Point of View: Compelling Narrative Voices | Barbara Vance | Skillshare

Point of View: Compelling Narrative Voices

Barbara Vance, Author, Illustrator

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13 Lessons (1h 19m)
    • 1. Introduction POV

      5:15
    • 2. Identifying the Critical Listener

      3:49
    • 3. Ways Narrators Share Information

      7:21
    • 4. First Person

      9:09
    • 5. First Person Practical Tips

      8:59
    • 6. Third Person Limited

      7:12
    • 7. Third Person Limited Example

      7:15
    • 8. Third Person Omniscient

      9:14
    • 9. Objective vs Subjective Narration

      6:07
    • 10. Multiple Person Perspectives

      5:50
    • 11. Second Person

      1:13
    • 12. Free Indirect Style

      4:40
    • 13. Final Advice

      2:37

About This Class

Choosing point of view is one of the most important decisions you will make when designing your novel, short story, or film. This class teaches you the differences between each of the points of view, addressing both their strengths and weaknesses, and alerting you to potential challenges.

We discuss:

  • Identifying your audience: Who is the narrator talking to? Why do you need to know?
  • Unreliable and reliable narrators
  • Different ways narrators share information: what to reveal, what to conceal?
  • First-Person Perspective
  • Third-Person Limited Perspective: Following one character
  • Third-Person Omniscient: Don't get overwhelmed by the all-seeing eye
  • Multiple-Person Perspective: How it is different than omniscient 
  • Objective vs. Subjective Narration: How much personality do you want your narrator to have?
  • Second Person
  • How your narration looks on the page
  • Making your own point-of-view "rules"

My goal is for you to have a solid understanding on how point of view functions in a story as opposed to just giving you rules. This allows you to make decisions for yourself.

I have included a print-out of the 'What Maisy Knew' excerpt discussed as it is rather lengthy.

Thank you for watching; happy writing!

Recommended Classes that support this one:

