Piano Lessons - Chapter 1: Notes & Scales | Daniel Pinelli | Skillshare

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Piano Lessons - Chapter 1: Notes & Scales

teacher avatar Daniel Pinelli, A practical approach to learning piano

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Lessons in This Class

5 Lessons (51m)
    • 1. Introduction & Disclaimer

      8:28
    • 2. Notes & Octaves

      8:50
    • 3. The Major Scale

      10:43
    • 4. The Minor Scale

      10:35
    • 5. The Pentatonic Scales

      12:40
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Lesson Plans

Lesson 1.1 - Notes & Octaves

Welcome to the first lesson in this video series! In today’s lesson, we’ll learn the names of all 12 notes on the keyboard, and we’ll learn about octaves and how they repeat up and down the keyboard. Then we’ll learn about sharps and flats for addressing the black keys, and about whole tones and half tones, the unit of measurement on the keyboard.

Lesson 1.2 - The Major Scale

In today’s lesson, we’ll learn the all-important major scale. This scale is the foundation of all the major chords, and the basis for the numbering system that we’ll be using throughout the rest of these lessons. Take your time on this topic because it’s an important building block for the future!

Lesson 1.3 - The Minor Scale

Today we’ll be continuing our discussion on scales by looking at the (natural) minor scale. This scale is the foundation for all of the minor chords, and therefore is an important building block for later lessons. Take your time on this topic and make sure you can apply it in all 12 keys.

Lesson 1.4 - The Pentatonic Scales

In today’s lesson, we’ll be learning the pentatonic scales, both major and minor. These scales are great at creating melody because they’re simple, catchy and easy to use. Both scales are simple variations of the major and minor scales respectively, so make sure you have a sound understanding of those before tackling this topic.

