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Lessons in This Class

30 Lessons (3h 5m)
    • 1. Introduction

      2:13
    • 2. Scope of physics

      6:31
    • 3. Units

      7:55
    • 4. Laws of motion

      8:05
    • 5. Matter and its characteristics

      3:13
    • 6. Pressure

      6:16
    • 7. Properties of solids

      4:10
    • 8. Properties of liquid

      12:01
    • 9. Properties of gases and molecular motion

      7:18
    • 10. Work energy and power

      9:55
    • 11. Newton's laws of gravitation

      7:19
    • 12. Variation of g

      4:38
    • 13. Kepler's law of planetary motion

      4:13
    • 14. Satellites

      7:33
    • 15. Heat

      3:44
    • 16. Measuring heat intensity

      5:32
    • 17. Thermometers

      10:00
    • 18. Effects of heating

      5:32
    • 19. Transfer of heat

      9:30
    • 20. Laws of thermodynamics

      6:10
    • 21. Types of waves

      4:33
    • 22. Terminology and properties of waves

      6:25
    • 23. Sound Waves

      9:07
    • 24. Speed of sound

      3:49
    • 25. What is Light

      6:54
    • 26. Reflection

      5:26
    • 27. Refraction

      9:02
    • 28. How eclipses occur

      2:44
    • 29. Dispersion of light and rainbows

      4:45
    • 30. Color of objects

      5:21
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About This Class

We are living in the century of science and technology and introduction of science in our daily has transformed our lives. When people had no idea about science, even then their lives were governed by principles of different branches of science.

Physics governs our everyday lives and is involved in a number of activities we perform and things we use in our daily life. Physics is often considered as an immersive yet challenging subject. It is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines. The main goal of physics is to explain how things move in space and time.