Transcripts

1. Introduction POV: hi, everyone, and welcome to this course on point of view in your writing. Choosing a point of view is actually one of the most important decisions you will make when you are crafting your narratives. While, of course, character and plot are important, and plot is this story that you are relating to. Your reader's point of view is the lens through which you will relate it. It's how you will tell that story. Think of it this way. Every story that you tell has a lens through which we are looking. When when I read your story or anyone story, it's like I'm putting on a pair of spectacles and hear out there that I'm watching and looking at. That's the plot, but I'm seeing it through the pair of spectacles that you've given me, and this is true of every story. This is true of nonfiction. Everyone looks at a plot at a story at an anecdote through a lens. So the question for you as a writer is what is the lens through which I want my reader to experience this story. If I'm reading a story about a family marooned on an island that's going to be a very different story. If I tell it from the perspective of the 54 year old father responsible for his family or the perspective of the three year old daughter. Same story, same essential events for which you will choose those that go into your plot but going to be told completely different just because you've picked a different lens through which to tell it when we're riding. We often think about the relationship that we want the reader to establish with the character, which is of course, totally important. But you don't want to neglect the relationship that the reader has with the narrator and indeed the relationship of the narrative has with the character. So it's never just a point of saying, OK, it's the reader and the character, or it's the narrative of the character. It's the readers relationship with the character that you're building your building. That relationship through the readers relationship with the narrator and therefore the narrator, has a relationship with the reader as well. That narrative is the intermediary, which means he has a relationship with me and the characters. So choosing a point of view is basically choosing at what angle on my coming in to look at this story. And that's a very strategic decision, because when you choose point of view, what you're doing is you have certain freedoms, and then some freedoms are taken away. So you are giving yourself limitations or you're removing limitations in the ways that you tell those stories. And in doing so, this completely changes the plot and the way we know the characters to think that you can choose a point of view irrespective off how you want my me as a reader to relate to the characters or indeed, the plot as you will unfold it. You can't separate those things. Choosing point of view influences those two things so critically that when you're thinking about your narrative, you might say to yourself, Well, I've I've done my character profile because I took barbers building a great character course, and I've plotted everything out because it took barbs. Really great dramatic plots. Course one and two, and now I'm ready to go. But no, no, you have to know that point of view. You have to know what that lenses to that, and we are going to be looking at numerous aspect off point of view. We will address first person. We will address third person limited third person. Omniscient was slightly touch on second person. We will look at multiple perspective first person. We will look at the differences between subjective and objective perspectives in our missions. Within all of these perspectives, we're going to look at what the benefits of using these perspectives, what the challenges are. Perhaps that downsides of using those perspectives. We will be giving you specific two DUIs or things to look out for ways to succeed with these different perspectives and indeed the things that you want to avoid. We will also talk about the concept of authority, all intrusion. How how much do you want your narrative to have his or her own character? How much do you want your marriage to actually be sort of a. An element of the story of how invisible do you want them to be? And what are the pluses and minuses of making that decision? Finally, we will also look it actually on the page when you're putting a words down. What are the differences in the ways that you can demonstrate characters, thoughts and actions and feelings. Do you use quotations? Do you use tags, these sorts of just down and dirty tactics? These are the questions you need to know so that you can actually go about writing it and move from theory land to actual practical application. Getting your story down on the paper I hope that sounds of interest. If it does, let's move to the next video, where we will talk about the critical critical listener reader off your stories. 2. Identifying the Critical Listener: most of the time When we're talking about storytelling, we're thinking about who's the author, who is the storyteller who is the narrative. But it is just as important to think about who is your reader. By that. I do not mean that you have to go do market research and say, Well, I'm writing in SciFi And generally speaking, I think this demographics going to like that because that's not what I'm saying. I'm saying that when you are choosing your narrator, what often happens is that an author can get in a sort of a bit of a rut in trying to make that narrative come alive. One of the ways that you combat that is to actually think about what is the actual occasion off this story? Time This is relevant. Whether you're writing first person, third person, it doesn't matter. Why is this character if its first person, why is this narrative of its third person telling this story and this is going to help you get a good, solid voice and actually choose the things that you would indeed tell if I'm just writing this to all and sundry and I don't have a sense of the person to whom I'm directing it. That's a lot of information that you then have to sort of narrow down, winnow out. What do I say? What don't I say? If, for example, you're telling your sister how your day went on Friday, you're going to tell that story of the events of your Friday very differently than you would a casual acquaintance. So that right there just making that decision. We haven't even talked about unnecessarily much about who our narrator is. But we're already getting a sense of Oh, yes, you're right. Because my sister, I'm going to be a bit more gossipy, and I'm going to talk about certain things I wouldn't necessarily talk about. And I might be more honest about my thoughts about these characters that I would be. There were a casual acquaintance. So just just the person we're talking with tells us so much, and it helps you get in the mood for the narrating that you're doing. Now. You don't have to do this. You could just sort of plot something out to all and sundry and write your narrative, but it can be very helpful to actually sort of think about. Why am I telling this story A My telling this story just to tell it by telling this story because I want you to sympathize with a certain person in a certain way. Why are you telling it Point being that the storytelling situation matters and the more concrete you have that situation in your mind, the easier time of it you're going to have actually writing your narrative and and getting into an authority group. You do not have to tell your readers what that storytelling situation is. Sometimes you will have stories that do this. These are often called framed stories in which we sort of have and a storytelling situation set up. And then we move into the story itself. You also might have stories that are sort of have a prologue and move. In an example. This would be Henry James turn of the screw in which the first sort of prologue are this group of people getting together talking about ghost stories and then someone has already interesting story to tell. And then the rest of the story moves us forward into the actual plot. So you can do that, but you don't have to. It's just for you as the rider to set up that storytelling situation, know who you're telling the story to and why you're telling that story. 3. Ways Narrators Share Information: Equally important to thinking about your your storytelling situation is to think about the ways in which a narrator conveys information, novels and short stories teach you how to read them. When I open a book I don't necessarily know, even from the first page is Am I in Third Person Limited? Why am I in third Personal mission? Is this first person or is this multiple first person? I don't know, I don't know until I get going. And then when I'm several chapters in, I feel like I've been sort of taught how to read this. Okay, several chapters in I understand that this is Harry Potter book and this is Third Person Limited because over the course of three chapters, I've never left Harry. We've always been with Harry, and everything that has any sort of opinion is of Harry's. And so I understand that this is the person limited or oh, I'm jumping around quite a lot in these various scenes. This must be third personal mission. But even within something like that, you would sit there and say, Well, this is this is sort of third person multiple. I'm not really in everyone's head, but I'm not just in one person's head. I'm in several people's heads, but I'm only in the scene by scene. We don't know these things. We learn these things as you reveal them to us. Likewise, when you're making these decisions, you're also rationing information. This is what you do as a narrative. Now again, it's different. Author is not a narrative. The narrative off the story rations information an hour to knows more. And this is true. The author as well. But we want to focus on narrator your rationing information. You're leaving certain things out. You're putting certain things in. We know this as readers that you're doing this. So we're going to sit there and we're willing when we come to a book to accept a certain amount of that right? I'm willing to accept that this now return when to trust this narrator to tell me what I need to know in the moment, which means that I have to trust you. You have to establish that bond of trust with me. Now a read, it comes to a book trusting the narrator. That relationship is yours to break, and the things that are going to cause you to break it or if you're not true to a point of view or if you