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Daniel Pinelli

A practical approach to learning piano

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Transcripts

1. Introduction & Disclaimer: Hey everyone, Daniel Penelope here. Hope you're all having a great 2019. Hope you've got some great goal set for yourself for this year. And in this video I'm going to be introducing one of my major goals for 2019, which is to create an online video lesson series. So this video is going to be a combination introduction in disclaimer. I'm going to talk about what these lessons will be, what they won't be, who they're for and what you can expect to learn. I'll be sharing an outline of the content I'm planning to teach. I'll talk about the format of the lessons. And finally, I'll talk a little bit about why I'm doing this and what I hope you can get out of these lessons. So let's jump in. So first, a little background about myself. I've been playing the piano for about ten years and I am entirely self-taught. So I've never gone to school for music. I've never taken any formal piano lessons. I have, however, learned a great deal on my own from various online courses in tutorials. I've learned a whole range of genres of music and taught myself a lot of songs by ear. So I can't read music. Everything I learned is by year. I've played in several bands over, over this time, and I've written my own music as well, which I would encourage you to check out if you're considering phone along with these lessons, all my original music is available on my YouTube channel as well as on iTunes and Spotify. So feel free to go give that'll listen. And if it sounds like something that you'd like to learn how to play and right then these lessons could be for you. So enough about me, let's talk about the lesson. So these lessons are going to be a comprehensive set of videos that teaches everything I've learned in the ten or so years that I've been playing. I'm gonna go from the very beginning, assuming no prior knowledge of music and no prior knowledge of the piano. And teach from the most basic concepts, how to play, how to learn, and how to write. So the focus of these lessons is going to be practical knowledge and application. Now, here's the disclaimer part. I'm not going to be teaching classical music theory. I'm not going to be teaching by any means a complete listing of every chord or scale in the book because I don't know these things myself. So of course it makes no sense for me to try and teach them. What I will be teaching his what you need to know to get started playing, as well as some more intermediate and advanced concepts that I've learned during the time that I've been playing. So who were these lessons for? These lessons could be for someone who, like I said, knows nothing about music or the piano, but has always wanted to learn. They could be for someone who knows a little bit. Maybe you took lessons awhile back and you've stopped playing and you want to get back into it. They could be for a musician who plays another musical instruments. So I play the guitar as well. I actually started on the guitar and when I learned to play the piano, my guitar playing took off. And the reason why is because I learned about why certain chords and scales work together, not just that they work. So there's definitely some cross instrument benefit to be had here. And I would really recommend it to all musicians to learn to play the piano if you don't already know how to play. But even if you're not a musician, music can enrich your life in so many ways. So maybe there's that one song that you have always wanted to learn how to play. Maybe your spouse or partner has that one song that just means so much to them and you want to surprise them and learn to play it for them. Maybe you want to start playing in a band with your friends or family, or start playing at your local church. Or maybe you just want to start playing for yourself, for your own satisfaction to take on a new challenge. There's so many ways that music can enrich your life. And if any of these things appeal to you, then maybe these lessons are for you. So now I'd like to just go over and outline of the content I'm planning to teach in these lessons. So the content will be broken down into chapters, and the chapters will be broken down into lessons. Let's pull up the outline. So chapter one is going to be on notes and scales. I'm going to teach you the names of the notes and the octaves on the keyboard. Then we're going to learn the major scale, the minor scale, and the pentatonic scale. Next, we're going to learn some basic chords will be learning the typical major minor chords, suspended chords, augmented and diminished chords, and six chords. We'll learn how to use voicings and inversions, which are very powerful tools. Next, we'll learn how to arrange those chords in chapter three, basic chord progressions. So all songs are made up of chord progressions. We'll learn what some of the popular progressions that are and will also learn how to put melody over basic chord progressions. Melody is another very powerful tool. Then we're gonna do the same thing with advanced chord. So in chapter four, we'll learn about seventh chords, ninth chords, 11th, 13th chords. And in Chapter five, advanced chord progressions, we'll learn how to arrange these advanced chords into songs and a common progressions. We'll learn how to put melody over advanced chord progressions. We'll learn about a special topic called tritone substitution. And then we'll go over some examples of advanced chord progressions. In chapter six, I'm going to teach a little bit about soloing. So i'll be teaching basic right hand and left hand technique, some of the common solar wind patterns. And then again, some examples of piano solo. And there may be some more chapters that come after that, but that's all that I have planned currently. So the format of these lessons is going to be a video format similar to this. You can see I've got the keyboard across the bottom of the screen here. And