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: Hello and welcome to the goals off. Physics fundamentals. Physics is the science of matter and its motion the science that builds with concepts such as force, energy, Mars and charge, and many more as an experimental science. Its ultimate goal is to understand the natural world of fiscal world In one form or another . Physics is one of the oldest academy discipline. If you consider its modern, so fill that is astronomy, it may be the oldest off them all. Today, physics is abroad and, ah, highly developed subject. In this course, we're going to explore some of the fundamental aspects off the subject. Our first focus would be the nature and the scope of the subject. Secondly, we will mourn to matter, and it's got plastics. Our part focus would be work, energy and power for clean. We're going to propagate to understand what is gravitation. The 50 unit would go heat 61 for villas seven and not the least and the last light. However, we're not covering Canham itics. Nickel physics and magnetism in this course because they're damsel's are used enough to cover separately. They're themselves a different subject, so I might to committing some other courses. But for now, visit fundamentals are having seven particular sections or your it's. During this particular course, you will be asked to submit assignments. They quizzes and salt practice sets toe honey, your skills have been living. 2. Scope of physics: the word physics comes from the Greek word fuses, which means major in soundscape. Is he going to party? That means the physical world. In physics, we attempt to explain diverse physical phenomena in terms off few concepts and laws that Vieira dollop by yourself. The effort is to see the physical world as a manifestation off some universal laws in different domains and different conditions in physics, history, different forms, off matter, their properties and transformations that they undergo. It is a science dealing with the fundamental consequence of the universe, the forces they exerted one another and the result produced by these forces. Physics is like the disciplines of general science. Chemistry and policy, sometimes in modern physics, are more sophisticated approaches taken that incorporates elements off the three states. That being said, let's understand, what are the MSM branches off? Physics First is a cost ICS. This is the study off production and properties off sound. Next, use atomic physics. It is the study off structure and properties. Often, Adam Biophysics applies the tool of physics to life processes. How now sells interact with the physical body, how blood cells travels from one place to another, something like that is what biophysics is. Clausen ings is the study off Lord and preacher Very low temperature electric dynamics is the analysis off relationship between electrostatic and magnetic fields. Float physics in digs with the moment off liquid and Cassis. Macronix It is with the behavior off Absecon system, various forces and nuclear our modern physics. It is concerned with structure and properties off atomic nucleus and their reactions. So these somewhat 8 to 9 branches are the major branches of physics and there are many countries. Number of branches are there and you are as we speak. A new branch might be sprouting out before propagating. Father, let's understand water the fundamental forces in the nature. There are basically four fundamental forces in nature that governor diverse phenomena are macroscopic and microscopic world. What is microscopic that means is that we can see from our own eyes and microscopic microscope is required. So basically this four forces are what gravitation force electromagnetic force MF the strongly Clippers and the Vic Nicholas was this four forces are the fundamental forces in nature. The gravitational force is the fourth of mutual attraction between any two objects by virtue of their masses. This is a universal force. They left The magnetic force is the force between Josh the particles. The strong nuclear force is the force between protons and neutrons. In the nucleus itself, the weak nuclear forces are eventually something else. They appears on Lee uncertain nuclear processes. Just the bitter decay off Nicholas. If we talk about the related strength, ranges and operation of the forces and we consider the strong nuclear force as a unit, quantity as one, then the gravitational force would have really to strengthen timeto former minister beat and syringe. What? The range of gravitational forces in finite because you knew it was his infinite. We haven't found his wondering it. So gravitational force with the latest string of plentiful minus 38 with its back to the strong nuclear force, all dogs in the universe cloud ation way are going to have a complete different you need or section for regulation completely dedicated to condition. Then we are big nuclear force. It has the religious drink of 10 pummels study and the range is very small. That is the size off in nuclear nucleus. Basically So it operates amongst something called bo zones. Electra Vanity force has the latest rent, often for ministry, and it's rains is also in finite, and it operates among, As I told earlier, what was the humanity force? The force between the child's particles so it will operate between for dance strongly levels that we have consider us a unity also breaks in a very short range within the size of the nuclear's. That means a nuclear size, and it open summers but declared particle that is called medicines. So these concludes our this particular election in the next lecture, we're going to understand about what are the different type of units and physics units at the very busy component of physics. Without understanding off units, you cannot get any food. Thank you so much soon the next lecture. 