dishonor the reader with information that they feel that you should have told them and that you didn't tell them This gets into the whole realm of reliable and unreliable narrators. So reliable narrators are ones that we understand your mode. We understand what you're doing, me believe what you're telling us. And this doesn't mean that a narrative always has to tell the truth. And narrative can be a liar which makes them unreliable as long as they are reliably unreliable, were OK, So as long as I'm reading this knowing this is a somewhat unreliable character, I'm good. Think of Holden Caulfield in Catcher in the Rye. This is a very opinionated, angsty young man. We read this and his angst and his emotion. I they are just leaping off the page and I'm jumping off the page. They are soaring off the page. And so you read that and you go OK, this thing, this young man, it's clearly coloring things. And if I were there, I might have what very well. Seeing things differently. So we're reading, holding coalfields narration. And even though there's a deep honesty to his emotional state in that story, his his interpretation of things we recognized might actually be very, very colored. Spend two a shade that we would not see where we to see this events for ourselves. So in a situation like that, we could say that Holden Caulfield is a reliably unreliable narrator, so you can have a situation like that. You can also have narrators who we just more or less trust throughout. Another first person example of somebody we actually trust would be Pip in Great Expectations by Charles Dickens. Pip has his perspectives. We understand that those can be colored here or there, but we really go through something like that, feeling very solid about the narration. Jane Eyre would be another example. Charlotte brought his Jane Eyre. She is a very reliable narrator, and we more or less trust her throughout. She's very honest, and in a situation like Jane Eyre, she's very steady. So we're not getting that emotional waffling that we see with a Holden Caulfield. And in that sense, we we just have this relationship. The narrator. It's quite quite reliable, an unreliable narrator is one in which you're reading it and you really do go. I'm not being told something. There's something off here and generally speaking, unreliable narrators. It's not what you're going for, even if you, even if you want your read it, to have an unreliable relationship with them, where we do feel off our footing with the narrator. That's an active decision you're making as a reader. So again, there's a structure. There's a grand design to the unreliability that you are putting into your narrative that you're putting into your plot. The danger isn't. And when an unreliable narrator is bad, it's when it isn't intentional. You've broken rules of point of view. You've left things out. I thought I should know where you've put things in that totally feel like they left field. That's what make sure your narrative unreliable, which is why it is so critical that you get point of view right and that, you know, up front, what is the relationship? I want my region tohave with my narrator, and this honestly can be very dependent on the kind of plot you have as well. Mysteries and things like that are far more likely to have a narrative that is mildly unreliable, as opposed to something like a drama. When you're also thinking about this choosing in this selection of information, which is the narratives prerogative in the office prerogative. You're also thinking about When do I reveal information and when dough tie and how do I set someone up for something and how Don't, for example, Let's look at this sentence. The phone rang. Claudia picked it up, unaware that in seconds life would change. A sentence like that is going to make us anticipate. A sentence like that is going to set us up for something really big, right? You didn't have to do that. You could have said the phone ringing. Quot have picked it up. But you didn't. You said she was unaware that life is going to change, and when you say that would like uh oh, you know, we were set in it so again, when we're thinking about how do you know it? Just tell stories. They tell stories through revealing information through not disclosing information through the perspectives that they tell and through the relationship that they set up between the readers and their characters. all right. So having set some ground work here on narratives and perspectives and relationships between readers and narrators, let's get into the first prospective we're going to look at, which is first person. 4. First Person: first person perspective is one of the most common perspectives used in writing on. I definitely feel like it's in a moment and it's been in a moment for a while. It is an extremely intimate perspective, one in which you're using an eyes. He would say. I walked here. I did this. The first person we're tracking with the character. What's key about writing in first person is toe. Always remember that we are not following. The author were not following author. We are following the character, and that means that you have to know who is your character and you have to get inside of your character and you have to walk in those shoes because in first person the narrative is the protagonist. And because that narrative is talking directly to you, you're establishing an immediate, very intimate connection. We have a direct line to the person this story is about, and in this way it pulls the reader right into this story. This intimacy is so key, it really lets us get very close to that narrative, and it lets the narrative sort of you very often find with first person perspectives. The narrator can kind of Let his guard down and really, you get very up into the narratives head. There is no seeing the world. While we're looking at the protagonist, we're on Lee ever seen things through the protagonists perspective, which again benefit intimacy but has limitations because the character is telling this story. This is a very limited perspective. That character cannot be up in the heads of anyone else. We never get to see the character with. We never get to look at that character. We only ever see things through his or her eyes. And what this means is that we only know what she knows. We have to guess what Imed name is thinking with a grimace on her face and we can't be in these other places. There are probably things going on that we don't know about. And again, this is This sounds obvious, but this is really key, and this happens so often when I work with people where they would say to me, I don't know, should I should I tell people about this scene? I don't know if I should how much information I should tell people, and my question isn't well, should you have this scene or not? My question is, what do you want your Regis to know? How do you want your Regis to feel? So if you're in sort of a suspense story and it's a first person perspective and the bad guy has set up a trap for our character at the edge of the bridge and our characters walking across the bridge, guess what? The character and by extension, you I don't know that that policy is there, which means that when you get there surprise, it's a big surprise. Now that could be great. Is that what you want? You just to feel surprise? Surprise is a positive. Then that's the perspective for you. But if what you want the readers to feel is, as we watch the protagonists go over the bridge, if you want us to be biting our fingernails going, no, no, turn around. Turn around because we know that the posse is their first person. Perspective is not your bag. You don't want that one because that's not going to let you build that suspense. So again, you want to think about how do I want to negotiate the emotional experience that I want my reader to have another very important factor about first person perspective. All perspectives are biased, and this includes first person. So again, it's not enough to just say, Well, I want to tell a story about a young man. That's nice. But when you choose to tell that story through a biased point of view of Holden Caulfield, who is totally opinionated, pretty darn sassy, you are telling a different story, and you're going to notice different things. Holding coalfields. Personality is going to notice different things than Pips, personality and great expectations. Both stories are told by young men in the first person perspective, but one is a highly angsty teenage man. And even when Pips character becomes rather angsty young man himself, he narrates it differently. He's a different narrative, but both are tremendously biased. And so you have to write that bias not just into the voice of your character. You have to write it into the plot points you choose to reveal. You can't just look at point of view and say, Well, my perspective is holding coalfields very I should angsty young man, so I'm gonna write with a lot of attitude that's not good enough. What is a man? A lot of attitude going to talk about? What is he going to notice? What what moments in his day are going to stand out to him that's going to be different than something being narrated by very humble young man who isn't angsty etcetera. So you have to think about that bias of your perspective and how that bias effect everything to include how you describe the other characters. And this is where it's Sochi. The challenges with point of view, one of the biggest ones is just sticking with the rules of your perspective, and you can make these rules for yourself. But you need to set them up and then you need to stick with them. So if you've got a first person perspective and Holden Caulfield is describing all of these events, that happen, and then you've got this of the character who you think is a really sweet character, and you thinks a really sweet person, and then you go on to describe Now I'm totally making this up. It's This is where we're out of Catcher in the Rye. But say you have a character like Holden Caulfield very ask TUNEL whatnot. And then there's this character named Mabel and you think Mabel's really sweet and really nice, and you want the readers to know that Naval actually has a tremendously good hard. She's a lovely person because you want us to see how rotten holding this to her or you're holding esque character. You don't get to do that, because if holding coalfield isn't going to notice her, is that then you don't get to sort of Amish innately pull yourself out and tell me that about her. If you've chosen First Person