Portrait Drawing Fundamentals - How to Draw Realistic Heads & Faces | Ethan Nguyen | Skillshare

Portrait Drawing Fundamentals - How to Draw Realistic Heads & Faces

Ethan Nguyen, Art Instructor

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35 Lessons (5h 45m)
    • 1. Class Trailer

      2:37
    • 2. The Grid Method

      8:34
    • 3. Loomis Method - Front View

      4:57
    • 4. Loomis Method - 3/4 View

      3:16
    • 5. Loomis Method - Side View

      2:10
    • 6. Loomis Method - Front View, Tilted Down

      6:30
    • 7. Loomis Method - Front View, Tilted Up

      7:33
    • 8. Loomis Method - 3/4 View, Tilted Down

      3:19
    • 9. Loomis Method - 3/4 View, Tilted Up

      3:47
    • 10. Proportions of the Head

      5:06
    • 11. Head Planes - Front View

      7:36
    • 12. Head Planes - 3/4 View

      6:42
    • 13. Head Planes - Side View

      5:31
    • 14. Head Planes - Front View, Tilted Down

      9:05
    • 15. Head Planes - Front View, Tilted Up

      7:17
    • 16. Head Planes - 3/4 View, Tilted Down

      6:56
    • 17. Head Planes - 3/4 View, Tilted Up

      7:07
    • 18. 5 Elements of Shading

      6:07
    • 19. Different Types of Edges

      5:56
    • 20. Rules of Realism

      5:12
    • 21. Sphere Drawing Exercise

      15:40
    • 22. Eye Structure & Form

      6:51
    • 23. Eye Drawing Exercise (Part 1)

      27:30
    • 24. Eye Drawing Exercise (Part 2)

      27:11
    • 25. Nose Structure & Form

      3:33
    • 26. Nose Drawing Exercise

      17:52
    • 27. Lips Structure & Form

      4:27
    • 28. Lips Drawing Exercise

      13:23
    • 29. Ear Structure & Form

      3:33
    • 30. Ear Drawing Exercise

      15:46
    • 31. Hair Form & Texture

      6:34
    • 32. Hair Drawing Exercise (Part 1)

      23:54
    • 33. Hair Drawing Exercise (Part 2)

      24:08
    • 34. Final Portrait Drawing (Lay-In)

      11:19
    • 35. Final Portrait Drawing (Rendering)

      27:32
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About This Class

This portrait drawing course will teach you how to draw beautiful, realistic portraits that capture the subject's likeness.

What makes this course unique from all the others out there, is how it breaks down the complex topic of portrait drawing into manageable concepts and step-by-step exercises.  

You'll begin by learning simple concepts and practicing basic drawing exercises. As you're hand dexterity and understanding improve, the lessons will gradually increase in difficulty until, by the end of the course, you will have drawn your very own realistic portrait.

Even if you are a beginner with no drawing experience, you'll find the lessons and exercises easy to understand and enjoyable, while still learning critical drawing skills.  

Key things you will learn:

  • How to simplify the head into basic shapes so you can draw it more easily
  • How to draw the head from different angles to create more dynamic portraits
  • How to draw the planes of the head in order to create a three-dimensional effect
  • Understanding the rules of lighting in order to make your drawing look realistic 
  • Understanding the basic anatomy of each of the facial features so you can draw them better
  • A simple step-by-step process for drawing a realistic portrait from start to finish
  • And a whole lot more!

At this end of this course, students will have a better understanding of how to draw the head from various angles, how to shade realistic features, and how to draw a complete realistic portrait.

Course Material List

I buy a ton of art supply online and these links are the best prices I was able to find for these items & where I buy them myself.

Full disclosure, these are referral links so if you buy something through them, I may earn a small commission (at no extra cost to you!)

Special Thanks

Everything I know I’ve learned from someone else. And this course is a combination of my own personal experience, the things I’ve learned from all my teachers, and the many, many hours of research I’ve done in preparation for making it.

I’ve tried to combine all the best elements from many different sources and put my own take on it wherever I can.

So, before we begin, I’d like to give a special "Thank you!" to all the amazing artists whose works and teachings help made this course possible.

The list (in no particular order) includes, but is not limited to:

Andrew Loomis
Jeff Watts
Stan Prokopenko
Lee Hammond
John Asaro
Mark Crilley
And many more…

Also, be sure to check out the my courses so you don't miss out on any important skills:

