might declare this table to highlight the most important points . As you know, we made this thought size 15 which is pretty small for a table. Additionally, we have a lot of information that an audience would spend time reading instead of actually listening to what you're talking about. So I think that the best way to handle this would be to remove MAWR information from the table. So to start doing that, let's look at the title of the slide. It says higher scores correlate with allergenic H S C T risk. So presumably that means that the scores over here going from low to very high, and that's correlating with risk. That's what we want to highlight, which is the hazard ratio. That means that I think we can go ahead and delete these columns that have three year overall survival and three year relapse in them, because we're really getting that information from the hazard ratio when the hazard ratio is what we want our audience to focus on. So in order to do that, what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna highlight these two columns, and you can really click anywhere in the columns, and then I'm going to right click and then go to delete and elite columns. You can see that it deleted the columns from the top group and the bottom group, which is perfect. I think we can also go ahead and delete this End column, and that's because it is important information, especially in a peer reviewed paper that you're trying to publish because the peer reviewers and the audience need to know this information. Whoever in a talk, it's really not quite as important as the audience understanding the main point of your lesson. That means that if they really want to know this information, they can always refer back to the paper. But for a talk, I would just go ahead and delete it, So that leaves us with this basic information here. The hazard ratio, the 95% confidence interval in the P value. Although the P value is pretty important, I don't know that it's important have the exact P value displayed in a table. Instead, I think that will want to find a way to incorporate the P value without this information. If you're a medical writer and you're creating a table for a client, this is something that you might have to actually include just because medical Legal Review might want it there. That's a battle that medical writers air constantly fighting, trying to declutter slides and medical legal review always wants more information in it. So that's just something to keep in mind that you can't always de clutter everything but do what you can and then added back in if it's needed. So that leaves us with this information here. And I personally think that now what we can do is actually make this side by side information. So I'm going to add a row or a column back to the right, and I'm going to stretch out this table so that there's room. I'm going to make this call in the validation cohort in the copy and paste this information . Then then I can actually just delete thus here, so you can't see it off the screen. But I'm deleting these rows. So now what I think I'm going to dio is first. I'm going to add borders back to this table quickly because I want to be able to see exactly where things are split up and I'm going to unburden this cell. So that's called splitting cells. There's no UNM urged option, and I'm gonna just split it back to what it was originally, so that gives us three columns across the top, and then I'm going to make this equal with the other columns, and I'm actually going to move these labels down and then I'm going to delete this information merged these two cells and type out hazard ratio in 95% confidence interval. Here it's up to you whether or not you keep 95% confidence intervals in your tables. I actually usually think that they are pretty helpful for audiences. I actually find them more helpful than P values because a lot of time the P value is a very specific statistical indicator. Whereas 95% confidence intervals can give you more information. However, it's totally up to you. One way that I've found that really helps to decrease the um, clutter in a slide is to make the 95% confidence intervals a little smaller than the actual data. This is totally up to you. Um, I'm definitely don't have to make your slide like this. And actually, before I do that, I'm just gonna get the size of all of the pot set to what I want, which is 18. And now I'll go ahead and make diesel smaller. And like I said, this is not necessary. And, you know, maybe people have different opinions about how this looks, but I think it looks nicer, and I think it looks a little cleaner. It allows your audience toe look at the hazard ratio itself. And then after that, choose whether or not they want to pay more attention to the confidence. Interpol. So again, we're now going to want to set our font hierarchy. And so to do that, I think I'm gonna make the hazard ratio 20 maybe 28 just a kind of hint at how we have everything else set up. I'm gonna make this a little smaller, maybe 20. This will make 20 and I'm also going to center it. And then these I already made 18. Now, what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna get rid of the borders because I think Borders are a huge thing, that at a lot of clutter. And then the last thing I think I'm gonna do is I'm gonna add border in just one location, and that will be down this middle to divide the training cohort from the validation cohort . I'm going to click on the table and go to table design. I'm gonna make that a thick border like three points and I'll make it the same colors. The dark blue you can see with the pen. If I had done that, I would have divided that side. So I want to make sure it knows I just want that here. And I think that