Portrait Painting from a Photo with a Full Palette | Kristy Gordon | Skillshare

Portrait Painting from a Photo with a Full Palette

Kristy Gordon, New York Based Artist And Teacher

Play Speed
  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x
15 Lessons (2h 31m)
    • 1. Introduction

      1:13
    • 2. Palette Set Up

      7:48
    • 3. Light Side Color Lay In

      1:48
    • 4. Light Side Color Lay In (Continued)

      13:59
    • 5. Shadow Side Color Lay In

      14:49
    • 6. Big Form Modeling

      10:36
    • 7. Features Handouts

      18:40
    • 8. Blocking in the Features

      15:12
    • 9. Essential Skills: Most Common Mistakes

      5:04
    • 10. Essential Skills: Glazing Lesson

      2:23
    • 11. Describing the Planes

      14:04
    • 12. Refining the Eyes

      9:58
    • 13. Refining the Eyes (continued)

      6:36
    • 14. Refining Nose & Mouth

      9:30
    • 15. Finishing Touches

      19:14
36 students are watching this class

About This Class

This class builds on my first one, "Portrait Painting from a Photo: Underpainting"  Having established a solid underpainting in the first class, you are ready to move into color using a full palette. 

We will utilize warm and cool lighting to achieve dynamic colors, giving a contemporary feeling to portraits painted with traditional techniques. You will learn how to achieve a better likeness as well as how to paint convincing flesh tones. Lessons cover the stages for developing a painting in color, structure of the face and features, as well as value, edges and modeling with color temperature.

The beginner will learn fundamental principles such as how to mix colors and render form modeling. The more advanced student will discover how to take their work to the next level and achieve the finish that they desire.

Check out my other classes:

Portrait Painting from a Photo: Underpainting

Portrait Painting with a Full Palette

Glazing, Scumbling and Impasto Paint Application Techniques

Composition in Art

Transcripts

1. Introduction: I think we all have a natural affinity to the human face and for a lot of artists, the idea of painting the portrait seems like the ultimate challenge. In this class I'm going to break it down into steps that you can follow along with. They really simplifies the process. I'll show you a comparative measuring so that you can get accurate proportions and it gives structure to your under painting. Then we'll move to color. I'll talk about late logic with a sphere so that you can have a better understanding of how color works across an object. Then we'll move to color layering. Defining the planes of the face and then rendering the features. There's a special section that really goes in depth about the structure of the features. Then in the demo, I show you how I apply that to the painting. So in this class you'll discover how to get a luminous, lifelike quality to your portrait and I'm really excited to see what you create. 2. Palette Set Up: We're going to be using a full palette as we move forward to color. The full palette really provides the full range of possibilities with color, and I'll use this for landscapes, so I use this for figures. I use this palette for everything that I do where I want a full range of colors. It's really nice eventually to choose a palette that works for you and really stick with it and keep the orientation of it, on your side table the same way all the time to you, and eventually you'll get an intuitive sense of how to mix the colors. Hopefully this will be a palette that you really resonate with, but basically in your own studio practice, eventually choose a palette that works for you and stick with that. We're going to set up the palette together, get out all of the paints. There's a palette hand out that has all the colors listed on it and shows a photo of the arrangement. Also have a palette knife and a rag, and let's go set up a palette together. I've got all of the colors arranged in an orderly fashion, moving from warm to cool and from saturated to desaturated. There's going to be some premix colors over here, which I'll talk about in a second. As you put the colors on your palette, make sure to put them around the outer perimeter of your palette so that you'll be leaving the central area clear and clean from mixing as you go. We've got Titanium white here, we've got what I'll mix into a cream color here with a bunch of Titanium white and a little teeny bit of yellow ocher. Got lemon yellow here, cadmium yellow deep, cadmium orange, cadmium red light, Alizarin permanent yellow och-re, Burnt sienna, Meridian green, A ether cobalt or a Cobalt Teal or Cyrillic just a Turquoise blue, Ultramarine blue, either Lamp black or Mars black. Then the premix colors, which I'll talk about in a second. You can see that some of the colors are mixed down to what's called Strings. So you've got a dark, the darkest version of the color, the darkest purest version of the color at the back, and it's mixed into a gradient of white towards the front. This way you'll be able to use like from the lighter area of the color if your working the lights and say from the darker area of the color when you're working the shadow sides. It really helps with the mixing chip-set, the palette up this way, and to create a string, I've left this one ready to do. You'll basically take your palette knife and do this wiggly side-to-side stroke, and just pull a bit of the color down into the white. You want to make sure that you get some color down in the base of the white there so that you don't just have white at the bottom, we've already got white on our palette over here. You're just wiggling it side to side at pulling a little bit more color down, make sure not to get any white in the back. You can see how the back of the color is totally just pure color. You want to have access to some pure color with no white mixed into it as you're going as well. Mix that we've doing it on, the Cadmium yellow deep at the cad Orange, cad Red, Alizarin permanent meridian, and the Green. I don't do it on this yellow because it's already so light and I don't do it on the blue or the black because we actually have a premix section of those colors. For this cream color, you can mix those together again, just use a really small amount of Yellow ocher. You want it to basically mix to like a cream color, if you use too much Yellow och-re, it'll be too deep. Remember to wipe your palette knife off in between mixing so that it's clean, you want to just keep everything clean and ready to go. This color here, and again, it's described on the palette hand out. This is going to be our base flesh color and I've got a bunch of white, a little bit less orange. I'm actually going to mix this one first, which is the little bit of Yellow, little bit of Ultramarine blue, and a little bit of Titanium white, more Titanium white than blue, mix this together and then we're going to mix a bit of that into our base flesh color. Base like, so flesh color is basically like a desaturated Orangish color. By mixing a little bit of blue into this orange and white, it's going to make a little bit of a desaturated, meaning slightly grayer version of the color. There's a few words that I'm going to use throughout the course to describe color. There's Hue which is like the color of the color like red or yellow or green, that's Hue. Then there's saturation, which is like the intensity of the color like the vibrancy of it, like gray would be a really desaturated color. Orange is obviously released intense and saturated. Then there's also Tone, and Tone is like the lightness or darkness of the color. Black is obviously really dark tone, this is a mid tone, this blue, white is really light tone, and so those are the three words that I'll use to describe color. We've also got a gray mixture over here, just a bit of black, really small amount of black. The black can be really potent, so creep up on the amount of black. This is meant to just mix to like mid tone, like the color of the palette that I'm using. By the way, it's useful to use either like a gray palette like this or a wooden palette. You'll find when you use those white palettes, it's hard. You'll mix the color and it'll look one way on your palette and it'll look a different way when you put it into the context of the painting. These last two colors here, are what I'm going to be referring to as Base shadow colors. Basically they're a mixture of complimentary colors that'll create like a rich brown, in the under painting, we use Burnt umber as the Brown for the under painting. Now I've actually taken Burnt umber off the palette. We have Burnt sienna, which is a richer color, but not Burnt umber, because Burnt umber is a little bit of a dead feeling color, and instead we'll mix these two complimentary piles together to get a richer, more varied, more interesting shadow color. If we look at the color wheel here, basically we're mixing colors opposite the color wheel. We've got green on the screen, It's hard to see that this is green, but this is a very rich Meridian green and, I'm mixing it in with its complement, which is Red, and by doing that, we're gonna get a nice rich Brown color. But it's just got more of a richness, more of an interest, then Burnt umber. It's hard to describe it, It's something that you'll definitely feel. It makes sense to colic, but a chocolatey Brown. Again, you can wipe the palette knife off. Then the next color is Cadmium orange mix with Ultramarine blue. Again, you can see how these are opposite each other on the color wheel. They're going to mix to a slightly different a brown. I find this mixture creates a little bit more of a greenish brown. It's nice to have the variety and the options you'll find some times the shadows will look slightly greenier and sometimes they'll look slightly browner, and so I like to have both of these on my palette. That's how I would set up the palette. This is going to make it really easy to work, so get your palette setup like this and let's get started on color. 3. Light Side Color Lay In: Well, congratulations on making it this far in the course. At this stage, you want to have your under-painting completely dry so that as you work on top of it in color, it'll be totally set in place at the under-painting phase. Also, you want to set up your studio so that you've got your photo reference right up next to the painting. So I've got a print out of my photo here. It's right up next to the painting. I've also got the photo opened up on my laptop so that I can look at it on the screen. The colors are more precise on the screen. So it's nice to have that to, and again, they're right in front of each other on this sort of picture plane. So I don't have to turn and then look at the painting. It's all sort of right in front of me. I've got my palate within arm's reach on my right-hand side, easy to access. So we're going to move to color next and we're going to start with a color lane. We're going to basically block in the light side and the shadow side, working them separately and we'll be really focusing on what's called fall off where at the top of the the lights coming down on the figure. So towards the top of the head is going to be the lightest area in the light side, and as it moves down to face away from the light source, it gets just a little bit darker. So I'm going to show you how I do that, and again, that's called fall off, and then we're going to work the shadows separately, keeping them really unified. So those are our goals for this stage. Get out all your paints and we're going to set the pallet up together. 4. Light Side Color Lay In (Continued): We're going to start by blocking the light side first. We're going to be doing what's called a color land. It's basically a flat color, just getting the color shaped blocked in. What we're really going to be capturing is the sense of fall off to the light. Our light source is coming down on the model, which is B. It's a self portrait. It gets progressively darker as it moves down away from the light source, that's called fall off. I'll show you how I would just do that, making it a bit darker as we go. Don't do anything in the shadow side yet. We'll work that separately in the next stage. Also, I've got a brush. You'll want to use like a fairly large brush. You could use something like this. This is the bristle brush with stiff bristles. This is a greener brush, Princeton greener brush. It's springy, it's large. Whatever you use, use something large at this stage. I'm just going to dip into the base flesh color. You can use a teeny bit of oil, but not too much. Actually, you want the lights to be like physically build up. I'm going to start with the most saturated area of color, which tends to be the top of the forehead. You can see as I put it on it feels too saturated and too light. I'm going to desaturate by adding a little bit of gray. Not too much, and just mix that into a base flesh color. Then I'll just try another dab, and that feels better. We're going for a color that's a middle tone rotating the lightest lights at this stage. We're going for even a slightly darker version of the mid tones of the light. That'll leave some room to lighten up on top of. It just leaves room to go. If you start too light, it'll be too white everywhere and there's no where to go from there. As I move down the face, I'm gong to mix a little bit of transparent red oxide or burnt sienna. It's basically the same color, just different names into the base, flesh color and just apply that. I'm going to also mix a little more gray, even a little bit more transparent red oxide. I'm letting the strokes cross over the lines. That's really important. You don't want to have like little bits of the under painting showing through almost like an outline in your painting. I know it's a little bit scary or afraid that you'll lose the drawing, but let it just cross over. If you really start to freak out, and you wonder where your eye went, you can take a rag and sort of bring it back to where we can find it again. Cross over the lines. As I move into the lights of the eye socket, that undercut plan is darker than the top plane of the forehead. I've darkened it a little bit with the base shadow color. It's just a little bit darker, a little bit desaturated in saturation. I'm just getting that in. Then as we move back to the top plane facing the light source of the cheeks, I'm going to mix the base flesh color. Just move that palette knife. The base flesh color with a little bit of red. You could use either red. I'm using a little bit of a pinky red to get and I'll use a little cad Red to, to get the pinkiness to the cheek. We're looking to get the flat color lay in that darkens up, it moves down the face and has a little bit of the changes in local color that occur. As we move across the face from this cheek to this cheek, the color gets a little darker and a little desaturated. I'm just mixing a bit of gray into the color. Even a little bit more. Sometimes you'll find that when it gets blended together, these shifts that you make in color, become more subtle than when you first put them down. You might make the changes just a little bit stronger than you think they need to be without being too strong. You definitely don't want it to be too strong. Mix a bit of gray in to get the slight definition where the nose overlaps the cheek. This is a pretty lost edge, meaning we only barely see it. We don't see that much of a line there. Make sure to keep this really subtle, pretty understated and that will work well. As we move to the nose, the nose has a little bit of a pinkiness as well. Noses, and ears, and fingertips normally do. I'm just bringing a little bit more pinkiness but the cad Red light into the nose. Then I'm going to continue down through the face. I'm going to add a little bit of the viridian green. You can mix these colors in so many different ways. It's important not to get too caught up in like how to mix the color. I could have mixed a little bit of blue, or a little bit of gray into the base flesh color to achieve basically the exact same looking color. But in this case, I've chosen to use a little bit of viridian green. I'm also going to add just a little bit of transparent red oxide, which helps darken the color. what I want to achieve, and again, there are so many different ways of doing it, is that it's getting darker as it moves down the face and it's getting desaturated. It's brighter, more orangey up here and it's more grayish down here, and it's darker. It sometimes looks a little bit weird. This light color layer in face. Almost like I have a four o'clock shadow or something. But when it all blends together and you get all the details on, it won't look that way at all. It'll just have this sense of form in the sense of the fall off to the light. Another thing is that in terms of the direction of the brushstroke that I'm using. I'm painting with what's called a cross the form brushstroke. Let's see. For example, if you imagine like the shape of the face, it goes this way, like the shape of the jaw goes that way. When I'm applying the stroke, I'm painting across the form like this, perpendicular to the edge. I talk more about this