Transcripts

1. Class Trailer: highs. Ethan here, and I'm really excited to introduce you. The Newport fundamentals made simple course, so let's go over what we're going to cover. This course is divided into five sections. The first section is going to primarily focus on drawing the head FREEHAND. You'll learn about the very powerful Loomis method and how to use it to draw a simplified head in front 3/4 inside view. Then we learn how to draw the same head and neck in more dynamic angles like the front view . Tilt it down and up and 3/4 view tilt it down and up. This will understand how the head is affected by perspective and allow you to tackle many different portrait positions. Next, you'll learn about the proportions of the head and features and how to place him on the face. This knowledge will become very useful in the next section. Where will build upon Loomis method to construct a more three dimensional head again will cover all the different angles, like front record inside view as well as the more dynamic positions. Okay, by now you should be pretty comfortable with the overall structure of the head and in the third section will cover the fundamentals of realistic shady. You'll learn about five elements of shading and how to combine them to create a three dimensional look. And you'll also learn about the four different types of the edges and the rules of realism and how to use them to add interest to your drawing, then will apply all these concepts and techniques in a drawing exercise. Now all these shading skills you just learning, will become very useful in the fourth section, where you learn how to draw each of the facial features. First, we're going to learn about the anatomy and features and point out little tips and details that you need to pay attention to. Then we'll buy everything we just learned in a step by step drawing exercise. You'll see how to take the drawing from a basically in all the way to a complete, realistic finish, and we're going to do this for all the features. Eyes, nos Lips year Finally in the fifth section want you're comfortable with All the features will combine everything together and draw a complete portrait from start to finish. Even at this stage, are we learning some new techniques like how to use triangulation to keep your lady inaccurate. How to accentuate the shadow to make the portrait more dynamic. How to stylized drawing toe, add more interests and so on. Well, I hope you found this video helpful, and I hope to see you on the inside. 2. The Grid Method: There are two phases, so any potent drawing, a lane phase and the shading phase. Although many artists put a lot emphasis on the shading phase, the lane is arguably the most important. It is the foundation or your portrait. This is where we capture the likeness and gesture about subject. Get the lay and wrong and all the shading in the world won't picture portrait. So with that said, let's go over the different methods for drawing a good land. There are two main ways to draw the land. The grid method and the free-hand method. And the grid method is the easier of the two. So let's call that one. As the name suggests with the grid method, we draw a grid on our reference photo. In this example, I'll divide the side of the reference into six equal sections. Are divided the top into four equal sections. I chose these dimensions because they were the easiest. But you can divide up your reference in any way you like. Then we'll draw the same grid on the drawing paper. Now using these grids as a guide, we can copy the reference photo over to our drawing paper. We can look at the intersection between the grid and our reference and use these landmarks to keep our lines accurate. For example, I can see that the outline of the baby's forehead intersects with the grid at this point, this point and this point. So I'll mark them out on my paper and use them to help me draw the curve. Continuing with this process, I can see that the outline of a nose into suck at this point, this point. And this point. I can see that the baby's hand fits into these two corner boxes. So I'll sketch it in. And I know that the Nasrallah, the nose will go into the upper left corner of this box here. The grid will also tell me where to place the eyes, as well as how large to make them. As you can see, having this grid is a guy makes the drugs so much easier. Once finished, we would carefully erase the guidelines on the drawing paper and carry on with the shading. By the way, because we end up erasing the guidelines is a good idea to draw them in very lightly in the first place. When using this method, you'll be surprised at how accurate your drawing will be even if you have little experience. So if you're a beginner, I highly recommend you try this method to help you get started and built some confidence. Here are some tips to help you get the most out of this technique. Use a plastic overlay. It can be cumbersome to have to put a grid on your reference for every drawing. One shortcut is to draw the grid onto a plastic sleeve like this one using permanent ink, then you can simply insert different were emphasis into the sleep. That way you only have to draw the grid on your drawing paper, enlarging or shrinking your reference. Another cool thing about this technique is that you can use it to manipulate the size of your reference. For instance, suppose you were drawing on a very small photograph like this one, and you would like to draw into a larger army would have to do is make the grid on your drawing paper or larger. In this case, however big the individual square on the reference is, I simply double that size for my drawing paper. So now when you complete the drawing, it will be twice as big as your reference. You can also use the same technique in reverse to strike down a large reference using a simple grid. One objection, many artists have to using a grid is that although a deliver results very quickly, it can become a bit of a crunch. And there's some truth to this. If you rely on it exclusively, the grid will limit your grow. That's why I recommend you use it only as a stepping stone. In the early stages of learning. Many artists have the limiting belief that they can't draw an accurate portrait. I know I definitely suffer homeless when I was starting out. And nothing shatter this belief better than just sitting down and drawing your first realistic portrait. The grid method can help you do this very quickly. And in that sense, it's a great learning tool, however, to prevent it from becoming a crutch, one thing you could do is gradually decreased the dimension of the grid. For example, in the beginning you might start out with a very detailed grid like this one. But as you become more confident, you might want to try a simpler grid and eventually an even simpler one. The simpler the grid, the more free hand drawing you'll have to do. And this will force you to grow as an artist. Use a modified grid. In addition to the simple grid, you can also use a modified grid. The modified grid is a essentially a two-by-two grid with diagonals drawn through the center. To construct it first, simply draw in two diagonals connecting each corner. The point where they intersect will represent the perfect center of the reference. Then simply draw a vertical and horizontal line through this point to complete the grid. The modified grid offer the same guidance as a normal grid, while being very convenient and simple. Nowadays, whenever I use the grid method, I almost always use the modified grid. As you can see, the grid method has many amazing benefits, especially for beginners. But it does come with some limitations. One of which is that it can only be used on photo references. So although I recommend you use as a learning tool in the beginning, as you become more advanced and you'll probably want to move on to the more versatile freehand method, which we'll cover in the next lesson. 3. Loomis Method - Front View: When it comes to drawing the head freehand, there are many methods used by many different artists. One of the most popular and in my opinion, the most effective out there is the moonless method. Lowest method was developed by artists enter lumens many years ago as a way to construct and draw the head from any angles. Unlike the grid method, which is limited by photo reference. Once you master Louis method, you'll be able to draw the head from any angle, from photograph, life and even from your imagination. Here's how it works. The head can be simplified into two geometric shapes. A sphere for the cranium and a boxy wedge-shaped for the job. Let's examine the SFIA shape. This shape is formed by taking a perfectly round sphere and cutting off the sides. This puts it closer to the shape of the rail head. And you can examine this for yourself. The top of the head isn't perfectly spherical, but rather it's mostly route on the top with sides being somewhat flat. Now let us see how we can use this information to draw the head from the review. Will start with a circle. Would trim off the sides in a bit. But first let's put in the center line. The center line is an imaginary line that runs down the center of the face from the front view. The centerline will be right in the middle of the face and just a straight line, even though the center line won't actually show up in the finished portrait, is a very helpful tool for visualizing the shape as a three-dimensional object. Next, let's locate the brow line. The position of the brown line will depend on the tilt of the head. In this case, the head will be looking straight ahead. So the brown line we right in the middle of the circle and leveled with the IRS. Next, let's locate the hairline. The hairline will be about two-thirds of the way up from the brow line. So if we just divide the top portion of the circle and two thirds, the hairline would be right about here. The bottom of the nose will be about two-thirds of the way down from the brow line. So we can just take the measurement we got for the hairline, bring it down and mark the bottom of the nose. Lastly, the chin will also be the same distance down from the nose. So once again, we'll take the same measurement, bring it down from the nose and mark the bottom of the chin. Notice how the face is divided into three equal parts. From the hairline to the brow line, from the brow line to the nose, and from the nose so the chin. This is known as the rule of thirds. And it's a very effective tool for measuring the proportions of the phase. Of course not every face will conform perfectly to this rule. Some people will have bigger forehead and shorter chins, but this is a great starting point. Okay, so now let's trim off the side of the circle to bring it closer to the shape of a real head. That's not really an exact rule for how much to take off here. I like to take off just enough to give the circle a slight oval shape. As you draw more and more head, you'll develop a sense for how much to trim off and then erase the extra lines. Okay, now for another detail, when looking at the head from the front view will be able to see a little bit of the sides. We can represent this by drawing two thin ellipses on the sides. Unlike normal ellipses, these ones are going to be a little more pointy at the ends. Also, notice that the ellipses correspond with the hairline and the bottom of the nose. Now let's draw in the lower portion of the face. First will roughly estimate the width of the chin. Next, we'll attach the jar. The size of the jaw usually taper in a bit as it moved down. There are two rhythm lines that connect the side of the face to the corners of the chin. These lines represent the separation between the front plane of the face and the side planes. Now let's add the neck for some support. And I'll simplify head is complete. How just go over it one more time and darken and clean up some of the lines. From here we can add in the features will cover exactly how to do this in the future lessons. Now your assignment is to draw this head at least five times until you're comfortable with the process. And have all the steps memorized, rewind and pause the video as many times as you need, and then tried to see if you can draw it all on your own. It might seem a little complicated at first, but once you've gone through it a few times, you'd be surprised at how intuitive it becomes. 4. Loomis Method - 3/4 View: in this lesson, we'll learn how to use the Loomis method to draw the head and 3/4 view. Better quarter view is the most quintessential angle in portraiture, and the Loomis method really excels at this angle. Once again, we'll start with a circle. Next, let's add in the center line is that will really help us to visualize the dimension. The head. In the last lesson, we saw that when the head is looking straight at us, the center line will be right in the middle. Since the head is now turned towards the left, the center line will be shifted in that direction. That's because we're able to Seymour of the right side of the face unless of the left side . To find the brow line, we have to look at how the head is tilted. If the head is perfectly leveled, the brow line will be in line with the top of the ears. Also, it will be right in the middle of the circle. If the head is tilted up, the brow line will be above the ears and also slightly up from the middle. And if the head is tilted down the brow line will be below the ears and slightly down from the middle. In this case, the head will be leveled and the brown line will be in the middle. From here, we can use the rule of thirds. To find the other landmarks, divide the top portion of the circle into third. Now go to third of the way up from the brow line and we'll have the hairline. Measure that same distant down from the brow line and you'll find the bottom of the nose and lastly, measure the same distant down from the bottom of the nose and we'll have the bottom of the chin. Now we can draw the ellipse to represent the side of the head. The height of the Ellipse will be the same as the distance from the hairline to the bottom of the nose. The width of the Ellipse will depend on how far the head is turned. If the head is turned towards us like in the front view, the ellipsis will be rather thin. If the head is turned away from us like in the side view, the lift will appear as a four circle. The record of you is halfway in between the front you and the side view, so the ellipse will be somewhere in between a full circle and a thin lips. This isn't an exact science, and you'll have to use your eye to determine at the head looks right or not, But practice this process will become more intuitive. Then we'll draw in the outline of the face. This line will be slightly curved inward now roughly estimate the with the chin and attacks the job. Erase this extra guideline, then add in the rhythm line. The separate the front and the side plane of the face and in the neck, and we're on. Done your assignment. Once again, it's a draw, this head at least five times into your comfortable with it and in the next lesson will cover how could draw the head inside of you. 5. Loomis Method - Side View: in this lesson will be drawing the head from side view. Justice before will start with a circle no has put in the center line. As the face turns in a certain direction, the centerline was shift in that direction. Since the face will be turned to the left, the center line will be all the way to the left again. This is because we're able to see only the right side of the face and none of the left side . The head is not tilted, so the brow line will be right in the middle. We'll go to third of the way up from the brow line to find the hairline and measure the same distant down from the brow line to find the bottom of the nose and repeat the same process to find the chin. Next would draw in the lips to denote the side of the head. Except this time, because the side of the head is turned towards us, it will appear as a circle. The height of the circle will correspond to the brow line and the bottom of the nose established with of the chin and connect the job erased this guideline here and put in the rhythm line. The back of the head will not be quite as around as the circle would suggest. Rather, it will end a little closer to the top of the job, so I'll make that little correction. Lastly, will draw in the neck and that's it. Well done. 6. Loomis Method - Front View, Tilted Down: Now that you're familiar with how to draw the head in the three standard positions, let's explore drawing the head in more interesting positions. The 1st 1 we're going to tackle is the front view. Tilt it down position. Here's the reference will be working with this position is exactly like the regular front view, except the head will be tilted downward, and as a result, the appearance will be affected by perspective. The brow line will be shifted downward to expose more of the top portion of the head and make it appear larger. Where's the bottom portion of the face such as nose, lips and chin will recede away from the viewer and therefore appear smaller. The more the head is tilted down, the stronger this effect become okay, So now let's see how all this translate into drawing. The first step is to draw a circle, then put in the center line. Now it's time to find the measurements of the face. Because the face is now changed by perspective. We won't be able to rely on the rule of thirds instead will have to measure things by hand . For this will need to refer back to the reference to help us with the measurements. Let's see where that circle that we just drew will fit onto this head while looking at the curb outline of the head. It's pretty obvious that the circle go right here. This circle will help us see where the different landmarks will go. I normally draw the circle straight onto my reference. Looking at this circle, we can see that the hair is about halfway down the circle. The hair is sticking out in covering up the hairline, so I'm assuming the hairline is somewhere up here. Let's mark out the hairline are now drawing. Going back to the reference, I can see that the brow line is roughly 2/3 of the way down from the hairline. So if we divide the distance between the hairline and the circle into thirds, then the brow line will be about here. Okay, now let's find the nose line. I'll use the divider to measure the forehead and compare it to the nose area. We can see that the nose area is slightly shorter. How much shorter? Well, you could do the exact math to figure that out if you like, but for now, a rough estimation will be fine. The key thing to remember here is that the nose area is shorter than the forehead. Now let's transfer this onto our drawing. We'll take the distance between the hair and brow line, move it down and mark the nose line, so that is a little bit shorter. We can repeat the same process. To find Chin Line will compare the nose area to the chin area and see that the chin is slightly shorter. So we'll mark the chin line on our drawing so that it's a little shorter than those area. As you can see, the features get progressively smaller as you move down the face again. This is because the lower portion of the faces further away from the viewer now a straw in the lips is on the side of the head. Interestingly enough, the ellipses will not be affected by perspective, despite the downward tilt of the head. This is because the top portion of the head, more or less remains still and only road hates when the head tilts down, so the height and width of these ellipses will be the same as the regular front view head. In other words, the height of the ellipses will be about 2/3 the height of the circle. Now let's draw in the brow line. Notice how the brow line has a slight upward curve to it. This is because the faces slightly rounded and when the head is tilted down, we are able to see this curve. So we'll draw in that upward curve for the brow line to help indicate which direction the head is looking in our ad. Two straight lines on the side of the head now for the lower portion of the face. First, let's establish the width of the chin. Since the chin is further away from us, it will appear slightly smaller than in the regular front view. The jaw lines will angle in a bit and then connect to the chip. Notice that this portion of the jawline is shorter than in the regular front of you, and this portion of the jawline is slightly longer. To understand why this is, let's look at the job from a side view. Let's call this portion of the job, the short side and this portion of the jaw alongside when the face is looking forward and we're seeing it from this angle. We are pretty much seeing the entirety of the short side of the job. Where is the long side of the jaw is for shorten because we're seeing it at an angle. However, when the faces tilt it down, the short side will be slightly foreshortened and the long side will appear slightly longer because we are now seeing it head on. The overall effect of all this is to cause the lower portion and face appear more pointy and slender. Now we can eat, race this extra guy line here and draw in the rhythm lines now for the next. The gesture of the neck is very important in telling the viewer what the head is doing. It provides the context for the drawing, so we have to make sure we get it right. A good portion of the neck will be covered up by the job so it will appear shorter. As a result, the shorter will also appear closer to the head and that's it. Well done, 7. Loomis Method - Front View, Tilted Up: in this lesson, we'll learn how to draw this simplified head in front of you. Tilt it up. Here's the reference will be working with when the head is tilted upward, the lower portion of the face will be closer to the viewer and therefore appear bigger. On the other hand, the upper portion of the face will be further away from the viewer and therefore pure smaller. The shape of the job will be quite different as well as you'll see in a few moments. Just like before. It will start with a circle and put it in the center line. Next will measure out the features. In the previous lesson, we use a divider to do all the measuring. This works very well when you're drawing from a photo reference, but it won't work. If you're drawing from a live model for live drawings, we'll have to measure using the thumb and pencil method. Here's how it works. Hold your pencil in one hand with the thumb pressing against the pencil. Like so. Then hold up your pencil between you and your subject, with your arm fully extended and your elbow lock. The locking of the elbow is important as it ensures that the pencil will always be the same distance from your eyes. This helps to keep your measurements consistent. Now close one eye and you're ready to start measuring. Let's imagine that this picture is a live model standing some distance away from us. Let's find the nose line first. Since it seems to be at the center of the face just like before, visualize the circle that we just drew superimposed over the subject. With this in place, we can check to see where the nose line fall within the circle. Place the tip of the pencil at the top of the circle and use your thumb to mark the nose line. Now compare this measurement with the area below the nose line. We can see that the two areas are roughly the same, which means the nose Linus halfway down the circle. Let's mark this on on drawing okay, now for the brow line, I'll compare the nose area with the forehead and see that the forehead area is a bit shorter. That tells me that the brow line is slightly above the midway point off the top half of the circle, so if This is the midway point. The brow line will be slightly above that, and we can see that the hairline will be very close to the edge of the circle. No need for measuring there. Lastly, to find the chin line, I'll compare the nose area with the mouth area and see that the mouth area is a bit taller . So we'll just mark that accordingly, on on drawing notice that, unlike in the regular view, the chin line fits within the circle again. This is because the head is foreshortened by perspective. Now we can draw the ellipses on the side of the head, just like in the previous example, the ellipses will be unchanged by perspective and resemble those of the regular front view . Because the head is tilted up, the brow line will have a downward curb again to indicate the gaze of the head. How added these lines on the side of the head next established the width of the chin. In this case, the chin will be closer to the viewer, so it will appear slightly larger than in the regular front view. Before we draw in the jaw, let's examine what happens. The jaw is, the head tilts upward from the regular front view. The job will appear as the pointy, wet shape that we're used to. The key thing to note here is that the chin is below the corners of the job. As the head tilts upward, the jar will become for shorten and gradually become shorter. At a certain point, the chin will be level with the corners of the job. When this happened, the jar will be show for shorten that it will appear as a straight line. This effect is easy to understand when looking at the head from the side view here, we can see that the long side of the jaw is pointing directly at the viewer and is therefore completely for shorten. This causes the jaw to appear very flat. If the head continues to tilt, the chicken will be above the corners of the jar and the shape will invert. Now we're able to see a little bit of the long side of the jargon. Also, be aware that we are now able to see the underside of the job, which previously has always been hit it. It attaches to the neck along a curve and we have to be sure to