3. Units: the Jews in standard, you so missing a physical quantity. It's what we call a unit the basic requirement for the unit that it should be well defined , easy to reproduce, easy to compare internationally accepted an independent off changes in fiscal conditions you needs out off through types, phenomenal unit and derived unit you need depends upon choice is a choice of unit leads to a new system or set off units. They're basically four types of systems sieges, system M gay system, FBS system and as I unit in After units, which is the most acceptable unit most internationally acceptable unit. There are seven phenomenal units that our land, which is given by symbol Mita or AM in as a unit mass kilogram or kg time second or its electric current ampere or a then preacher Calvin Archy. Luminous intensity Candela CD amount of substance. Mullah More. Here You have to keep open eyes because people think that as I unit for temperature, many people things. It's a very big misconception, as I unit off temperature is considered to be the results, but it's not. It's Calvin and Vice all because the absolute imprinted so basically it's a concept of Ramadan makes, which comes a savory at one. Stopping off engineering absolute temperature is Decca mine with help off Calvin skill. That's why, as I unit is taking Calvin as the you need for temperature. Besides the sound, fundamental units through supplementary units are also defined that is, radiant, that is so plain angle and stare Edion that is for solid angles. I bet you must have heard about plane angle and sold dangle in geometry at some point, so I'm not going to discuss that. Let's win forward. Let's understand about the derived units. See, all the units Richard defined are expressed in terms off. Phenomenal units are called derived units. Let's say, for example, force the sieges unit for forces time there. So unities Newton and one Newton is going back 10 2 par five diets Work has a suggest you ain't off e r Geo hug. And as I unit is Julie and Vangelis goaltender part seven ug. So basically this force and work there derived units. How good did I? Because in orderto l've Ogden, a particle amount of force has to be applied to glide distance that this we're going to call in the coming like just also. But just for the general idea. I'm telling me today is the book basically that is Joel. So it's a derived units. How come the right? Because it has been derived from the fundamental units from the basic units. That's why it's called the road unit. No, listen, there's been some tactical units or land Martin time, so beginning with length. First we have a light here, which is the distance traveled by lighting. One year in vacuum, one light year is given by 9146 into 10 or 15 meter deck means this is the distance the light travels in one year. So basically, if you think when looking up in the sky in night, you'll see the twinkling stars, the light that is coming from those stars, which are billions and billions and billions killing me. Just so we we are basically doing what we're basically seeing the past, because light must have left that particular planet or star and coming to us after many, many years. So if you're looking at the star that might not even exist at the this particular moment, this is how lost the universe in This is how most the scope of physics is. All right, let's moving forward. One astronomical unit you is given by 1.5 into 10. Depart 11 meter. This is what you are. Extra mom. Astronomical Unit is the distance between art and the sun. The center off into the center of the sun is this astronomical Unit one Classic School to 3.26 light year. All these are the tactical units for length. One classic was about 3.26 light years. That would be what 300 into 10 Top are 16. We don't one nautical mile heart. See my is 6020 feet, one micron school to one My committed that is commitment permanent six meter and one anger strong. He spent two for minus 50 meter. Then we help Mosque one. Quintal is school to attend a party Gizzi one metric ton school to attend for three K G. That means one done or 1000 Kinsey. One atomic mass unit AM. You are gelatinous. Other name is Dalton is going by 1.66 into tender from minus 27 KZ. One slug is called a 14.59 kz £1 is given by wind for fight 37 kz one gender shaker limit He was a very renowned scientists from India. It's called a 1.4 times the Mars off son their school to Monday 18. New tender part 30 Busy now, Last but not least time. In one solar day it be 6000 and 400 seconds are there and in one year VL 3 65 wind five solar days and in one lunar month lunar month means that time bridge off revolution off moon around earth that is given by doing disowned 0.3 solar days Tropical here is what it is the ear in which total solar eclipse August when we're going to propagate to the light you need We're going to understand about all these solar eclipses and the moon eclipses Everything will be discussed there So this can cruise this particular lecture the next lecture People understand about motion. Thank you so much 4. Laws of motion: in this universe. Nobody is an absolute rest, but the body can be at the best with respect to some. Another body. Let's take example off a book on the table. Ah, book on the table is at rest victories back to the table and the other objects surrounding it. But all these objects, including the table and the book, are sharing the motion off the earth. The earth rotates about its axis, its own axis and revolves around the sun. Therefore, the book and the other objects are moving with respect to the sun and our rest on Lee did respect to the immediate neighboring objects no, the concept of motion and dressed the walls around three friends only if the bush in off in material system as measured by a particular observer, that is, the difference changes with respect to time. That system is said to be in motion with respect to adopt, so there are certain terms related promotion like distance, displacement, speed and velocity. Dispense displacements, breeding velocity so you don't understand them. We need to understand about side with school quantities. Scallon and Victor. This color quantities are the physical quantities, which are magnitude only and no bags from the North Villas Vetter quantities have would magnitude as well as direction and the Big Triangle law. So this would be your assignment. What is a triangle law? You do find out now. The example off Skela quantities would be masked speed of volume, work time, power and ejected traders for that pointed, It's the whole displacement velocity acceleration force moment M talk and many more. See, the scallops