in the essential skills section of the course. But painting across the forum actually enhances the sense of form and really improves your paintings. It's one of the most common mistakes is to paint with the form. Really get in the habit of painting across the form and review the essential skills section where I talk more about that. The upper lip is in shadow, so don't do anything to the upper lip yet. Then for the lower lip, just use base flesh color mix with a little bit of cad red light to make a color that's just a little bit pinkier, but it's the same tone as the skin around it. Then I'm also going to just finish off with the jaw area on the right, I means in a bit of green, a bit of the base flesh color and there's also a little bit of red in here. Again, red and green are complements. I mean, this is the red and green here, the base shadow side color. They basically just desaturated each other while making it rich and interesting and it darkens the color. It could be a little darker. I'm adding a bit more of that red-green complementary mixture of the base shadow color. I put it in with the form in this case, following the shape of the edge, but that flattens out the form, so for a final touch, I'm going to wiggle across the form perpendicular to the shape of the edge. That's how I would do that. Since the light source's coming down on the figure and we've got that fall off through the face where it gets darker as it moves down to the face. I'm going to also make the body have some of that sense of fall off, making the colors of the lights and the body a little darker. I mix some Transparent Red Oxide into the base flesh color as well as a little green to desaturate. We're just going to bring a coat throughout the whole area before adding any of the little color shifts to it. It looks like it gets even more desaturated towards this, it almost feels a bit cooler, so I'm mixing a little bit of green in. When you put down a color, you want to judge it based on the three parameters. Is it the right hew, is it orange or blue or whatever? Is it the right tone? Is it like dark enough or light enough? Is it the right saturation? You don't want to expect yourself to mix it like exactly correct. Like right from the start, instead you put it down and then you adjust it by judging it against those three parameters. A lot of the time the chest will have a little bit more of a pinkness, maybe it gets more sun or something. I'm bringing a little bit more cad red light mixed with base flesh color. That's a little bit too intense, right? It looks too saturated. I'm going to desaturate that a bit with more base flesh color and that's how I would do that. Again, not expecting ourselves to hit it exact from the start but putting in your closest shot and then judging it and adjusting it. It takes the pressure away from thinking that it has to be perfect right from the start. Then we've got the two shoulders, so the back shoulder's really dark, really setting into the distance. I'm going to use some base shadow color mixture with the green and the red, mixed with some base light color and a little bit of transparent Red Oxide. Just put that in. Getting that sense of it, really sitting back into space and being nice and dark, I'll bring a little bit more of the base light side color into the front of that shoulder just to bring a little bit more connection from this shoulder into this. Actually I'm also going to bring just a little bit of this darker color into the chest just to help them connect through. There's a little bit more sort of a darker note through here and then moving to this shoulder. Now this part here is true shadow side, but I will go into this which is the dark light side using base flesh color, some transparent Red Oxide, a little viridian green, and just get that overall sense. Painting across the form, so if the line of the edge goes this way like the line of the shirt, rather than putting it in like this, which flattens out the form. I'm wiggling across the form and even crossing over the edge a little bit. We'll reinstate the edge so you don't need to worry. For now, we want to create an interweaving at the edge. Then we just need to get a bit of a color for the light side of the hair. For the hair, we'll use the base flesh color mixed with some yellow ocher and a little gray. Blond hair is basically mixed a lot of the time like that. Base flesh colored green, a bit of yellow ocher. Then again, I'll use a little bit more oil. As I do, the hair just has a silkier sort of feel. When I did the lights of the face and figure, I hardly used any oil at all. I want the lights to be texturally built up and have more body to them. Yet don't use much oil in the light side of the face, but as you move to the hair, maybe use a little more and when we move to the shadows, you'll use even more. Then there's this little bit of light side here. It's darker and cooler, so I'm using the base shadow color with a bit of gray mixed into what I used here, which was the base flesh color with some yellow ocher and some gray. I'll just bring that through there. You can really wiggle across this edge to let it be totally lost from the face through the hairline and into the light side of the hair. That's important to do. That's basically the light's blocked in. Get your painting up to this stage, block in your lights, don't do anything in the shadows and we'll do the shadows next. 5. Shadow Side Color Lay In: You've got your light side color lean done. Next we're going to move to the shadow side color lean. At this stage you'll use, again a large brush. You'll use a little bit more oil than you used in the color lean phase of the light side. That'll keep the shadows a little bit more transparent, which is a nice effect to achieve. You'll also really be wanting to make sure that the shadows are dark enough. You really want to make sure everything in the shadow side is darker than anything in the light side. Also that if you squint, all the shadows merge together so the tonal variation in the shadows is fairly compressed. Let's use the base shadow color mixture. I'm going to use a little bit of both actually, and a bunch of Walnut Alkyd Medium and a little bit of my base flesh color. I'm going to see what that looks like on the Canvas. That looks pretty good for the cheek color. Just like with the lights, you're going to put it in as close as you can and then you're going to adjust it from there. I'm wiggle stroking along the edge to just soften that edge where the two meet. Just in a small, narrow wiggle. You don't want to do it too big where you lose the shape of this place where the light meets the shadow, but you can just do it in a small way to create a soft edge as you go. That's described more in the essential skill sections. Feel free to refer back to the essential skills. I also mixed a little bit of green, the viridian green into the shadow color. That's going to give a nice subtle coolness to the shadows. I'm going to brush right through where the lighter shadow side of the face meets across the jaw line and just lose that jaw line for now. It's because we want everything in the shadows to merge together that you actually want to obscure some of the information initially so that it really is all blending together and later you can bring the definition of where that jaw line is back in afterwards. Right now, I'm using a color that's a little bit warmer. I've mixed the complimentary shadow mixture of red and green together so that there's a little bit more of a brownish color here, a little bit more greenish here. Just getting subtle variation and wiggling across the place where they meet. The wiggles stroke is almost related to painting across the form. It's like a small version of painting across the form, perpendicular to the shape of the edge. There's a shadow that cuts through the side of the eye socket here and connects into the eye, which is really beautiful. There's also a shadow, I'm wiping my brush off by the way, in between mixing new colors. There's also a shadow towards the front of the eye socket with transparent red oxide, more of a warmth to it and that's a really beautiful shadow to this shape that forms right in here. Right where the nose inserts into the skull and where the brow turns into shadow of the flesh. The place where the nose inserts into the skull is just above the tear duct, and it's useful to keep that in mind as you're going, if this shifts down too low, it'll look weird. If it's too high, the nose will look too long. As you work this just keep in mind that that place where the nose inserts into the skull is just above the tear ducts line. There's a shadow shape underneath the eyelid here, which anchors the eye into face. You want to get that in. We're painting over the lines, really describing forms and not painting with linear lines at this stage. Allow yourself to do that. Then into the upper lip, I'm going to use some of the base shadow that we've been using base shadow color mixed with a bit of the lighter flesh color. I'll mix a bit of Alizarin Permanent into it. It's going to make desaturated, purply, pinky color. Towards the top of that, it gets a little lighter. I'm just mixing a bit more base flesh color into the top. I'm working like broadly at this stage, I'm not trying to stay within the lines, I'm trying to just paint across the forum and let things connect. Going into the nose, there's this really important form shadow on the lower side of the nose. I'm going to use base flesh color mixed with some of this reddish color that I've used for the upper lip actually. Again, you can refer to the essential skills section to understand more about the structure of how to describe the features such as the nose, and it really describes this very important form shadow on the lower plane of the nose. The nose is so soft and rounded that it can be hard to really perceive that sometimes, so it's important to keep in mind that it's there and to block that in. Then there's also a cast shadow coming down the nose. There's two kinds of shadows, there's form shadows which is like the shadow on the form. So there's the form shadow on the nose and then there's cast shadows, which is the shadow that's being cast from a form onto another form. Often the form shadows will be a little bit warmer and the cast shadows will be a little bit cooler. Warm meaning more, a little bit redder. It's all relative, but the form shadow of the nose feel slightly redder and the cast shadow of the nose feels slightly cooler, meaning like slightly bluer or slightly greener. It's subtle stuff, but I'm going to put it with that in mind. It can also help you perceive better, to keep that in mind. Sometimes the colors that you're seeing can be so desaturated that it's really hard to tell what you're seeing. So sometimes having the color structure in your mind helps to understand the colors that you're seeing more clearly. I'm just restating the line of the nose with a warm color. Let's see. So we also want to get the shadow side hair in, for that I'm going to use a lot of oil. I'm actually going to wipe my brush off pretty well. I'm using this grain or brush like wood grain and it's a one-inch greener brush. I'll use some base shadow color, the red green mixture and a lot of oil and maybe a bit of the blue, orange mixture as well. A bit of our two shadow color piles, maybe a little bit more blue. Yeah, lots and lots of oil that'll help the brush flow more fluidly and see how you get these hair like effects with this brush. In the essential skill section, I talk about how I'm doing airplane strokes for this. I'm starting with the brush firmly on the canvas where the color is full and I'm lifting and pulling like an airplane taking off as I go and that gets this hair like, textured stroke and it's working across where the band of the form occurs. Right now it looks a little bit even so I want to make it a little bit more varied here, or something like that. Let's see, I think the top color of the hair feels like ever so slightly warmer, just ever so slightly browner. It doesn't have to be exactly like what we see happening in the hair it just has to feel hair like, I think that's especially true when it's like curly hair. It's more important for it to just feel hair like and loose and gestural and flowing and then it is to carefully paint every single stroke. That's what you really want to avoid actually is the tendency to get out a really small brush and light carefully painted in every line of hair, it'll always look weak and flat and unconvincing. Instead using the brush in such a way with these airplanes stroke tethered edges that you'll get the effect of hair that'll feel more convincing. I'm also twisting the brush as I go, so I'm starting with the brush like square on the thing and that I'm twisting it as I go to create like a tapered edge. It's like a wedge shape, brush stroke, a triangular shape. There's a little bit of the shadow colors showing in here a little bit, it's a little lighter and a little warmer. I'm using some transparent red oxide and so with the hair, you want to be describing the forms of the locks, not like individual strands of hair. I'm looking at how this lock right here turns and there's a light that crosses through the whole bending turn of like all of these locks. Yeah, really looking at the shape of the locks and not individual strands of hair. That's a fine color black and for the hair, I think lastly now, I'll just bring a little bit of definition to the jaw, I'm going to just bring a slightly darker, warmer color into here. I also need to just go in with the shadow color on this side of the shoulder. Just base shadow color with a bit of face flesh color to liken it. You'll also actually want it to just address the background at this stage to, I like a lot of this already and it's basically just white, black or gray and a little yellow ocher. I just want to make it all wet, new paint. Actually I'm going to shift to a larger brush as I do that. Dark in the color a little bit from my first shot, now, a light and a little bit so it can take a couple of tries and that's to graze, so I'll add a bit more yellow ocher. You can see how you put it down and then assess and make the corrections. With the strokes, the direction of the strokes. I'm putting it in with the form like this, just for the easiness of it to get the shape of that head. But then I'm going to wiggle across the form afterwards so that I don't get a halo like shape mirroring the shape of her face and instead there's changing brushstrokes that don't follow the shape of her face. I'm bringing it right up to the color of the hair, so the wet pane of the hair can mix them to the wet paint of the background. You want to get that interweaving at the edge. I'm going to go ahead and dark in the color slightly, just with a bit of black as it moves into this area. Maybe even a little bit more, maybe a bit of black and some ultramarine blue. I'm also keeping the edges of where it meets on the shadow side, even more soft and lost. So the hair like where it meets the background here, it meets and it has a really soft lost edge. It's nice to keep the edges of the shadows really soft. It helps them set back more and at this stage it's nice to have mostly soft edges in general. That way, as you refine things, you can sharpen edges and bring more detailed, but as