include this in the drawing . Okay, back to the drawing, we can see from the reference that the chin is slightly above the corners of the job, So the jawline was sloped downward a bit from the chin and then curved upward at the corners. From this position, the jar will not be quite as angler and consists more of subtle Kurds and draw in the rhythm lines. Next, let's draw in the underside of the job that we talked about earlier. They will curve around the neck a bit and then connect to the corners of the job. This area is made up of muscles and skin, so will want to use soft, curving lines and finally will draw in the neck. Since the head is tilted up, the neck will appear longer because we're seeing more of it. They're these two muscles. Call the sternal Mastoi that stretch from the bottom ear to the center of clavicle, a k a. The collarbone. - And these are the clavicle ahead of the sternum. Asteroid will cover these muscles more in depth in the anatomy drawn courts. For now, just draw along with the video and the shoulder will be positioned further doubt and at in a hint of the Adam's apple and well done. 8. Loomis Method - 3/4 View, Tilted Down: Now that we know how to draw the head tilted up and down in the front view, let's examine how to do it In the 3/4 view. Here's the reference will be working with. We'll start with a circle. Next we'll put in the center line. Since the head is in 3/4 view, the center line will be shifted towards the direction the head is looking. In this case, it's shifted to the left. Also, since the head is tilted down, the centerline will also have a tote to it. Now let's find out where the features are going to be. Draw the circle on the reference. The thing that jumps out at me the most is the hairline. So let's find that first. If this mark here is the halfway point of circle, then we can see that the hairline is slightly above that point. And if this mark here is the halfway point between the hairline and the bottom of the circle, then we can see that the brow line is slightly below that point. Now we can compare the forehead area with the nose area and see that the nose area is slightly smaller. We'll use that measurement to mark the nose line, and we'll compare the nose area with the mouth area and see that the mouth area is slightly smaller. Still, we'll use that measurement to mark the chin line now for the lips on the side of the head compared to the tilt it down front view, the lips will be a bit more rounded, but other than that, it won't change much. Since the head is looking down, the brow line will have an upward curve and draw in the line on the side of the head. Now draw in the side of the face and established the width of the chin. Now connect the jawline because of the downward took of the head. The short side of the jaw line will end up a little higher on the lips, erased the guideline and draw in the rhythm line now for the neck. Since the head will be covering up, most of the left side of the neck will only see the right side. The sternum asteroid will be more prominent on the right side to show the turn of the neck , and the shoulder will be slightly higher on the right side and we're on down 9. Loomis Method - 3/4 View, Tilted Up : in this lesson, we're going to go through how to draw ahead and 3/4 view. Tilt it up. Here's the reference will be working with By now. You should be pretty familiar with all the steps, so we'll go over them without diving into too much details. We'll start with a circle. There's ahead, is looking up. The center line will be toted accordingly. Now for the features. Let's find the nose line first. You're all the circle on your reference. Finally, midway point, and we can see the nose line is slightly above that point. Next, find the midway point between the nose line and the top of the circle, and we can see that the brow line is slightly above that point and the hair will be very close to the top of the circle. Lastly, we'll compare the nose area with the mouth area and see that the mouth area is slightly larger and we use that measurement to mark the chin line. The lips on the side of the head will be the same size and orientation as the 3/4 tilted down head, even though the head is looking in the opposite direction. Next draw in the downward curving brow line, and the lines on the sides of the head now draw in the side of the face and establish the width of the chin in the reference that shin is above the corners of the job. Therefore, the shape of the job will be inverted. The jawline will curb down from the chin and then curved up to connect with the lips. Now we can erase the guideline. Now draw in the rhythm line. Next would draw in the underside of the job. The shape will roughly resemble the shape of the jawline, except it will be a little bit more Kirby. Lastly, we'll draw in the neck, since the head is looking up, will be able to see a lot more of the neck. The clavicle is changed by perspective, so the left side of the clavicle will be slightly higher than the right side because the head is tilted back, the skin on the back of the neck will be slightly bunched up, and we're all done 10. Proportions of the Head: knowing how to construct a Loomis head is a great start. However, this head is still far from being a complete portrait. So in the next few lessons we're going to learn how to develop. This had further to bring it closer to an actual realistic head will be added and simple features as well as planes of the head to build it into a three dimensional object. But in order to do that, we'll have to become familiar with the basic proportions of the face. So let's go over that real quick overall dimensions of the head from the front view, the head can fit into a box 3.5 units tall and three units wide. Although the head fits snugly into the box from the top to bottom, that's actually a little bit of room along the sides. This tells us that the head is a rectangular shape, with the height being slightly more than the whip. Now you might be wondering, why is the head 3.5 units talk? Where did this number come from? Well, it turns out, is the result of the rule of thirds. As you might recall, the rule of third states that the face can be divided into three equal sections. And when we look at this diagram here, we can see that at work, the first unit of height correspond with the bottom of the nose. The second unit corresponds with the brow line, and the third unit corresponds with the hairline, with the hair area making up the remaining half unit. As you can see by constructing the head, using the methods laid out in the previous lessons, your head were automatically far into these proportions. Now let's go over the proportions of the facial features proportions of the eyes concerning position. The eyes will fall right at the midway point of the height to figure out how, for our part to space the eyes, we would simply take the with of the head, which is measured from one side to the other without including the hair, and divide this distance into five equal parts. The section in the middle will represent the distance between the eyes. The two sections on the side of it will represent the eyes themselves, and the two sections on the outer edge would represent the space between the eyes and the side of the face. OK, so that was quite a mouthful. So let me summarize it this way. The eyes are one I with apart with one eye with of space on each sides, proportions of the nose regarding position. The nose will fall right at the center of the face. That's obvious enough, and we already know from the rule of thirds where the bottom of the nose will be. So that's easy as well. The width of the nose will be equal to one. I would. So when drawing, we would simply take the space between the eyes and bring it down to find the whiff of the nose proportions of the lips. Regarding position, the lips will be 1/3 of the way down from the nose. So if we divide the distance between the bottom of the nose and the chin into thirds, the center of the lips will be right here. The width of the lips will be slightly smaller than the distance between the pupils proportions of the years. From the front view, the year will sit between the brow line and the bottom of the nose from the side view the ear will sit in the lower back quadrant of the head. This is most easily seen in the simplified head. In this diagram, the ear will fit into this quadrant here. This is one reason why it's so helpful to divide the side of the head into sections when drawing a simplified head side view of the head from the side view. The head can also be put into a box. The dimension of this box will be slightly different from the front view. The height of the box will still be 3.5 units, as that won't change. Even when you look at the head from the side, however, the with of the head will be slightly larger at 3.5 units. That is to say, the head will be more square shaped when viewed from the side. Most of the facial features will be concentrated towards the front, with the eyes, nose and lips fitting within the first unit of the whip. The corner of the lips will correspond with the peoples, and finally, the ear will far in the third unit of with and lies between the brow line and the bottom of the nose. Remember, these proportion represents an average and that most individual faces will very slightly from these measurements. But knowing them will still be very useful. Now, I know this is a lot of information take in. So I've create H E sheet with all these information, so you can use it as a reference for now. Your assignment is to review this lesson, and you're comfortable with all the rules of proportions. And ideally, if you can commit them to memory and next lesson, we're going to learn how to use these rules to draw a three D head. 11. Head Planes - Front View: now that you're familiar with drawn the Loomis head weaken, build upon that knowledge and drawing more fleshed out three dimensional head. Drawing these Madigan eyes heads will help you to better understand the placements and basic construction of the features, and also how the head will be affected by perspective when viewed from different angles. So let's get started. The first step is to draw a simplified head from the front view, using the steps we covered in the previous lessons. Okay, so here's how starting point now extend the jaw lines upward until they meet the top portion of the head, then erased the extra side portion. This will bring the drying even closer to the shape of railhead. Now let's find the placement of the features. We know that the eyes will be one I with apart with one eye with of space on each side. In this drawing, the space on each size of the eyes has already been marked out. So I just divide the brow line into three sections and this section in the middle will represent the space between the eyes. And these two sections here will represent the eyes themselves. If everything works are perfectly. All five section should be the same size, but if their little off, that's completely fine. Remember, the rule of proportions are meant to be used as a guide, not as an exact measurement. Okay, we'll leave it at that for now and begin drawing the nose. There's a keystone shape called the Globe Ella that sits between the eyebrows and at the top of the nose. Let's draw this in. The shape is slightly narrower than the space between the eyes, then will go to the nose line and draw another keystone shape to represent the bottom of the nose. The shape will be slightly narrower than the first. Now connect the two shapes via straight lines. This will represent the bridge of the nose. The finish out the nose would draw too small triangles on the side. These will represent the nostrils and then connect them to the top of the nose bridge. By the way, as you might recall, the width of the nose is equal to the space between the eyes. So as you're drawing the nose, be sure to calibrate the size so that it will fit within that gap. Now we can turn our attention to the eyes for simplicity. We will be drawing the eyes and the eyebrows as a single unit, so I'll reinforce the brow line and close out the bottom portion of the area. Next will fill in the forehead. Draw another Lord Keystone shape that extend from the brown eye to the hairline. This will represent the front plane of the forehead, then connect this keystone shape with the side of the head using slightly sloping lines, Then connect that point to the edge of the face using steeper lines. You want this line to connect with the edge of the face at slightly below. The eyes. Now will just erase these lines here and change them two straight lines, and we'll do the same for these curbs. Erased the curve and change it to a straight line. How end the line right about there and connect it to the edge of the face. Okay, now, for the lower portion of the face, the lips will be about 1/3 of the way down from the nose. So if we divide the space between the bottom of the nose and the chin into thirds the center of the lips will be right about here. From here will draw a small V shape and close it out with a smaller V shape. We should end out with a sort of triangle shaped like this. This will represent the center of the upper lip, and we'll just connect it to the nose. Like so, this area will represent the filter. The filter is this little group that sits between the base of the nose and the top of the lips to finish out the upper lip. We just have to figure out how wide is going to be. The width of the lips will roughly correspond to the pupils of the eyes. So if we estimate that the center of the eyes would be at these points than the corner of the lips will be right about here. If you think that's what make the lips too wide, feel free to bring the points in a little closer, extend the upper lips to these corners and then finish out the lower portion. The line will curb up in the middle before sloping down to meet the corners. The draw The lower lips will first draw a short horizontal line and then angle it upward until it connects with the corner. Then we'll divide up the plains of the lower lip by drawing in these lines. Now connect the corner of the lips to the corner of the nose, then connect the corner of the lips to these points here, then connect these points to the corner of the job. These new lines we just made represent yet more plain changes on the face. Next, we have the chin draw too small keystone shapes underneath the lips. Like so. These will represent the divot that lays between the lower lip and chin. Now just connect the corner of this shape with the corner of the chin, and we got ourselves a three dimensional chin. Lastly, would draw in the ears. The ears will fit between the brown line and the bottom of the nose will depict the ears with simple shapes. Foreign would straight lines and that's it. Well done. 12. Head Planes - 3/4 View: in this lesson, we'll learn how to draw three D head in 3/4 view. Once again, we'll start by drawing a simplified head and 3/4 view. Next, we'll draw in the Keystone LaBella shape between the eyes. Here we have to consider the effect that perspective have on our drawing. When we're looking at an object from the front of you were able to see every part of that object without distortion. Therefore, it will appear is normal. However, when the object is turned away from us, as in the 3/4 view, perspective will cause it to change in appearance more specifically the width of the object , or appear shorter. This is simply due to the fact that we're no longer able to see the entire object in drawing. This effect is called for shortening, the more severely the object is turned away from us, the more for shorten it will appear. That's a few other things going on here as well. But I want bargain you with too much information. Now, just remember that when something is seen at an angle, it will appear shorter than if you viewed it head on. Okay, Back to the drawing. So if the globe L. A. Is a keystone shape when viewed from the front than in the 3/4 view, it will still pretty much hold this shape, except it will be a little bit thinner. Next would draw in another keystone shape at the nose line to represent the bottom of the nose. Again. The shape will be slightly thinner than its front view counterpart, and also it will be shifted to the left of the globe. Ella, then connect the two shaped with straight lines. Now let's draw in the triangle that will be the nostril. The left nostril is hidden by the nose. So will only draw in the right national notice that the nacho is wider in this 3/4 view than it is in the front view. This is because the Nostra is now turned more towards us, and so we can see more of it. The general rule here is that all the front planes of the head will now be turned away from us in the 3/4 view and therefore appear thinner. All the side planes that are on the right side of the head. Well, now we turn towards us and therefore appear wider, and all the side planes on the left side of the head will now only be partially visible or completely hidden on together. Keep this in mind as you go through the rest of the drawing. Now connect the nacho to the bridge of the nose. Next, draw in the front plane of the forehead while keeping in mind the effect of perspective, then connected to the side of the head. Like so. And since the side of the head is not visible on the left side, we'll just leave it right about there. Now. Connect that point to the top portion of the ear, next, erased this curve here and change it to a straight line and do the same for the other side . Now draw in the borders of the areas, then erase this curve here and change it to a straight line to finish out the right eye and finish out. The left eye with a slanted line now would draw in the cheekbone. It will be angled out slightly from the corner of the eyes like this and then connected to the ear. This is very similar to what we did in the front of you, except from that angle, we were not able to see the slight angling out of the cheekbones, and so it just looked like a straight line. And let's put in the same cheekbone angle on the left side now for the lower portion of the face. To find the placement of lips, divide the distance from the bottom of the nose to the chin into thirds. Go 1/3 of the way down and mark descent of the lips. Draw in a small V shape and connected to the bottom of the nose to form the filter to finish out the upper lip. We have to figure out how why the lips should be. Connect the upper let to these corners and finish out the bottom edge. Now draw in the lower lip. Remember, because of for shortening, the left side of the lower lip will be thinner than the right side. Connect the corner of the lips to the corner of the nose, and since the left corner of the noses hidden, we'll just end the line right at the edge, then connect the corner of the lips to the cheekbones and connect the cheekbone to the corner of the job. Now draw in the divide between the bottom lip and the chin and then connect the corners to form the chin. Now we'll draw in the ear in this little quadrant that we marked out. Let me just dark in the line so you can see it better, and that's it. Well done. 13. Head Planes - Side View: in this lesson, we'll learn how to draw the three D head inside view. Once again, we'll start by drawing a simplified head inside view. Next would draw in the GLA Bella. Since the head is turned to the side, the globe Ella won't be visible, and all we'll see is an inward div it below the brow line, then draw a somewhat longer triangle at the nose line to represent the nostril again. Since the head is turned away, the front part of the nose won't be visible. Connect the nostril to the inward divot to form the nose bridge. Now connect the other end of the national to the top of the bridge to complete the nose to draw in the eye are simply darkened. The brow line and put in a short horizontal line at the corner of the nose will leave the I unfinished for now and turn our attention to the forehead. The front plane of the forehead will be turned away, so only a small portion of it will be visible well represented with a slanted line up from the brow line to the hairline and then close it out with a short line across, Then connect this front plane to the circle on the side of the head and connect that point to the top portion of the area. Now erase this curve here and change it to a straight line, then erase this curve here and finish out. The I next draw a short line angling out from the corner of the eye. This will represent the cheekbone and then connected to the ear. Now for the lower portion of the face. To locate the center of the lips would divide the area between the nose and chin into thirds and go 1/3 of the way down. Then we draw in the upper lip with a small triangle shaped like so. This will represent very front of the upper lip, now connected to the base of the nose. Next, we'll need to find out how why the lips will be remember, the corner of the lips correspond with the pupil. So if we estimate that the people would be about here, then the corner of the lips will be about here. Draw a line down to this corner and finish out the lower edge. The lower edge was slow upward and then slope downward to connect with the corner. The lower lip will protrude out a bit and then connect back to the corner with a straight line and would draw in this little line here to denote the plane change in the lower lip. One thing to notice is that the upper lip protrudes out slightly more than the lower lip. Now connect the corner of the lips to the corner up the nose, then connect the corner of the lips to the chief pope and connect the cheekbone to the corner of the job. The finish out the lower portion will draw in the divot between the lips and the chin, which in the side view would just look like two simple lines angling inward, then just connected to the jar line to form the chin now would draw in the ear in this little quadrant that we marked out. One thing to notice, though, is that the back portion of the head does tend to be a little bit bigger than the simplified head was suggests. So our expand that area as well again. We're just trying to bring the head closer to the proportions of the side view head. Now we can draw in the neck to finish things out, and we're all done 14. Head Planes - Front View, Tilted Down: Now that you know have to draw the three D head in the standard angles, we can start exploring. The more dynamic positions in this lesson will be drawing a three D head in front of you. Tilt it down. We'll be using the same reference as thes simplified head lessons. Start by drawing a simplified head in the front view. Tilt it down. Extend the jaw lines upward until they meet the edge of the head and erased the excess portion. Next we'll draw in the global toe. Help me center it on the face. How? Divide the brow line into three equal sections and I'll place the globe Ella within the middle section. Since the head is tilted down the height of the globe, L. A. Will be foreshortened but with with will be unaffected, then would draw in the tip of the nose again, just like theglobe. Ella. The height will be foreshortened, but the with will be mostly the same as the regular front view. Now connect the two shapes. The nostril will be a bit interesting. Since the nose is tilted down, the corners of the nostril will be higher than the tip of the nose, and because they're turned away from us, they will appear quite thin. Next, finish out the nose by connecting the nostrils to the top of the nose bridge, then draw in the front plane of forehead connected to the side of the head. Now connect those points to the outer edge of the hit. Because the head is tilted down, the contact points will be shifted so that they are above the eyes. This is in contrast to the regular front view, where the contact points are below the eyes. These little changes by perspective, a subtle, but they add up to a big difference. That's why, when drawing the head in different angles, it's very important to study the reference or the model to pick up these little shifts in perspective. Now, erased this curve here and connect these points to the brow line, which straight lines. I want to give the lines a slight inward angle so well, actually cut off a tiny portion of the brow line, then erased the curved brow line and change it to straight lines. Notice how the brow line is sloping upwards slightly. Now finish out the eyes with the side and bottom edge. The lower edge of the ice will have an upward slope, just like the brown line. Since the eyes are now angled away from the viewer, they should be a little smaller than the regular front view. Next, draw in the short angled line for the cheekbone and connect it to the edge of the head and do the same for the other side. Now, for the lower portion of the face, remember that the lips will be 1/3 of the way down from the nose line. Since the head is tilted down, the top section will be slightly taller than the bottom section. This will cause the location of the lips to shift down a bit, but because this different, it's so slight we can go ahead and ignore it. For now, I just wanted you to know the technical details. In case you wanted to be more precise, so would draw in the upper lip connected to the bottom of the notes that form the filter. Um, now to find the corners of the lips, this is where it gets interesting again. In the regular front view, the corners of the lips sit below the top of the lips. But in the tilt down of you, the corners of the lips will be level with the top of the lips, and if the head is tilted down enough, it will be even higher than the top. This gives the lips a slight upward curve