Limited, you've picked your rules. You can't do that. And if you're angsty character describes Mabel s sweet, guess what? We might not think she's sweet. We will not know. We will only know that he thinks she is sweet, so you have to look at everything and you have to resist the temptation to go Well. I really want the reader to know that Mabel is a really sweet woman. Guess what If that's important for you, read it to know in the first person perspective, you've got a lot of seen building to do because now you have to set up a variety of scenes in which we see Mabel, in which your angsty character describes things that she does to such an extent that we can make that decision more or less for ourselves. And in a situation like that, you might have your angsty character describing her and not so delightful language. But if the facts of what she's doing our sweet enough, we might just say, Well, actually, I think Mabel seems really nice and I don't know why he's being so nasty and describing her physical appearance that way because she sure is being sweet, to give him that money and to drive him there and then to hold his hand when he is sick, right? We get to make those decisions for ourselves, but you've just had to add a lot of scenes and a lot of text so that I could know that Mabel s suite, which is completely fine but that's totally affected your narrative. It's affected your plot because now you have all these plot points in it and it's like that your story, not bad things, things to be aware of when you're writing first person. Every story has tension in it. And when it comes to a first person perspective, the tension that we have is between the reader and this biased character. Because we as readers, know that we don't actually know what's happening, that we don't have an unbiased perspective. So because we're so aware of the filter that we're looking at things through where it's like we're not quite trusting. I mean, you get you get my trust to Jane Eyre gets my trust pit, gets my trust. But there's always a tension and how you design your character can increase that tension with a Holden Caulfield esque character or decrease it, but that that there is a tension there and that can make a story interesting. Tension isn't just plot related. Tension isn't just OK. What happens next? Tension, tension, tension, tensions. Also, my relationship with the storyteller. And so you want to think about that. Narratives have numerous ways they build intention, and this is one of them. 5. First Person Practical Tips: practical tips. What are some sorts of things that you should really focus on, making sure you do when you're writing in the first person? And I would say the first thing is to really know your character. Remember your your inhabiting this character. How do they speak? What are Do they have certain ISMs? Do they have certain words that they used to? They have certain pronunciations or language with which they speak. What are their favorite things? Who really have to know your character and know how that character manifests himself or herself on the page and bring that through in the narration, really take time to establish a unique voice. One of the things that will kill your point of view no matter which one you choose, is if all of your character sound more or less be saying This is also true of first person . If your first person narrative sounds more or less like everybody else whom he or she is describing, then they all kind of run together, and it ends up looking like a muddy story. Think about mixing colors if you just take away the colors on the palette and Nixon together What do you get? You get a weird, ugly gray, not fun. So you want distinct colors in your stories. You want distinct voices and distinct flavors to that end, to make sure that you filter everything through your character. I know he said it before, but this is one of my top two DUIs. Practical advice, everything. Everything. Everything filtered through that lens of your character. Also, do you make sure that your character is likeable? Um, this doesn't mean your character has to be a good guy. It doesn't mean that your character has to have zero flaws. In fact, character had no flaws. Your character would not be likable. Your character be a bit insufferable. Probably. You want to make balance. Don't make your character on Lord. That's not going to help you. A likable character is a relatable character. Every likeable character is one who we see good, solid, redeeming qualities in. We want that character to succeed, but we also see where there is room for improvement. And quite frankly, that's how most of us see ourselves. We would say a lot of people would say, well, not the worst person in the world, but I have room for improvement. We want characters like that, which means it's very important. Pretty early on, you need to set up for us that your character is a good soul, has good things, make me want to like your character, even a story like Catcher in the Rye with Holden Caulfield, who I quite frankly think is absolutely frustrating. And I don't like him. That's a successful book, and a lot of people connect with it, especially certain people of a certain age, which is again, a book in which you really thinking about Who is this person talking to? Which brings me to my next point. Think about the narrative situation that you are telling your story and make sure you pash that out for yourself again. This isn't a must, but it's going to really help you. And if you find that you're in a rut with the direction your story should go. If you find that you're not even sure like, Oh, what should I do for my next plot point or I'm just feeling like it's not going anywhere. Ask yourself if you really have that storytelling context set up, and if you don't make one for yourself and see if imagining the person you're telling it to see if that actually opens you up to be able to write, because very often that lifts writer's block, make sure that your reader can connect with your character. This can be through shared in motion to shared experience. There just some kind of similar understanding. There's so many ways that we can connect with the character. I don't have to be a soldier on the front lines in World War One to be able to connect the character because we both know nd or because we both know what it feels like to miss someone you love. So think about the ways that you can establish that connection because your characters very often might be completely different than your readers. And so often we read things because we want a different experience. But you want to make sure that you're establishing for us some kind of connection. Emotional, actual, experiential, some kind of connections between your Regis Andrew characters. When it comes to first person, you want to make sure that you're narrating both action and dialogue. One of the challenges with first person is not going into stream of conscious mode without active intent on. I would say, most of the times dream of conscious is not the way that you want to go. It does work sometimes. James Joyce does it well. Angela's Ashes by Frank Record is another example where he ends up in a stream of conscious place at times, and it does work. But most of the time, stream of conscious actually isn't what you're sorting, searching for, and so you want to make sure that you're keeping a very clean, clean narration. Have action, have dialogue. Don't just sit up in your character's head. Obviously, everything's in your character's head because he or she is his telling the story. So we are up in their head. But there's a difference between that and this sort of pontificating, Um, just going off nous and it actually feeling like. And then this happened, and then this happened. I mean, you narrate it that way. You could be first person saying I saw her walk in the door. I'm here, she said. She looked down at her bag. I could tell she was looking for keys. She didn't know I had taken them right, you know. So it's action is stuck. It's moving forward. We're not just sitting there sort of theorizing. So keep in action, focused. You can keep it, action, focus and still have it filtered through that first person perspective, Another very practical application to tip. And this comes down to the nitty gritty of writing on the page. Avoid over using the word I. This can be so hard to do when you're writing in first person perspective, but over using I I I I get very tiresome. It could be quite helpful when you're going through your manuscript after you've written it , go through and highlight all of the letters I and all of the places that use that word and then go back in and see where you can reword it. So that example. I hate pickles. Especially hard to close. What could you say? Instead, you couldn't say pickles always seemed to get stuck in my throat. Especially, all declares. Now you see how, actually, the 2nd 1 is more interesting. It's a more interesting sentence to say fickle seem to get stuck in my throat so I can actually be a crutch that doesn't let you creatively word things. And if you've watched some of my other courses, you know how important I think the actual creativity with which you convey your information is, let's look at another example. I waited not knowing what she would say Now. Another way to say this would be waiting for her to speak felt like an eternity. Final piece of the choice on writing first person is that Remember that even though you were going through the perspective of one person and that the story is indeed about that person, your story is about that person surrounded by a lot of other characters. And that means that you're not really just telling her story. You're telling other people's stories as well. However, you still have to track in the first person character's head, which means that you don't get to know things that you that the character doesn't know. You have to be so careful about this. You have to find ways to tell me all about these are the characters and make these other characters alive and real and important without telling me other information about them. If I say she sat across from me, her lips pursed as she contemplated what I said. That doesn't work. That's not first person because you're telling me what she's doing. You're telling me she's contemplating it. I don't know that. I don't know that. Rather, I would say She sat across from me, her lips pursed, as though she were pondering what I'd set totally different. We just added, Let a little as though she were, and now it works. Now we know that the narrator thinks that she's pondering is a preserving that she looks like she's pondering. But we don't in fact know that she is pondering. So we get to bring hurt life and this person who the protagonist is talking with, we bring her to life. We bring her to life in the context of the first person perspective. 