are added and multiplied according to the in accordance with the law off algebra Vera's that controversies at 11 multiplied according to the special off that eligible No asper distances concerned distances want the actual land off bark travel by your body. Let's save from going from point A to B this red club part that we're taking that is the actual but and the shortest distance between these two points point nb would be what the displacement, So displacement is what the shortest distance from the initial to the final portion of your body. Displacement is in lead, a vector quantity, and it's always a straight line that your toe born in your mind. Weitz director Quantity because it is giving the magnitude as well as Dax. Now its speed is that find it else changeable. You share villas. Velocity is the rate of change of displacement. So this was very Borden dumps related to motion. Now let's understand about the Newton's Law of Motion. And for that veered off wasn't understand what is force and what is inertia? Well, it's basically a observable that that are isolated, upset at rest does not start moving on their own. Some external force. Some effort is required to move the object. So when we push our full A particular and Eddie, let's say, a table, for instance, were exerting a force on the table. It is the force exerted by BET that makes the ball move. It is the fool's exempted by the bulls to pull the block cut. So these are the example off force in action. See the militia? The vote inertia is the inherent property, often obscene toe remain at rest unless and until external forces acted upon it. Also, the property off a body toe keep moving with constant velocity. In the absence of any force acting on it, it is also inertia. Galileo was the first We discovered the law of inertia, bodies moving with uniform velocity would maintain this state of motion forever in the sense of force acting upon them, continuing his investigation on the business off Galileo's finding. So I said Newton formulated three laws of motion. That's why the name Newton's Law of Motion, which formed the foundation off mechanics. Newton's first law of Motion is a reformulation off Galileo's law in a shanty states. It is just that everybody continues in its state off rest or off uniform motion in a straight line unless and until come, billed by some external force toe act. Otherwise, Newton's second Law of motion gives the laid off genial momentum often object. So basically, the radar junior moment off on opposite is directly proportional to the force, acting on it and expressing the position in which the force that so basically begins a neutral second off motion gives the expression off foods and the direction of force. There's one more come in this particular context impulse when a particular force is acting at a particular point off. Time for given beautician. The quantity of forced into time multiplied by time is called us in Paul's many applications off the concert problem pulls out there. That's a for example, a cricket player lowers his hand while catching a cricket ball in order door wide. An injury. What is doing his basic in closing time off the catch and, according to the concept, the impulse. When the time of contact increases the impact of force on the hands, dig leases, vehicles, appointed shockers Ah, Persons resumes more injury. Even he falls on the cemented floor, then on its influence. These are the many applications off concert probables. And then we help Nugent's heard law off motion, every action, these always equal and opposite reaction. Basically, this law is like universal law. It's not only apply to force that's applied to emotions, it applied to attraction. It apply to everything that surrounds you. Every action has a call in a posit reaction. Thank you so much. 5. Matter and its characteristics: what is matter. Anything that occupies space has read and must and which people's you through our senses. Touch sight here, Mallon noticed, is called matter. So can we say, is amatzia matter? Because electricity, light and heat a form of energy. But they night that occupies space, not they help it. These are therefore not matter, and energy is not matter. As we all know, there are three states off matters solid liquid in I guess solid is forming. Attraction between individual molecule is greater than energy, causing them to more but solid help. Definite size and shape liquid is formed when energy off system is increasing and resilience structural in solid shape is broken down. It is a definite volume, and it takes the shape of the container in which it is placed. Guess is fumble. Emma's E off system exists the attraction of the molecule, and it has no definite shape or volume. To me, the properties of metal are their occupants, office space and representation and sublimation. The process off conversion off liquid to gas on hitting is called projection and in this process is done in the room temperature. It is called evaporation, and the process of commotion off solid directly to get on anything is called sublimation. The best suitable example for the same will be hitting off the ice cube in vacuum. No, let's understand density and related density. If he hold two groups off equal volume off to different solids, let's say, would an IRA the observed that the cube off idol is heavier? This can be explained by saying that the density off either it's more than the density off . The density off substance is basically defined as its mass per unit volume so dense it is given by mass by volume Vera's, the related density or the specific gravity off itself. Strains defined us the weight off. Any volume of the substance to the weight off are equal volume off water basically related and cities conveyed density offer substance derided by 10 city off water, and this religion density has no unit. In the next lecture, we will try to understand the boat pressure 6. Pressure: pressure. Is the force divided by the area on meeting acts or basically define Er's force acting normally on unit area off the surface? Because simply vino be school do F by day. The pressure is a scalable quantity and as I units are new tampering with this crap, r k g. Putting the dirt percent and it's great, the friends saying. This