and makes it look like it's almost smiling. This pattern of upward Kurds can be seen throughout the face, from the lips to the nose to the brow line. The reason for this is very simple. The face is curved and the features wrapped around this curd face, so when the head is tilted up or down, we're able to see this curve. When the face is tilted up, we see a downward curve, and when the faces tilt it down, we see an upward curve. Okay, back to the drawing. The corners of the lips will be level with the top. The bottom edge of the upper lit will still slope upward before levelling out and connecting to the corner. It would just be more subtle. The lower lip will be larger than the upper lip, not just because it's naturally larger, but also because in the tilted down view. The lower lip is turned towards us, and we're able to see more of it. Now. Connect the corner of the lips to the nostril, connect the corners of lips to the cheekbones and connect the cheekbones to the corners of the job. Next, draw in the divot below the lips. The lower portion of the Div. It will be larger than the top portion again. This is because the lower portion is turned towards us and we're able to see more of it and then draw in the chin. Next would draw in the ears. The position of the ears will be shifted so they won't sit between the brow and nose line anymore. To find out, the exact positioning will have to refer to the reference. Here, we can see that the ears are roughly between the hairline and the brow line. The shape of the ear will differ a bit from the regular front view. Just like the head itself. The ears will be more top heavy when they're tilt it down. This is because the top portion of the ears will be closer to the viewer. So when drawing the ears, I'll make the top portion slightly larger and then have a taper inward as we go down the year I noticed that the top of the head looks a little too tall, so I'll flatten it a bit and well done. By the way, if you find that you're having a hard time with this position, one exercise that could help is to print out the photo reference and draw the planes of the head over it. You're just follow all the steps we laid out in this lesson, except it will be a lot easier to just draw over the reference instead of drawing it, free him. You can even get photos out of magazines and practice drawing over the different faces. This is a great way to warm up and become familiar with challenging poses. One thing to notice is that the hairline were not always match up with the references. Our include examples of me doing this exercise with the reference materials. Well, have fun doing this exercise 15. Head Planes - Front View, Tilted Up : in this lesson will be drawing the three D head in front of you. Tilt it up, start by drawing the simplified head. Tilt it up in front of you. Extend the jaw lines up until they meet the edge and erase the excess portion. Divide the brow line into thirds toe. Help us enter the features. You're off the globe, Ella. Within the middle section this globe Ella will be slightly larger than the tilt it down angle when the head is tilted down the globe L. A. Is for shorten because it is angled away from the viewer. But when the head is tilted up the globe L. A. Is facing the viewer more head on and therefore appears larger. This pattern also holds true for the eyes tip of the nose. Upper lip did it below the lips and the chin. To see this more clearly. Let's look at the head in the side view when the head is tilted down. Notice how the globe Ella eyes tip of the nose. Upper lip David below. The lips and the chin are angled away from the viewer, but when the head is tilted up all these same areas and now turned towards the viewer. Okay, back to the drawing. Draw in the tip of the nose. It will be taller than the globe, Ella. Then connect the two shapes to form the nose breed. The nose bridge is for shorten and should appear shorter. Now let's draw in the nostril. The corners of the nostrils will be below the tip of the nose, creating a downward curve to the nose. This is the opposite pattern we saw in the previous lesson. When the head is tilted down, all the features will have an upward curve, and when the head is tilted up, all the teachers will have a downward curve. Now complete the nose by connecting the nostril to the top of the nose bridge. Next, draw in the plains of the forehead. As you can see, the top of the head is quite a bit smaller than the regular front view. Now erase this curve here and change it to a straight line. I wanted to angle in a bit so well, actually cut off a little bit of the brow line, do the same for the other side, then erased the brow lines and changed them straight lines. Notice how they have a slight downward slope. Next, connect these points of the edge of the head because of the up tilt of the head. The contact point will be quite a bit below the eyes at about the nose line. Now erase thes curve here and finish out the eyes. Draw in the two short angled lines for the cheekbones and connect them to the edge of the head. Now, for the lower portion of the face lit should be 1/3 of the way down from the nose. Just like in the previous lesson. Perspective will change this a bit because of the tilt of the head. The bottom 1/3 will be closer to the viewer and appear larger, while the top 1/3 will appear smaller. This will shift the location of the lips up slightly, but because the effect is so slight, we can safely ignore it. Just know that technically, that's what's going on. We'll draw in the center of the upper lip and connected to the nose to form the filter. The corner of lips will be quite a bit below the upper lips. This will give the lips that downward Kurt and make it look almost like it's frowning. The bottom edge of the upper lip will slow up very slightly before connecting to the corners. A lower lip will be level with the corners and is pretty much a straight line and add in the plane changes for the lower lip. Now connect the corners of the lips to the nose and cheekbones and connect the cheekbones to the job. There are in the divot below the lips. Remember, the top side of the debate will be slightly taller than the bottom side and connect the corners to form the chin. Now that most of the details have filled in, I can see the jaw is a little bit too narrow, so I widened it a bit. Now for the ears. Looking at the reference, we can see that the ears sit roughly between the nose line and the chin. From this angle, the bottom portion of the Earth will appear larger, so I'll make sure to reflect that in the drawing and well done. 16. Head Planes - 3/4 View, Tilted Down : in this lesson will be drawing a three D head and 3/4 view. Tilt it down. This is a slightly dramatic pose and is quite common in comic book drawings. Here's the reference will be working with OK, start by drawing a simplified head in this post, just like we did before. Before we start drawing in the head planes, let's take a minute to examine the reference. The perspective for these types of poses can be tricky, so one thing that helps me to understand it better is to enclose the head in a box. Here's what that box would look like. You can draw this box straight over your reference. As you can see, each side of the head corresponds to a side of the box to analyze the perspective of the face. We would take a look at this side of the box here, notice how the horizontal lines of this side is slightly angled downward. This tells us that the lines on the face will also have the same position. This is easy to spot when you pay attention to the corners of each features. The left end of the brow line is higher than the right end. The left nostril is higher than the right nostril, and the left corner of the lips is higher than the right. So when drawing in the features will make sure to capture the slope next, less examine what the shapes of the face will look like when viewed in 3/4 tilted down angle. The most common, an important shape we need to know, is the keystone shape for the globe, Ella. So let's analyze that to do this, just draw the shape on a piece of paper. Like so I included a center line to make things easier to see, hold it in front of you at eye level and manipulated however you want. Then close one eye and look at the shape. Here's how the global appears when viewed head on. Here's how it appears when turn in 3/4 view, and here's what happened when it's tilted down. Notice how the top and bottom lines are slanted down to the right and the lines on the side of leaning towards the left. Whenever I'm drawing something in perspective and I'm not quite sure what it's supposed to look like, I'll use this technique to clear things up. Okay, Now we're ready to continue with the drawing. Draw in the globe. Ella, remember to observe the downward slant of the top and bottom line and the lean up the lines on the side. The tip of the nose will be slightly to the laugh of the globe, Ella, and since it's also a Keystone shape, it will follow the same pattern as the globe Ella connected to shapes to form the nose bridge. The corner of the national will be slightly above the tip of the nose, and the left national will not be visible. Finish out the nose by connecting the nostril to the top of the nose bridge, not draw in the front plane of the forehead. This is also a keystone shape, so it will follow the same pattern as the GLA Bella and tip of the nose. Connect the corner so the side of the head, and connect this point to the area. Now. He raised the brow lines and change them two straight lines. Notice how the brow line Forman upward Curve next erased this line here and change it to a straight line. Then erase this curve here and finish out the I on the left side, we are able to see a tiny bit of the bridge of the nose, so let's draw that in now we can finish out the left eye next, draw the small angle lines for the cheekbone and connected to the area. Now for the lower portion of the face, as usual, the little we roughly 1/3 of the way down from the nose. Let's will also follow that downward slanting pattern, so notice how this point of the upper lip is higher than this point, then connected to the nose. The left corner of the lips will be here, and the right corner will be slightly lower. Connect the upper lip to the corners and finish out the bottom edge. The line of the lower lip will also have a slant to it connected to the corners and add in the plains. Connect the corners of the lips to the corners of the nose and then connect them to the cheekbone and connect the cheekbone to the job. Draw in the divot below the lips and connected into the chip. I'll fill in the left side of the face of it now for the ears, - and we're all done 17. Head Planes - 3/4 View, Tilted Up: in this lesson will be drawing a three D head in 3/4 view. Looking up, here's the reference will be working with, as usual will begin by drawing a simplified version of the head. Now it's analyzed the perspective of the head, just like before it would close the head in a box. Here we can see that the lines of the face also followed the same slanted pattern as the previous example. Now let's see how the globe L a shape disaffected by perspective here is the shape from head on view. Here it is in 3/4 view, and here it is in 3/4 view looking up as you can see, just like when the head is looking down, the top and bottom line will have that same downward slant. Except this time the lines on the side will lean towards the right instead of the left. Okay, now we're ready to start. Drawing first would draw the globe. Ella, while observing the details we just learned about the tip of the nose, required a bit to the left of the globe. Ella and the lines will also follow the same pattern. Connect the two parts the form the nose bridge. The corner of the nostril will be slightly below the tip of the nose, and also the left corner will be higher than the right. Connect the not so to the top of the nose bridge. Now draw in the front plane of the forehead and connected to the side of the head. Now connect that point to the area, erased the brow lines and changed them two straight lines. No, there's the downward curve of the brow line next, erased this curve here and change it to a straight line. Now finish off the eyes, draw in the cheekbones and connected to the area. Now, for the lower portion of the face, less will be roughly 1/3 of the way down from the nose. Notice how this point of the upper lip is higher than this point. That's a very important detail, and you'll see it throughout the lips. The corn after lips will be quite a bit below the upper lip, and, of course, the left corner will be higher than the right corner. The lower lip will be slanted, and it's pretty much a straight line. Now. Draw in the divot below the lips and connect the chin. Now connect the corner of the lips to the corner of the nose, then connect the corner of the lips to these points here and connect the cheekbone to the job. I'll close out the side of the face. Over here. The ear will look pretty much the same as the regular 3/4 view. Except this just rotated to the right a little. Let's expand the back of the head a little. - This concludes our section on drawing the three D hit, but before we finish it out, I want to briefly cover the different positions of the side view head. We won't go through the step by step process of drawing it because the side view head is pretty simple in the side view. The head will not be affected by perspective when it is tilted up or down. Can you see wife? That's right. Regardless of whether the head is looking up or down, all the features will be the same distance from the viewer, so the head will pretty much look the same. The only change is that the head will be rotated either left all right and the gesture of the neck will be different. When the head is tilted up, the front of the neck will be stretch and the back will be pinched. When the head is tilted down, the front will be pinched and the back will be stretch. I'll include these two drawings with the course materials so you can use them as reference . 18. 5 Elements of Shading: So in this lesson, we're going to learn the theories and techniques for have to turn a flat object into a three dimensional one. The secret to making in drawing look realistic is not having some great hand eye coordination skill. Rather, it has more to do with knowing which tone to use and where to place them. On your drawing, when your eyes see tones of different value or darkness arranged in a particular way, your brain will interpret that as a three dimensional object. And that's where the five elements of shading comes in. The five elements of shading basically five different tones that combines to create the illusion of death in a drawing. They are the highlight, the half tone, the shadow edge, the reflected light and the cash shadow. You can think of them as the Tono building block of a drawing. Let's go through each of them. In this drawing, the light source is coming from the top right. When the light hits the object, it creates a bright spot called the highlight. The highlight is usually depicted with white of the paper. In other words, we would simply leave the highlight area blank and not put any tone there. As we move away from the highlight, things gradually get darker, so next to the highlight will be the half tone. The half tone is this light gray tone that surrounds the highlight, since the highlight is actually just the white of the paper. The half tone will be the lightest tone in your drawing. You can think of it as the transition between the highlight and the shadow edge. After the half tone, we have to shadow edge, and it's this dark tone running along the left side of the sphere. Of all of the tones on the steer, this will be the darkest. The shadow edge represents the area of the object that is turned away from the light source and therefore not receiving any direct light. By the way, the shadow edges also sometime referred to as the core shadow. In the future, you'll hear me use the term shadow edge and course shadow pretty much interchangeably. Just realize that they're the same thing. Not all of the shadow edge will be the same value most of the time. Light from the source will bounce off the surrounding objects and indirectly light part of the shadow edge. In this example, the light balance is off the table surface and shine into the shadow edge, creating a slightly lighter area along the edge. This area is called the reflected light. Notice how the reflected light is not really visible along the upper portion of the sphere . This is because the light bouncing off the table surface is not able to reach that area. The size of the reflected light will affect the size of the shadow edge. For example, if the surrounding surface is very shiny, more light will be reflected aren't to the object. This will cause the reflected light area to be larger, and therefore the shadow edge area will be smaller. One way to remember this is to divide the object into two areas. The light side and the shadow side. The light side consists of the highlight and half town, and it's the area that is receiving direct light from the source. The shadow side consists of the shadow edge and the reflected light, and is the area that's not being lit by the source or only indirectly. One important thing to remember is that because they reflect that light falls on the shadow side, it will be darker than the half tone. Many beginning artists mistakenly make the reflected light area the same value or even lighter than the halftime. This is because the reflected light sits next to the dark shadow edge, and the contrast costs our eyes to mistakenly think the reflected light is much lighter than it really is. And lastly, we have to cast shadow. This is the shadow that is cast by the object, and it will have the darkest value in your drawing, the cash after we usually have a soft edge. This is because the surrounding light softly illuminate the edge of the shadow. Let's examine how these five elements of shading works in an actual portrait drawing. We'll start with the forehead. Here we have the highlight area, with a little bit of tone sprinkled in. Next to that, we have the half tone, then the shadow edge, and then some reflected light on the outer edge, and lastly, the cash shadow of the head can be seen on the ear. If we were to zoom into the individual wrinkles, we can see the same pattern again. Wrinkles are basically just humps of skin on the face. At the peak of the hump, we have the highlight. Next is the half tone, then the shadow edge and the cash shadow is not as obvious, but it far into the crease of the skin. The reflected light is not visible in this example is there's not a lot of bouncing light. The five elements of shading are easier to spot on rounded shapes, but we can also see it on more irregular shapes as well. For example, let's take a look at this leather strap here. The light is coming from the right and we can see the highlight here. Next to that is the half tone. Then we have another highlight area. This is because this area is higher than the half tone area, and therefore it catches more light. After that, we have the shadow edge. This area is turned away from the light source, and it's not receiving direct light. There's not much of reflected light because the shadow edge area is tucked away, and there's no surrounding object reflecting light onto it. And lastly, that's the cash shadow created by the leather strap. As you can see, the seemingly complex drawing is actually just a repeating pattern of the five elements. The effect of these simple principles of shading can be very powerful, and when you master them, you'll be able to draw anything and make it look realistic. We'll go through an exercise and apply these five elements in the drawing in a later lesson . For now, one exercise you could do is to look at objects around you and try to identify the five elements of shading on those objects. This could be harder when there are multiple light source, so try to do this in a room where there's only one light source. Have fun with this exercise, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 19. Different Types of Edges: I mentioned the term soft edge in previous lesson. This is actually a very important concept in drawing, so let's explore it further. A soft edge would be in this area here, and it is basically a diffused line as the steer recedes away from the light. The gradual shift in tone from light to dark creates the soft edge. Soft edges are great for showing contours, so you're almost always see them on rounded objects. For example, in this drawing, the soft edge is telling our eyes that the sphere is round and it's curving away. In contrast to the soft edge, we have the hard edge. A hard edge occurs when two objects of different tones touches or overlaps, creating the appearance of a line here. The sphere would just a lighter tone overlaps with the cash shadow, which is a darker tone, and the contrast between those two objects creates ah, heart edge. It's important to note that a hard edge is not a line. It only gives the appearance that there is a line. If you look carefully, you'll notice that the line it's just an illusion created by the to contrast in tones. A lot of beginners make the mistake of depicting a hard edge by putting in a hard line. Now, instead of having two tones, they are three tones, the light and the dark tone and the line itself. This will cause the drawing to be less realistic, because in real life there are no hard lines. Take a few minutes to confirm this for yourself. Look around and notice how all the objects you see don't have any hard lines outlining them . Rather, they stand out by way of contrast with the background or other objects. That's why if you want to make your drawing as realistic as possible, it's important to avoid using hard lines as much as you can. Usually the biggest reason why a drawing doesn't look very good or realistic it's because it is full of hard lines. By simply replacing these hard lines with hard and soft edges, you'll be able to improve it dramatically. With that said sometime, it's not possible to avoid hard lines in your drawing. For example, in this drawing, there are some hard lines around these horns. In real life, those lines would not be there because there would be a contrast ing background to make the horn stand out for the drawing. If we wanted to avoid using hard lines, we could put in a background to make the horn stand out. But that could be very time consuming, so a quick alternative would be to use a light line to separate the horns from the background. But try to make them asado is possible. This is a case of understanding a rule and knowing when you can break it in realistic drawing. Hard lines should generally be avoided, but this does not mean the hard lines are bad. In fact, many artists use heart lines as a stylistic tool in comic book form. Anger, art. Hard lines are very common, and they work within that genre. It's all about the style you want to work in. Now I see how these concepts play out in a real drawing. We can see the hard edges very clearly when looking at the mouth here, the teeth of overlapping with the face, and this creates many hard edges up in the nose area, there are a lot of soft edges. This is because there are many smooth, curving surfaces that's a soft edge on each of these wrinkles. The gradual shift from light to dark tone give these wrinkles at three dimensional appearance in the crease of these wrinkles of these darker tones. They're a little too defined to be considered soft edges, but they're not quite hard edges, either. When the tone is somewhere between a heart and a soft edge, we call that a firm edge. Here's another example to show you the difference between the three types in the nostril. There's a hard edge where the outside of the nostril overlaps with the inside at the tip of the nose. That's a soft edge because the shape is round and the last line here will be considered a farm ed because it's in between a hard and a soft edge just to drive the point home. Here's another example. The place where the cop is overlapping the tablecloth are hard edges. Most of the tone on the cup and the tablecloth are soft edges, the reflection of the hand on the cup, and also the shadow would be considered firm edges. Coming back to this for drawing. There's another type of edge I like to mention, and that's the loss edge. We can see these laws edges around the beard area. Los edges happened when his edge disappear into the background. In this example, I didn't want the beer to stand out too much and distract from the face, so I shaded the background. To have a similar value is a beard and half a to blend together. There are enough distinct edges there so that you can so tell that there's a beard. But it's very subtle, so loss edges can be used to de emphasize an area of a drawing, but it can also be used to create a vignette even yet is when you let a drawing gradually fade out to create a soft border. This drawing here would be an example, because the bottom portion gradually disappear without a defying border. This way of ending a drawing is much more pleasing to the eyes than toe have it in abruptly or go all the way to the edge of the paper. So in this one, yet we can see many loss edges. For example, the leather strap here is a loss edge because it starts out well defined and then gradually fade away. The sum it up. There are four types of edges. Hard edges, soft edges, firm edges and loss edges. Look through this drawing or other artworks and see if you can spot more example of each type. Then try to do it with the objects around