every lesson is going to cover a specific topic. And at the start of every lesson I'm going to play a short chord progression to illustrate that topic. Then all defined the topic. I'll explain how, how that topic is often used in music. And then I'll teach you how to play the chord progression from the start of the lesson. I think this will be a good full circle way to teach the concepts because we'll define the topic, we'll explain the topic and then we'll go through an example together. I'll be recommending homework at the end of every lesson. This is what you can use as your practice material in-between the lessons. I'm planning to release one lesson every week, probably on Sunday. So a quick note that I want to make on practicing. The key to learning anything is consistency. So it's going to be very important for you to put consistent effort and after every lesson to learn the material we covered before moving on to the next lesson. So we're trying to build a pyramid here and you can't get to level two without completing level one. You might be able to skip your way through one or two levels, but you'll never get to the top without putting the work in. And so like most things that really matter in life, there is no shortcut. Now this might seem daunting, but it's actually a wonderful thing because it means that anyone can do it. I've had so many people say to me, you know, I wish I could play the piano, but I'm not a musician and I don't have any musical talent. Newsflash, no one is a musician until they decide they want to be and put the work. And I really want to stress a point here, and it's that the power of effort is so much more than that of talent. So, so many people think that they can't learn because they don't possess some natural ability. This is simply not true. Sure there are some people who are born with certain skills that will make certain parts of music easier for them. But this is absolutely not a requirement of learning to play. If you put the work in, you will get the result. So It's not that you can't do it, it's that you haven't done it yet. And the last thing I wanna talk about in this video is why I'm doing this. And the short answer is because I want to share what I know so other people can benefit from it as well. So as I mentioned, music can enrich life in so many ways. It's brought me so much happiness over the years. And now I want to share what I know so that it can be of benefit to other people as well. So I hope I've given a good overview of these lessons, of my plan for these lessons, and I hope I've intrigued and inspired you to follow along with me. I'll be releasing the first lesson and about a week, and I'm super excited for it. So stay tuned, get ready, and have a great day. 2. Notes & Octaves: Hey everyone, Daniel Penelope here. Welcome to the first official lesson of this video series. This is the first level of the pyramid, the first step of the journey. This is less than 1.1 on notes and octaves. Yeah, if you haven't already, I would recommend watching my lesson 0 video, which is an introduction and disclaimer where I talk about what these lessons will be, who they're for and share my overall plan and vision for the lessons. I think it's valuable to have an idea of where we're headed. So go ahead and check that out if you haven't already. Now in today's lesson, we're going to be learning the names of all 12 notes on the keyboard. Yes, there are only 12. We'll learn about octaves, which is the repetition of notes along the keyboard. We'll learn about sharps and flats, the naming convention for the black keys. And finally, we'll learn about whole tones and half-tones, which is the unit of measurement on the keyboard. So we've got a lot of great content to cover today. Let's get started. So the first thing I'm going to teach is the names of the keys on the keyboard. So when played, every key makes a note, and the keys are named according to what note they play. Now, don't be overwhelmed by how many keys there are on your keyboard because there are only 12 notes, the keyboard repeats itself every 12 keys. These repetitions are called octaves. We'll talk a little more about octaves and just a few minutes. For now, let's learn the names of the keys. So I'm going to start with this key. Now, when played, this key makes the note of C, and therefore the name of this key is C. C. Now, I want you to take note of the position of this key. So if we look at the keyboard, we can see a pattern here. We've got two black keys and then three black keys. And then again to black. And then three black. So this pattern of two black, three black repeats all the way up and down the keyboard. So we can look at this and recognize that the white key down and to the left of the double black key. Key here. This key is C. Okay? Now let's just keep that as a reference point. It'll be valuable for the rest of the lesson. So starting from C, let's count the letters of the alphabet as we go up the keyboard playing only the white keys for now, c, d, e, f, g. Now there is no h. G is the last letter in the musical alphabet is when we get the G, we just go right back to a, so G, a, B, C. So we started here on C, And we finished here on C. So what do you hear about these two notes? Actually the same note. So this, this high C is one octave higher than this low C. If you remember, I said there are only 12 notes on the keyboard. And if we count the number of keys in between this low C and this high C, there are 12. Let's just verify that 123456789101112, and we're back to C. So this range, there's 12-note range, is called an octave, and this range repeats itself all the way up and down the keyboard. So by knowing the names of the keys in this C to C range, we automatically know the names of every key on the keyboard. Pretty cool. So now let's have a look at the black keys. The black keys are the sharps and flats. So sharp means above and flat means below. The symbol for sharp is the number sign. The symbol for flat is the lowercase b. So the black keys aren't named using whole