6. Third Person Limited: the next perspective that we're going to look at his third person limited, the 30% Limited actually can feel quite a lot like first person in the sense that we are. We're staying in one character's head and we're tracking with that character. The main difference is that Roberton, that lens being on I focus lens where the characters talking to us. We are observing the characters actions. We are actually looking at the character. It's just that we have access to her thoughts. So it's It's like she walked here. She walked there, were observing her in a way that we couldn't in first person. But we still have access to what's going on in her head. What this means is that as the author now you're allowed to use your own authority voice. You couldn't do that in verse person, but now you're allowed to. The author is suddenly a character in a way that the author wasn't before, So now we have the euphoria voice, but we also have the thoughts and the feelings and the emotions of the protagonist, and we stay with and we track with the protagonist. So we're still in that limited perspective. We still don't know what other characters thinking and what other characters air doing, who are not in this immediate knowledge base of the first of the protagonist. But we have the affordable interpretation, sort of grafted over that. It's the difference between getting to see inside the character's head and actually being inside the character's head. Which means that this is actually a really great perspective for novice writers. If you're a new writer and you're sort of trying to navigate point of view, Third Person Limited, which is another very, very common perspective to be written in is probably one of the safest bets that you could start with. One thing that you lose by not being directly up in the character's head is some of that immediacy and that intimacy, because I'm not as a character speaking directly to you, and that can be okay. I mean, it's an author you want. You might want some distance there because again that Justin's frees you up to do other things. But it is a trait that once you get away from first person perspective, now we're into Third Person Limited. We've removed some of that intimacy and immediacy that we did have originally in first person. Which means one of the first decisions that you want to make as an author is actually how intimate relationship do you want me to have with your protagonist? How much of his emotion do you want me to see? You might not want me to see very much of it, or you might want me to see a lot of it. So how much of his thoughts, his feelings, his perspectives are you going to tell me and how much of your narratives actually just going to be watching him move, watching what he does, watching what he says? Because you could have 1/3 person limited in which we're up in that character's had a great deal. This would be true of a Jane Eyre. That book is very much up in Jane's head. Well, you could have 1/3 person limited perspective in which there's a tremendous amount of action and dialogue and in some ways that we're really not up in. The characters had terribly much, but we slip in every so often or it could be that when we slip in, we only see into his feelings on certain things, the narrative you might choose as a narrator to let me know all about what Harry's thinking about school and his friends. Andi, his teachers. But we never know what Harry thinks about his mother, and I'm making this up because J. K. Rowling just differently. But maybe you just choose, okay? We're never going to know what? How are things about his mother that's just off limits? If you stick with that, the region might very well pick up on that. Especially his mother has port to play in. This story will sit there and go. Why is it that I'm told this in this? I know what Harry thinks about all these things, but I never know what he thinks about his mother. That's an interesting choice. Your Regis will notice this. That's part of the grand design of point of view. It's part of the things that will create tension and suspense in your stories. So think about those rules. Make up those rules for yourself. This is my story. This is why I'm going to dip in on these things. But I'm not long. These things think about that up front and I really dio I caution against, just like with first person spending too much time up in a character's head. You you don't let the reader really work to know the character when you do that, you've laid so much bare when you tell me exactly what your character is thinking and feeling at every given moment that I don't have to interpret that for myself. And so that actually removes the reader from story when you have actions and dialogue and I am forced is a reader to make my own judgments my own interpretations of the characters, feelings and emotions based on his or her actions and dialogue. You've included me more the story, and you've made me have to work harder as a reader, and that makes me more invested in the story to a point so that that's something to consider. Really bring your radar in. Don't tell your reader everything for them. Third Person Limited. While we've not talked about the personal mission to yet, definitely one of the benefits of Third Person limited over third Personal mission is because like first person, we are stuck with the protagonist and we don't get to know what anyone else is thinking. This is a point of view that really does still allow you to build up quite a lot of suspense. So that's that's one of the true benefits of this perspective and indeed also first person perspective. This kind of perspective is going to be very good for character centric stories, stories where you want me to develop an intimate relationship with the characters and where you want to focus on characters. Personal growth, where you're going to get into trouble is with the authority voice. So, like we were saying, You have a Nath Auriol voice, But that authority a voice is still predominantly the characters. If in the third person you say Aunt Claire walked in the door in a Gordie pink dress and a ridiculous hat, you, the author are not saying that that's according pink dress and a ridiculous hat. Your that's the character saying that. So even if you're right, Sandra, watch down Claire, walk in the door in a Gordie pink dress in a ridiculous hat. You're telling me from Sanders perspective. You didn't say Sandra felt those things regarding, but because its third person limited, I know that It's Sandra saying that that's a Gordie score. Ridiculous hat. So you have a Nath Auriol voice, but that a foreal voice, even though it's outside the characters like first direct cometary perspective, is still in fact still the character. So you want to make sure that you're tracking that both Auriol voice with the emotions with the perspectives of your main character. 7. Third Person Limited Example: One of the truly fabulous examples of this is Henry James. What Maisie knew and what makes James, um, perspective of this absolutely just so brilliant is that Maisy and I'm not even going to reveal much plot here. There's no plot spoilers, but amazing. It's just a little girl in the story, but she's dealing with interpreting her parents very bad relationship. So through throughout the story, we have a a young child who is interpreting very adult situations, and the way James made his rules for himself was that he was going to use quite sophisticated language to do this so that the narrative languages sophisticated. And yet the interpretations and opinions are all May's ease, and it's a very interesting way to read the story. And what you see when you go through it is how how he reveals information about other characters in a way that Maisie, as a young girl, is too young to understand. Some of these mature things that are happening so she can only observe them, and so he has to enter. James has to kind of navigate and negotiate how the reader gets to know certain things. So in the readings for this class. I have a segment of that story for you. I'm not going to read through the whole thing, but I want us to look at a brief piece of it so that you can understand some of the sophistication with which Henry James actually uses the third person limited to stunning effect. It must not be supposed that her ladyship's intermissions were not qualified by demonstrations of another order, triumphal entries and breathless pauses during which she seemed to take of everything in the room, from the state of the ceilings to that of her daughter's boot toes, a survey that was rich in intentions. Sometimes she sat down, and sometimes she surged about but her attitude or equally in either case, the grand heir of the Practical. She found so much to deplore that she left a great deal to expect and bristled so with the calculation that she seemed to scatter remedies and pledges. Her visits were as good as an outfit, a matter as Mr Wicks once said, as good as a pair of curtains. But she was a person addicted to extremes, sometimes barely speaking to her child and sometimes pressing this tender chute to a bosom cut, as Mrs Wicks had also observed remarkably low. She was always in a fearful hurry and the lower the bosom was cut, the more it was to be gathered. She wanted elsewhere. She usually broke in alone, but sometimes circled was with her. And during all the earlier period, there was nothing on which these appearances had had so delightful bearing as on the way her Ladyship Waas, as Mrs with Weeks, expressed it under the spell. But she isn't under it. Maisie used in thoughtful, familiar reference to exclaim after Sir Claude had swept them away and peals of natural laughter not even in the old days of the Convulsed ladies. And she heard Mama laugh so freely as in these moments, conjugal surrender to the gaity of which even in little girl could see she had at last a right. A little girl was thoughtful. This was now all happy self meditation on good omens and future fund. So let's let's go back and just look at this. What's being described here? We have her ladyship and everything that you read in that first section observation. We actually get so much, but really is Maisie just