your house. Be aware that in real life, lost edges will be rare, so you're mostly want to focus on the other three types. Have fun with this exercise, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 20. Rules of Realism: We've covered a lot of information so far, and it might be allowed to take in. So I've taken on the theories we've learned and distilled them into a set of practical guidelines called the Rules of Realism. Let's go through each of them. Rule number one. To show contour, use soft edges portrait of full of round, curving objects to depict them accurately. We would use soft edges. The key here is to create a gradual shift in value whenever the I C a smooth gradation from light to dark on an object. It will automatically interpret that as the object being round and three dimensional. By taking advantage of this effect, we can create very realistic drawings without much effort. In this example, I use repeating patterns of soft edges to create these waves in the tablecloth. The light is coming from the right, so the soft edges start out with the light tone and then gradually get darker as they move to the left. These patterns repeated again and again create the appearance of the tablecloth, also noticed that they're almost no hard lines here because there are no hard edges and nothing is overlapping. Rule number two. To show overlap, Use hard edges. On the other hand, when you want to show two objects overlapping the pick them with hard edges. Remember, though, that hard edges are not hard lines instead of putting in actual lines. Just used the contrast between the two tones to suggest it. There are no hard lines in real life, so if you want to make your drawing as realistic as possible, try to avoid them. Of course, this may not always be possible. You might be in a situation where the best option is to use a hardline when her chase you could make it as subtle as you can or you might want to use hard lines intentionally is part of your drawing style. Rule number three to increase or decrease value use. Contrast. We're looking at an area of tone. How dark or light we think it is is very much affected by the surrounding area. This tone might look quite dark when seen by itself, but when view next to an even darker tone, it will look like in comparison to show how powerful this effect can be. Let's take a look at this optical illusion this illusion was created by an M. I. T. Professor Edward Adelson, to show how our eyes can play tricks on us. Take a look at Square A and B puts square what you say is darker. If you're like most people, you would probably pick square A. I mean, it's pretty obvious, right? But what if I told you that these two squares are actually the same value? Well, they are the two squares identical. To prove this, I'll cover everything else in the picture so you can just compare the two squares by themselves. Pretty incredible, huh? Let's see that again. Here's the full picture, and here's the squares by themselves. So how is this possible? Well, there's a number of things going on here, but a big factor is the local contrast. Square A is surrounded by light tones and therefore appear much darker whilst where B is surrounded by dark tones and therefore appear much lighter. This contrast ing effect tricks our eyes into thinking that the two squares are of different values. So how can we apply this principle in our drawing? Let's say you're drawing a sphere and you want to put in a reflected light area. One thing you could do is use an eraser toe light in that area, but this could be difficult and result in some uneven patches. A better method is too dark in the areas around it. You could dark in the shadow edge, and that would bring out the reflected light of it. Then you could also dark in the cash shadow, and that will highlight it even more. And the cool thing about this method is who can control the level contrast by controlling how dark you make the shadow edge and the cash shadow. Now let's imagine that you're drawing, and I, and you want to make the highlight in the I stand out even more. In this case, the highlight is already the white of the paper, so you can't even erase it to make it lighter once again, weaken dark in the surrounding area and make the highlight appear brighter by comparison. By using the power of contrast, we can increase the range of value we have at our disposal. Rule number four to increase death increase contrast. A big benefit of increasing the contrast in your drawing is that it will give it more death , One of the most common mistake. I see what beginners is that they're afraid to go dark with this shading, even though all the tones of place properly, the drawing looks a bit muted. I think this stems from the artist being afraid of messing up a drawing they work so hard on. But the truth is by darkening the shadows and increasing the contrast, you'll have a much more realistic and interesting drawing. And even if you do make a mistake and ruin the drawing, it's not a big deal. That's all part of the learning process. Well, there you have it. The Four rules of realism. Keep these rules in mind when shading your next massive peas and you'll be happy with the result. 21. Sphere Drawing Exercise: Now that we cover the theory behind shading, let's go through a drawing exercise to put them into practice. In this lesson, we're going to be drawing a three D sphere. The sphere is actually a very important shape in portrait drawing. Looking at this face, we can see many spear like structures such as the forehead, nose, cheekbones and chin. So by knowing how to shave the sphere, you'll be well on your way to knowing. Have to shade the face as well. Here's what the finished drawing will look like. You might find it helpful to print it out and use it as a reference as you're drawing law. Okay, let's get started. The first step is to use a round template to draw a perfect circle. We don't want the outline of the circle to show up in the final drawing, so try to make it as light as you can, just enough for you to see it. For the sake of the video, I'll make my circle a little darker than I otherwise would Then use a ruler to draw a horizontal line across the circle. I'll place this line towards the bottom of the circle this would represent the table surface that the sphere is sitting on. Now we can start to shading. Let's imagine that the light source is coming from the right and it will hit the sphere. At this point, this means that there's going to be a highlight area there, so let's lightly market out. This will be the brightest spot in the drawing, which we will leave as the white of the paper. As we move away from the spot, the tone will gradually get darker and darker. So I'll go now is to create that smooth gradation. Before we start putting in the tone, I'll take the kneaded eraser. Enlighten the outline of the circle a bit. If you drew the circle very lightly, you probably don't need to step. Now I'll use an H pencil and lightly put in a base layer of tone along the outer edge of the circle. The H Panzer will make it a lot easier to put in the light tone when creating a smooth gradation. I like to work from light to dark. You have a lot more control. That way, it's much easier to make something gradually darker by laying on more tone than it is to make something gradually lighter. How dark a pencil to use this up to you, you'll probably start out with harder and therefore lighter pencils, and then gradually switched to softer and darker ones. As your shading, you'll find yourself switching back and forth between pencils a lot. By the way, I'm only keeping the drawing still for the sake of the video. As you go around the sphere, you'll probably find it much easier to rotate the drawing to match your hand angle. In fact, I would highly recommend you do so when shading near the edge. I tried to match the value of the line in order to hide the hard line. Also, be very careful not to shade outside this year. We want to maintain that perfect circle shape as much as possible, and I'll start the shading just outside the highlight area. Next, I'll go back and add in a second layer of tone along the edge to create more of a gradation . - Already , we can see some dimension developing. Now we can blend this out to make it even smoother. Let's take a minute to discuss how to use the blaming tools. We basically have to blending tools, the blending stop and the cotillion for the most part, that interchangeable. So it doesn't really matter which one you use, but the blending stump tend to be a little bit bigger, so it's better to use for larger areas. And the tort illion tends to be a little smaller, so it's better for blending smaller areas. Hold and control the blender as you would a pencil. When blending, use only a light amount of pressure using too much pressure. Congrats on the graph right into the paper, causing it to become unleaded able and difficult to erase. Also, you'll be more prone to making uneven spots, so just be patient. Use a light amount of pressure and go over the same area multiple times if you have to. Another tip is to move the blender in just one direction. Looking at my hand here, it might look like I'm just moving the blender back and forth, but actually all the strokes air going in just one direction. You can see it more clearly from the side. I apply a stroke, then lift up the blender and bring it back, and then apply the stroke again. The reason we want to do it this way is that it will help us create smooth the tones when you just go back and forth with the blender. This can create uneven starting stop marks, but by keeping a strokes in just one direction, you can minimize this. Another thing that will help to create smooth the tone is to lift up your blender at the end of the stroke. Think of your blender like an airplane taking off on a runway at the beginning of the show . It is running on the ground, and towards the end of the stroke, it's gradually lifting off. This will cause your stroke to be darker in the beginning and lighter towards the end. Porch, incidentally, creates a nice, smooth gradation, and that's exactly what we want. By the way, this technique of lifting the blender up towards the end of the stroke is called the taper stroke and will cover it more in depth in the eye drawing section. So to sum it up when blending, use light pressure, keep your strokes in a single direction and lift up the blender towards the end of the stroke. Okay. Back to the drawing. I'm using a blending stop to gently blend out the tone. - As I get closer to the highlight area, I'm simply using the graphite that's already on the blender to create the half tone. Before we go any further, I'll take the kneaded eraser and take out the lines I made to mark the highlight area. So we've established the shadow edge, the half tone and the highlight area. Now we want to put in the reflected light. We know that the reflected light area will be slightly lighter than the shadow edge. And how can we make something lighter without using an eraser? Well, if you recall the third rule of realism, weaken dark in the shadow edge to make the reflected light area appear lighter. So I'm going to go over the shadow edge one more time. Except this time I'll lead the reflected light area unshaded as far as my pencil strokes. That concern I keep them in line with the contour of the circle, but I also vary up the direction a little is. I'm moving around the circle. This helps to create a soft transition between the shadow edge and the reflected light. If you simply shade along the shadow edge with curved strokes, you create too hard of a separation between the two areas. - Now that the shadow edges a bit darker, we can go into the half tone area and dark in that as well. Now, let's give it another round of blending. - Don't worry if the reflected light area is not very noticeable right now, we're going to add the cash out of next, and that will really brings it out. We'll start by adding in the outline of the cash shadow. Since the light source is coming from the right, the cash out I will be shifted to the left. Then I use a to B pencil to fill in the cow shadow. Try to create as clean and edges possible along the outside of the sphere. When I get to the edge of the cash shadow, are you strokes that go against the outline? This will help to soften the edge of the shadow. Shadows will rarely have really hard edges. Rather, the edges will be more diffused now are put in a light tone in the surrounding area. To represent the table surface. We can even let the tone gradually fade out to create a vignette and was softened off the edge of the cash shadow some more. I won't use the blender on the cash shadow or table surface, so we can retain some texture, but you're welcome to blend it if you want to. Next, I'll take a very well sharpened three B pencil and really pump up the value for the cash shadow, especially along the edge of the sphere. As you can see, the contrast of the cash shadow is helping us to see the reflected light a little better. Now let's take a to B pencil and dark in the shadow edge some more as the shadow edge gets darker. We have to dark in the half tone as well, to keep up with it. And as those two tones get darker, the reflected light might start to look too bright, so you might have to add a little more value to it in order to keep it more subtle. During this process, you might find a little uneven dark spots in your drawing, like this one here, in which case simply shaped the kneaded eraser into around point and gently tap it on the spot to lighten it. As you can probably see, the process is pretty simple. We create a smooth gradation from dark to light to establish the different elements of shading. Use the blender to smooth out the tone, and then we simply go over and dark and everything to create more contrast. The more contrast you add, the more three dimensional you're drawing will look. You can continue with this process for hours, refining your drawing little by little. But I think you've got the point so far, so I'm going to call this drawing done. 22. Eye Structure & Form: Now that you understand the basics of realistic shading, we can get into drawing the different features. And what better way to start off the section than with the proverbial window to the soul itself? The eyes. In order to draw the eyes convincingly, we first have to know a little bit about an enemy. I know you're probably itching to start drawing eyes already, but trust me, this part is important. 80% of making a drawing look convincing is just including all the correct anatomical parts . So we'll go through a quick run down of all the parts and then cover them and more details . Overview of the I. Starting with the bone structure, we have the eye sockets. They have these cavities in the skull that houses and protect the eyeballs. Sometimes I sock. It can be prominent enough that we can see a structure through the skin between the eye socket and above the nose. Sit a smooth area bone called the globe. Ella. As you've seen from the previous lesson, the Globe L. A. Is a very useful landmark to help place the eyes and nose right above the eye sockets. Is this bony protrusion called the Brow Ridge. We can see it much more clearly from the side. The purpose of the brow ridges, a stick out and protect the eyes. In this photo, we can see how the eyeball is neatly tucked under the brow ridge, creating this distinct inward angle. The eyebrow sits along the brow ridge. Inside the eye sockets. We have the actual eyeballs. The eyeball is covered up by an upper and lower eyelid. The inner corner of the eye is marked by this being shaped opening. This is usually where tears would well up in the eye. When a person is crying within the corner is also this pink, fleshy area called the core uncle. Then we have the white of the eye, which is technically called this Clara. At the center of all this whiteness is the Irish. That's the color portion of the eye that tells us whether someone has blue, green or brown eyes. And at the center of this iris is the pupil. It's the area that expands or contracts to let him or less light. Now let's dive a little deeper into each parts eyelids. The eyeball is a sphere, and the eyelids wrapped around this fear. The shape of the eyeball can be seen in the lower lid. Here, the eyeball pushes on the lower lead, creating a slight bulge. This little detail is very crucial in giving the I dimension. No, however, that this bulge under the eye is different from the bags under the eye. So just be careful not to aid your subject prematurely by including bags that aren't really there. The upper and lower eyelids have a definite thickness to them. Here, we can clearly see the planes of the top and bottom eyelids. Earlier, we mentioned how the brow ridge sticks out to protect the eyeballs. We can see the same padding with the islands as well. The upper lip extends forward more than the lower lid, creating this inward angle. Apparently, evolution was really concerned about protecting our eyes from falling objects. The shape of the upper and lower lids will usually follow this pattern. The upper lid can be broken up into three line segments, with one being mostly horizontal and the other two sloping downward. The lower lid can be broken up into two segments, with one being horizontal and the other one sloping up. A common mistake is to draw almond shaped eyes. Here's where the upper and lower lid follow the same curve shape. Notice how the top and bottom live, peak and bottom out at the same points. In actuality, the top lid will peak at this point, while the lower lid will bottom out. At this point, that's what gives the I is distinctive shape. Also, there's an oval shaped opening in the in the corner of the eye. Every isa different, of course, but this pattern will give you something to work off when analyzing the shape of someone's eye. Another interesting feature of the eye is the appearance of a crease in the upper eyelid. Most non Asians will have a rare pronounced crease in the upper lid, and the shape of this crease will follow the same pattern as the upper lid. However, for many Asians like myself, this crease would not be visible, only partially visible. It's not that the crease does not exist. It's just that there's an extra bit of skin in the upper lid that covers up the crease. This bit of skin is called. The EPA can take full for some people this extra skin will cover up the entire crease and even a little of the eyelash, in which case the I will appear smaller and the shape of the upper lid will be altered, giving it a more curved appearance for others. Only the inner corner of the upper lid will be covered or not at all. Eyeball iris and people. The eyeball is a sphere shape, but this fact is easy to overlook because most of the eyeball is covered up by the I lives . Despite this, whatever you shade the eyeball, it is important to keep this spherical shape in mind. For example, a common mistake is to leave the white of the eye white, even though that's what it's called. We don't want to make it that color. By adding in a smooth gradation, we are able to show the spherical shape of the eye bar. Another factor that would cause the white of the eye to be less than white is this pink, fleshy area in the corner called the car uncle. Some of the Koran coast pink color will encroach into the white of the eye, causing the in the corner of the eye to be a little darker and shading. The current go will also have its own shape. I like to think of it is this tiny egg shape, although in some eyes that shape can be a bit irregular when shading, we would use soft edges to show its around it form. The iris will often have a dark ring along the edge called limbering. Artistically speaking, this ring help separate the color of the Irish from the white of the eye, making the I appear more striking biologically. We also programmed to respond to it. Studies have shown that eyes with prominent limb bullrings are considered more attractive. One reason could be that is an indicator of youth. Limbaugh rings are more prominent when we're young and gradually fade as we age. They are so more clearly seen in light color eyes like blue or green. So if you want to make your subjects eyes appear younger, more attractive or blue. One way to achieve that is to add in a dark and distinct limbering. The rest of the iris is this very intricate pattern that seems to radiate from the people like rays from the sun. This is very evident for blue or green eyes, but you can also see it in brown eyes as well. And those are pretty much all the relevant parts of the ire that you need to know about. And the next lesson will put all this knowledge into practice and draw a realistic I step by step. 23. Eye Drawing Exercise (Part 1): Now that you are familiar with the parts and structure of the eye, let's go through how to draw when step-by-step. Here's the reference will be working with before we start drawing is helpful to analyze the reference, to understand it better. Visualize the shape of the eye in simplified form. Observed the angles of the lines and their relationships to each other. For example, pay attention to the inner and outer corner of the eye. Notice how the outer corner is slightly lower than the inner corner, creating a slight angle. Next, identify the highest point of the upper limb and the lowest point of the lower lid. And notice the relationship between these two points. If it helps, you can even draw these lines over your reference to make them easier to identify. These angle relationships will really help you to draw the lay in more accurately. Next, you can repeat the same process for the Ford in the upper limb and the eyebrow. Notice the angle of the lines become sensitive to all the little changes in length and direction. You can also observe the relationship between different objects. For example, you can notice the relationship between the eyebrows and the corners of the eye. Or the distance between the eyebrows and the fall in the upper limb. Or the width of the I measure from corner to corner as compared to the height of the eye. The more of these details you can observe, the better. Again, you can print out an extra copy of the reference and draw all these lines over it. In drawing, this process of simplifying the subject into basic shapes is called the block in. It helps us to establish the proportions of all the parts and the angular relationships between them. Now let's see how we can use this block in to help us draw the eye. First mark the location of the inner corner of the eye. Then mark the location of the outer corner. This will give us the width of the eye and determined the proportion for the rest of the drawing. For simplicity sake, I recommend making the width of your drawing the same as the reference. This will make subsequent measurements a lot easier. To do this, we would simply take the divider, measure the width of the eye on the reference, and transfer it over to the drawing. Of course, you can also make your drawing any size you'd like. If you do, just make sure to keep everything else proportional. For example, if you wanted to double the width of the eye, then make sure you also double the size of everything else. With that being said, I recommend not making your drawing too big as that could make the shading more difficult. By the way, notice how this point is positioned lower than this point in order to match the same angle as the reference. Then mark the high point of the upper limb. And the low point of the lower lid. Again, be sure to observe the angular relationship between them. I recommend you try to place these points with just your eyes first and then use a divider to check to see how accurate you were. And of course, if you find that you will make the necessary correction. This is a great way to train your eyes to judge distance and angles. Because you are getting immediate feedback from the divider telling you what you need to fix. Now, use these points as a guide to block in the shape of the eye. Even though these points and very helpful, it's important to constantly glance back at the reference. It makes sure that your lines are accurate. Now do the same thing for the fold in the upper lid, eyebrow, iris, and pupil. Even though the block in lines that we visualize a very linear when drawing is okay to add some curves that aligns. Just don't get caught up in all the little details just yet. We'll cover that in the next stage. Right now, just focus on capturing the broad gesture of the subject. Like all those big details that we pointed out earlier. Once you're done, verify with the divider. You could check the distance between two points such as afford in the eyelid and the I, afford in the lead and the eyebrow. The diameter of the iris. The distance between the iris and the corners of the eyes. The diameter of the pupil is distance from the edge of the iris, and so on. And if you find inaccuracy, fix them. For example, I noticed that the shape of the eyebrow is a little off. So I'll reshape it. Also through measuring. I noticed that this N of the fold in the eyelid is a little too short. So our extended much better. And each one of these measurements and adjustment will contribute to the overall accuracy of your drawing. And you can be as detailed as you want to be. At first, this might seem a little tedious, but is actually training your eyes to see more accurately. And eventually you'll be able to draw more accurately without much measurements at all. Now that we're done with the black end, we can go over the drawing again and refine the line work. The block in helped us to establish the overall proportions and angles. And this time