place Paschal discovered in the 17th century dead pressure applied toe any part off liquid in a closed vessel. It's transmitted with quelling density, toe all parts of liquid and act in all directions. There's one more very important principle that is banal, its principal, and that is considered to be. And that is indeed friends to the flutes in motion, basically. But on Spence will say that for a continuous flow off liquid through a pipeline off non uniformed cross section mark my words known hearing from cross section, the velocity of the liquid is greater in the narrower part off the pipe. So what analysts principle is simply stated. Let's say, for example, you're doing God me and you want to go extend the reach off your water hose. So what you do, you will just simply put your tongue and the and what will happen. The water will come rushing in, and with great Felicity, the transit three would become. This is one Bono spends money it. So basically what this principle is stating. We can simply say that when the speed off a flute, whether it's a liquid or gas that doesn't matter in a pipeline increases the pressure decreases and Worsley, Band of speed off the flu decreases the pressure increases. In other words, that Zack water bomb We just often used to pump water out of a basement while someone this principle, one more state, we would be like that. But notice principle explains why, through speed would moving Pellerin close to each other like a door type each other. Now let's discuss about some applications off. Banal is still the 1st 1 is the lived off a rope involving see the shape of the airplane? Things is suspected. Oppose a face is more gold dance lower surface that is, had his ticker than steel. So as the aeroplane moves forward, the speed off air, about of things is lather than the speed off air billowed Living's and according to banal is Terram. The pressure are both Irving's these lads, because speed is more and the pressure blood living is look because velocities less due to this particular pressure. The friends, the aeroplane gets the vertical lived, which is sufficient to work on the force of gravity, and the aeroplane is lifted up. Second application would be blowing off the groups doing storm storming conditions. So what happens during storms or cyclones? The group's off. The herds are tin roofs of blown off. This is because during storms the ring blows at a very high speed or the roof and, according to balloons, totem the ratio. What the root? Because laughs while the pressure under the roof that means the inside of the house is really large. So do you do this particle patient of friends? It gives up. I want to go live to the roof and it it is blown off. Third application would be the motion off to power pores. When do boards small distance apart when they are ready? Small distance apart. Removing ballot, which is in the same direction the speed off water between the two boards become more than that outer side off the boat and again, according to Bernard, is still on. The relation between the boards is reduced, and so the outward pressure processed, bought in what. As a result, they come closer to each other and they might go light. The fourth application off. Bernoulli's principle is the most important. That is, at most very pressure. So in this context, let's have a broader discussion about atmospheric pressure. See the existence of at muscly Pressure Waas demonstrating this series off experiment performed during 17th century by Italian scientists Evangelista Torricelli and the French Place Bhaskar, who all already house families, baskets law. They showed that atmospheric pressure at sea level on the mockery in the dish would give the column or clean the do but hide off about 76 GMM that you must have heard everywhere. It's what that must feel pressure. So the more than Margaret Bear Meter is used to miss it. The pressure of the atmosphere. It's actually based upon Dorey sales model. It consists off in Morton Mercury to you know, this is aware of the same liquid. There's another type of barometric type is studying and that can be carried about much more easily. That is the android perimeter. Atmospheric pressure can hold up off column of order parameters high That is going to sound a six centimeter off McGary. 7. Properties of solids: among all the Treaster So matter sudden properties and note isn't solid. We shall not presenting any other states visit Citi hardness, brittleness, Malibu Conduct ability, elasticity All these properties representing solid and are not presenting any understood. So let's understand them one by one. 1st 1 is the resident tea visit. It is the property by what you reach a solid body offered resistance toe external deforming forces. Let's say, for example, you are tryingto push of all with the ball. Be deformed. No, because it's a visit for So how come is going to default? So that is what rigidities example off visit Bodies are like Iran planting on a stone. Got glass vote Exeter would but hardwood only next is hard Miss It is a property by which is solid body offers and resistance to being cut out to be scratched by another substance nexus brittleness. Brittleness is the property by which is solid. Substance can be broken into smaller pieces easily by bending our family. Then we have Malibu lt infertility. I think, basically malleability the property by which matter can be drawn into sheets and that it is a property biology off. Which matter can be drawn into 10 wires. See this property of Malibu eating that ability both increases with increasing temperature . Aluminium shows malleability in quartz and platinum are highly tiling nature. Unless we have elasticity. Elasticity is the property by which the material begins his original shape and size ones. Deforming forces are removed has the name elasticity, elastic bodies and the bodies which do not regain it's original properties are known as plastic bodies. Therefore, we can conclude that elasticity is the property of matter by which is solid request a certain amount of force to distort it and then tends to resume its original shape when the deforming force has been dreamed. The last city off materials do toe forces that thing between the particles that is the atom , um, articles off that particular material at the least during force. In order to regain that same shape. The restoring force parliament area is what we call it, stressed its internal force, and that the real idea amount of distortion that has been produced would be guard is Jane. Now, the relationship between this to kind of forces stress and the strain is given by hook slow see, hoax lost is that so long as the elastic limit is not passed for elastics off stands, strange is proportional to stress, as you can see in the graph. Also, the ratio often normals. Just two longitudinal, strange, long Internet stream means the strain in the longitudinal direction. That means land means on Leland. There's no changing bread. There's nothing in height. So the ratio off the enormous just longer jeunesse Penis known. That's what young smugglers, and it depends only upon the nature of the material. 