letters like the white keys are. Instead they're the sharps and flats of the white keys. So there are two naming conventions for the black keys, the sharp naming convention and the flat naming convention. These are two different ways of saying the same thing. I'll show you both of these conventions. Let's start with the sharp naming convention. So C sharp is above C, D sharp is above D, and so on and so forth. So again, starting from C, Let's play the keys moving up, including the black keys this time, and count the letters of the alphabet naming the black keys using the sharp naming convention. So C, C sharp, D, D sharp, E. Now, hang on a sec. What's happening here? There's no black key in between E and F. That's because there is no E sharp in the musical scale, so we just continue right on to f. So E, F, F sharp, G, G sharp a, a sharp, B. There is no black key between B and C. So we just go right to see. Okay, now, for the sake of completeness, let's do the same thing using the flat naming convention. So D flat is below D, and E flat is below E, and so on and so forth. So starting from C using the flat naming convention, C, D flat, E flat, E. Again, I'm going to skip right to F because there is no C-flat, or excuse me, there is no F flat, B, F, G flat, G, a flat, a, B flat, B, there's no C flat, so I skip right to see. Okay, so now we know the names of all the keys, both white and black in this c to c octave range had, because of what we know about octaves in the way they repeat up and down the keyboard. We now know the name of every single key on the keyboard. So whether I play this C to C octave range here, or whether I play it down here or up here, the names of the keys within that range are the same. Okay, so now let's talk about whole tones and half-tones. This is, this is the unit of measurement on the keyboard. So a whole tone is two keys and a half tone, also called the semitone, is one key. So if we look at the notes C and D, How far apart are they? Well, if I start on C And I want to get to D, I have to go through two keys. I'm on c, 12, and now I'm on D. So since we know that a whole tone is to Kees, de is one whole tone higher than c or two semitones. And similarly, C sharp or D flat. This is 1.5 tone above c. If I start on C And I want to get the C sharp, I have to go through one key only. Okay, let's say I want to get to D sharp or E flat. This note here, if I start on C, I have to go through 123 keys. So that's 3.5 tones or 1.5 full tones. So that's it for the content for today. Now, what we learned today is very simple, but it's also very fundamental to the later lessons that we're going to study. So I would really recommend taking the time now to go back through this video and make sure you're entirely clear on the concepts, which brings me to the homework. So in the Lesson Zero video, I talked about the hallmark that I'll be recommending. This can be your practice material to work on in between the lessons. So there's gonna be three pieces of homework for today. So the first piece of homework is to play all the keys in the C to C octave range and be able to name those keys as you're playing it. Now you should be able to do this with both the sharp and flat naming convention for the black keys, okay, second, when you're comfortable with that, you should be able to play any key on the entire keyboard and identify the name of that key. Remember, the C to C octave contains every note on the keyboard, and this range just repeats itself up and down the keyboard. Once we know the names of the keys in this range, the name of every key on the keyboard. And the last piece of homework for today is to pick any two keys on the keyboard and be able to tell me in both whole tones and half-tones how far apart those two notes are? Remember a whole tone is two keys, and a half tone is just one key. Okay? So that's it for today. I hope I've given you a good overview of notes and octaves. If you have any questions, please go ahead and post them in the comments. I'm here to teach. I'm here to help you learn and I would be happy to answer any questions you might have. So thanks for watching. Have a great day and I'll see you in the next lesson. 3. The Major Scale: Hey everyone. Daniel Pinellia here. Welcome back to another lesson. And in today's lesson, we're going to be learning the major scale. And this is one of the most important scales in music. And so we're going to be committing an entire lesson to it. And to make sure that we fully understand it, and to make sure that we can apply it in later lessons. The major scale is the foundation for all of the major chords. It's also the basis for the numbering system that we'll be using throughout these lessons. So I'm going to explain it to you and then I'll show you how to play that little piece of music that I just played, which is a great example of the major scale in action. Let's get started. So the major scale is an eight note scale connecting two nodes on either ends of an octave. Now if you have no idea what I just said, then you need to go back and watch my Lesson 1.1 video on notes and octaves. If you don't know the names of the notes on the keyboard or you don't understand octaves, you're not gonna be able to fall on this lesson. Okay, so with that out of the way, let's look at the pattern of the major scale. And I'm going to be defining this in terms of whole tones and half-tones. Again, I talk about whole tones in half-tones in my Lesson 1.1 video. But as a quick refresher, a whole tone is two keys. Okay? And a half tone is just one key. So the pattern of the major scale is as follows. Whole tone, whole tone, half tone, whole tone, Hall tone, whole tone, halftime. Okay, so if we want to play the major scale, for example, in the key of C, we would start on C, and then we follow the whole tone, half tone pattern that we just looked at. Let's try it. Let's play the C major scale, starting on C. The first step in the major scale is a whole tone, which again is two keys for I'm gonna go to keys up from C, one to d. So d is the second