looks nice. I think I'm going to do one other thing with the border. Change it to White. Just add it right here. And that just breaks up the, um, group from training cohort. Maybe I'll try that in the study in Dark Blue. Now that I'm looking at it, I don't love the way that it looks. So here is the table. As you can see, it's a lot less clutter than what we started with. It's less cluttered even than our redrawn graph. I did want to show you one last thing, and that's say, you really need to keep the P values because you went through medical legal Review and I want them out. It back here is how you would add that in, I think, the best way to do it so you can see I've reversed where these labels are a training cohort . Invalidation cohort labels are now at the top, and the hazard ratio on P value labels are at the bottom, and this is just an example of continuing to decrease clutter because we are limiting how many times would need to write training cohort and validation cohort and instead are writing hazard ratio on P value twice. And if I had stuck with this original set up, I would have four labels in each box. I would have training covert and validation cohort twice, and I would have hazard ratio and P value twice. So here's an example of how I would end up doing that. You see, I have added a few of the borders back in, so I bought it a thin white border. Between these, they're at a thicker border between the subheadings and heading. It's really up to you how you want to use borders. But I really encourage you to experiment with trying to use borders to your advantage instead of just using the power point default. Because I think borders air the main place where you get a lot of clutter. It here's our table before and after de cluttering, you could see that in the decline did table are font size is larger in the table and in the title, which improves the readability. Additionally, there are few and numbers to look at and fewer roads in general. If you have a table in a presentation, it's best to limit your rows and columns to five or six. This is not a heart of fast rule, but it will help you to cut down on the clutter. Another guideline for tables is to think about a way to create a visual table. Let's look at what this means. Here's our de cluttered table. Creating a visual table essentially means taking this information and making it more visual . In this case, I did that by overlaying the table values on top of arrows to create a visual representation that with increasing group scores, the hazard ratio also increases. I call this a visual table because the columns and rows is still essentially, they're. The only difference is that I took the information out of a PowerPoint table and over laid it onto an image. Finally, if possible, I'd recommend rethinking tables entirely if you can. There are a few cases where it could be difficult to turn a table into a graph. Hesitation is being one example, but if you can make a table into a graph, that's usually a better option. 17. Case Study: we have now concluded all of the new content of this course. I wanted to finish the course with a few final thoughts before we move on to a case study first. If you follow all of the steps in this course, you'll find that creating your slides takes significantly longer. There's really no way around this. If you're taking the time to think about your messaging, map your presentation, read your figures and find alternatives to bullet points. You'll inevitably spend more time making your presentation than if you use the power point faults and slap some information into bulleted lists or something like that. But it might be helpful to think about it this way. You're doing the work of making connections so that your audience doesn't have to. This upfront work will pay dividends in terms of how well your talk has received and how much information your audience can understand. And the final part of the course will go through a case study. I have a very typical example of a scientific slide shows saved in this lesson. The name of that file is case study encourage. You should go through the case study on your own and spend the time in improving these slides. Using the advice, Learn from this course. Once you've done that, you can then see how I would have changed the slides and why. By watching the next video. Once you've completed your case study, please upload it into the Q and a section of this course. You can get feedback from us and from your peers. This is the title slide from our case study presentation. The title is opioid antagonised for Para Lease and Probationers. This title is in the topic style, giving us a general topic but not much information about the content of the talk. For the more you can see that the color choice of blue and yellow is not great, despite it being a very common option. Here's how I have changed this slide. We have a visual under laid beneath the headline title that reads extended release, naltrexone delayed opioid relapse. This title gives us much more information about what talk will cover, and the visual in the background allows us to prime the audience with some information about opioid dependence before moving on to the next slide. In the outline slide, we again have a topic sub topic set up with a boring bulleted list. There are no visuals on this slide, which means that the audience is unlikely to remember much of the information to fix the slide. I've created a layered outline slide with visuals and some more information you could see that I've used builds to create the outline slide, which will allow me to walk the audience through the content. I've also created a more informative title. In this case, it's a question the question that this presentation