8. Properties of liquid: in this lecture, we're going to discuss about some of the properties off liquid. The very first property is that liquid. How no shape off their own. Second liquids are in compressible on deposes, a definite volume part liquid maintains their own level. Do you do the high monocle emotion in illiterate? It always flow from hired one lower level, but the freezer face off Celebrities had pressed Hari Jindal. As you can see here, there are many different meniscus. But the level off the retreat is always for a gentle. That it doesn't matter what is the cross section. It doesn't matter want their shape is taking, but it's free. Surface at rest is always original. On that note, let's understand about capital charity, which is a very important property off liquids. So basically a capillary tube is a tube having very narrow or fine and uniformed board. The best example for the same would be the refill off your phone being see if a capillary doom is different. Really. Grid liquid assets RB scents that means rises or falls in the capital. Radio on this particular phenomena is called popularity and how this rises how this fall depends upon the property off the liquids itself. That is, inside the couple of video, the height by which the liquid ascends or descends. In the capital group, the only depend upon the radius off the tube are uniform board that I told about template to the cabin. Parity depends on the nature off liquid as well as for solely does the agreed, which that's the wall of the tube, rises in the dew on the liquid, which does not vent of all of the cube. Be sensing the field, for example. As you can see here, when a capital read you is dipped in water, water rises in the tube and the shape off the water meniscus is gone. Killed. Similarly, Venna glass capillary tube is deeply mockery. Mark descends in the tube and shape off mockery. Meniscus is convex. That means the liquid, which best the ball of the do rises and the liquid that does not get the wall of the truth Descents. Some of the common illustrations are for capital re cap clarity or couple of reaction would be first, let's take example off a piece of blotting paper. It soaks ink because the boards off the blotting paper sells escape platitudes. The oil in the Wyckoff lamp rises due to capital reaction off the trading. The pick the root hair off planned broth water from the soil through capital reaction to bring loss of water. Due to capture the action ist soil is losing and spit into pieces by the farmers. If a cap ability with different water in an artificial satellite, what would happen? Anything. If a couple it to its jibben of water and there's vacuum, Let's say it's artificial. Satellite water will rise up to the other end of the two because off its Jiro aberrant read , it doesn't matter how long. The two, maybe another illustration of capillary action would be action off Howlin soaking of water from the body. This is a very common practice. We used travel every day, but we don't know how many, many of us. We don't know how it soaks our event body. This is you to get the reaction off court in In the top. The fourth property off liquid is that deposes surface tension, since the first tension is the property by virtue of which the free surface off liquid behaves us A stretched membrane water has most off extension than oil. That's why I floats. Or water insects like mosquitoes can walk freely on the surface off stagnant water purely due to surface nation. Similarly, mosquitoes Late AG on the surface of border and y v spray oil or kerosene in places were dirty. Water is there because we want toe drawn the axe off the mosquito. This is a very common practice. Why we add the dozen or soap in order to clean up plots. Because this that is intense, so good, the surface tension off water and does increase the cleaning ability. Why wrong super for dusty? Because at high temperatures, surface tension is low and consequently the soup spreads on all parts of the time. These are the very common and data dip that business off surface nation. Next year's liquid exert pressure, and for that we have a very beautiful film that is got naughty sense. Still, for the explanation off the same. Let's consider container, but just having the whole I didn't hide edge from the freezer office. See full screen, the velocity off influx. Let's see. It is very that is the velocity that reached the liquid flows out of the orifice that is, a narrow hole is equal to that richer, freely falling body aggressing falling from the same distance that is equal to the depth off vertical office below the free surface of liquid. So this we will begin by under GH cinder as the love motion. Secondly, the surface a liquid is always perpendicular to the pressure acting on it totally the liquid pressure exerted in all directions. This is also known as basket law, that Beale Street earlier in the lecture of pressure and when we're applying it to liquid paschal apply to liquid, gives rise to help Rolex. So hydraulic lift, which is based upon the basket LA application in illiterates, is used to lived heavy loads. It works on the principle of Paschal law and here that you can see in this particular pick and and and at the new cylinders are definitely off cross section. Even in a do here, a do is much more than even and the cylinder the whole management