observing triumphal entries? Breathless Pause is observing the room. Her ladyship, What? Her ladyship commented on her ladyship sitting down in the ship's standing up. We get this image of this woman who is just like all over the place. But that's all for amazes perspective. We actually have never gone into her ladyship's head and what we're getting from this and again this ghost, in fact, that Maisie is too little to really understand is that Her Ladyship has a special relationship here and likes to go out with men and have a good time. And where's very low cut dresses and mazes? Too little to understand that the sexual nature of what's happening here but we have. We have good old Mrs Wicks and Mrs Wicks doesn't approve clearly off her ladyship's dresses . Right? So, um, so again to have with you she comes in, she hugs her child, pressing this tender shoot, this child toe a bosom that's cut, as Mrs Wiggs had observed remarkably low. This is amazing way saying, Well met Mrs Wicks have said that that's a very low cut dress, and you know this woman Mama is in a hurry and the lower the bosom is cut on her dress, the more horrid she is. So the sexy or she looks that Foster. She wants to hug her child and get on out the door, right? But but But Maisie never says there's a sexual relationship. She just is observing but low cut bosom to her mother's readiness to leave. Um, and then this observation will. She usually came in alone, but sometimes Sir Claude, the person she's out and about with, comes in with her. And so we get off this sense of this mama kind of going off having these relationships with men, that a low cut dress. But all of that's observation and and we we use James uses Mrs Wicks. And what Maisie here's Mrs Wicks say, as a way to tell the reader more about what's going on. It's magnificent. It's magnificent to say OK, Child's perspective doesn't understand. But how do I sophisticatedly bring the reader into this adult world? I know I'll do it with sophisticated language that's actually for in a way beyond Maisie, but we accept that as a reader, that's okay. We don't read what Maisie knew and go a child would never talk this way. We don't do that because Henry James has made his rules and he sticks by them and we say, Okay, this is just a story that's from Macy's young girl perspective but told very beautifully and it sophisticated language. And we accept that again. You get to make your rules. It's a narrator on Henry James, just us. This just so beautifully. So it's a phenomenal example. Is a wonderful book to read a wonderful lesson in Third Person Limited on. I recommend that and any books that you read what you really like the perspective or you like the experience go through and see how they're handling their perspectives and learn from that. So in the next video, we will move on to looking at third person Amish int. 8. Third Person Omniscient: third personal mission like Third Person Limited is going to be told in a he said. She said types of mannerisms what makes their personal mission different is that you get to be in a lot of different people's heads. You get to be anywhere you want, you get to go anywhere you want to see anything you want, being anybody said you want, you have free rein, great thing In some ways, tremendously challenging and others, it is very, very easy to get third Personal mission role. You might think that it's the easiest of the perspective because you're like, Well, I can do anything. No, no, that's hoarder. I mean, that's hoarder. Limitations really help you make decisions and move forward. When the world is your oyster, it can get tough. Now I have to say there's really never true total Amish ins, because again every story is told through a perspective. So if you have a story that's about a protagonist, your story is going to mostly track with that protagonist so that there's a way in which yes, we're all mission. But in some ways we're always kind of tracking with a character which makes our missions of a selective sherry, then just a true blue experience where we just see everything. What can be so grand our missions is that it does impact opened up for your readers a variety of experiences. It allows your religious to go so many places and see so many different things from different angles that we're not stuck, and we're not limited in the same way. So we're able to actually look at a situation, look at characters from a variety of perspectives and that lets us make judgment calls that we couldn't otherwise make because we were limited by one character. It also lets you convey a large bulk of information in a much smaller period. Let's go back to that example. We were talking about where you have a character who's really angsty. But you, as the author, want to tell that this other characters really sweet, and we talked about how, in fact you would actually have to have numerous scenes demonstrating that sweetness. Here. You don't have to do that in Amish int. You could in one or two sentences, sum up the fact that this other characters really a sweet, good woman on We're going to as a reader, except that because we're in Amish in perspective, so you can just condense, condense tremendously. Information that you want your reader to to know the challenge with our missions can sometimes be. How do you build in suspense? Because you do know everything. So obviously, you can still pull this in by what? Choosing what to reveal, not to reveal to a character but those those things aren't built in for you. So in 1/3 person limited, it's built in. You have to track with the protagonist, so you know already because of the rules, ways you can make suspense. But when you were in a situation where you have free reign of everything, you need to figure out what the rules are for you to make suspense. So it's a lot more legwork. One of the biggest challenges people have with their personal mission is what's called head helping, and it's where you jump around from one person's thoughts to another person's thoughts with such rapidity that I don't ever get to settle in and really get to know a character, you want to make sure that, at least with the most important characters or character in your story that your readers builds a relationship with that character. That's not going to happen. If you're just quickly dipping in and out of what a lot of people are thinking. It also just kind of creates a sense of chaos and whiplash for the reader. So if you've got a scene in which Oh, and she felt this and she got this and cheap off this and she thought that it can tend to send the reader reeling. What people will very often say with third person ammunitions is you just you want t get in someone's head and to stay in it for a little while and then get in someone's head and then move somewhere else after a little while. But let me sit with a character and get to know him or her before you start jumping around too much. Now I have to say, that being said, there are books that actually do in the space of a scene. Tell me what so and so is thinking and so and so is thinking and so and so is thinking and it works. Eso again. Always. Guidelines never rules it'll princess is one of these stories. There are scenes in which we sort of get a sense of what a lot of people are thinking, and it does work very well now. The whole book isn't that way, but certain scenes in it are. And generally it's when the authors trying to really just give us a vibe on overall vibe of a situation of a setting. She doesn't do it all of the time, and because she doesn't limiting and because it really is often keeping in in line with just a certain setting, it works. It's all right. It's okay in a scene to tell me what numerous people are thinking. That's part of your privilege and part of why you chose Amish int. What makes it really confusing is when, as you're jumping around, you are in the characters head and language instead of the narrator's stick to the narrator's voice As you jump around, let's look at an example, because it it's hard to theoretically explain this without a solid example. Andrea closed the ice box inside. Ben sat at the kitchen table watching her. I just can't believe it, Andrea said. She looked out of the window and crinkles her brow. Ben had wanted to go to Stanford so badly he hadn't even applied anywhere else. She worried about what he would do now. She didn't know he had submitted to do at the last minute. Now these two section, this is written an omniscient narrators perspective we observe for closing the icebox. We observers think I can't believe it. We observe her looking out of the window way even sort of get into her head right, because Ben had wanted to go to Stanford so badly he hadn't even applied anywhere else. But that sentence. It's interesting. The Ben had wanted to go to Stanford so badly he hadn't even applied anywhere else. That's an interesting sentence, because we read that when we go. Is that is Andrea thinking that at this moment? Or is that just a piece of information? The Amish in our to nose? It's not attached anywhere, and that makes it interesting. We don't have to know everything. We don't have to know. Everything is so we're reading that it's not a signed anywhere. But then, then we are in her head. She worried about what he would do now and then, we're told, were given some suspense. She didn't know he had submitted two Duke at the last minute. So now we know something she doesn't know and you can still do that. You can still do that with ammunition, where their characters and we know things that they don't know. Emissions doesn't mean we have to know everything that every character knows. But it means you've informed us of who knows what. Now let's look at this same situation in a way that doesn't work. Andrea closed the icebox inside. Ben sat in the kitchen table watching her, wondering what she would say. He had wanted to go to Stanford so badly. What will he do? Know she thought he hadn't even applied anywhere else. I still got Duke, he thought. Now do you see how this one? It doesn't slow as well, because here Okay, we're observing. Andrea closed the icebox inside, then sat at the kitchen table watching her, but then it's like wondering what she would say. And so we're in his head. So here we are. We're watching Andrea. We're watching Andrea, close the icebox and sigh. But then we're over here watching Bennett the kitchen table watching her, and then you're in. Okay, Ben is wondering what she's going to say, and then we have a sentence. He had wanted to go to Stanford so badly. What