will seek to answer namely, how does extended release naltrexone compare with usual care for opioid dependence? Have a visual representation of the methodology and the outcomes as well? And I've used a font hierarchy to distinguish between the title and the other text in the slide. Another difference between my slide deck and the original is that the outline slides are repeated throughout the slide deck to orient the audience and unify the presentation. Here we have the introductory slide, which is formatted like many introductory slides are we have some background information in a booth that list and with no visuals in my slide deck update. I've changed slide to an image of prison, along with a statement 40 x more likely to die from opioid overdoses than two weeks of release. This statement is referring to the risk associated with the recent release from prison for opioid deaths. I can then use my slight notes to discuss the other content in the introduction without needing to display that information on the screen. From there, I've added another slide. This is our outlines slide and will signal to the audience that we're moving on from the introduction to the method section. Like most methods slides, this is a boring, bulleted list which fails to show relationships among the bullets. To update this slide, I created a simple visual using smart art and shapes to show how the study was conducted. Additionally, using builds, I'm ableto walk the audience through the methods one at a time. You can see that I've also updated the headline to be an assertion and have kept with my fault hierarchy for this slide. I have a visual that shows relationships better than bullet points and less tax than the original slide. And again, I would then show the audience. The outline slides a signal that we're moving onto the results in the original case studies slides, we move directly into the results of that transition slide, and we see this table, which contains a lot of information and is difficult to read because of the small font size . We also have a topic title, and the color scheme is a bit off. You can see that I've layered in the information so that the audience only has a one thing to focus on at a time. We also have bigger font and less tax because I've only included the most important information from the original table. The next slide is a graph. I think this table on the bottom is too much information, and since the graph was copied directly from the paper, it doesn't fit with the color scheme. Here we've redrawn the graph, allowing us to keep our original color scheme using bigger font and less text. The penultimate slide in this presentation is the conclusions and implications slide. It's again a bulleted lists that does not show relationships and has no visuals. In my suggested redraw, I would return to the outlines side and perhaps point at the question in the title of this slide. I would then explain that the results have shown that extended release naltrexone is better than usual care. We could then gray out the other information on this slide and use this opportunity to explain the implications off the results for original problem. The Open would relapse rate among probationers and parolees. I like this slide in the original deck. This one uses visuals and repeating themes to ensure that your audience understands what they have learned. The final slide in the slide deck is the ubiquitous questions slide. This is not an impactful conclusion, so I've updated the slide to something that better summarizes the impact of our results. Here we have returned to the Correctional Facility image and have updated the headline to read Extended release. Naltrexone could avert thousands of deaths. This conclusion is a good transition from our previous slide, where we would have discussed the implications of the results 18. 18 Conclusion: all right. I hope that you found this course useful for your PowerPoint slides. And if they're for your own sentiment presentations, I hope that it helps you do an even better job of conveying your information. And if you create PowerPoint slides for clients at all, then hopefully it will keep clients coming back because I'm so happy with your work. It's really quite unusual, I think, to have this kind of talent or clarity in creating PowerPoint slides. At least US science types don't often get this kind of training. So I hope it's been helpful. If you like this course. We have a couple of other courses that you might find useful. We have a It's about a three hour grammar course. It's called getting your point across in writing. And that was also could creative with Jessica Martin and myself and then also 15 errors in scientific writing, which is a great primer course. It's about an hour long, and it will really get you up and running when it comes to science writing and medical writing. If you're interested in freelance medical writing as a career choice, I have a course of the same name so you could definitely check that out. Very, uh, quick overview of what it all is and what kind of money you could make and what kind of background you need to get into freelance medical writing. And then, finally, there's also course on how to read and interpret a scientific paper, which is useful if you just want to read scientific papers or if you're maybe a patient wanting to be such a topic, or even for graduate students, high school students and that kind of thing. So definitely check that out. All right, so I very much look forward to seeing all your examples in the Q and A section definitely do that right. It's the easiest way to get the information into your head is to actually do the example. So please take a little time and do this, Okay? All right. Thanks so much