are filled with in compressible liquid. So by applying us more fools, we can lift heavy lords on the basis off this particular concept hydraulic lift. Jessi B's, your grains and heavy machineries. Everything works on this part. Equipments are safe. No, it is more aggression. Then you seem underwater. The pressure off the voter gets great on your body, the deeper you go now, the question is, why aren't you crushed by all its verdict? The reason is that your body compensates by creating on internal pressure that is equal to the ear or water pressure. You're somewhat like a balloon filled. It floats under what? Under pressure. Now, when you go very different of water, the water pressure may get greater than your body can complains it. And for sure, you'll get uncomfortable. That's why there are certain limits defined by the humankind. That person can go this much meters below water, and not more than that. Natural is viscosity seemed. Viscosity is the monocle property off gases and liquids and is denoted by coefficient off viscosity. It's as high unities baska viscosity, inconsistent with increase or decrease off the richer this particular properties White singer do friction. Next year's Byron's Your Bio Fours. As I told you earlier when I was giving you a very beautiful example that when you read swim underwater, the suppression of water. From there, this precious coming see basically liquid exerts on up trust on a body must in it, and the tendency to deliver this abstracts toe on a body must. It's called piracy and up trust is called bio force. It is quite obvious that the bio force is equal to the apparent loss in the vit. Banfield's depends on the size or volume of the body and the intensity of deliberate on the business off. These findings are committees derived a principle. And he exclaimed. Eureka! When I'm sorry bodies in months partially or wholly non liquid addressed, it loses off weight, which is equal to the weight off the liquid displaced by the months portion of the solid party. So this experience of right we are getting into a bathtub full of water. The water displaces and false down once out of the but because we are displacing that much volume off water with our body, so basically observe it, it's the difference off prove it and the weight off liquid displaced no. Last but not least, osmosis see certain substances our borders to one material, but not to another. For example, whatever diffused through a tin slice of potato, but sugar molecules will not. A membrane off this particular sort is called a semi permeable membrane, and the selected diffusion through such membrane is what osmosis? This osmosis place a very important role in getting really good through plants and in the absorption off food and disposal of waste by cell in plant and animals. Thank you so much. 9. Properties of gases and molecular motion: some of those pressure properties of gases are that they have no definite shape or size. In the case of guesses, the intermodal color correction make visible and the intermodal clear distance our last. That's right. They're not having any definite shape or size. Guesses have no free service, just like solid and liquid. They're having frizzle face. But guesses are not having Teresa, please. They expend freely. No, keep me the complete volume of the containing visit. Hence guesses do not have any free surface at all. Guesses are highly compressible. The volume off guests can be reduced, but application off pressure, that is, the gases can be highly compressed. Complice oxygen's landed in hospitals, compresses, hydrogen bags and airships. The LPG that we use in our home and the airbags in somebody's and some examples are highly complex gets is then, in guesses. We have particular time that is called crony in motion. It is the level of motion particles arising from terminal motion off the particles. Then we have diffuse it. That means mixing up off molecules off different gases at room temperature. You must have used perfumes, and the perfume does. Sent off. Perfume comes from deficient self. When a bottle of perfume is open, it get mixed up with the air particles and imparts its fragrance. Do that here due to diffusion. Now let's understand about the molecule motion in all three states of matter. See, the Mongol motion is the motion the molecules with respect to the inter molecular distances , in case offered solid the entomological distance that very small and hence the forces. Some intermarket attractions are large, the only motion permissible to molecule in case off. So ladies oscillation or vibration and that do about it's one position itself, which is fixed to impact hands a solid, has definite shape and size. Hitting a solid means giving one energy toe. These molecules on this will enable the molecules vibrate more violently about them in portion and the molecules move for the body. And this result in the expansion of the solid and answer, we have seen the real tracks we have toe do a very thorough men trains during summer season , the real tex the expense. And that's the same reason the vibration of the molecules increases violently due to application off each due to the surrounding it with hate supply, amplitude off vibration increases because talented tendency is more than potential. NZ and molecules really move viscous pronto. Living state. What debt that goes Without saying that that kind of time Britain would be very nationals liquid evenly quit. The molecules are further apart than the solid. The molecules are not confined to any fix manipulation. They are free to move about within the volume of the liquid hands. Liquid have their own size, but no ship. The different size off liquid is due to the mutual force of attraction between the molecules in case early griddles of market forces. Certain kind of Tennessee acceding, which they fly off the surface by the application of temperature. And this particular phenomenon eyes what wouldn't call your operation if the birth comes near each other at Global City Dick class and that particular phenomenon is known, it's kinda decision. Well, I think the case off guess the intermodal could dispense are much larger than that office solid or a liquid, and the molecules off guests are free to move about