you're just blocking it in, things may move around and stuff, you won't have like a really distracting sharp edge in your way. Now we've got the light side lay in done and the shadow side lay in done and the next, we're going to move to big for modeling darkening at the edges and then we'll start to describe the planes of the features. Bring your painting up to this stage and we'll move to big for modeling next. 6. Big Form Modeling: Big form modeling is the stage where we develop the larger forms. So the egg shape of the head, the cylindrical nature of the neck, and the flattened cylinder of the body. Basically, it means darkening towards the edges of forms, and lightening in the center of them. Before we move to the features of the face and the planes of the face, we're going to get those big forms first. I'm going to work with the big brush still. I'm going to start by bringing a little bit of a darker tone, just some base shadow color and black wiggling it and some airplane strokes along the edge getting that large form, the larger darkening egg shape of the head. I'm also going to lighten in the middle of forms. I'm going to get out of brush that's just a little bit smaller than what I've been using, but still fairly large. This is a bristle brush. The bristles are good for doing textures. I'm going to use some base light side color mixed with a bit of white and a little bit of gray. In the essential skills section of the class, there is a light logic module, and it talks about how the lightest lights are a little bit cool. Don't mix yellow into your lightest lights, instead mix white, which has a cooling effect and a little teeny bit of gray. The lightest lights are just a little bit cooler than the body of lights. Again, there's a good module that talks about all of this. I'm just going to wiggle stroke through the center of the nose, getting the lightening through the center of that form, bring a little bit of a lighter area in here. I'm going to bring zigzaggy light through the hair. It's nice to have a really strong connection between the lights of the face, like a lost edge and a strong connection and the lights of the hair. You want this edge to be really lost and there be a connection between the lights of the face and the lights of the hair, and how that zigzag. So it's zigzagging. With the cheek, I'm going to get a color that's just a little bit darker than the one that's already there. I'm using some gray and some light side color. As the face moves towards this side, it darkens and cools, and as the lights move towards the shadow side, it warms and darkens. I'll talk about that as I do that. I'm mixing a little bit of a grayish, that's too gray. It's going to be just a little bit cooler than the tone that's already there. I'm wiggle stroking it down the edge. I'm just wiggling my brush a little bit from side to side as I go. I'm lifting and pulling it over to this edge. I'm crossing over the line and I'm going to cut back with the line after with the hair color to redefine where the edge of the face is. You want to make sure that you're crossing over that line so that basically what you want is it to get darker, all the way up to that edge, and what you want to avoid is having it get darker, darker, and then have a little bit of the original color lightened right at the edge. It takes a little bit of a trick to manipulate the paint to really create that sense that it gets darker, all the way to the edge. I'd have mixed a little bit of a warm, it's got a little bit of alizarin permanent in as I darken this color up to that edge. I'm basically just working around all the edges, just carefully bringing in that slightly darker color right at the edge. Now, I'm going to wipe my brush off well and get the hair color, which is basically the base shadow color and just re-carve out the shape of that line because I have crossed over it and pulled it a little to the right, so now I'm just going to carve it back out in the place that it should be just pulling it back to the left. The other thing about big form modeling is that the more turning, the more rounded a form is, the softer the edge. I've pulled out this clean dry brush and I'm just going to very lightly wiggle along this edge, which just slightly softens the edge, making it less sharp and just a little bit softer. That actually gives even more of a sense of the big form modeling. It also allows a little bit of the darker hair color to mix into the color right at the edge of the face and even pushes that big form modeling even further. Now I'll go through the body. Again, just wiggling the slightly darker color, darker browner, along that edge. Let's see. I'm going to wiggle across this edge just a little bit as well to lighten, just soften it. With the nose, you can see that there's this slight definition of the nostril up here, basically as far as the lighting pattern on the nose goes. But this is all light side. This is midtone light and the true shadow is through here. You want to just keep this really soft and subtle, and not too dark. Then the true shadow is at the back of this nostril. It's a little bit warm, it's a form shadow, so it's a little bit warm. I've mixed a little alizarin permanent and a little transparent red oxide into that. Mix that color. With the lower lip, you can wipe your brush off, get a clean dry brush, just take the paint off your brush and wiggle across where the lip meets the skin, and just have a lost edge there. Also, I missed the shadow underneath the lower lip when I was doing the color lay ins. If there's parts that you realize you've missed, you can add the color lay in for those elements. This is a slightly cooler gray, green dark shadow pattern underneath the lower lip. It's this shadow underneath the lower lip that describes the lower lip and the lower lip doesn't have an edge to it. It instead is described by the shadow underneath the lower lip. That gives it a lot of form. You can restate some of the lines on top of the drawing after getting the big forms in. I'm using a really warm color to do this. This is alizarin permanent. It gives a nice color, pop, a punch to have some areas of saturated colors and mostly more desaturated colors. Another area that I noticed that I haven't actually gotten the color lay in in is the shirt. With the shirt, even though it's black, it still has a light side shadow side. So I'm using a real black for the shadow side on this side. Then I'm just going to mix a little bit of gray into the color as it moves towards the light side, just to establish that color lay in painting across the form as usual. I might put it in initially with the form following the shape of the edge, but I'll always break that up afterwards by painting across the form. At the same time as this, I'll get some of the big form modeling in by having a darker color, true black, as it comes right up to this edge so we're getting that sense of the turning of the form. That's how I would approach the big form modeling. Bring your painting up to this stage and we'll move to blocking in the different planes of the face next. 7. Features Handouts: It's important to understand the construction of the features before moving on in your paintings. I want to discuss some handouts that you can download and follow along with me. There's the eye, the nose, and the mouth handout. Download those, printed them out, grab a hard surface and trace along with me and let's discuss them in more detail. Let's start with this more front-facing eye where you can see the construction lines more clearly. This center line that's coming through at an angle here, represents the tilt of the eye slopes either towards the nose or away from the nose and drawing the nose is on this side. It's basically the relationship between the inner tilt to act on the outer corner of the eye. Obviously it won't be in your final painting, but it's just representing the tilt. Some eyes have like more of a slope inwards like a characteristic feature that's cat eyes. Some eyes characteristically slope away from the nose, and also the tilt of the head can change like the perspectival change of the tilt to the head and eyes. If the head is tilting down the eye will slope in towards the nose and if the heads tilted back, the perspective will make the eyes slope away from the nose. You can take like a horizontal plumb line, check that relationship there. Trace along as we're going, you get a good kinetic feel for the construction of the features. Next we'll break the upper eyelid down. You can see how I'm breaking this curve into two angled straight lines with the apex favoring in towards the nose on this side. Breaking the curve into two angled straight lines, apex favoring and towards the nose, you can break the lower eyelid down into two angled straight lines with the apex favoring away from the nose on the lower edge. You get this skewed rhombus effect where the apex is, and I'm going to be calling the turning most point on a curve the apex. Where it's in towards the nose on the upper eyelid and away from the nose on the lower eyelid. Then breaking down the upper eyelid crease. You can break that curve into three angled straight lines. For the lower eyelid you can break it into two angled straight lines with the information favoring away from the nose. Look for two angles to describe the eyebrow as well. Don't just do it as a big generic curve that'll look really weak. Instead, break it down into two angled straight lines as well. Then the iris is fairly large, takes up half of the white of the eye and it's partially covered on the top by the upper eyelid. That's really important because it gives the eye more of a relaxed look. If you can see the whole top of the iris and the pupil in your painting, it gives it this like staring you bad guide feel. Make sure that it's partially covered at the top to get that more of relaxed look. Moving on to the more rendered version of the eye and again, keep tracing along with me. You can see how the eye curve, the upper eyelid breaks down into two angled straight lines with the apex favoring towards the nose. The lower eyelid broken down into two angled straight lines, apex favoring away from the nose which is on this side of this drawing. As you do the final rendering, you'll really curve out this lower lid and have it really wrap around the eye at the corner, so you don't want a big point on the outer corner of your eye in the final. Instead you'll really wrap this around to show the curvature of the eyeball. Then breaking the crease of the eye into three angled straight lines. There's slightly curving angled straight lines, but really looking to nail those apex is which is what's going to give the structure and solidity to the construction of your features. Then the lower eyelid broken down into two angled straight lines favoring the back away from the nose. The iris like I said, it's fairly large, takes up half of the white of the eye and it's partially covered on the top by the upper eyelids, so that's really important. As you go into the pupil. There's basically a cast shadow when the light source, which is this represented here, is coming down on the face. The upper eyelid has a thickness to it, so it will cast a shadow onto the eyeball. You can use that cast shadow to actually connect to the top of the pupil as well. Looking at this again, we're having the eye, the iris partially covered at the top. Then we're using a cast shadow that'll come down on the eye and the pupil will connect to that cast shadows. That gives it more of a relaxed look. There is illustration down here shows how the pupil when there's like a strong light on it or when the person scared, the pupil gets small. When it's relaxed or when there's like dimmer lighting, the pupil gets larger. A lot of the time if you're painting, say a model from life and you have a really strong light blasting on the model, their pupil might actually look small, so I'll tend to make it a little larger. Again, using that cast shadow that comes down from the upper eye to connect to the top and give it more of a relaxed look. The curve of the eyelashes curve and come off of the line of the upper eyelid. They grow in clusters so they're not just evenly spaced or straight like this. They curve and criss-cross and grow in clusters. The lower eyelid there's some that curve and criss-cross and grow in clusters coming off the lower eyelid. That's favoring the back of the eye. There's not so much eyelashes towards the front. There's this really important little light rim of thickness to the top shelf of the lower eyelid, which is really important to get in. Really observe that and definitely get that in. It can just be like one little pinky fleshy colored brushstroke, but it'll give a lot of dimensions to your eyes and really make it look solid and structured. Also, don't forget the darker front plane to the lower eyelid. That'll help really solidify like bringing the eye into the face. The hot highlighted the eye, the little white dot which is a reflection of the light source. It occurs right at the edge of where the pupil meets the iris, coming from the direction of the light source. I'll show you how all of this applies to the demo when I do the demo. In the looking at the profile eye, you can see how the shape of the upper eyelid looks like a wedge shape, so it's like a triangle. Avoid the temptation to pull it back and curve it to make it into the shape of an eye. It's like a full wedge shaped like a triangle, the line of the largest curve and come off of that line of the upper eyelid. Then we've got the pupil looks almost just like a line. It's like a dark little line coming down off of the line of the upper eyelid. The iris looks like an oval, it's a circle in perspective which is called an ellipse. There's this little clear dome in front of the iris, which is called the cornea. You don't want to have the colored part of the eye extend all the way to the front. There's the little clear dome that sits in front of the iris. Also the upper eyelid has a certain thickness to it. They both do the lower eyelid as well, and the upper eyelid has more thickness than the lower eyelid and so there's a certain angle created from the upper eyelid to the lower eyelid. Also if you think about like where the center line of the eye is, like if we have our pupil, we have our iris, and we have the cornea and the center line through that, where the upper eye crosses over the lower eyelid is just slightly lower than center. The vertical height of the upper eyelid is taller than the vertical height of the lower eyelid. Again, we've got that little light room of thickness showing on the top shelf of the upper eyelid. Then looking at the three-quarter view, same considerations. Break the upper eyelid into two angled straight lines with the apex for either in towards the nose, the lower eyelid. In the final rendering, you'll really round that out. Get that little top light ridge. Get that little light rim of thickness to the lower eyelid and again, make sure it really wraps around the curve of the eyeball. The Iris from a three-quarter view will look like an oval. So we're starting to see the turn of the iris. It's not a full circle. Always set the eye socket into shadow and that shadow gets darker as it rolls toward the crease of the upper eyelid. There's the little darker front plane to the lower eyelid as