note in the C major scale. Let's continue. The next step in the major scale is another whole tone. So I'm going to go up another whole tone again, two keys from D this time. So 12 and I'm, I'm e. So e is the third note in the C major scale. Let's keep going. The next step is a half tone, so that's just one key. One key up from the current key of E takes us to F. So F is the fourth note in the C major scale. So, so far we have c, d, e, f. These are the first four notes in the C major scale. Let's continue. So next we have another whole tone, which takes us to G, and then another whole tone which takes us to a. Then another whole tone which takes us to B. And finally a half tone that takes us back to C. Okay, so putting all those notes together, this is what we get. So that's the C major scale. You may have noticed that the C Major Scale contains only white keys, okay, this is just a special case in the key of C, that major scale does not always contain only white keys. And we're going to look at this now as we play the major scale in some different keys. Now the important thing to remember is that the spacing in-between the notes stays the same regardless of what key we start on. Okay, so in order to demonstrate this, let's play the D major scale. So now we're going to start here on D and follow the same spacing pattern of whole tones and half-tones that we just followed from d. Again, the first step is a whole tone that's two keys, so minus e. So that's the second note of the D major scale. The next step is another whole tone. So that brings me to keys up to G flat, which is the third note, sorry, in the D major scale, will go up a half tone to G. Now we go up another three whole tones. So one whole tone to a, one whole tone to be one whole tone, the D flat and a half tone up to D. Okay, so putting all those notes together, and there's the D major scale. And now you notice that that did contain some black keys. So don't try and think about white and black keys. Just remember the spacing pattern of the notes in the major scale. Let's try another key. Let's play the F major scale. So we're going to start here on F This time and again follow the same spacing pattern. Remember the major scale is to whole tones, 1.5 tone, then three whole tones and 1.5 tone. So following that pattern starting from F, this is what we get. Okay? There's the F major scale. Let's try one more. Let's start on one of the black keys this time. How about G sharp or a flat? Let's play the a flat major scale, again, following the same spacing pattern to whole tones, 1.5 tone, three whole tones, 1.5 tone. But starting on a flat, this is what will get. And there's the, a flat major scale. So I really want you to recognize how the spacing in-between the note stays the same regardless of what note we start on. Okay, and this is why I showed you the spacing pattern in whole tones, in half-tones before I played the major scale and any specific key. So that's it for the content for today. The major scale, pretty simple, but very, very important. And really everything we do from this point on, it's going to build on the major scale. So it's really important that you familiarize yourself with it, especially in all 12 keys. Now this is going to be a recurring theme as we go forward through these lessons. We're going to learn something and we're going to have to be able to apply it. All 12 keys guys, this is really, really important. You don't want to be one of those musicians who can only play in a couple of keys, C, G, and a, then you're playing with some jazz musicians are playing in C sharp and you have no idea what's going on because you never practiced in c-sharp. Okay. Which brings me to the homework for today, which you guessed it is to play the major scale in all 12 keys, forwards and backwards. So the C Major Scale forwards and then backwards. Of course we just do the same thing in reverse order. Okay, so homework for today, play the major scale and all 12 keys forwards and backwards. And when you're done that, do it again and again until you're so comfortable with it that you don't have to think about it. You really need the major scale to become second nature can all 12 keys. So that when we get to some of the later lessons like cords in chord progressions, we can learn that new material easily. Okay, so we've covered the content for today, we've covered the homework. Now I'm going to show you how to play that little piece of music from the start of the video. I'll play it one more time now. So a pretty nice simple song that is a great example of the major scale. So this song is in the key of D. Okay? So again, recall the D major scale, right? This whole song is based on the D major scale. So let me walk you through it. And the left-hand, I'm playing D and a, then D flat and a, then B and a, D flat and a, and back to D and a. Now, we should also think of these notes in terms of their number in the major scale, in this case in d, Since we're playing in the key of D. So here this is 15. And when I say that, I mean the first fifth notes of the D major scale, right? Recall the D major scale down here this time. So a is the fifth note in the D major scale. That's what I mean when I say 15. So the left-hand, 1575657515. Ok, and the left-hand repeats that twice. Now let's look at the right-hand. So with the right hand, we're going to start here on this note. And then we're going to play this little melody that is just Certain notes of the D major scale picked out. Okay, so it's, so that's D, E, F, G flat a. And again, in terms of the number of the major scale, that's 1235. The first, second, third, fifth notes of the D major scale. And next, okay, G, G flat, F, E, D. In terms of the major scale, that's 4321. Then we repeat the first phrase than this. So that's B, D E flat, D, D flat B, a. In terms of the notes of the major scale, that's five, or, sorry, pardon me, 671765. Now we're going to play the same thing up here, starting one octave up. And at the end there I'm playing two very simple chords, will learn chords and just a few lessons right at the start of chapter two. But this is an a major chord containing E, a, and D flat. And this is a D major chord containing G, a, and D. So that's it for today. If you have any questions, please go ahead and post them in the comments. I'll be happy to answer any questions you might have. Thanks for watching. Have a great day, and I'll see you in the next lesson. 