around will pay more attention to the more subtle curves of the lines and the finer details to keep things clean. Erase the block in lines before redrawing it. This time, I'll be adding more curves to the line. And now add in the little opening in the inner corner of the eye. And repeat this process for the rest of the eye. This is the stage where you want to obsess about the details. Needless to say, you should be constantly comparing a drawing with a reference to make sure that it's accurate. Having the block and lines that guide us and makes this process a lot easier. We don't have to worry too much about the overall proportions in details and can really focus on the little things. At this stage, we can also add in all the details like the planes of the upper and lower lid. The plane of the upper lid will only be partially visible. And the plane of the lower lid will start to taper in, is it approaches the inner corner of the eye. And let's add in the car on coal in the inner corner. This area is divided into two sections. We'll leave the eyelashes alpha. Now, once you're done, look over your drawing and see if there's anything that needs fixing. I notice the shape of the iris is a little off, so I'll fix that. This is a very subtle detail, but it makes a big difference. When drawing eyes, the incorrect placement of the iris can drastically alter the emotion and gaze at the subject. And also I'll move the pupil down a tiny bit. Take your time and make as many corrections as you need. Remember, delay in is the most important part of a drawing. So we really want to get this right. By the way, if you're having trouble drawing this, you could try drawing it with the grid method the first time around and then come back and draw it again freehand. Okay, now for the shading, I like to start with the iris and pupil as I find that to be the easiest, first, mark up the highlight areas. Try not to make the highlight to knead. It will look much more natural at the highlight has a more irregular shape. Also in the reference, this highlight is further away from the pupil. But in the drawing, I'll put the highlight right in there with people. This will cause the highlight to stand out a lot more. True, we're not being 100% accurate to the reference, but that's okay. One of the best thing about art is reinterpreting reality to match revision. To quote Jeff Watts, you wanna draw what you know, what you see and what you wish you saw. Once you have the highlight marked out, use a 2B pencil to fill in the pupil. Next, go around the iris and put it in the limbal ring. To create the texture of the iris. Draw little lines that radiate lumbering towards the pupil. The length of these lines and make them sort of random. I'll go over it one more time to fill in some of the gaps. And also soften the transition between the ring and the base of the lines. Now repeat the same process, except this time you'll be drawing from the pupil. Since the I withdrawing is brown. And blend some tone into the whitespace in the middle. Try to keep the pressure light as we don't want to blend out all the texture we just created. If this i was green a blue, then we would want to minimize the blending and keep the area in the middle a lot lighter. Now, we'll take a very well sharpen 2B pencil and draw in the reflection so that the upper eyelashes cast onto the, I. Don't worry too much about making these reflections match the reference exactly. Just do the best you can. Also it's easy to overdo this. So I'll just add in four to five lashes and leave it at that. I'll put in some dark edges around the highlight to make it stand out more. And again, this is not necessarily in the reference, which is taking some artistic license. And let's add in some lashes and dark edges to the other highlight area as well. And we find that some of the dark edges and lines them too much. You can soften it with a Tertullian. Then I'll go over the iris one more time and darken the edges and add in some dark lines here and there to give it more texture. Now let's get to the why of the eyes and tone. Remember the eyeball is a spherical shape. The highest point of the sphere is at the pupil. This will be the area that receives the most light because it sticks out the most. And as we move away from this point, things will gradually get darker until we get to the corners, which will be the darkness. Most eyes you withdraw will follow this pattern. But is also important to look at the lighting in the reference. In this case, the light is coming from the right. So the left side of the eyeball will be slightly darker than the right. Just keep that in mind when you're shading. Start by putting a bit of tone in the two corners of the eye. You'll want to make it very enlightened at first. So when shading, hold the pencil loosely at the end like so. This will help you to keep the pressure light. When you're shading use aside. And just let the weight of the pencil apply the pressure. Take the Tertullian and blend out the tone. Notice how I'm blending in a single direction from the dark area to the light area. This allows me to pull the graphite from the dark area into the light area and create a smooth gradation. Now that we have some dimension to the eyeball, let's focus on the current goal. The structure of the current goal is basically to rounded forms, sitting next to each other. At the peak of each form is the highlighting. And as we move away from that highlight, things gradually gets darker. So we'll just put in some tone in the darkest areas. Blended out. Had more tones to the dark areas were more contrast. And pick out the highlight with a kneaded eraser. Next, let's shade the eyelids. The lens of three-dimensional layers that covers the eyeball. So naturally, each of the lids will cast a tiny shadow onto the eye. At the point of contact. The shadow will be more prominent for the upper limb because most of the time the light source will be above the eyes shining down onto it. Let's put it in that shadow. Whenever two objects overlap each other, there will always be a tiny shadow along the point of contact. This is one of my favorite ways to add dimension because it's so easy yet so effective. I'm always asking myself, where are the overlaps in this drawing? So I can put a shadow there and then just take the totality and soft in the shadow and edge. Go ahead and let the graphite go outside the line and onto the skin. This will actually help us create a smooth gradation and show the three-dimensionality of the lids. See how the blending automatically creates a dark area along the lids that gradually gets lighter as it moves away. And see how this causes the lid, especially the upper limb, to appear three-dimensional. That is the magic of blending. Now, we'll pretty much repeat the same process for the crease and the eyelid. We'll put in some dark tones along the crease and then blend it out. Letting the graphite gets spread above and below the crease. Repeat the process as many times as needed to increase the contrast. Next we'll work on the lower limb and the lower lid created by the eyeball. It creates a subtle dark crease here, I guess lighter is we move upward. So let's create gradation. Remember how I said you should only blend in a single direction and lift up your totally and at the end of each stroke. Well, in darker areas where you're doing a lot of blending and uneven spots are harder to notice. It's okay to go back and forth with your Tertullian without lifting it up. This will make the blending go a lot faster and easier. But when you get to the lighter areas, be sure to revert back to blending in a single direction to minimize on even spots. There's a slight indentation between the I and the bridge. Here. This indentation is actually the edge of the eye sockets showing through. It's hard to see in the reference because of the lighting. But I really like to depict this indentation because it's great for adding more dimension to the drawing. So I'll lightly mark out it's shaped with the pencil and then blended out to create a soft edge. Here I'm using the Tertullian almost as a pencil, dragging the graphite into areas that I want to shade. Repeat the process as needed. Now for the eyebrows and before we start drawing, let's take a quick look at the growth pattern of the hairs of the eyebrow. 24. Eye Drawing Exercise (Part 2): now for the eyebrows. Before we start drawing, let's take a quick look at the growth pattern of hairs of the eyebrow. The eyebrow will start out rather light at the in the corner and then gradually gets thicker is it moves to the other end. The hair will start out pointing up or diagonally and then gradually shift to being more horizontal. And finally, they will start to curve downward and taper into a point. Is they re just the end along the top of the eyebrow. Their hair is that point diagonally downward. Towards the end, thes hairs converged with the hairs at the bottom and foreign the pointy end of the eyebrow . Study this reference for a while and see if you can spot these patterns for yourself. Almost all eyebrows will follow this pattern, so once you're familiar with it, you'll have a much easier time drawing them. Okay, we're almost ready to start drawing. That's just one more thing. In order to capture the hair like quality of the I Row, we need to learn a technique called the tapered stroke. Here's what a normal short look like. Notice how it has the same thickness throughout, and there are hard start and stop marks. Now here is what a tapered stroke looks like. Notice how the two ends are tapered and the thickness of the line goes from thin to think and back to thin again. So what is the benefit of drawing your lines like this? Well, the Taper stroke is great for drawing hair. See how the hair on the eyebrows, a taper at both end the eyebrows is basically just a bunch of tapers trucks. Also, you can use the tapered show to draw the hairs on the head as well as shade. The muscles of the body will cover this more in depth in the hair drawing section. So how do you create the tape of stroke? First, hold your passing loosely at the middle of the pencil. This will give you more fluidity in your stroke. It's important that you don't choke down on your pencil like this concerning the execution of stroke. The tip of your pencil will move in an upward arc. Think of it as an airplane, softly landing and taking off. The pencil gradually makes contact with the paper. That's the airplane landing. It runs along the paper for a bit, then it gradually lift up Vasa Airplane taking off. So you'll want to keep your pressure in light and beginning increase it in the middle and decrease it towards the end. Just practice this stroke a bunch of times, and to get the hang of it, you might find it easier to draw the show following the natural range of motion of your race. Also, you might find that the beginning of the show is more difficult to make tapered than the end. This is normal. As with airplanes, the landings are always harder than the take offs. Once you're comfortable with that, you can practice going the other way. This might be a little more awkward. Why don't you get the hang of it? You can challenge yourself by trying to make all the lines the same length. Okay, back to the drawing before we start filling in the eyebrows. Let's erase this outline as we won't want it to show up in the final drawing. Start by using an HB pencil too lightly map out the direction of the hair, just put in a few tapered strokes. He and there to match the pattern of hair grow that we just went over the hair alone. The edge of the eyebrow tends to be tapered and soft, so take extra care when working in this area to make sure your tape it shows a really smooth drawing. The eyebrow like this can be a bit tricky, and I always get a little nervous before doing it, because I'm worried about messing up the drawing. So if you're like me, you might want to do a few practice run before trying it on your drawing. I've created a little practice sheet that's basically the finished drawing, but with the eyebrow and eyelash is taken out, you can use it to test out this technique and see how it looks. Use it as an opportunity to push the boundaries and try different things. The best way to learn is to experiment, so that gives us the general idea of what the eyebrow would look like. Now softly blend this out. This is an example of an area where you do not want to go back and forth with the cotillion . Instead, you want to blend in a single direction with the pattern of the hair, the purpose of this is just the filling the white space inside and around the eyebrow. Now come back in and add another layer of hair. This time, Instead of focusing on the patterns and direction of the hair, try to match the thickness and darkness of the eyebrow. For example, the eyebrow is thickest and darkest in the middle, so I'll try to match that pattern. - The hairs aren't all evenly distributed along the eyebrow. Some of them are group into little pointy clusters. To depict this, I'll go over the same area multiple times with same stroke to make it stand out more against the rest. - You might think that drawing the eyebrow like this is very tedious, and it can be. But don't worry. You won't always be drawing in this much details. Depending on how large your portrait is. You might just suggest the eyebrow with a few strokes. But by known the little details like how the hair grow, you'll be able to draw much better eyebrows at all levels. Now I'll just add a lightly or tone to cover up the white spots on the skin. Remember the only white of the paper that it's allowed to show through Is that the highlight? All the other areas must be darker. Any unintended white spots will detract from the drawing. Next, we'll go back over the drawing and added more contrast. Now, just to reiterate a pattern that we're trying to reinforce is that of a dark shadow in the cracks increases and the tone will gradually lightens as it moves away from the shadow. Let's start with I area dark in the lines and reinforce the shadow cast by the upper eyelid . You can really see how increasing the contrast makes the drawing looks a lot sharper and more and focus. This is my favorite part of the shading process. All the hard work's of laying in the different tones and creating dimension is done. Now all that's left to do is gradually pop up the contrast and watch the drawing start to really come together for the crease in the upper lid, just dark in the crease and then blend it out. The Gores I have the tone lightens as it moves away from the crease. Sorry if I'm sounding like a broken record, but realistic shading really is that simple. It's just the same pattern of dark tones getting lighter repeated over and over again. - Here , I really want to emphasize that dark to light gradation for the area above the fold of the lid for the area below the I. The process is the same dark and the wrinkles and then blend it out, using the total Ian to drag the graphite into the lighter areas. I also add some very light wrinkles to the skin toe action texture, and we want the wrinkles to be more subtle. So let's blend them out, reinforce the indentation between the eye and nose, and just keep repeating this whole process as many times as it takes to get the drawings to the level that you want. Remember, the more contrast you have a more three dimensional you're drawing will look now that we are mostly done with all the blending we can add in the eyelashes again, let's take a quick detour to examine how eyelashes a structure lashes tend to grow out from the lid in a curve shape. The upper lashes are always much longer and more numerous than the lower ones. As a whole, they point outward from the lid, but they're also little variations among the individual lashes. Another useful pattern to observe is that the lashes tends to group together. Also, they tend to be longer, so at the middle and get slightly shorter towards the end. When seen from the front, the lashes will appear a little differently at the meadow, the lashes a pointing towards the viewer. This causes them to appear for shorten, and they will look like a slight curve pointing upward. Some lashes will even appear a straight lines. As we move away from this point towards the ends, we able to see more and more of the individual lashes, and they worked here longer. Once we get to the ends, the lashes will look much longer and curved. It's important when drawing to capture this gradual shift in direction of the lashes. Don't just draw your lashes going in a single direction like this again. You can try drawing these lashes on the practice sheet first to build some confidence. Now let's draw on the lashes. Be sure to use a very well sharpened pencil so you can make really clean lines. Also, make sure to lift up your pencil at the end of each lashes to give it that tapered end tried to vary up the length, direction and position of each lashes just a little bit. To make them look more natural, some lashes would dipped lower into the area. Some lashes will be short and point upward, and so on. Also have the lashes overlap each other's as that will look more natural. It's very helpful to look at the reference as you're drawing this. You don't have to copy the reference exactly, just trying to capture the general pattern like the eyebrow. Some of the lashes will group together, so every once in a while I'll draw two or three lashes, very close together, going in the same direction. The lashes will start to thin out and disappear as they near the corner of the eye. The lower lashes will be much more sparse than the top again. Notice how most of them appear in clusters now for one last round of adding contrast, where I will use a to B pencil and dark and everything from the iris and pupil to the eyebrow. We're not doing anything special here, just repeating all the steps that we previously laid out. - At this point, we have such a smooth foundation of tone that there's really no need for more blending. We can just take the pencil to layer on more graphite in the areas that we want to make darker. This allows us to increase the contrast more quickly because the graphite is not being blended away by the cotillion. Be careful when darkening the eyebrow, not to shade over it too much and lose the texture of the hair. - Lastly , we'll take the kneaded eraser, shape it into a sharp tip and use it to pick out highlights. We'll start with the car uncle. Then we'll put in some highlights in the white of the eye. There's one here. Next, the highlight in the iris. Next, there are a few bright spots along the lower lids. These highlights created by the Mosher's in the eye, and they will help the eye to look wet and shiny. The highlight even cuts into the iris a little bit, and next. Let's put in some light spots in the skin. There's an area of skin between the eye and the nose that always seems to catch more light and appear brighter. I use the eraser to lighten that area a bit. Lastly, are just lightly list out this dark mark in the drawing, and that's it. Well done. Go ahead and try this exercise for yourself, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 25. Nose Structure & Form: in this lesson, we're going to go over the parts and structure of the nose. At the surface level, the nose can be broken into these parts. The bridge, the tip, the natural, which refers to these two openings in the nose and the wings of the national peeling back the skin. We can examine the anatomy more closely. Here we have the nasal bone attached to it is a piece of cartilage called the lateral cartilage. These two pieces formed the bridge of the nose. How the lateral cartilage attaches to the nasal wound can have a big impact on the look of the nose. In most people, the connection is pretty seamless, causing the nose bridge to appear straight. But when there's a big angle change from the nasal bone to the lateral cartilage, this will create the appearance of a Hope knows the degree to which this happens will vary from person to person, and it's a useful observation to make. When drawing also, the shape of the bridge will tend to be wider in the middle, where the nasal bone meets the lateral cartilage the nose bridge attaches to the skull. Vera Bone called the Max illa the max, ill afore MSA side of nose and creates a gradual slope down towards the face. The tip of the nose is made up of two pieces of cartilage, known collectively as the greater our cartilage in Caucasian noses. The separation between these two pieces can sometimes be very prominent in Asian or African American. Nose is, the separation will often not be visible at all. At the bottom, the greater Alec Arledge will hook up and connect to the skull via the septum. The septum is a flat piece of cartilage that separates the left and right side of the nose . Most of the septum is inside the nose and not visible, but you can see a little bit of it at the bottom of the nose. When people get that little nose piercing, it's the septum that's being pierce anyway. The key thing to remember here is that the tip of the nose curls up before it attaches to the skull, which is the detail we need to capture when drawing the nose and 3/4 or side view. And lastly, we have the wings of the nostril. These wings are made out of fatty tissues and also crow in a little before connecting to the head. The size and shape of the wings will vary with ethnicity. Caucasians tend to have smaller wings, and Asians and African Americans tend to have larger and more rounded wings. The simplified knows you already know this version of the simplified knows. Now let's incorporate all these anatomical knowledge. We just learn to create a more detailed version. This portion here represents the globe. Ella. This portion represents the nasal bone, and attached to it is the latter of cartilage. Notice how the nasal and lado cartilage has some thickness to them is indicated by these side planes. Max Ill. A. Is represented by these planes on the side. The tip of the nose can be broken up into the front plane, side planes and bottom planes. The same goes for the wings of the national. There's the front plane, side plane and bottom plate. The bottom plane is important for showing the thickness of the wings, and lastly, we have to set them as represented by this portion of the lower Plains. Try drawing these two diagrams as an exercise. It will help you to become familiar with the nose planes, and in the next lesson, we'll see how you can apply these knowledge to an accurate, no strong. 