well. So I think that will really help you as you refine the features, refining the eye and let's move to the mouth. So let's start with the front-facing mouth and work through the center crease of the mouth. It goes horizontal first and trace along with me. Then angled straight line going up, angled straight line going down. This is like a big M, angled straight line going up again, angled straight line going down. Then that horizontal note again and then the upper lip is sort of a curving, angled straight line going up, down, up, curving angled straight line going down. The whole upper lip when the light source is coming down on the model, will be in shadow. We won't have any edge to describe the lower lip. The lower lip color will basically be like base flesh color mixed with a little bit more card red and white. So it'll be the same tone as the flesh around it, but it'll be a little bit pinkier. So you'll put it in that tone then the pinkier color. Take a soft brush and wiggle along that edge to create a totally lost edge here. Instead, the definition to the lower lip comes from the shadow underneath the lower lip, which will often be a coolish color, sort of a gray green often. Then the lower lip is constructed of two circular fat pads. You'll get this little divot in the center and sometimes there'll be like a highlight running through here, depending on the direction of your light source. Looking at the three-quarter mouth, it's the same considerations as the front mouth. Now you'll take all of the horizontals that were the base of the front view and now they're receding to a vanishing point, which is over here. The whole face will really be receding to the vanishing point, the eyes, the nose, everything goes to that vanishing point. So again, the center line of the mouth can be constructed with the horizontal and an angle straight line going up and angled straight line going down. The horizontal distance is getting shorter as it goes back into space down again and that little horizontal that anchors in the back corner of the mouth. Then the upper lip kind of an angled straight line going up, down, up, curving, angled straight line going down. Again, the horizontal width is getting shorter as it turns back into space. The whole upper lip is in shadow when the light source is coming down on the model. It gets darker as it rounds into the central line of the lip. Then the lower lip, there is no edge through lower lip here. You might see a little divot between the two circular fat pads that make up the lower lip and the construction or the edge of the lower lip is defined by this cool shadow underneath the lower lip. With the color of the lip, you'll probably use like a warm, reddish brown for the upper lip. Cool the color a little bit as you move to the back corner of the mouth. Then it turns into this soft, cool sort of gray green note with a lost edge that describes the muscle target, the back of the mouth. So that's the three-quarter mouth. Then looking at the profile mouth. All the edges of the mouth will have soft edges except for this center line of the lips. But with the profile, you'll want to get really sharp edge to write it this part here. The upper lip cuts up at an angle, straight line about a three-quarter degree angle coming up, 45-degree angle going up, and then it slopes in underneath the nose. You can construct the sharper edge of the center piece of the mouth. It cuts up at a certain angle down and that little suggestion of the horizontal that anchors it in, softens into the muscle tuck at the back. Curving angled straight line going up and down and the whole upper lip sitting in a shadowy, ready brownie, purply kind of tone, which gets darker and warmer as it rounds into the center line. No definition through here. With the front edge of the lower lip, it sort of overshoots from the center line of the mouth and then cuts down at a certain angle and then angles underneath the lip and out into the chin and the structure of the lip is really defined by the shadow underneath the lower lip. Yeah. Really study these angles here. That's what's going to really get you a nice looking profile. You can see that the nose also, by the way, sits half on and half off the face. So there's a tendency to make the nose like all the way off, but you can see how it's kind of half on and half off the face from a profile. That takes us into the nose. This here you can see there's more of a constructive version of the drawings and a more rendered version. So basically let's start with this constructed version of the profile nose. You'll break the curves as always into angled straight lines. Sometimes this here will just be more straight so you can kind of see what it's like on the person that you're painting. Sometimes you'll see the definition of the bony structure there and breaking the curves into angled straight lines. There's a really important insertion point right here where the nose inserts into the skull and that occurs right above the tear duct. So the tear ducts would be here and you can see that the nose inserts into the skull just above the tear duct. That should have a really strong angle change, almost like a right angle. So there's a tendency actually to curve this out and make it just really curved. This line will turn into the eyebrow, a lot of the time. There is a strong angle change there and make sure to capture that. Then you can break the planes into, the front-facing plane of this bony ridge of the nose. There's a side facing plane and also really important how the nose is that there's this very important form shadow on the bottom plane of the nose. A lot of the time with soft lighting, it's hard to really see that like in the nose is so rounded, so the transition happens really softly. So it can be actually hard to perceive, but I promise it's there if the light source is coming down on the model and definitely put it in a little darker than you think. You can wiggle across the edge, get it soft, and the nostril will hide within that. Avoid doing a nostril that's like a big circle pig nose. Instead described the lines of the nostril as a two angled straight lines sort of pulled down in the center to create the opening of the nose. Again, that sits within the form shadow of the nose. Then there's a cast shadow that comes down on the face, off of the nose. A lot of the time cast shadows are cooler and form shadows are warmer. Always check you can see with the lighting if that's true. In the more finished version of the nose, there's often going to be a highlight, say the light source is coming this way on the figure. They'll often be a highlight running along that bend in the plains where the side plane meets the front plane and a little specular highlight on the ball of the nose too. Looking at the three-quarter nose same considerations. Get that strong angle change where the nose inserts into the skull, get the bony front planing of the nose and the different tone for the side plane. Watch that the front plane of the nose is nice and narrow and bony and construct the curves of the nose as angled straight lines. Definitely get that form shadow on the nose, the lower plane of the nose all being slightly darker. Get the nostrils defined with a nice warm color and two angled straight lines pulled down in the center. For the back nostril, the center line here is basically like this part and then we pull back and see some nostril hole showing behind it. There's the cast shadow that comes down off of the nose as well. In the finished version, you'll put the highlight that runs down the bony plane where the front plane and the side plane meet and the little specular highlight that occurs on the ball of the nose. Front-facing nose same considerations. Look for three tones for the side plane, front plane, and other side plane. Always really get that form shadow on the lower plane of the nose. Describe the nostrils with two angled straight lines instead of a big circle, pig nose and get the cast shadow coming down on the face as well. This illustration here just shows how the front-facing knows is vertical. The three-quarter nose shows some of the angle and the profile shows the full angle of the nose. Also, if you go from the back wing of the nose and follow it up at the same angle as the nose from a profile view, it takes you to the bottom of the eye. So there's a tendency in a profile to place the eye too far forward. But following this, you'll get the eye anchored and in the right spot. I hope this helps you with the features. I know that it will and I'm going to show you in the demo how I would apply that to actually painting the forms of these constructed features. 8. Blocking in the Features: We're going start to describe the planes that sit on the big forms. The smaller forums that sit on the bigger forms. To do that, I like to use the bright brushes, the square topped brushes. They make nice chiseled strokes that can really carve up the different planes. You're going to be looking for three tones for each feature. It'll be like a darker side, a middle side and a lighter side based on the lighting structure of your painting. I'm going to start by working on one of the eyes and just sort of working out from there. What I'm actually going to do first is use a nice warm dark color. Some transparent red oxide mixed with some base shadow color. Restate the lines of the eyes with a nice dark, warm brown color. To restate the lines I've sort of crossed over lines as I'm going and I just want to re-establish the basic drawing element and then I'm going to describe the forms on top of that. I'm not using black, I'm just using a nice dark, warm color. We'll talk more about the construction of the features as we go. There's also a special section in the essential skills section that really talks about the structure of the features. But for now, I'm just basically restating my line and getting ready to describe the forms. If I look at the form of this cheek, for example, there's basically a slightly lower, darker under plane moving to a pinkie warm mid-tone and then the lightest sort of top plane. Those are the three planes that I want to describe. So far I've got like a light top plane, a pinkie middle plane. I just want to clarify those and refine the shape as I go. I'm still working across the form, bringing more clarity to the lightest top plane. It's just taking me a minute to get the color right. I've mixed a little bit of pink, a little bit of the Alizarin permanent in with the base flesh color and a little bit of a gray and that's gotten it to where I want it to be. Then the lower darker plane of that cheek has the darker, warmer note. I'm just wiggle stroke applying that so that it has a nice soft edge and it rounds into that color. The color in the middle is the pinker mid-tone. I'm using some cad Red Light mixed in with my base flesh color. You can really look at the shapes of the forms, really refine the shapes of the shadows and the different planes. I'm seeing as I work on this, that the shadow side here comes forward just a little bit more and connects into that cheek right around here and then it has a soft edge that I'm just going to wiggle stroke along. Now with the color structure to the lighting, there is a lot of the time of cool note that comes right at the place where the lights meet the shadows. Right now this is little overstated. It looks to green, but there is often a slightly cooler note right where the light meets the shadows. Cool is really relative. It can be blue, it can be green, it can be gray. It just is a little bit cooler than what's next to it. I'm using my finger to soften that edge a little bit too. Looking in the eye, I want to get the three planes for the form of the eye lid. The front plane of the lower eyelid is dark and warm. Then there's a lighter plane that comes in through the side here and we get into the darkest plane to the left, which I've already got in there. The white of the eye has a lighter side to the right and it's darker than you think it's similar tone to the skin around it just grayer. There's a really common tendency to make the white of the eye way to light. That's going to make the eyes look really freaky. You want to make sure that you get it as dark as it really is. The white of the eye on the left is way darker. It's really subtle. With the upper eyelid, there's again three planes. There is a light middle plane, slightly darker plane to the right hand side, kind of a middle tone, and then darker into the left. We get this whole plane really dark and it connects in to the darker side of the lower eyelid front plane. That helps anchor the eye into the face. With the eyebrows, you want to get different plains to the form of the eyebrows too so the eyebrows don't just feel like lines like drawn on. They feel like they're wrapping around the form. It's really nice to get this subtle cool. I like to scratch to get some hair texture. There's a lighter cooler plane right through the center area, right where the bend happens. As they round to this side, I've already got the warmer color in. As I'm looking at the planes, again, you can refine the shapes. I'm noticing that the shadow, it connects a little bit more to the eye. I'm just going to wiggle stroke down on that edge to bring a little bit more of a connection. Basically bring that eyebrow a little lower. I'll just restate this line a little bit. Then in this nose area, there's a darker side plane, the lighter front plane, and then the slightly warming darkening side of the nose. I think to begin with, I want to just darken this shadow a little bit more. Really looking at the tones, actually I'm jumping around a bit, but I also want to darken this pupil little bit more. I like the color of the side plane of the nose already and I like the color of this front plane, it's the middle tone and it's warmer. I think that right now the highlight through the center of the nose is just feeling a little bit strong, and there's more of a gradual gradation from the mid tones into the lightest lights. I'm just going to adjust that a little bit. With this front edge of the nose, there's a major common tendency to make this line a big dark, horrible outline. Make sure that you haven't done that. Make it like way lighter and softer than you think. In some cases on certain photos, you'll find that it's completely lost and you don't even really see it at all. The eye will fill it in, like the eye will put the nose in at just exactly the right place that it should be in. It'll look way better than if you have this dark outline. I'm moving through into the cheek, getting that darker underplane of this cheek just like I did this one. May be it'll darken a little bit more through here. There's a certain darkening connection through that cheek into this shadow, and going into the upper lip, there's a little bit of a shadow shape at the back of the lip that helps describe the muscles at the back of the mouth that move to mouth. I'm wiggling across the form so that it's not a linear note. It's really more of the form. With the planes of the upper lip, the upper lip's getting darker as it rounds into the central line of the lips and I'm using Alizarine permanent, some black and some base shadow color. Whenever I do a dark like the darkest notes, I use extra oil. It makes the color more transparent and that's desirable. Using a