4. The Minor Scale: Hey everyone, Daniel Pinellia here. Welcome back to another lesson. And in today's lesson, we're going to be learning the minor scale. Now in the previous lesson, we learned the major scale, which is the basis for all of the major chords. Similarly, the minor scale is the foundation for all of the minor chords, that there are a few different variations of the minor scale. I'm gonna be teaching what is technically the natural minor scale. So I'm going to walk you through it and then I'll show you how to play that little piece of music that I just played, which is based on the minor scale. Let's get into it. So the minor scale is an 8-note scale connecting two nodes on either ends of an octave. And if you don't understand notes or octaves, you need to go back and watch my Lesson 1.1 video. Okay, now let's have a look at the spacing pattern of the minor scale. And I'm going to define this in terms of whole tones and half-tones. Remember a whole tone is two keys, and a half tone is just one key. So the pattern of the minor scale is as follows. Whole tone, half tone, whole town hall, town half tone, whole town hall tone. So if we want to, for example, play the minor scale in the key of C. We would start here on C and follow that whole tone, half-tones spacing pattern as we go up the keyboard. Let's try it. Let's play the C minor scale. So starting on C, the first step and the minor scale is a whole tone. That's two keys, two keys up from the current key of C, 12, and I'm on D, So D is the second note in the C minor scale. Let's continue. The next step according to the pattern, is a half-step. That's just one key. One key up from D takes us to E-flat. E-flat is the third note in the C minor scale. Let's keep going. Next, we have another whole tone, that's another two keys up from E-flat, 1-2, and I'm on F, So F is the fourth note and the C minor scale. Let's keep going. Again. We have another whole tone, whole tone out from F, which is two keys, 12 and I'm I, g. So g is the fifth note and the C minor scale. So, so far, this is what we have. Okay, the first five notes of the C minor scale, let's close it out. So resuming on G, The next step according to the pattern is a half tone. That's just one key up from G That brings us to a flat. Then we have another whole tone, which is two keys and brings us to be flat. And then finally, another whole tone, another two keys, which brings us back to C. So putting all those notes together, this is what we get. There's the C minor scale. Now we're going to try playing this scale and some other keys as well. And as was the case with the major scale, the important thing to remember is that the spacing in between the notes stays the same regardless of what key we start on. Okay, and to demonstrate this, let's try playing another one. Let's play the D minor scale. So we're gonna start here on D this time and again, follow the same whole tone, half-tones spacing pattern of the minor scale. Let's try it. So starting on D, The first step is a whole tone, that's two keys, 12 up to E. So E is the second note in the D minor scale. The next step is a half tone, that's just one key from E. That brings us to F, which is the third note and the D minor scale. Next we have another whole tone, two keys, 12, up to g. G is the fourth note and the D minor scale. And then we have another whole tone, another two keys, 12, which brings us to a. A is the fifth note in the D minor scale. So, so far, this is what we have. Okay, the first five notes of the D minor scale. Let's close it out. Next up, we have a half tone, which is just one key that brings us to be flat. Then we have a whole tone which brings us to see. And then another whole tone which brings us back to D. So putting all that together, here's what we get. Okay, there's the D minor scale. Let's try another one. Let's try E-flat. Let's play the E-flat minor scale. And we're gonna do this again by starting on E-flat and following the whole tone, half-tones spacing pattern of the minor scale. This is what will get. There's the E-flat minor scale. Let's try one more. Let's start on a, let's play the a minor scale. This is what will get. Okay, there's the a minor scale. Now I want to point something out here. Remember from the last lesson we learned the C major scale, which goes like this. Okay? And now we just learned to the a minor scale, which goes like this. So what do you notice about those two scales? They actually contain all of the same notes. The only difference between the C major and a minor scales are where we start to play the C Major Scale. Of course we start on C. And to play the a minor scale, of course we started on a. But other than that, the notes within those two scales are the same. This is because a minor is the relative minor of C major. Now we're gonna talk about this more when we get into chord progressions. But what it means in a nutshell is that a minor and C Major are interchangeable in certain circumstances because they're scales contained the same notes. Okay. We don't have to do anything with this knowledge now, but I just wanted to point it out as an extra learning opportunity. That's it for the content for today, we learned the minor scale, pretty simple, but very, very important. When we start to learn chords will be learning minor chords, and all of those are based on the minor scale. So I would really recommend that you take the time now to familiarize yourself with the minor scale in all 12 keys, okay, as was the case with the major scale, it's very important that you can apply what we learned in all 12 keys, okay? Which brings me to the homework for today, which as I'm sure you