26. Nose Drawing Exercise: In this lesson, we'll go through a step-by-step exercise for drawing the nose. Here's the reference will be working with. The nose, has very few hard edges and involves a lot of subtle tone changes. So I made the reference black and white to make it easier to see all the different values. Okay, until the drawing. As usual, we'll start with the lane. You can just start sketching in the nose free-hand. But if you have a hard time doing that, here's a simple process to baby step your way to an accurate lane. First, simplify the nose into basic shapes. The simplified knows that you learn in the 3D head lessons will work well here. Print out an extra copy of the reference and draw these lines over it. Start by establishing the GLA Bella. Then find the line at the tip of the nose that divide the top and bottom planes. You can tell that there's a plane change because the value goes from light to dark very quickly. Complete the shape to encase the bottom plane of the nose. Draw in the bridge of the nose. And in case the bottom plains of the nostrils, the nose is in a slight three-quarter view, so we'll be able to see a little more of the right natural. Normally I would draw these lines very lightly over my reference. That allows me to still see the small details of the reference while still helping me to visualize the structure of the nodes. Now, draw this simplified knows onto the drawing paper. Again, for simplicity sake, let's make the dimension of our drawing the same as the reference. Uses divider to measure the height on the reference and transfer it to the drawing paper. How estimate the height and width of the Kalevala. Draw in the tip of the nose. I'll measure the width of the nose and transfer it over. The right wing of the nasa will be a little bit larger. Once finished, we can check the accuracy of our drawing with the divider. We will check the height of the Kabbalah and the height of the tip. Everything looks good. Okay, so now we have a basic scaffolding to work off of. This will help us with the overall proportions and placements. Next to help us visualize the underlining anatomy, print out another copy of the reference and draw these lines over it. Again. We'll start with the globe Bella. This portion here will represent the nasal bone. This portion will be the lateral cartilage. Notice how there's a slight voltage where the nasal bone meets the lateral cartilage. These two rounded shapes that represent the greatest ally cartilage and outline the nostrils and the wings. And lastly we have the maxilla on the side of the bridge. You don't have to do this every time you sketch a nose. And most of these lines will show up in the final drawing. But wherever I'm having a hard time with the lay in, this little exercise really helps me to understand and draw the nose better. Now, we're ready to sketch in the nose. Before I start drawing, are lightened the guideline so things don't get too messy. You can look at the previous two diagrams, as well as a clean copy of the reference as you're drawing. Each picture is like a different topographical map giving you different information about the nodes. There's a little boat and the bridge of the nose. The tip of the nose is rounded and shape almost like a large water drops. And the nozzle will fit into the two triangles on the side. I like to draw in the slight indentation is created by the eye sockets. This creates a nice frame for the nodes. And we can even add a hint of the laugh lines. Once finished, erase whatever is left for the guidelines. Do one last inspection to make sure everything is accurate and make any necessary adjustments. Now for the shading, the nose has a lot of subtle gradations. So to help you understand the shading better is an exercise you can try and get another clean copy of the reference and draw these plains of the nose over it. With this overlay, we can make perfect sense of all the tone changes on the nodes. For example, notice how the tip of the nose changed from light to dark when we change from the front to the bottom planes. Also notice how the bottom plains of the wings is noticeably darker than the front planes. Study this diagram a bit and see if you can better understand the shape of the nose, firm it. The last row is obviously in shadow. So let's shade that in first. Notice though that it's not just a dark hole throughout. The top portion of the nozzle is quite dark, but towards the bottom, it gets a bit lighter. Now we'll put in some general tone to define the shape of the nose. Think of the bridge is a cylinder shape and the tip of the nose as a sphere shape. The highest point of E shape will catch the most light and be the highlight. And as we move away from the highlight, things will gradually get darker. The light source is coming from the right, so the left side of the bridge will be in a bit of shadow. This is important for showing the height of the bridge. Thus the shadow around the edge of the tip, especially along the undecided. Right now I'm just keeping the shading light. So I'm using an HB pencil. And the wings will more or less follow the same pattern. And adding the cast shadow created by the nose itself. A trick that you might find helpful is the squint your eyes a little when looking at the reference. This will blur out some of the details and allow you to see the overall pattern of the shadow is better. How adding a bit of time to the right side of the bridge, but not too much. We want this side to be significantly lighter than the left side. Now blended out with the Tertullian. I'm taking this opportunity to drag the graphite into the white areas to create the contour of the nodes. It's similar to how sculptors would put clay onto their structures. In order to scope that. We're adding graphite onto the drawing and then sculpting it with the Tertullian. Notice how the bridge of the nose tapers analytical at the bottom because of the lateral cartilage. Okay, we can start seeing some dimension now. The shadows and edges are a bit lighter now after the blending. So we'll come back in and define the edges and darken the shadows anymore. The cache data will be dark is near the nose. And towards the end. Even within the shadow area, they are portions like these here that are darker than the others. So let's reinforce those areas. By the way, if you're having trouble seeing all the subtle details of the reference would apparent. Now, try viewing it through your computer screen where you get a much higher resolution image. And let's add in more tone to the top portion. For the bridge, I'll add a little bit more tone along the maxilla area and eye socket and blend it out. So I'll blend the dark area for a bit and then move it into the white area to transfer the graphite. With every round of blending, we're dragging more graphite into the white area and making it darker. This will naturally create a smooth gradation from light to dark. I noticed that this shadow here is a bit too high and it's causing the tip to look a bit misshapen. So I'll take the kneaded eraser and gently tap on it to trim it down. Much better. The drawing is mostly done. At this point. It's just a matter of refining it and adding contrast. I'll take a 2B pencil and go over the bridge to increase the contrast. The more contrast we have, the higher the bridge will look. As I'm shading, I'm varying the pressure on the pencil. When I'm in the dark area, I apply more pressure. When I'm in the light area, I apply less pressure. This is a good skill to practice. We don't want to just rely on to Tertullian to create the smooth gradation. Now we'll do the same thing to the tip and wings with one small difference. This time, we'll pay close attention to the reflected light. Notice how there's a subtle reflected light along the bottom edge of the tip and wings. When shading will shade around this area. Woo dark in the nozzle and cash shadow, which will cause the reflected light to stand out even more. Hb pencil and very lightly go over the entire drawing to fill in any white spots, will be putting in the highlight soon, and this will allow them to be as bright as possible. Let's do one last round of adding contrast. The left side of the tip is in shadow, so we want it to be much darker than the right side and blend it out. Next, take the kneaded eraser and pick out some highlights along the bridge and tip of the nose. Just gently tap the eraser on the areas you want to make lighter. This will help create a soft transition between the highlight in the shaded area. And that's it. And we're all done. 27. Lips Structure & Form: in this lesson, we're going to examine the structure and form of the lips. The first thing we have to understand about the lips is that it curves and wraps around the face. This fact is easy to understand. When we look at the skull, notice how the teeth, which has a big impact on the structure of the lips, occurs along the skull and from the side view. The teeth also curves and protrudes out. This curve structure of the lips become very relevant when drawing the lips from different angles. When tilt it down, the corners of the lips will appear higher up and the lips will look almost like it's smiling. When tilted up, the corners of the lips will appear lower and the lips will look almost like it's frowning . The lips can be broken down into five round it forms. There's a heart shaped protrusion at the center of the upper lip, called the tube ical, followed by two over like forms on the side and for the lower lip there to slightly larger and rounder oval forms. These forms are like soft patterns, and they create the subtle contours of the lips. Notice the smooth gradations in tone created by these forms. From an angle, we can really see how these round it forms create the shape of the lips at the two corners of lips A to being shaped nodes. The mouth area has many different muscles, which converge at these nodes to control the lips. The nodes pinches in at the corner of lips, creating a shadow area there and a lighter tone along the outer it these notes a most prominent when the person is smiling slightly. However, when relax, they could be very subtle, and depending on the lighting or angle, they may not be visible at all. But in drawings, they could be a nice little detail toe. Add to the realism of your lips. Now let's see how these forms affect how we drop the lips. First off, the heart shaped Foreman center creates an upward curve at the top and bottom of the upper lip. At the top, the lines curved down before levelling out and connecting to the corners at the bottom. The lines will go straight across, then slope down slightly and then level out again to connect to the corners. The lower lip will have a slight downward curve at the middle before rounding up to connect to the upper lip. Notice how the lines fadeout as they approach the corners and doesn't actually make contact . This helps to show that the lower lip becomes flatter and more flush against the face as it nears the corners. The Lowell. It will be slightly narrower than the upper lip and sits under it. You can think of the lips as the letter M and W. The upper lip resembles the letter M, and the lower lip resembles the letter W. The notes that the corners are mostly tono, so we would depict them as little shadows. Keep in mind, the shape represents the idealized lips. In reality, let's will come in all kinds of shapes and sizes. They could be thin or thick, pointy or flat. But by knowing the pattern of the idealized lips, you can bet and make sense of the different lip types that you'll see between the upper lip and nose is the filter. The filter, um, is a con cave groovin the skin. When drawing, we would depict it with mostly tone, the simple rule to remember when shading the filter, um, is that the shadow will always be on the same side as a light source. In this example, the life source is on the right, so the shadow is on the right side of the filter. This is because the filter Miss Akane cave shape, so the light is able to hit the left side of filter, um, leaving the right side and shadow on the side. We can see that the upper lip protrudes out more than the lower one, creating this inward angle. The upper lip also protrudes out further than a chin, creating this less pronounced inward angle. I also noticed this inward arch at the filter, Um, and this art here, below the lower lip from the front view. If the light source is coming from above, which is usually the case, the shading of the lips will exhibit this alternating light, dark pattern where the planes of the lips, nose and chin that are facing downward will be in shadow. Try examining your own lips and see if you can match the details that we pointed out here. And in the next lesson, we'll see how these concepts play out in a drawing 28. Lips Drawing Exercise: in this lesson will be drawing a pair of lips step by step. Here's the reference will be working with how we keep the lay in proportional our first measure, the width of the lips from corner to corner and transferred over to the drawing paper that don't do the same for the hype. If you're drawing from a live motto or don't have a divider, you connive all these measurements. But it's important to establish some kind of parameter, so you have something to work off. Now we can start drawing the land. There's an upward curve at the center of the lip, and it gently slopes down to the corner, the bottom that will be a lot more rounded in this instance, the bottom that won't have that downward curve in the middle. So instead of looking like a W, it would look more like a you. We can use the divider to mark out where the top edge of the bottom lip will be. Notice how the two round it forms of the bottom lip create these subtle bumps. We can do the same for the bottom edge of the upper lip and drawing in the teeth Onley. The two front teeth are clearly visible, so we just draw those two and ignore the rest. Before we begin shading, I'll add some texture to the upper lip. Lips will have many subtle cracks increases in them. We don't have to copy them all, but it's good to end in a few just to give the drawing some texture. Okay, I'll start shading by using an HB pencil to fill in the dark opening of the mountain. The light is coming from above, so there will be a shadow under the bottom lip. The shadow is really great for showing the thickness of the bottom lip and how it protrudes out from the face. Whenever I'm drawing lips, I always try to emphasize the shadow. The shadow will be darkest at the center and gradually lightens as it get closer to the corners. The reason for this is that the lip is sticking out the most at the center. Therefore, a cast a large shadow There. The shadow will also be darkest near the lip and gradually lightens as it moves away again . Because the light is coming from above, the bottom side of the top lip will be in quite a bit of shadow. I'm moving the pencil up and down as opposed to side to side, to give the shadow of soft edge and put in the shadow for the bottom lip as well. Here are moving the pencil up and down to soften up the edge of the shadow for both upper and lower lip. The goal will be to create a smooth gradation that is darkest at the bottom and gradually gets the lighter towards the top. The bridge, the gap between the dark and light era. Even more I'll put in these vertical strokes going from the dark area into the light area. I lift up my pencil towards the end of the show to lighten it, and that should give me a nice gradation. Also notice, that is, I'm moving along the lip. I'm slightly changing the direction of the strokes to mash the contour. The lip. It's a smart detail, but it helps give the lip more dimension and then dark in the bottom portion A little more . Now we'll do the same thing for the upper lips and dark in the bottom portion, the being shaped nose at the corners of the lips are not very visible in this reference, so we won't be picked them, then blended out with the cotillion. Be sure to blend in a single direction from dark to light with the lips. We really want to keep the shading as smooth as possible and minimize uneven spots. - Now we could come back in and add some contrasts. Use a to B pencil and dark in the shadow under the lower lip and also dark in the shadow edge on the lower lip. Notice the thin gap between the shadow edge and the bottom of the lip. This will serve as the reflected light next dark in the opening of the mouth and reinforce the cracks in the upper lip. The shading would tend to be darkest here, where there's a lot of overlapping parts. Of course, we can't just leave the teeth this pure white, the teeth of sitting inside the mouth so they're going to be in shadow. What a light layer of tone over the front teeth. There's a shadow cast by the upper lip onto the teeth. The shadow really helped to show that the lip is overlapping the teeth Max less dark in the underside of the upper lip for more contrast. And let's add a little more tone to the lower lip. Here I'm placing the tone in this curve shape to emphasize the two round it forms of the lower lip. As the drawing becomes darker, I can afford to blend more quickly and not be is worry about uneven spots because they will be less noticeable. Use. The blending process is the chance to scope the tone and shape it, as you wish, is a good idea to place a blank paper under your hand so you don't smear the graphite on the drawing. As the top portion of the bottom lip recedes back into the mouth, the tone will gradually gets darker, so I'll put in a little bit of shading along the top edge and blend it out. This will really have to show the round shape of the lip, then shape the need of the racer into a flat edge like so and use it to live out some highlights. These highlights will be in a sort of family like pattern to match the contour of the lips . You might have to reshape the race that once or twice to clean it up as it becomes dirty with graphite. If the highlight stands out a little too much weaken, tone them down with a cotillion. Next, we'll go over the drawing one more time to add more contrast, dark in the shadow on the lower lip and dark in the shadow edge of the lower lip. Do the same for the upper lip. Add a little more tone onto the teeth and dark in the opening in the mouth. There's a thin shadow on the lower lip that is cast by the upper lip. This bottom right corner of the lips is a little too dark, so gently tap on it with the kneaded eraser to lighten it. And lastly, we'll clean up the surrounding areas and edges, and we're all done. 29. Ear Structure & Form: in this lesson will go through the structure and anatomy of the year. The ear might seem like a complicated mess, but I promise why should learn all the parts that make up the ear drawing It will be a piece of cake, basic structure and placement. The year is shaped like a funnel. This funnel shape is angle forward to allow the ear to detect sounds coming from the front . This is why we're able to see so much of the gear from the front view. The year is also more top heavy, so from the front we will see a slight inward angle from the side. The height of the year is about twice as tall as the with, and rather than hanging vertically on the head, the year will be tilted back slightly, always like a crooked picture frame. As faras placement is concerned, the ear is placed in the lower back quadrant of the simplified head, and it will fit between the eyebrow and bottom. The nose, as you already seen from three D head lessons where the ears appear relative to the other features will also depend on the tilt of the head when the head is tilted up, the ear would hear lower, and when the head is tilted down, that year will appear higher up. Anatomy of the Year For most people, the hardest part of our drawing the ear is making sense of all this crazy details on the inside. So let's go through them one by one. First we have the helix, which is this thick outer rim of the ear. It spans from this point to this point. Within the helix sits the anti helix, which is this why shaped bump. The Why has two branches. The first branch is larger and less define. The second brand just smaller and more defined. Both the helix and anti helix attaches to the lobe you also known as Tolo. When we get our here, Pierce is usually the Lopez Pierce. A big characteristic of the ear lobe is how attached it is to the face. In one extreme, the ILO will be clearly separate from the face and dangle freely, in which case to a local me labeled as free and the other extreme. The ILO will be completely attached to the face, and there doesn't seem to be much of a near low. But all in this case, the a locum you labeled as attached. Mostly a lobes will be somewhere in between these two extremes. Next we have the Conjure, which makes up this recess portion of the year. The conjure is bowl shaped, and it attaches to the helix. At this point, we can see the conjure much more clearly from the back. Conjure is mainly responsible for the funnel shape of the year. You can really feel the bowl shape of the conjure by touching your ear like this to go back to the final analogy. Wakanda is like the body of the funnel. The helix is like the opening rim of the funnel. The ear lobe is like the tab on the funnel, and the anti helix is like, well, a weird why shaped debt in the funnel. Sorry, not everything has a perfect analogy. In front of the conjure, we have the triggers. The trade is, is the small profusion that partly highs the opening of the year canal and across from the trickiest is this other protrusion called the anti trade is lastly, suffering the traders in anti traders is this little opening called the into tragic notch. You can remember this as the tragic separation between these two star crossed lovers that are outrageous and anti traders. Go ahead and examine your own here to help you become familiar with all the parts of names , and then next lesson, it will put all that knowledge to work. 30. Ear Drawing Exercise: in this lesson will go through half draw near step by step. Here's the reference will be working with. We'll begin with the land, as mentioned earlier. The ear won't be perfectly vertical, so were first established the tilt of the ear. Next we used a divider to establish the height and width of the year. Of course, you can just eyeball these measurements if you like. With these guidelines in place, we can sketch in the details. Here we have the helix, then the little profusion that is the traders and the other protrusion that is the anti triggers. The anti triggers will continue upward and connect to the Y shaped anti helix. Once you're familiar with all the parts of the ear, it actually becomes quite easy to draw and make sense of all the details. I feel like the top of the ears a bit small, so I'm going to expand it a bit and now just raised the guideline. Okay, time for the shading. Let's start with the easiest part and fill in the dark cash shadow near the trade is the light source is coming from the left, and this is shadow cast by the trade is armed to the ear. We can see the edge of this shadow here and continue filling in the shadow. I'm using HB pencil and keeping the tone relatively light. There's another shadow cast by the helix onto the upper year. Let's outline that shadow. This shadow is actually quite useful. Not only does it add more dimension to the drawing, as all shadows do, but it also helps to show the contour of the anti helix. Notice how the shadow curves and change with the shape of the anti helix when drawing. We can exaggerate these changes to give the drawing more impact. Even within the shadow area, there should still be a gradation. The tone should be dark, is near the helix and triggers and gradually lightens as it moves away. So, so dark and the lines there to remind myself to keep this gradation in mine. Next, let's put in some of the more subtle core shadows. That's a core shadow at the bottom of the anti helix. This also one for the anti Drega's, and that's a long course shadow running along the helix and a lobe at the top of the ear. That core shadow was switched from being on the outside to being on the inside. Next, roughly a map out some of the shadows and highlights to the left of the year. - I also put a back around around the year. The ear is not by itself a very attractive object, so this will help make the drawing more interesting. There's a little light area in the background near that yellow. Let's mark out this area and filling the rest. We're designing the background. What could be more creative in this case? I'm taking inspiration from the reference, but if I decide later that doesn't look as good, I can always change it. Also notice how I'm not very concerned with making the shading super smooth for the background. I think a sketchy, stylized texture will actually look a lot better than the really smooth one. Let's add in just a hint of the jawline. Okay, the drawing is starting to take shape. Now let's take a to B pencil and dark in the cast and core shadows. For more contrast. - Notice that we have a second, weaker life source in the drawing coming from the right this last. Sources lighting up the edge of the helix weaken. Treat this just like a reflected light. So when darkening, the core shadow are just dark in the left side of the shadow and leave the edge lighter. Next, lightly blend out the tone. At this point, the goal is just to make things a little more smooth and also put a light layer of graphite onto the white areas, then dark in the back around some more. As I'm shading the background, I'm trying to have the tone gradually fade out to create a vignette. - Notice how the darker background causes the ear to stand out more. Now we'll focus on putting in the half tones to show the subtle contours of the ear. Let's start with the anti helix. We know that the highlight will be in the middle, so we'll put the half tone in between the highlight and core shadow, - then used to totally in to create a smooth transition and repeat the process. To add more contrast, let's do the same for the lower part of the year here. The highlights will be in these areas, and I'll go around the drawing with the cotillion and smooth out other areas where there's a transition between core shadow and highlight. Next would do one more round of adding contrast. For this, I use an even darker three. B pencil will reinforce this cash shadow to make it nice and sharp cash shadows a great they always make a drawing so much more interesting. And we also want to darken the recess of the ear to accentuate the why shape of the anti helix here are dark in the background, which will bring out the reflected light along the helix and now our dark in the core shadow on the helix and notice how the reflected light just pops right out. Also, when darkening the core shadow, I consciously tried to give it more variations, giving it some darker spots here and there. Now use the kneaded eraser to live out the highlights. Every time I put in the highlight, I'll step back and evaluate how it looks and figure out where I want to put the next one. - I want to tone down the highlights to the left of the year, so I used an HB pencil and lightly put in some cross hatching. Cross hatching is just a shading technique where you put multiple layers of parallel lines on top of each other and I just add some quick hatching to the yellow, do a little refining and we're all done. 31. Hair Form & Texture: hair could be one of the most tricky things to draw. There's so many different types of hair and so much details to deal with. The whole thing can really make you want to pull your hair out. But once you understand the basic principles of drawing hair, it could be quite manageable. And with time, even easy, one common mistake is to try to draw the individual strands of hair. In fact, I think this is how most beginners approach drawing hair myself included. The big ah ha moment for me came when I started thinking about the hair as a solid form. Instead of seeing the individual strands try to see the hair as a single shape, the shape has edges and contour, and it's governed by the same rules of lights and shadow as any other objects it has. Highlights have toned course shadows and even reflected lights, although it's a lot harder to see. Incidentally, the shape of the hair is very much affected by the shape of the head. Here we can see the round contour of the head being reflected in the hair in the form of this ban of highlight. Once we depict that the form of the hair we can add texture to make a look more realistic. Let's go through a quick exercise to see how this works would draw a simple lock of hair. The first step is to give this lock of hair some dimension. Let's imagine that the hair sticking out at the middle and therefore catches more light there. So that's where the highlight will be