little extra oil, getting the turning of that form downwards. I am cooling the color a little bit. You could do it with black, I'm doing with blue, either would work. Cooling the color a bit as it moves into the muscle tuck at the back of the mouth, and actually a similar color will go in for that shadow. Looking at this upper lip, I want to describe the planes of the upper lip as well. There is a slightly lighter plane that comes out here, and there's that slightly that's too strong, I'll soften that out, but a slightly lighter place where the bend occurs like here, and I've put that in, it's a little strong. I'm going to wiggle, and lighten and soften some of those notes. You want to keep this soft edge and not to overstated. You can also use the back of your brush and just scratch across the edge to create that perpendicular to the edge type of effect and it softens it and just sensitive nicely. I'm also going to wiggle through here, creating a little bit of a softer edge. I'll bring a little bit of a lighter form right in here. The plane of the cheek rounds and darkens into this line. Where the cheek is meeting the line there and then that line's a little bit lighter. That plane is just facing upwards a little bit more and same on the other side there's an upward facing plane that's just a bit lighter right here. Then with the planes of the lower lip, as the lower lip rounds down, we get a little bit more color and it's a little bit darker. I'm just going to bring in slightly darker, slightly more saturated color to the turning of that form. I'm going to wiggle across and lose the edge more here, and I'm actually going to darken and sharpen the edges to little bit right here. Then I'll put the lighter center plane of the lower lip in which is the lightest plane facing the light most directly and it's a bit like a light pinkish color. We're just getting the forms and getting the planes in, for each feature in the chin. There's that lighter top plane. There is a plane where it's warmer and darker as it rounds towards the shadow edge. I'm just doing this with some additional transparent red oxide mixed into the base flesh color, and jumping back up to the eye, I want to refine the shape of this, which is a shadow, just a little cool shadow, and get the tear duct in. The tear duct is an area that has a little bit of a red node to it. It's a nice place to get a little pop of color that gives it some life. Next I'm going to describe how to define the features more but bring your painting up to this stage, really focusing on three different tones for each feature to describe each plane and look for a color shift for each plane of the picture. 9. Essential Skills: Most Common Mistakes: There are certain mistakes that people make especially in the beginning, and we make the same mistakes over and over. It's good to keep track of your mistakes and stop making them, and also watch for some of these most common mistakes, and consciously avoid making them too. The first one is painting with the form. There's a tendency when you're applying the paint, to want to paint it in following the form, following the shape of the edge. It's the easiest way to apply paint, and sometimes I'll even like do that initially where I paint it with the form. But then what you want to do is afterwards, paint across the form, and wiggle across the form. You might even, preferably actually like if you paint across the form as you're putting it in, that's even better. Watch for the way that I'm applying the paint in the demos, and you'll notice that I'm really painting across the form, and that's really important. It's one of the ones that I see my students who've worked with me for a little while, start to get the hang of it and it makes such a huge impact on their work. It just totally skyrockets it to the next level and it's something concrete that you can start doing today. Focus on painting across the form instead of with the form, with the shape of the edge. Again across the form is like perpendicular to the shape of the edge, basically. The other most common mistake is to make the edges too sharp. Having edges that look like cut-out, like way too sharp, is really common, and it really flattens out the form and takes away from the high level of quality finish that you want. Instead what I'll do is I'll do this little like wiggle stroke. Very fine little side to side wiggle stroke, where you can just make the paint of both sides bleed together. Just a little side, so I call this the wiggle stroke. Actually my students invented that word, and so it just gives it a little bit of a softer edge instead of having the cut-out edges which is the most common mistake. Also there's a tendency to get indirect lighting, having an indirect light in shadow side. The way that we work, the way that we've established the under painting and moved to color, we're really making sure to have a clarity to the light side, and the shadow side, and that's really important. Overdoing it with the highlights can be another most common mistake. Moving into them too soon, doing like big crazy highlight like through the lips, or something too soon, and too light, and too fast. Careful with the highlights, don't overdo it with the highlights. Also having opaque shadows can be problematic. You want to have the lights more built up and more textural. I mix more oil in when I do the shadows, so that they're a little bit more transparent than the lights. Over-saturated colors is a big one. We've talked about desaturating the color and flesh tone is like an orangish color, but it's desaturated, so look to not have like really garish, really bright colors all over your whole painting. Then, yeah having an overstated reflected light is another super common one, so there's like the little bit of light bouncing into the shadows that comes in from the environment. But what people often do, is they'll get really excited about reflected light in the beginning and they'll make the reflected light way too light, to the point where it actually competes with the lighting and the shadow pattern, and it'll be as light as something in the light side. Watch for that when I get into the demo, and really think about understating your reflected light. Making the whites of the eyes too white is definitely a big one. It can make the eyes look really like crazy, so the eye is at the same tone as the skin around it. It's just a little bit cooler. But really make sure you're not making it too bright and too white. Also along that note with the eyes, you don't want to have the eyes too outliny. I say move into the demo of the eye, I'll really show you how to really use the construction that we talked about in the handouts which, watch before you move to the final rendering of the features. But people will sometimes make it too outliny following that and not getting like the form of the eye instead. Don't make the eye too outliny, also don't make the lip too outliny. The lips have soft edges, all the way around, totally lost edge here, and the only sharp edge is really through the center line of the lips. I think that'll really help with all of your paintings, keeping these most frequent mistakes in mind and just not doing them anymore, will take your work to the next level. 10. Essential Skills: Glazing Lesson: Glazing is a technique that I really love and a lot of artists build up glazing in their mind and think it's this complex, really hard to do thing, but it's actually really easy. It makes adjusting the colors really simple and it's fun to do. It's really easy. I'm going to use this to demonstrate a glaze on, and I'm just going to show you how you can bring a red and just adjust the color while still seeing the form since glow through. So what you do is you mix up a color, you can use any color. In this case, I'm going to use some red and you just mix a lot of oil into it so that it's really oily and it's really translucent and then you can just bring some of that into your painting and you can see how with a glaze you can actually see the original painting glow through, and you just get the adjusted color while still seeing your initial form sense show through, and if you want, you can even like take some excess off, rub the edges, make it's subtle. But you can see you can still see the light side and the shadow side. You can see the edge of the form, and you've just brought in a warmer sense to the whole thing. Sometimes I'll use this to adjust the color of the whole thing. Say I come to a portrait the next day and it looks really pink or really purple or something. I might do an orange or yellow ocher glaze over the whole thing just really lightly. Or again I might glaze in a little bit more red into the lips or whatever it is that needs to be done. You can do it sometimes with a glaze. Careful that you don't use too much oil or it might start to drip down the surface of the painting and a lot of the time after I've done a glaze, I'll also, at the end of the day, take it and lay it flat and let it dry like that so that you don't get it running down the surface. But yeah, that's all it is you just add extra oil, it creates a glaze and it's really fun to use, and I hope that you enjoy it. 11. Describing the Planes: As we move forward with coloring, we can just to start to describe the planes that sit on the big form. We're going to be looking for the different color and different tone for each plane. There's like a lighter top face in plane. The front plane will be a different color and the side plane will be another color and another tone. Really looking at the different planes that sit on the big form, and I'm using medium sized arches as we move forward. You've got this medium sized bright brush. I've got right three-quarter inch greener, and we've got this fairly large filbert brush. Lets get started. Let's start with the forehead and the forehead, we've basically got as our top plane here, and then we've got the front plane of the forehead. I want to refine my painting a bit, to have more clarity between the top plane and the front plane. I think the top plane of the forehead is a little bit darker than the lighter notes of the front plane, and so I'm just bringing this slightly darker tone in. I'm going to airplane stroke across that to give a hair-like, really soft edge. We then shift to the front plane, and I'm going to go a little lighter and a little cooler. Remember the lightest lights are slightly on the cool side. I'm using some titanium white, some base fresh colored and tiny bit of gray, and maybe the more white, just getting some of the lighter front planes that occur in the forehead. There's a plane change towards this side, so I'll paint that forehead starts to round in. You've got this lighter front plane, got a slightly darker side plane, and we've got a middle other side plane. I would say the plane on the left is the darkest, and the forehead to the right is to the middle. This is really kind of studying that and looking for the different planes, will help you bring just an accuracy to the description of the different planes. With the cheeks, I'm going to mix a little bit more cad red into my base fresh tone, thus moving into a slightly pink here, local color. The top plane of the cheeks, I'll mix a little white and a little gray into that color again, because the lights are slightly cool, so getting the lighter top plane and then moving to slightly less light. As we get back into the side, it's also getting a little cooler as it moves over to the left. The color that I had initially was just slightly too saturated. I'm mixing a little more gray and just to desaturate that, which gives it that sense of going back into space, and then transitioning into the front plane of the cheek. We've got a pinky color that mixes in. I'm using the wiggles stroke to let it blend together at that transition, and then it just wraps into about what color I've already got. I'll just soften the edge there, and actually maybe I'll go a little darker for the lower front plane of the cheek. I wanted to just round gradually into that. Slightly darker note. Still needs to be a bit darker, so with color, the thing to do is put down your best shot at the color. Realize that it won't necessarily, it often won't be right from the start, and then you look at it and judge it based on; is that the right color? Is that the right tones to represent lightness and darkness? Is it the right saturation? So right now what I've got it almost, it feels a little too dark, so I am going to lightness slightly. Yes, comforting to realize that you won't make the exact weight color right from the start. If you don't, it doesn't mean that you're bad at color or anything like that. It's just part of a natural process. Right now actually, this is feeling a little too purple, so I'm going to bring something with a bit more yellow ocher into that. There's then the side plane of the nose. I'm already sensing the side plane of the nose is a little darker, a little cooler through here. I think the only place where I could refine that a little bit more is just this connection where the note was inserts front of the eye here. There's a little bit of a suggestion of the bone and the nose. The bone structure of the skull that describes the eye socket is coming in there. Continuing down the face, we've got the lighter top plane to the mouth muscles that already looks to be pretty well described. The sheer length could use a little bit more description. I think that there's a suddenly broader band of shadow that comes up onto the chin, the genome. It can be a tricky because it's so subtle. I'm going to just move to a smaller brush action. Yeah, it's so rounded that the transition, so subtle that it's hard to perceive. I think it's one of the hardest features, and so that's obviously too cool. I'm mixing a little bit of warm reds and yellows into this. I wanted it to be a little bit cool because it's that transition, the important place where the light meets the shadow, but I don't want it to be screamingly cool. I think I'm going to blend this in and this will work well. It sometimes looks a little strong in the beginning. So I'm using a subtle little stroke as I go, which is keeping it a soft edge. I'm really focusing on this upper edge first. Then I'm going to refine a lower bottom edge of that stroke. It'll start to sit into place and then the light inside here is just a little darker than what I had. There is a subtle like connection between a mid-tone light that wraps here and connects to the shadow underneath the chin here. There's also a little bit of a sense of a darkening and warming as the light side rounds over to the shadow side. So the sort of preparing the lights as they round into the shadows, again with a very subtle wiggle stroke. Then I'm lightly wiggling across the whole thing to just have it be really soft subtle adjustments. There is a slightly lighter top plane to the chin, and there's a little bit of a darker front plane. Thinking about the direction of the plane's face, finding those. Then at the bottom of the cheeks, the mouth muscle comes out and we get a transition from the undercut plane of the cheeks into this lighter plain of the mouth muscles coming out. See you'll often get a little definition here. Little later plane and when you do one thing to one side, you want to check how it's occurring on the other side and there