guessed, is to play the minor scale in all 12 keys, forwards and backwards. So the C minor scale forwards. And to play it backwards, of course we do the same thing in reverse order. Okay, so homework for today, play the minor scale and all 12 keys forwards and backwards. And when you're done doing that, do it again and again until you can do it without thinking, we need the minor scale to become second nature in all 12 keys. So that when we get to some of the later topics, we can learn them easily. Okay, so we've covered the content for today. We've talked about the homework. Now I'm going to show you how to play that little song from the introduction. Let me play it one more time here. Okay, so a pretty nice little melody that is based on the minor scale, the songs in the key of E flat. So recall the E-flat minor scale because we're going to need it here. Okay, So left-hand, first, the left-hand starts on this court. Now we're gonna learn chords in just a few lessons right at the start of chapter two. I'm just gonna give you a sneak peek of them here so I can demonstrate the uses of the minor scale, okay, So the left-hand, the first chord is this E-flat minor chord containing E flat, G flat, and B flat. And in terms of the numbering of the nodes in the E-flat minor scale, this is 135. What I mean by that is this is the first, third, fifth notes of the E-flat minor scale, okay, 12345. Okay, so the first chord is this E-flat minor chord. The second chord is this. This is a major seventh chord, okay, containing B, E flat, G flat, and B flat. Now this chord is based on the B major scale. Recall the B major scale. Okay, so there's B Major seventh chord contains the first third, fifth seventh notes of the B major scale. That's why it's called a B major seven. Okay, so the left-hand goes back and forth between this E-flat minor chord and this B Major seventh chord. Okay, now let's have a look at the right hand. The right hand is playing a melody that is certain notes selected out of the E-flat minor scale. The first part of the melody goes like this. Ok, so that's F, G, G flat, F, D flat. And then it goes like this. That's B flat, E flat, D, B flat, a flat, B flat, G flat. Okay? Then the second part of the melody starts the same as the first. And then we play this little lake here, which is G flat, F, E, E flat, D flat, and then a hammer on for D flat to E flat, which just means I play the first note and then the second note quickly after. Okay. So that's it for today. I hope I've given you a good overview of the minor scale. If you have any questions, please go ahead and post them in the comments. Thanks for watching. Have a great day and I'll see you in the next lesson. 5. The Pentatonic Scales: Hey everyone, Daniele Fanelli here. Welcome back to another lesson. And today's lesson we're going to be learning the pentatonic scales. And there are two different variations of the pentatonic scale and major and mine. And together these are the last scales that we'll be learning in these lessons. This is the last lesson of chapter one, notes and scales. Up next is chapter two, basic chords, where we're gonna put these skills into action and start creating some beautiful music. So I'm going to walk you through it and then I'll show you how to play that little piece that I just played, which is a good example of the minor pentatonic scale. Let's get started. So the pentatonic scales are very popular in modern music because they're great at creating melody. They're simple, they're catchy and they're easy to use. And we're going to be applying the pentatonic scales a little later in chapters 35, where we look at putting melody over chord progressions. And then again in chapter six, when we talk about soloing. However, I want to introduce these scales now so that we're learning them at the same time as the rest of the scales that we've covered. Okay? Now, as I mentioned, there are two variations of the pentatonic scale, major and minor, and as you probably guessed there, based on the major and minor scales respectively. Now if you don't know the major and minor scales, you need to go back and review those lessons. Otherwise you're not going to be able to follow along with this lesson. So let's start with the major pentatonic scale. And in order to do that, we need to first recall the major scale, which has the following spacing pattern. Whole tone, whole tone, half tone, Hall, town hall tone, whole tone, half tone. Okay, so if we want to, for example, play that major scale in the key of C, Then we would start here on C and follow that spacing pattern as we go up the keyboard. This is what we will get. Okay, there's the C major scale. Now we started talking in the last two lessons about numbering those notes according to the order that we play them in the scale. So in this example here in the key of C Major, we would number the nodes one to seven as follows, 1234567, and we're back to one. So in the C major scale, C is one, di is two, is three. F is for, G is five, a is six, and B is seven. Okay? Now from this point on, we're going to be referring to the notes in the scales using that numbering system, okay? And this allows us to generalize what we're learning is that we can apply it in all 12 keys, okay? So the major pentatonic scale is the same as the major scale, but with the fourth seventh notes omitted. Continuing with our C major example, recall the C major scale one more time. Okay, the C major scale. Now if we want to play the C major pentatonic scale, we just want to omit the fourth seventh notes out of the scale. Okay, so what are they? Well, 1234. So F is the fourth note, 5-6, seven, B is the seventh note. So to play the major pentatonic scale in the key of C, We're going to omit F, the fourth note, and be the seventh note. And this is what will get. Okay? So you can hear that, that sounds pretty catchy and you can probably recognize that kind of a melody from a lot of popular songs. Okay, so there's the C major pentatonic scale. Ok? Now of course, we have to be able to do this in all 12 