will he do now? She thought, Wait a minute. So okay, I'm watching Andrea that I'm watching Ben watching Andrea. Now there's a sentence about He'd want to go to Stanford so badly, and my inclination is because I'm now watching. Then I want to prescribe that thought over to Ben. But then the next sentence, What will he do now? It seems to fit better with that one. So wait. Is Andrew thinking that course? Been thinking that because now we're back over it, Andrea, and she's saying he hasn't even applied anywhere else. And then, Whoa, we're back over and Ben's head, and he's thinking, I've still got Duke. Do you see how that doesn't work? The other one worked because we the narrative was sufficiently removed from all parties involved and contextualized the thoughts and the experiences properly. This one fuels all over the place and feels like head helping because it's like what, what? And that's where it doesn't work. 9. Objective vs Subjective Narration: one of the things that will help you utilise Amish INTs to its best effect is to decide if you want your narrator to be subjective or objective on objective. Narrator is going to be more like Phil. It's like a camera and we don't go in anybody's head It all. We only watch what they do and what they say. And we might watch in one section what the protagonist does and says, And then we might jump over halfway across the world on watch with the antagonist does and says So it is Amish int, but we just never get up in anybody's head. That's a very removed perspective because we just don't have any of those emotions. But it can also be tremendously effective. Subjective Amish INS is, in fact, where the narrator has an opinion about what the readers are doing, and we can be up in the reader's heads. An example of this would be Jane Austen's Emma. If you look at many of the Jane Austen books Emma, Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice, those authors have a sincere voice, and they have a lot of opinions about the characters in them, and so that would be a subjective our missions. When you do subjective on missions, you're talking about having a narrative who really is a character, all of his or her own. And you really get to sort of figure out I narrator to be even if it's an unnamed narrator , you can just sort of establish Who do we want that to be and what do I want that narrative to feel? So that's one of the fun things about 1/3 personal missions is that you really Do you get the opportunity to figure out who you want your storyteller to be. Andi. Find that character and even if I never know her name, having that perspective makes that character more port of this story. Now that can tend to put a barrier up in between you and your character. Because the narrator's such character. We know we're going through such an opinionated lens that were more removed from the character itself, and we know we're getting a biased look. So in some ways we tend to actually bond to the narrator in an interesting way because the narratives, the person actually talking with us and, well, that's true of other perspectives. Sometimes in an objective perspective, when the narratives talking with us, we don't have any sense of that narratives, personality or that narrative thinks about anything. And so we're not connecting to the objective. Narrator. Which means that for third personal mission, it does allow us to connect more with the characters once you include that subjective narrator. Now I'm really relating in some ways to him or her, and it's pulled me away a little bit from the characters. So let's look an example of what is good, objective point of view and what is not the correct way to say it would be? No, Sadie cried, grimacing with sadness. Now this is OK, you are. This isn't okay, objective Amish ins because the grimacing with sadness that's observing her auction that that's commenting on her body language, where they were focused on the grimace. So it it feels all right. What wouldn't work so well is to say no. Sadie cried, feeling a wave of sadness rushed through her because that sentence really tracks more internally to her head and and not is more of a subjective our missions in which I know what she's thinking omniscient stories are not generally best for character based stories stories where you really want to show character development simply because it's such a removed perspective. And when we just don't get to really sit up in and rest in one person's head, they are great. If you have big stories with sprawling plots and a lot of characters, and we have to know they're all in different places, and it is important that we know what they're all thinking. That's when you want to use third person Amish int so things to be aware of potential challenges for writing in this perspective. And there are several don't give characters information they cannot possibly know. This is one of the most common mistakes I see made with their personal mission, because you get into such a group as the author and the narrative of the story with knowing everything that you start to give characters information they would not actually and could not know. Be very, very careful not to do this. Also, don't tell me ever capture salts and feelings just because you can choose a few. Choose a few people who you really want me to care about. and focus on that. Don't tell me superfluous information. You re just going to notice when you tell me what somebody observed and when you don't. So if for the 1st 7 chapters I've never heard with Ben thinks about anything and then it was just some random reason you tell me what Ben thought about the weather. I'm going to notice. That would be like, Well, why should I care with Ben? Thinks about the rain. What's going on here? I haven't heard from Ben for seven chapters. One hearing from bed. Now you want to even though you're on mission. Be strategic about whose thoughts I know about because I'm going to get fatigue If I have to hear what everybody thinks to that end for the characters whose head you are going to be up in, Don't tell me everything that thinking. Don't tell me every thought that they have. You need to be selective and choose the thoughts. Choose the feelings that really matter. If you've ever known someone who can talk at length about his or her emotions, it might be that at some point you don't hear it as much because you have heard what they think about everything to such an exhausted extent that you become somewhat numb to it. That can happen with our missions. If I hear everything your characters thinking all of the time, I'm fatigued. I'm tired and I don't want to hear from her or him anymore. So be strategic with what you choose to do and say about them and what they're thinking and feeling in this next section. I want to take a little bit of time to talk about both multiple first person and multiple third person perspectives, which are also two options that you have when you're writing your narratives. 10. Multiple Person Perspectives: I want to touch just briefly on multiple first person perspective. It isn't used very often, but these would. This would be a novel in which you might have one chapter from one person's perspective and then another chapter from another person's perspective. And on and on we go. The challenge of writing this way actually can be a very effective way too right and can make for something very, very interesting, particularly if you have an event that you want your reader to see from a variety of angles . But you want me to really get to know each character. A big challenge with it is making each of those voice is very distinct. So you really, in a case like that want to spend time setting down with all of the main first person people you want to work through and figure out exactly who they are, how they speak, what they think, what they feel. And then you would give each one a section in your book like a significant section in your book. That's what makes something first person multiple, because this point of view is rare. It's going to be that when I as a reader, pick up your book. I'm going to expect that its first person, not first person multiple. So, depending on how you want to structure your story, if your plan is to have, like a big section one that's all Mabel's perspective in a big section to its old Ben's perspective, etcetera. Then that's your plan. But if you plan on having multiple first person perspectives in one section, don't wait too long before you bring in the other characters. Because otherwise, if I get a significant way through and then at random, I'm now in another person's head. That's going to be very drawing to the reader. So you want to. Unless you have big sections and there's a strategy of structure there. Try E, generally speaking, to introduce those of the characters fairly quickly so that I understand the rules of the novel again. The novel teachers the reader how to read it. So if you set me up and I think I'm reading this first person limited this first person singular book and then suddenly there's another character you throw me off, and now I don't know the rules of this story anymore, an example that does as well. If you're interested in exploring it, is the time traveler's wife. I'm not going to give it an example of it here. But I do recommend that if you're kind of interested in exploring a multiple first person perspective, you look to that book because that is actually one of the places where it is done to great effect. Let's talk now about multiple third person, which gets very, very, very often confused with 1/3 person Amish int with good reason. Multiple third person means you are following more than one character around, but you're still treating each one of those characters in 1/3 person. Limited rules. You're still using third person limited rules for each of those characters again, massively, easily confused with combinations. Generally, this works best when you have a chapter for each person. So just like the first person, it can really be structured best when it's like, OK, this chapter, we're focusing on Sarah's perspective. Third person Amish in this chapter. Over here, we're focused on Ben's perspective. Third person. So you're jumping around in that way. That's generally speaking. The best way to go about it is treating each one is limited. Third Person Sour LTD. Next chapter, Third Person been limited. Next top third Person Sour LTD. Next chapter, third person been limited. That's when you're into multiple perspectives. Technically, it feels Amish int in some