and the rest will be half tone. Just with this simple shading, we can start to see a little dimension. Next was smooth out the transition between the half tone and highlight by adding in some pencil shows. The strokes will begin in the half tone area and gradually taper out as it goes into the highlight. You can probably see now how the taper stroke is so useful for drawing hair. The strokes will also serve to give the hair some texture, so try to mix up the length and valuable lines. Once finished, gently blend out the tone with the two tilea. Be sure to blend with the direction of the hair. Now come back in with the pencil to give the hair more texture. This time, I'm focusing on giving the hair some dark strands here and there. It's these variations in tones that make the hair look more interesting and three dimensional. - To add yet another layer of texture. We can shape the kneaded eraser into a sharp edge and use it to live out, then highlights. Then do some more text oring. - You might find that the cotillion can be too blunt an instrument for blending hair, so if you want a more delicate blending tool, you can use a paintbrush instead. Lastly, we can use the kneaded eraser to add in random wisp of hair to make it look more natural. And we can come back in with the pencil to reinforce or accentuate those strands of hair. Here. I'm simply darkening the areas around the highlights to make it stand out more. Just be careful not to over dark in it, as it can look unnatural. As you can see, this simple process can create pretty realistic hair in a reasonably short amount of time. Go ahead and practice this little exercise, and in the next lesson we'll see how this simple process can create a realistic head of hair 32. Hair Drawing Exercise (Part 1): in this lesson will be drawing a four head of hair step by step. We'll start by drawing the land. I'll mark how tall I want the face to be and sketch in the outlines when drawing hair. That's a lot of details to take in, and it can be difficult to decide which line to put down. Luckily, in this case, the Harris pretty orderly and is easy to make out the contour of the hair. But if you're drawing a more chaotic head of hair, just tried to put down the lines of shape that stand out the most. You. The key thing to remember is that you don't have to copy the hair exactly as you see it. With the eyes, nose and lips. We have to be as faithful to the references we can to retain the lightness. But with hair, we have a lot more flexibility to make it look how we want without affecting the likeness. So even though the hair can be a bit tedious, the good news is that you can relax more and well, let your hair down. - Now that the lay in is complete, the next step is give some basic dimension to the hair. And we're going to do that by separating the hair into three tones, shadows, half tones and highlights. And I start with the shadows. How taken HB pencil and map out the darkest areas in the reference. Obviously, we'll start with the cash shadow on the face and neck. Next would do the cash shadows on the hair. Okay, so those with the easy ones the rest of the shadow areas will be a little more ambiguous. And how you design their shapes will be up to you, for example, with this shadow here, instead of trying to match the reference exactly, I'm using it as an inspiration. While designing the shadow in a way that I think will look a tractor. I tried to give the shadows and variation some jagged edges and uneven borders and so forth . Try designing your own shape and don't stress that about it too much. We'll be breaking up these shapes when we get into the text during phase. By the way, I'm using a blank piece of paper to rest my hand on so I don't munch the drawing before moving on to the next step. I'll take a darker three B pencil and dark in the shadow area some more. We'll be adding in the half tone next, and I want there to be some contrast between the two. - Next , I go back to the HB pencil and map out the half tone areas and shave them it. These are the areas that lies between the shadows and highlights. Again, with 1/2 tone will have to do some interpreting in design. You'll have to look at the reference and simplify the AM Biggers half tones into concrete shapes. Just go with your instinct and have fun. You have a lot of leeway here, and it's hard to go wrong as we're filling in half tone. Any areas that we leave blank will, of course, be the highlight. By the way, sorry of this video seems a little too long or slow. Drawing hair can involve a lot of details, and I just want to make sure you got to see the whole process. - Now that we have the shadows, half tones and highlights put in the hair is starting to look three dimensional. The only thing missing of the texture of the hair and the transition between the three tones could be smoother, so that's what we're going to do next. Make sure your pension was well sharpened and put in short, tapered strokes along the edge of the highlight areas you want. The show should start in the shadows of half tones and gradually taper out as they enter the highlights. The strokes were act as a bridge between the highlights and the shadows, 1/2 tones creating a smooth gradation. Also, they were add some subtle texture to the hair, tried to very at the length and darkness of these strokes a little. The point is to not have them become too repetitive and boring. Every once in a while, pressed down a little harder with your pencil, or make a stroke a little longer or shorter than usual and just repeat this process for all the highlight areas. Then we'll blend everything out with the cotillion. Be patient when you're blending and try to avoid uneven spots. It's important to be gentle and blend with the direction of the hair. Go ahead and blend into the highlight areas. We're going to re establish the highlights in the later stage. Okay, so the blending has brought the tones closer to each other in value, so I'll go back in and dark in the shadows for more contrast. I also take this opportunity to add more texture and variations to the shadows. Every once in a while, I'll press down harder with the pencil and put in a sharp line, then, ah, linger over that line a bit with a bunch of lighter strokes to tone it down. This helps to make the hair more interesting and also give it more dimension for this. You'll want to use a pencil that it's hard enough to make clean, sharp lines, but also soft enough to provide a dark value. An age of HB pencil would work well here. As you're doing this, step back and inspect the drawing every now and then. This will help me to see if what you're doing looks good and where to add more value or texture as you can probably tell why Now. Drawing hair requires a lot of patient with all this detailed works, it might be tempting to Russia's strokes and be a little sloppy, but you should avoid doing that. One sloppy stroke might not make a big difference, but many sloppy strokes were. Add up and down. Grade the quality of your drawing. Just take your time and be patient. Taking frequent breaks is a very good idea as it can help you stay fresh and prevent sloppiness. - Next , take the kneaded eraser and shape it into a sharp wedge, like so, then use it to lift out these thin highlights in the highlight areas. 33. Hair Drawing Exercise (Part 2): next, take the kneaded eraser and shape it into a sharp wedge, like so, then use it to lift out these thin highlights in the highlight areas, there's might be a little awkward, so be patient. You'll have to reshape the eraser to clean it with every few strokes. Also, make sure the curve and direction of the highlights matched the curve and direction of the hair. - One tours I could make your life a lot easier is in the eraser pen. Any erasure Penhall work here. As long as the eraser is hard enough, take a razor and cut off the tip of the eraser to create a sharp edge. Then use that sharp edge to lift out highlights in your hair. The eraser pen is great for creating really thin highlights, and you'll have a lot more control with it. On the other hand, the needy the racer is better for creating medium and large highlights. I like to use both, depending on my needs. Repeat this process for all the highlight areas. The thin highlights we just put in added another layer of texture to the hair. Now we'll go in with H HB pencil and smooth out the transition between the highlights and the shadows and half tones. This step is very similar to what we did earlier. As I'm doing this, I'm also thinking about adding texture to the hair and increasing the contrast for the drawing. So every now and then, I'll press down harder with the pencil to create darker strands or groups of strands. This goes with shadows. Well, I want to create some variations and tones in the darker areas. - As I'm doing this, I'm referring back to the reference every once in a while, but not much. I'm mostly going off my own judgment about what I think will look good in some places. I'm actually differing from the reference, for example, in the reference, this group of hair is highlighted along the edge. But in the drawing, I made the age quite a bit darker. I felt that this would help show the contour of the hair better, so I made the change. Once you're satisfied with the texture of the hair, take a darker to be pencil in dark in the shadow areas to bump up the contrast, try to stay in the darker areas and be careful not to shade over too much of the texture. - This process of refining the hair can take a long as you want it to, depending on how realistic you want your hair to look. They're artists who can render the hair for hours. Personally, I don't enjoy reading during the hair that much. So my philosophy is to make the hair adequately realistic and leave it at that. There's even an argument that you don't want to make your hair too realistic as they could distract from the face. These air decision you have to make for yourself and it all depends on your temperament and the style you want to work in. Now, if you do want to take your hair further and make it as realistic as possible, process is pretty simple. Just repeat the steps that we've done so far. Lend out the hair with the cotillion, lift out the highlights with the eraser and come back in with the pencil to add more texture and contrast and repeat that cycle as many time is needed. With each cycle, you're basically adding in another layer of texture and in time this will give your drawing more depth and subtle complexity. But in this example, only be going through the cycle once, and that's it. We're all done. We did a lot in this lesson, so let's go through a quick recap of all the steps for us. We drew the land. Then we feel in the shadows, followed by the half tones and highlights. This helps established a form of the hair. Next, we used taper strokes to smooth out the transition between the highlights, and the rest of the tones blended everything out. Went back in with the pencil. To add more contrast and texture, use the kneaded eraser and erase append to lift out. Highlights did one more round of tech Cering and adding slow on details, and lastly, we use a software pencil to add one more round of contrast. 34. Final Portrait Drawing (Lay-In): Okay, so now let's apply what we learned so far to draw a complete portrait. His reference photo will be working with are also include two additional high-contrast version of the reference photo that you can use to see the shadows will clearly be needed. I use a luminous method to establish the rough scaffolding of the Head. Start with the circle and add the center line. Even though there's a slight twist in the model's neck, would still just going to approach this portrait as a standard three-quarter head. Next, I'll find the hair and brown line here. I'm just doing my best estimate where these measurements would be. You've got to start somewhere, right? And these measurements are not set in stone. Chances are we don't have to adjust them further down the road. But for now, they will help give us something that worked with. Since the head is not distorted by perspective, we can copy the same distance to find the nose and chin line are lightly draw in the ellipse that separate the front plane that phase from the side pull interface. And now are roughly block in the features. Not too concerned with the likeness just yet. I'm mostly just trying to get the proportions and placement right. We can worry about refining the details later. Here to find the point where the IRR connects the jar, I use a technique called triangulation. I'm estimating the angle from the bottom of the nose, at the bottom of the ear. And then our estimate, the angle from the corner of the eyebrow to that same point. These two angles will give me the location of the year. Notice how these three points form a triangle, hence the name triangulation. This is an extremely useful technique and I use it all the time in my drawings. Whenever you want to find a landmark in a drawing measured against one or several points that you've already found. The more points you use, the more accurate your placement will be. As the saying goes, measure thrice and you're drawing would be nice. Now we can place the rest of the features. The further you go into drawing, the easier becomes since you have more and more reference points to help guide you. Well, that's assuming that you were accurate in your initial measurements. That's why it's very important to be diligent about checking in rechecking your drawing from mistakes as you draw, especially in the earliest stages as the rest of the drawing will be based on that. Elaine is good to jump around and drawing the line and develop it as a whole. And we'll just focus on one area for a long time. Instead it draw the hair for a bit and then draw the network and so on. This will help you to spy proportional mistakes. You drawing more coherent. When I'm recording this drawing demos, I try to be a lot more orderly and my approach to make things easier to follow. But when I'm drawing out for myself, I will actually drop around a lot more than I do in the video. Usually I like to draw the eyes last. That's the most important feature and I like to have all the other landmarks to help me draw it more accurately. A big problem that a lot of students have is getting the two is the match up. Here you see me moving my hand back and forth between the eyes. Many times. I'm drawing an imaginary curve that goes from one to the other. This helped me to establish the connection between the eyes and tie them together. You can also use straight lines and look at the distance between the two dogs and so on. Recording is don't just draw one die in isolation. Pay attention to the relationship between them. It's important to place the iris and the eye as accurately as we can, because any deviation can really affect the gays and emotional portrait. To help with this, pay close attention to the whitespace on either side of the iris and match them as closely as possible. In this case, the subject is looking slightly towards the right. So there will be more whitespace on the left side of the arrows. Now when come back in and refine the shape of the features, this is where I start to worry about the likeness, our check and recheck my drawing against the reference to try to find and capture all the subtle curves and angles as accurately as I can. The key to capturing the likeness and the portrait is really just patient and attention to details. The more time you take to carefully observe your drawing and correct mistakes, the more likely subject it will look. It's a good idea to take a short break every once and awhile, step away from your drawing and see if you can spot any mistakes. I will also take longer breaks every hour or so. This allows my eyes to reset. And usually when I come back to the drawing, I'll see things that I want to fix. As you can see, I'm really being fussy and adjusting and moving things around until I feel like I have it just right. There's a time to be loose and gestural and there's a tyrant, be Farsi and detail oriented. This is one of those times. Almost every details contribute to the likeness of a person. And the more of those details you get right or better the lightness will be also fixing mistakes will be a lot easier now, then once you progress further in the drawing. Okay, so that's it for the phase. Before we move on to the rendering phase, carefully reexamined you're drawing to see if there's anything you want to take a break and do something else, then come back and examine it again with fresh eyes. And once you have a relay and I'll see you next lesson. 35. Final Portrait Drawing (Rendering): Okay, Once you have to the laying, we could move on to the Reverend face. The first objective here is to get a three dimensional read for the drawing, and we're going to do that by separating the light areas from shadows. Just look at the reference and simplify all the tones in tow. Either light a shadow. We'll deal with the half tones and really dark shadows later. One trick that might help with this. It's a squint your eyes so that it blurs out all the small details of the reference. This will help you to better focus on the big picture off, distinguishing the light from the shadow, thinking about the location of light source who also help. We know that the light source is coming from the lap so the light area will generally be on the left and the shadow will be on the right. This process is a bit of an art itself. Sometimes a shadow might be very ambiguous, and you're not sure if it should be in the light group with Shadow Group, in which case just make a decision one way or another. That's really no right or wrong answer here over time, as you gain more experience, you'll develop a sense for how to design these lights and shadows in a way that look attractive. Until then, the best way to learn is to experiment. The lighting in this reference is good, but not great. That's a decent amount of contrast between the light in the shadow, but we actually want more more contrast. There's between light and shadow more dramatic and exciting. The drawing will be when selecting references. You want to look for this, but this is actually a good opportunity for us to show how we can take a so so reference and exaggerate the lighting to make a look more exciting. You'll see what I mean later. Now let's do the same thing to the hair. The top part of the hair is hit by light, and the bottom portion will be in shadow. Of course, the division will be broken up by random lines of shadow, By the way, I'm using a B or to be penso for this initial shading. Later, when we ready to site adding contrast, I'll switch to a darker pencil and I have some lightest show to the hair to smooth out the transition between the light and shadow and also give the hairs and texture. Remember, this is the exact same procedure we use in the previous head drawing exercise. Now come back and dark in some of the darker shadow areas. This will have to give the drawing a little bit more dimension. - Now it zoom in and focus on the eyes. Die eyebrows would not be the same tone all the way through. There are areas of the eyebrows that will be darker than others. Here. The middle portion will be darker because that's where most of the hairs are overlapping. This is a critical detail to making the eyebrow look more realistic now because, well, shade in the iris and pupil. - The rest of the eye requires more precision, so I'll switch to my trusty Mars. Let Holder. It can sharpen to a very foreign tip, and it's stay sharp for quite a while. If you don't have one of these, you can just use a regular, well sharpened pencil. Once we have the dark tone laid in, we can use the dough till Ian to blend it out and create some subtle contour for the eyeballs. Remember, the great Asian will be darkest towards the corners and lighten as it moved towards the iris. Now, let's not forget about the contours around the eyes as well. Notice how this blending process is helping us to create 1/2 tone and also smooth out the transition between the light and shadow. - Now we'll add some of the darker shadows to the ear, even though the ear can look a little bit weird with all the irregular contours, it can also be a great opportunity to show dimension. That's a lot of dark crevices and hard shadows in the ear, and if we can take advantage of them properly, they can add a lot of interest to the during next , dark in the shadows in the mouth area. Remember, the con cave shape of the filter, um, will actually cost the shadow to fall on the left and the light to fall on the right. Notice the downward slanting cash Otto created by the nose, upper lip, lower lip and chin. It's important that we capture these cast shadows. Next, let's put in little short strokes to represent the facial hair. Don't know would do this part because it can look a little weird. We just want to ask him tax around the mouth, now blended out with the totally in to soften the texture, now dark in the shadows on the hair and sharpen up some of the edges to keep from smudging the drawing. I'll take a piece of paper and rest my hand on it. Try to mix up the shapes to keep them from looking to uniform. Lend it out and as and texture would a sharp pencil. And for even more tax issues, the needed a gray. So to lift out some highlights, the hair will be casting a little bit of a shadow on the forehead. And we also want to soften up the transition between the hair on the forehead. I had a dark background to the left side of the face where the light is hitting to create a nice contrast. This will make the portrait pop out of the page more and let's dark in the shadow area some more. Okay, so now I'm going to take my well sharpened Mars, let Holder and just come back in and sharpen up. Some of the lines is reshaping and blending things starts to get a little soft and blurry, and by reaffirming these lions, the during is going to look a lot better. And we can better judge what to do next. As I'm reaffirming these lines, I'm being careful not to make things to even a uniform. I try to vary up the line weights to keep things interesting. I'll make certain parts darker, certain parts lighter Langway variation is a big key to creating a beautiful drawing. Let's continue to dark in the shadows to give the drawing more contrast and make it look more dramatic. To further accentuate the contrast. I'm going to dark in the edge of the shadow along the separation between the light and the dark, where there's a strong cash adult like under the nose, lips and chin. I'll make the edge harder where there's a more diffuse shadow, like at the cheekbone, nose inside of the head. I make the edge softer and more subtle. And remember the line weight variation principle applies to the shadows as well. Don't just dark in the edge all the way through. Instead make some areas darker in some lighter. Now I'll come back over the whole thing with a seven b pencil and really pump up the contrast. As I'm darkening this background, I'll let the tone spill into this portion of the hair. This will have to make that area of the hair blend in with the background and create a loss edge laws. Edges look really great because they create a lot of depth and interest in your drawing is similar to the principle of lying weight variation where we want to create as much variation in our drawings as possible backgrounds and dark shadow areas are great opportunities for creating loss edges, so always keep that in mind, associating them. - Now I'll come back in with the needed racer and pick out the highlights do one last round of adding contrast with the seven B pencil. - Lastly , I'll use a really sharp blade holder and added hatching lines of the drawing. I like to use simple lies on a slanted at a 45 degree angle, but also very up the angles and lines, depending on the contour of the area he's hatching. Lines were not only served to soften the transition between the light and shadow, but they were also add a nice stylized texture to the during. It gives the view or something to feast their eyes on when they're looking at the drawing closely and from far, it will give the drawing a nice, subtle texture as well. This process is called adding calligraphy to a drawing. This is a whole art form in itself and then many, many ways of doing it. And to be honest, I'm somewhat of a novice in this area. There, master artists out there who have some amazing way of style izing the drawings with different lines and flourishes. The best way to learn how to do this is to do massive studies of artworks that you like and just copy with artists did to see how they got there, drawing toe, look the way it does. You can find lots of great drawing to study from with a quick Google search or browsing through art books. By the way, notice how in the area like the nose and lips, I try to avoid hard lines and instead showed dimension by using soft and firm edges. But in the areas like the outline of the face or the ear, I intentionally break this rule usually dark hard lines. This is because I think it makes things pop more, and it's just how I want to style eyes. The drawing. You can think of drawing a portrait as consisting of three stages. First we draw lay in is accurately as we can. Then we rendered that lay in as realistically as we can, and finally we stylized drawing in various ways to make it more than just a realistic copy . We wanted to draw attention to the fact that is a drawing and add our own creativity and signature to it. - And that's it for I'll find a portrait drawing. Thank you so much for joining me in this course, and I hope you enjoyed it. And until next time, happy drawing.