keys. So let's try another key. Let's try D. Let's play the D major pentatonic scale. And to do that again, we're going to start with the D major scale, which goes like this. Okay? And then again, we want to omit the fourth seventh notes. What are they? 1234, g is the fourth note. 567, D flat is the seventh note. So we're going to omit G, the fourth note, and D flat, the seventh note. And this is what will get. And there's the D major pentatonic scale. Let's do one more. Let's try E-flat. Let's play the E flat major pentatonic scale. Again, we're gonna start with the E flat major scale, which goes like this. Okay? And again, we want to omit the fourth seventh notes. What are they? 1234. So a flat is the fourth note. 567, d is the seventh note. So we're going to omit a flat, the fourth, and D flat, and sorry, d, the seventh. This is what will get. There's the E-flat major pentatonic scale. Okay? So there's the major pentatonic scale. Remember it's the major scale with the fourth seventh notes omitted. Now let's talk about the minor pentatonic scale. So recall the minor scale, which has the following spacing pattern. Whole tone, half tone, Hall tone, whole tone, half tone, Hall tone, whole tone. Okay, so if we want to, for example, play the minor scale in the key of C, we would start here on c and then follow that spacing pattern. And this is what will get. There's the C minor scale, ok? Now, the C minor pentatonic scale is the minor scale with the second sixth notes omitted. So unlike the major pentatonic scale where we omitted the fourth seventh notes, the minor pentatonic scale omits the second sixth notes. In this example of C minor, one more time to C minor scale. Okay, now to play the C minor pentatonic scale, we wanted to omit the second sixth notes. What are they? One to? D is the second 3456, and a flat is the sixth. So we're gonna omit D, the second note, and a flat, the sixth row. And this is what will get. Okay, there's this C Minor Pentatonic Scale, and you can hear that, that sounds pretty snazzy and you can probably picture a lot of cool melodies coming from that. Now again, we have to be able to do it in all 12 keys. So let's try another key. Let's try D. Let's play the D minor pentatonic scale. And we're going to start with the D minor scale, which goes like this. Ok, there's the D minor scale. Now to play the D minor pentatonic scale, we want to omit the second sixth notes. What are they? One to? D is the second note, 3456. B flat is the sixth note. So we're going to omit the second node and B flat, the sixth note. And this is what will get. There's the D minor pentatonic scale. Let's try one more. Let's try f. So starting with the F minor scale. And now we want to omit the second sixth notes. So 12 g as the second 3456, D flat is the sixth. So we're going to omit G, the second note, and D flat, the sixth note. And this is what will get. Okay, there's the F minor pentatonic scale. The minor pentatonic scale, remember, is the minor scale with the second sixth notes omitted. So that's it for the content for today, we learned the pentatonic scales, both major and minor. Remember the major pentatonic scale is the major scale with the fourth seventh notes omitted. And the minor pentatonic scale is the minor scale with the second sixth notes omitted. And that brings us to the homework for today, which you probably guessed is to play the major and minor pentatonic scales in all 12 keys, both forwards and backwards. Okay, so one more time. The C major pentatonic scale forwards. And then to play it backwards, of course we do the same thing in reverse order. Okay? And the C Minor Pentatonic Scale forwards, and of course backwards. Okay? Homer for today, play both the major and minor pentatonic scales in all 12 keys, forwards and backwards. Okay, so we've talked about the content for today. We went over the homework. Now I'm going to show you how to play that little piece from the introduction. Let me play it one more time here. Okay, so a pretty cool little groove there that is a good example of how catchy the minor pentatonic scale can sound. So let's walk through it, starting with the left-hand. Left-hand starts on this chord. Now, we're gonna learn chords in the very next lesson, right at the start of chapter two. But left hand for now is playing this F minor seven chord containing F, a flat, C, and E flat. Now recall the F minor scale. Ok, so this chord here contains the first, third, fifth, seventh nodes, the F minor scale. That's why this is called an F minor seven. Okay? So first chord is this. Second chord is very similar to the first. We're just going to remove this C and we're going to bring this E flat down a half step to d. Okay? And this is an F minor six, or you can think of it as a B flat seven with no route. We're not gonna talk about that right now. Left-hand first chord, F minor 7. Second chord, F minor six. Okay? Now let's look at the right hand. The right hand plays a melody that starts like this. So that's F, a flat, B flat, hammer on B to C. Now, you might be saying, Daniel, why are you playing this b? That's not in the F minor pentatonic scale. And you're right, and the answer is, it's because I'm using it as a passing tone. And we're gonna talk about passing tones when we get into melody and sold away. But as the name implies, I'm using it as a transition note to create some tension before I arrive at the destination node. If c, which is in the F minor pentatonic scale. Ok, so first part of the melody one more time. Then the second part goes like this. So that's B flat, a flat, D flat, FP flat. So the whole first part of the melody together. Okay, second part of the melody is the exact same as the first. I'm just going to end on the F and play this note twice instead of ending on the B-flat and second part of the melody. Okay, so that's it for today. I hope I've given you a good overview of the pentatonic scales. If you have any questions, please go ahead and post them in the comments. Thanks for watching. Have a great day and I'll see you in the next lesson.