ways, but it's really not, because again, you've established limited rules for each one of those characters. What that does is really let you build relationships with both of them. And then you are judging that narrative more for yourself because you have these multiple perspectives. Practical tips for this really are. Pick a scene and stick with one character before you move to the next scene. Then you won't have that head helping we were talking about with OB missions. Also limit the number of characters in your story, at least the number of characters who you're going to do this for. I would say any more than three, and it gets to be a little unwieldy, but it can work very well for 2 to 3 characters. If you're going to do this and you're going to do it scene by scene because you can also just change from one scene to the next. Make sure that those seen changes are distinct. Very often in a novel, a scene changes just represented by a larger gap in between the power graphs. Um, but But make sure there's really a distinct change of scene so that it doesn't feel like we're shifting perspectives mid to see when it comes to choosing. If it is worth telling me about a character, and giving a character is of her own point of view that you're going to rest in. Here are some things to think about. Don't give a character his or her own point of view. If we only see him a couple of times. If his situation is not going to actually change throughout the story, your character not really going to change, then there's not really much of a point in bogging me down with connecting me up in his head. If you really only put that character in the story to support or help one of your main characters, we probably don't need to be in his head. If he has nothing at stake in the plot, he just nothing's really at stake for him. We're not gonna go, Jim. What? What happens to Jim? Then? Don't bother me with hiss head space. And if he isn't pursuing any goals himself related to that conflict, all of these reasons why it's really probably not appropriate for you to be in that character's head space. Like other multiples. Don't introduce your characters too late again early on, we're willing to accept new information and rules, but you want to set them up for us. So these are all things to think about when you're doing multiples by the first person perspective or third person perspective, let's touch briefly on a second person. 11. Second Person: second person perspective is admittedly not my favorite. I don't really enjoy reading it. It's where you would use you. You walk here, you do this. You picked up the apples. It puts the reader in the perspective off the protagonist. Now some people will say this makes things much more intimate because if you're the you, you are connected to it for me, I have to admit the stylist so artificial that I do not connect more with a second person point of view. But some people do. When some people would say that actually does allow you to be more intimate since you are yourself the protagonist. The challenge with riding in 1st 2nd person is going to be that while you as the reader are now the protagonist, you don't actually have any agency. You can't actually make decisions for yourself. So you're basically it's like you're just being kind of forced to go through things in a certain way, and that can feel all right as long as the decisions of the character makes other decisions that you would make. But once you start to be like the characters are making decisions, you really wouldn't make that could be jarring and a bit frustrating. So as an author, you really have to think about that and think about how your readers are going to feel about being put in these situations. 12. Free Indirect Style: the last main thing that I want us to touch on just has to do with how your writing looks on the pain. And I wanted to just talk briefly about something that's called free and direct style. I know these might just seem like literary terms and whatnot. It's a content that does matter. But when you have 1/3 person narrator and you actually want to establish a kind of immediacy and more intimacy between a reader and 1/3 person perspective, narrator free and direct style is a really great way to do that. And it has mostly to do with the way that your text books on the page. So let's look at some different examples of things that are not free and director styles. You can appreciate what it is when you are in third person perspective. One way to convey what characters are thinking is through Dr Wrecked or quoted speech. So she stared at her sister. She's still quiet, she thought. I hope she's not angry. She twisted her napkin in a lab. And do you see here on this one that she's so quiet? I hope she's no angry. Those thoughts are in quotation marks and they're set off. So we totally reads. It's totally fine. It's perfectly reasonable way to do it. It's just that they're separated off by quotation marks anymore. This has not used. It's very old fashioned way to do it. But it is a direct quoted way of conveying thoughts. The next way is what we would call reported or indirect speech. So let's take that same situation, she stared at her sister. She's so quiet, she thought. I hope she's not angry. She twisted her napkin in her lap. This is the most recognizable form of third person perspective that we have. This is actually the most recognizable form of third person perspective. Let's look at this again, she stared at her sister. She's so quiet, she thought. I hope she's not angry. She twisted her napkin another. So what we've done here is just We've kind of removed those quotation marks and you see that when just just removing those sort of tags around the words makes it flow more. And in this case we're being told she what she thought. She is so quiet, she thought. It's a great way to right. It's how most third person perspective is written, but there is a way to create something that's more immediate. So let's look at this next example, which is the free, indirect style. She stared at her sister, who was tiresomely quiet and hoped she was not angry yet again. She slowly twist of the napkin in her lap, pretending it was Sydney's hair. Now do you see how this is somehow boast both first person and third person? The author seems to disappear. The story to take on the properties of the main character. It's very close to stream of conscious again. So she started her sister, who was tiresomely quiet and hoped she was not angry yet again. So we're still getting that? She stared at her sister. We still getting that. She thinks she's quiet and we're still getting that. She hopes she's not angry, but we have this tiresomely quiet, so there's any motion there. We haven't had to say what that emotion is, but we know from she's going to sit there and say, Tire something quiet that she's impatient. She's in. No, wait. She's something and hell neat that we didn't even have to say any of that we just got that from the adverb attached to the quiet. And then this not angry yet again. There's an impatience there, so there's a way in which we are both. We're still third person, but we've sort of tract into the tract into her mind, and it's created at sincere intimacy there. Let's look at another example. Ben Manically waved his arms of the taxi. So in this case, manically makes this friend in direct style. If we take it out, it becomes a pure reported thought. When we add manically, the reader kind of sits up and goes, OK, what? Wait a minute. Who's saying it's manically? Is that Ben? Are we does then? No, he's waving manically. Or is that the older saying It's manically and it's It's okay that we're like that. It's okay that we kind of going who in that sentence thinks it's manic. It gives us something to chew on, and in some ways the word manically applies almost to both of them and in this way makes it almost in some ways partial and opinionated in some ways, Amish it so it's just kind of a creative, unique way of looking at the text and conveying emotion to go back to perspective. What Maisie knew. If you go back and you look at what Maisie knew, that is done in free, indirect style, and that's part of what makes it so good. 13. Final Advice: I would just like to add that all of these things again, These are not rules. These are guidelines. They are recommended. But there are a lot of different ways in which all authors break with this. So I recommend that as you're reading, you pay attention to the perspectives and try to sort out for yourselves. What are the rules of the perspectives in the books that I am reading? Because that's going to actually help you learn to make up some of your own rules to maybe track with one perspective. But as we talked about earlier in it, what How deep do you want to be in a character and whose perspectives do we want to see? These are all things that you get to think about, and the more you pay attention to them in books that you are reading, the better off you will be. So the project for this class I recommend you do to practice this is to write a paragraph, and you're going to write it first as a first person perspective. Then you're going to rewrite it as 1/3 person limited, and then you're going to write it 1/3 time is 1/3 person omniscient. This means that the scene has to have more than one character in it, so that you can actually play around with this properly. But right that scene, right? That paragraph no more than I would say a page one way each of those three. And and think about all the things that we've talked about in this course and what you will find through that exercise, you will learn a lot. It's one thing to watch a class on the theories off perspective. It is quite something else to actually have to sit down and write it. So I highly recommend that you take some time to do that. I think you will learn so much doing it. Thank you, as always for watching If you enjoy this course, I would really appreciate it if you would leave a review and do feel free to look around at my other platforms. I am on YouTube. I have a website. If you go to my website, please do sign into the mailing list because that is a great way to keep in touch with me, not only about other classes that I'm doing that are on a variety of different platforms, not just this one, but also bits of advice and things that I find that I think might help you out. So I hope you will look at those things. Otherwise, I thank you so much for watching. I hope you're having a wonderful day. And then we see the very best of luck with your projects.