is a little bit of a lighter definition here that describes that mouth muscle coming out. I think I can even go one notch later with the top plane of chin. I think the frontal plane or the nose could be a little more differentiated from the side plane. It's warmer and it's just slightly lighter. Noses and ears and fingertips and things that stick out are often a little bit warm so there's a slight pinkiness to the nose. Then I'm moving into the neck, the neck comes up and out of the collarbone at a slight angle coming out and so there's basically a front plane and then the chest plane a little plane change there. I already have it. I think we can just go a little bit into the neck muscles here. The chess twins a little lighter and I'm using the base flesh color mixed with a bit of white and just a little bit of gray. I'll just bring in that slightly lighter plane for the chest. Thinking about the direction that a plane faces can really help you in the decision-making process. Carving out a slightly shaper edge for the clothing. It gets a little darker as it moves back here, gets a little pinker as it moves into the center of the chance, which I've already gotten just going to make certainly gradual transitions that and there's also a certain lightness over here. Then in the neck, there's already a darker front plane established and I'll just go into the slightly cooler, slightly lighter forms of the muscles of the neck. I'm using a soft touch with this doing airplane strokes to describe it and keeping the tonal shift really muted so you don't want to have too much tonal contrast in the description of these neck muscles, the neck and collarbone is really soft and subtle. whenever we get that subtlety, then there's a little layer bend where the shoulder bend occurs. I painted across the forms wiggling the paint on, if this is the line of the form painting with the form going perpendicular to that is painting across the form. As I apply the paint, I'm focusing on that and I bring a little bit of a cooler, slightly bluish gray node into this. Into the back shoulder too there's a little bit of a lightness to the front plane. We've already got the slightly darker, richer top plane and so smokes through the front plane that I'm adjusting. As it moves down away from the light source, it does get darker, which I already have and then I just wiggle at the edge to have a soft transition. Maybe I'll bring a little bit more of this color down here. That shows you how I would define the different planes of the face and the figure, really looking to establish different tones at different temperatures for each plane. We're going to keep that in mind as we move to find the pictures. 12. Refining the Eyes: Make sure you watch the segment where we go over the construction of the features. Now I'm going to show you how you would take that overall structure and apply it to the painting of the forms looking at the eye first. I'm going to start with the center of interest eye. It's really important when you're painting a portrait to choose one eye which will be your center of interest. So you won't render both of them to the same high level of finish. You'll choose one and have that on the higher contrast and have the highest level of finish. I'm going to start with my center interests eye. I'm going to start by restating the lines of the eye that follows the construction that I talked about in the handouts. I'm using a warm dark color. So I've got some Alizarin permanent and some brands, some of the base shadow color brown. I'm just going to restate this line of the eye. The three angled straight lines that make up the crease of the eye, starting a little bit linear. I'll go into the line of the upper eyelid, which is also the eyelashes, and just restate that line with a darker, this is more of a blackish type of color. It actually basically is black. Then I just pull down from there to create the connection between the top of the iris, that cast shadow that I talked about in the handouts, and connect it to the line of the lashes. Then the white of the eye is whiter on this side because the light source is coming this way and a little bit darker on the left. So I want to get that definition, the description of the tone here, which is a little darker. This is about as white as I would go. It's like a gray and bringing in just like even a little bit darker just towards the top of that eye there. That's the cast shadow of the eyelid being cast onto the eye. Then going into the iris. I've got hazel eyes, so they're brownish, maybe slightly greenish in parts. The colored part of the eye actually shows in the bottom part of the eye because the top part of the iris is being obscured by that cast shadow. So we see the most colored part in the bottom part and actually it's the bottom part opposite the light source. I'm actually going to dark it, ever so slightly and desaturates slightly more here so that we see the strongest hint of color showing on the bottom part of the iris, opposite the direction of the light source. Darkening the black pupil more. The edge of the iris is slightly darker than the center. So I'm just going to wiggle in, wiggling to keep the edge soft. A little bit of a darker note at the edge. You can use the back of your brush to scratch to soften the edge even more if you need to. Then we've got that light rim of thickness that describes the top shelf of the lower eyelid. Its too light. So I'm going to go a little darker. You want it to be lighter than the stuff surrounding it, but not screamingly light. It's a little pinkish as well, and that's still a bit too light, so I'm mixing a bit more brown and a bit more red in there. So you can see that it's still reading as a lighter top plane, but it's not like super bright. With the lower eyelid, there's the front-facing plane of the lower eyelid and you can look at having three tones for that. Continuing to work with the idea of describing three tones, so the three plane directions. We've got a lighter tone on this side, and middle tone through the center and the darkest tone to the left. As I refine the features, I'm going to be thinking about the planes. I've already got those three tones established in this. I think what needs to happen is that the transition just gets softened a little bit. So I'm just wiggling across the edge to just soften the transition a little bit and you can use your fingers if you need to as well. Then here too, just below the front plane of the eye, there is a little bit of a darker, little bit of a cooler node, bringing that in. There's a bit more of a connection line that connects that side plane into a little line underneath the eye. The side plane of the eye here becomes what's called a lost edge where you really can't see the corner of that eye. It just all goes into the dark shadow. Losing that edge may be going a little even darker still. Then I'll take the back of my brush and just scratch across it to make it a soft edge. The tear duct has a redness to it and I've already got that actually. We can also describe the different tones of the upper eyelid, the different planes. There is a lighter cooler plane through the center kind of highlight getting picked up, middle side plane. Then we've got the darkest left side plane. The specular light which is that white dot in the eye, I'm going to dip it into the white and pull in such a way that there's this dangly like piece sticking off, just dangling off the tip. I'm going to take that and just carefully place it right where the light source is shining. Basically if the light source is coming this way, right where the pupil meets the iris, I'm going to just carefully place that little dot. It's going to be a sharp, bright, little specular highlight, right there. I'm also going to take this grainer brush, I've got my one-quarter grainer brush. Get some extra oil, gets some black. Make it nice and oily so that it really can make fluid strokes. I'm going to carefully just bring in the suggestion of some eyelashes starting with it on the line where the lashes most that paints fully there and then curling and pulling they'd come off, to create some subtle eyelashes. It's just a soft eyelash suggestion. Maybe one more over here. They're not big and it's just a subtle sort of an eyelash suggestion. You don't want to go too crazy with the lashes, but just a little suggestion of it can be really nice. I think the last thing is that with this grainer brush, I'm going to wiggle along the top edge of this line, which is the crease of the eye so that I'm creating the sense that the top edge of this line softens into the color above it and the bottom edge of that line is sharp, which will make it less of a line and more of a description of the forms. So it feels more like just the form of the crease of the eye rather than it feeling really linear. Maybe the last thing with that eye is that I'll bring a little bit of some lights that are picking up in the front of the tear duct here. We can also refine the color above it. It just has a slightly lighter color in the center of this line. 13. Refining the Eyes (continued): Then moving to the other eye, as I move forward, I want to just have less contrast in that eye. I'm going to start with a cool form of this upper eyelid. Looking again for the plane changes, so it gets a little darker as it rolls towards the left, tucks into the shadow side over there. It also gets a little darker as it rolls to the right. I can carry the white of the eye on this eye up a little higher. Next I'm going to go into the little bit of light at the tear duct and also that later shelf to the top of the lower lid. Then describing the lower lid. It's like this eye, the white of the eye rolls back and gets really dark in that back corner. I'm going to bring a darker, vertical note in there, and I'm going to wiggle across the left edge of it to make it blend into the white of the eye so that the white of the eye is basically getting darker, all the way up to that little dark line there. I'll bring a little bit of a darker edge to the front plane of the lower eyelid. In the iris, I'm going to cut on the pupil more of the iris color. Again, the iris gets darker as it moves towards the top line of the upper eyelid. Just redefining the lower eyelid here, and then I'm going to work around the edge of the iris, bringing just very subtle, very soft edge, darker note that occurs around the edge of the iris. I'm going to scratch with the back of my brush on some of the places where colors are meeting so that it's all just happening in a soft way. Getting that casts a shadow on the top of the iris. That's really important. It's one of the things that we don't see that clearly, but knowing that it's there will help you to put it in and then it'll look right. There's the gray of the either white of the eye showing that I need to get in here and keeping it nice and dark. Actually the shape of the white of the eye cuts a little bit this way. I can get away with putting a slightly later white of the eye right here, but it's still pretty dark. Right now, there's a bit of an outline showing through, if you can see that I'm going to cover that. There's no real line on the bottom edge. Little later there, and I think it's well set up for the eyelashes. I'm going to take that oily black color and just do a couple curling airplane strokes to create the soft edge. Put suggests the eyelashes, and then the specular highlight on that eye. I am going to make it a little bit darker than the first eye because you want the center of interest to have the highest contrast. This is a little bit of a grayish white. I think lastly, I'll just darken the red in the tear duct just a little bit so that we can see that triangular shape of it there. From the eyes, we'll just move into the area surrounding the eye, I think I'll just refine this a little bit, I'm going to to refine the color of this little band of flesh showing back here. It could be a little darker, a little cooler. Actually, I can also go in with the eyelash, there is a shape that overlaps right there with the eyelash. I think I'll also bring a slightly lighter front plane here, and make a softer transition into the shape that's showing here, which is describing the eye socket. The greener brush is really good for doing eyebrows. It'll create a nice soft hair-like stroke. You could do a couple of strokes like that, and that basically shows you how you refine the eyes. Take your painting up to that level, get the eyes in, and next we're going to move to the nose and mouth. 14. Refining Nose & Mouth: We've refined the eyes and we're going to move to the mouth and nose next. At this stage, you should have watched the section on constructing the features where I described the handouts in detail. As we move forward, I'm going to show you how to bring that into the painted form sense of the nose and mouth. Let's start by redefining the center line of the mouth. I'm going to use a transparent red. I'm using a lithium permanent mixed with teeny bit of black. As you can see it's a really warm, pretty dark color and really transparent. The mouth is a nice place to have a nice punch of color. The center of the mouth can be one of the sharper edges. I'm just starting by refining that. It's nice and warm, really transparent. I'm going to soften by wiggling along the bottom edge of that line, so that it creates a little bit of a field, at the lower lip is darkening and warming in to the center line. I've got the apex, that little point here, in the center alignment. I like the color that I've got the upper lip blocked in. Basically, I think as the upper lip rounds up, it gets a teeny bit lighter and a teeny bit more pinky, less purpley. I'll just wiggle along that edge there. We're going to create a nice soft edge. We want all the edges of the lips to be really soft, way softer than you think. Often I'll go back and resoften the edges even one more time after the point where they seem soft. A really soft edges to the lips, that's actually also put some base flesh color above that, then I'm going to use my brush, the bathway brush didn't scratch it to create an even softer edge. You can see that you can still feel the direction of the line there, but it's happening in a really soft edged way. The lower lip, as it rolls into that center line, it's getting a little darker, a little warmer, and just going into that. We're thinking about the plains as we define these features. As we move to the back corners of the mouth and moving into more black or even a little bit of blue, maybe even a little bit of gray, blacky, bluey, gray, and staining the line with that cooler note. It just turns from lips into muscle talk at the corners of the mouth. I'll wipe my brush off to get the excess paint off, and now with a clean dry brush, I'm just wiggling along that edge to create a really lost edge. We're going some more along that edge. I'm just refining the shape of it. Then on the lower lip, as the mouth rounds down, there's a plane change from the top plane to the front plane and it gets a little darker and a little warmer as it rolls down. I'm just rounding it down to that shadow underneath it. There is a highlight cutting through the most there. I'm going to also bring a little bit of a light into this area, right beside the mouth. Top muscle is turning to be more top plane facing. Then I just wiggle right through. There's no line at the edge of the lips, so I'm just letting it all have this continuity where it connects to the lower lip and I'll bring a little bit more of the red further out. On the other side too, there's a little bit of a higher ups, slightly lighter tone right in here and then here. I'm making sure that this lighter tone is staying in from the edge so that we still maintain that darkening towards the edge, the big for modeling. Then moving into the nose, we've got the form shadow that's really important. I think this side plane of the nose could be a little lighter. It's warm but not quite as dark. I'm just going to put a statement of the whole front plane of the nose in just in one mark, actually crossing over a bit into this side plane of the nose, almost line but letting it just all blend together. It's a common thing to put a line here and really notice how soft and subtle and lost that edge is. There's a little bit more of a light carried up through here, which actually suggests the fact that the nose inserts into the skull just above the tear duct. I need to just raise that place where it feels like the nose is inserting into the skull. Raise it up a little bit. You can see that I'm still painting across the form, I'm always painting across the form. Then I'll just bring that light that comes down where the front plane of the nose connects to the side plane and the specular highlight on the ball of the nose. Let's just soften that transition by bringing it slightly midtown, [inaudible] just dabbing it across what I have put down, so that we're not overstating the highlights. I think that it transitions a little bit gradually into that front plane. I'm bringing a midtone to connect the two, creating a bit of a connection. Let's work the edge where the light meets the shadow, where the light side meets the form shadow. Just wiggle that, that's a really soft transition. The more rounded a form is, the more gradual that transition will be and the nose is really soften round, so happens really gradually. That's part of why we actually have a hard time seeing this form shadow sometimes because it's got such a soft edge. We're seeing a little bit of the nostril at the back and there's a very subtle sense of it having a lighter toppling, so I've just gone into that. When I state the lines of the nostrils, well first I'm going to actually lightly brush over what I've got to just lighten it a shade. Just make it all unified a little bit more. Then I'm going to state the darker line on top and I'm using a really warm dark color, same as I used for the central line of the mouth. I'll put it in as two angled straight lines, this one is an angle this way. Pull down a little bit and it's warm. it's a really rich warm color. It's nice to have the colors of face mostly desaturated and then have certain areas of punch to the color, and the lips and the nostrils are a good place to do that. Just refining this a little bit, I wanted to have a bit of a darker cooler color at the back corner of that mouth. The very last stages are often just like edges, judging edges, finessing hair, and adding a little bit of reflected light. We're going to do that in the final stage and we're almost done. 15. Finishing Touches: [MUSIC] Congratulations on making it this far. You're just about done. A lot of the time, it's hard to know how to decide when a painting is finished. I find that looking at the edge quality is a good place to finish. I'm going to show you how I would refine the edges, looking for soft edges especially and also refine the hair and get a little bit of reflected light in there. With the hair first, I'm going to be using this three-quarter inch grainer and I'm going to need a lot of oil. I always use a lot of oil when I'm using the grainer so that the strokes flow really fluidly. I'm mixing just a brownish color with the base shadow color, some transparent red oxide. I'm actually just going to start by knocking back the highlights just a little bit so that I can lighten into them after. I'm setting it up for the next stage by darkening it down a little bit first and I'm using airplane strokes, using the texture of the brush to create a hair-like texture. With the airplane strokes starting where the color is fully there and lifting and pulling as I go to get that textured feel and doing big broad strokes and twisting the brush as I go. I wanted to create wedge-like shapes, like triangles. If this is the top of the ear, I'm going to figure out how I can make the shapes that comes up above it, like a wedge shape. Then I'll also define below the ear, the bottom edge, and then pull down from there. You're looking to have the definition where the light meets the shadow, be zigzaggy. Not like line, line, line, but this zigzaggy shape. Darken the ear in a little bit. We see a little light rim of the top edge of the ear, but the ear is mostly pretty dark and you want to watch that. The ear should be dark and really setting into the shadow side. Then I think next I can start to go into the reflected light in the hair. Using some viridian green, some cobalt blue, some white, and a lot of oil, I'm going to create that turquoise color, which is coming in and I'll mix it into a bit of the base hair color so it's not screamingly turquoise. It'll still look pretty turquoise, but it won't be too strong. Let's just do a dab to see what it looks like. That looks like it could work. I'm going to mix a bit more base shadow color in and there. Still having the zigzagging, interweaving shapes, describing the locks of the hair, bringing in the lightest light. As you can see, it's a zigzag that just runs along the whole plane change in the hair where the top plane is meeting the side plane. It's got some variety to it. It's thick and thin and just varied. Right where the light meets the face you can have that be like a really lost edge. You can also wiggle a slight cool note in this triangle edges along where the face meets the hair. Where the face meets the hair is always a really soft edge, so make sure you soften that, like the mouth I soften it and then soften it again and then soften it again. You want it to be really soft. There's a little cool coming into this side plane of the neck here. There's a very subtle warm reflected light showing in the shadow side. This is one of the cases where you want to make sure you put it in. See that's way too light. You want to make sure that you put it in really dark and really understated. That might still be too light. I am darkening it with some transparent red oxide and some base shadow color. I want it to be super subtle. It's just enough that it gives a little definition to where the edge of the face is, but it just really sits into the shadow side. This is the area where people will often make the reflected light too light and too strong. It'll actually compete with the shadow pattern and actually start to merge with the lights of the face and look really plasticky and weird. With the mouth we've been keeping the edges soft as we're going and I'm going to just keep softening more and more. It's almost like with the mouth you soften the edges, then you soften them again, and then you soften them again. With this back corner of the mouth we're basically going from the warm center of the mouth to a slightly cooler gray green note at the back corner of the mouth. Yeah, it's just a really lost edge. It's going to take a little bit of niggling around to get it soft enough and to get that transition from the warm center of the mouth to the cool back corner of the mouth to just be subtle and gradual and lost. I'm scratching with it my fingernail there and I'm doing strokes that are going across the [inaudible]. So another thing that's going with the form of the lip. I'm also looking at the overall shape of the lip. There is a certain sense of a continuous curve coming through here and then down to that muscle tuck at the back of the mouth. It's just really subtle stuff. It's like it gets a little darker right in here, which also helps it just get really lost. We can just hardly see anything in here. It gets just really subtle. Then with this shadow underneath the mouth, what you want to watch is that you don't have this shadow underneath the mouth pulling too far over that way. That can start to change the expression, make the lower lip look like it's puffing outwards. I just make sure that it's really the darkest part is localized in the center, right underneath the lower lips, in the center of it. It gradually transitions in a really soft edge [inaudible] again, through the side here. Again, it just takes a little bit to get it as soft and subtle of a transition as you want. Sometimes I rub it with my finger to pulling a mid-tone note over the place where it transitions. Even this shadow here is almost like a little bit too sudden. Everything in the mouth needs to be really soft and subtle. I'm making that even a little softer and subtler. Back here as well. The mouth really relates to the muscles around the mouth as you're seeing. Getting the mouth accurate isn't about getting just the shape of the lips accurate. It's about getting the relationship in this muscle area and even into the chin accurate and soft and subtle. I'm really making sure that there's no edge to the lower lip around here. It's just totally lost through that center. Pulling the slightest lighter note along the turn at the top of the lips. Really painting that in little dabs going across the form like this, rather than painting it following the shape of the edge and keeping it a little less light than what one might think. There's a tendency to overstate this light. Actually, it subtly has changed the shape of this peak at the top lip here. I'm just going to curve that back very subtly. There's a little bit more light carrying forward here as well. That's the finishing touches of the lips. Now I'm going to move to the hair and just add some final touches through the hair. With the hair, I'm going to use a grainer brush again, with a cool color. It's like the base shadow color with some cobalt, or you could use cerulean. I'm just going to bring out the reflected light. That cool reflected light just a little bit more. Oops, that's a bit strong. Let's take that off. There's a certain curving shaped through here. The color that I've got on my brush is cool, and it's pretty dark, so it's still fitting within the framework of it being part of the shadow side. You really want to make sure that you don't get too light. It is standing out. We do see it. It's not so dark that we don't see the shift into the reflected light, but it's still pretty dark. There's also a little bit more of an actual dark describing where the hair opens up into the ear. In these final stages, we want to start to really hit the full level of contrast. Hitting the darkest darks in the hair, hitting the slightly lighter reflected light in the shadows. If there's any areas that you haven't got the lightest notes in the face, you'll want to do that too. I'm using strokes that are going with the form in the case of the hair so that the shape of the stroke describes the hair. I think that's a bit too light. I'm going to go a little bit into the part at the top of the head too. I want to keep that really subtle. It's a darkish color. It's like the base flesh color, but it's a little bit darker. I'm using my grainer brush to just go along so that the edge here has a slight brushy stroke which resembles hair. Just like with the mouth, the hair is a case where you want to soften the edge, especially the hairline, and then soften it again and then soften it again. Really softening. I'm doing strokes that are going this way, mimicking the way the hair grows out of the head. We'll get these slight little grainer brushstrokes right along where the hairline is starting. Just subtly, it's very subtle. It's really soft but just subtly suggests the direction of the hair growing out. Also, it's cutting in just a little bit on my particular forehead, which I think felt just slightly too large. That might not be the case with your painting, but it is the case of this particular one. Bringing in again the darkest dark, hitting the darkest darks. These aren't pure black. This is black with some brown or some red, but it's pretty dark. I'll also do some little hair-like strokes along where the hair is meeting the face here. Just to get that hair-like texture, it makes a softer edge, and it gets a sense of the texture of hair. You can even use your fingernail to scratch lines, hair-like lines. That looks pretty good. Maybe there's a little bit of a cool highlight coming along this bend in this form of the hair too, which I'll just put in with my grainer brush again, going along with the form so that you can see the texture of the line of the strokes. Right here. Do you see how I'm letting the light cool, fully connect to the face, all the way? There's not like a little dark line at the edge of the hair. This form fully wraps right into the face, and that helps soften the edge of the hair more too. You can see the same thing happening on this side. I'm pretty happy with the hair. I think, lastly, I'm just going to go into some details just around this eye, just the eyebrow a little bit to the shape of the eye. With this eyebrow, I think it just could actually come up just ever so slightly more. Just a little bit of an angle. Using the grainer brush still, to get that texture, that hair-like texture that the grainer brush is so good at. Then the form of the socket. The part just underneath the eyebrow that's forming the eye socket. It goes from light here to a little bit darker. I'm just going to work into that a little bit more, just making it ever so slightly darker in here. A little higher up at the back corner, getting that angle to the eyebrow. Really at, with the eyebrows, the angles that they come in at. It's pretty common to have the eyebrow. Even if you think you've done it at an angle, the effect can often look just like a generic curve. Triple check that it looks like it's capturing that angle accurately. I've crossed over this crease just a little bit, so I'm going to restate that eyelid crease. With this area right here where it turns from eyebrow to shadow in the eye socket to downward turning plane between the eyebrows, the forehead's facing this way. This form's turning inwards a little bit. We've got all of those motions happening. I think the only last thing I need to do is bring a little bit of a darker tone right up next to the eyebrows, which will help this curve down a little bit more softly. What I've put it as just a bit too dark, so I'm making it a bit more subtle, and then that will be fine. I've made a little bit of adjustment to that eye crease, and I think I can just pull some eyelash texture there, a little bit stronger over the back here, a little bit more eyelash texture coming up here. Yeah, so I think the painting done now, and I hope you've really enjoyed seeing me put the finishing touches on the painting and just establishing that surface quality to the final painting. Remember that it's really a process to learn how to paint the portrait in oils. You can watch it or re-watch the videos. Each time, something new will stand out. You'll just deepen and deepen your practice as you go. Enjoy the course again and again, and thank you for joining me.