in the entire space, are level with them. Has a guest, has no stable size if the space occupied by a guess is increased, the gas will occupy the whole off the new space. Uniformly, the molecules have 32 more votes in the space at Inter Medical Directions Neck Eliza, Billy Small. Therefore, the moment of Mongols. Predominance in turmoil, clear attraction between, apart from solid liquid and guest there some other states. Also the fourth estate off matter is plasma. It is a value. In fact, that matter, bid solid liquid or cash is mutual with regard to electrical charges. But strangely enough, most of the matter in the universe existing a special kind of gas. Is it envies. The atoms are in fact, split and electrically, just particles are disengaged. Matter in this particular are nice condition is called plasma, which is becoming increasingly important. Electronic devices in the search on nuclear power and a new source off electric power. The fifth state off matter is also known as both I and still convince it. It is a state of matter which offers very close to absolute zero. At this extremely low temperature molecule motion almost stops and Adam begin to clump together. Sixth state of metal or quad group on plasma it instead of matter with the highest energy level. It is basically the building block of matter existing in the soup resembling conditions just after the universe was created. The seventh state of matter. Our business matter is a highly compressed. It'll matter which often exists in the court of massive stars. The course gases super complacent, prime resource off presidents no longer family but Wanda. So this salmon state of matters were basic the basis off quantum mechanics, quantum physics. In the next lecture we're going to understand about of a new topic that is spoken is in power and this controls over, you need to matter. And there get mystics. Thanks so much. 10. Work energy and power: what is work If a body gets displaced when a force acts on it, work is said to be done or the never of foods active in of body is ableto actually move through some distance in the directional force Don't walk a sect leader So the work is measured by the product of fools and displacement of the body along the direction of force . So if a body get displaced by s when a force F is acting on it when the work is giving my fs Kosta, why cost treated? Because it is the resolution off fools acting in the direction. That's why f course teacher into us. And he had teachers the angle between the fourth and the displacement. So if both force and displacement are in the same direction, that mystery ties school DJ no degree in that case Wagman school toe ffs because cost, you know, decrease work one now if the force and displacement up perpendicular to each other. In that case, cheetah would be 90 degree and the blue would be efforts cost 90 degree and cause major decrease works caused by by to his watch Jiro. So then force and displacement a perpendicular to each other. World attorneys Jiro What is a scallop quantity and in a size system, the absolutely ruined of work in Seoul while in a certain country serious systems followed . In that case, the unit of bookies Uggs E G s. The work done by your constant force in moving from one point to another point demands on Lee on the initial and the final portion and not on the actual path followed between the crew points that means begins a book is a bath function. And if the world done by a force during a round trip offer system is Jiro the world, it's said to becomes operative. Otherwise it is called us known conservative. So in that regard, force of friction is a non conservative. You forts Maxus Energy energy is simply the capital city off body for doing work. If you're not happy and as in your body, you will not be able to even understand this lecture. You will not be able to You lived a glass support. So the capacity off doing work is what an Aziz It is the total amount of August rolled up in the body. That means it represents The total amount off of Ogden is stored in a body that Mrs says scaler quantity, and it has the same dimensions as that of work. See energy can exist in different forms such as mechanical age, sound, electrical light, X factor, the mechanical energy out of all the sentences held, two tapes can indignity and potential and a Z enraged. The potential energy is the capacity of doing work terribly. Nobody due to his positional configuration, Most woman example, would be a waterfall. The very basic example off potential and see the water coming down from the top of the waterfall has energy. Despite its splashes days of you couldn't see him impact in the surface glow and a rise off water droplets everywhere. Why so because waterfall has a potential is the water that is going through a waterfall that is going down. A waterfall has a potential on a C, and with that energy, work is getting them. You must have heard about hydropower plants. They are generally pleased it the side of waterfall. This is the reason potential Enezi. Some other example would be the energy stressed or compressed in and spring, the energy off springing of war. So basically all the example off springs can be the example of potential energy. Well, in many books you will find it as spring in a Z. But the spring is is nothing but potential energy itself. Next is second kind. Take second. Mechanical Anzi Israel Canon Chicken is It's the energy possessed by a body due to its motion and we all know it is Jim by half. MV is great. Now let's understand about the principle off conservation off energy. See, energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. It can be transferred from one body to another body. If the union was a concept, everybody knows it. And what is the most basic application off this particular principle? Spacecraft? The very basic application off conservation off energy is spacecraft, which de picks the never energy supplies. In one form, equal amount of energy is producing another form. Hence, the total energy of union was always remains the scene. Listen this time about the different forms of energy in a broader expect Pamela and C chemical and electrical energy. Then we're energy Italy to Mars and then if we have any clemency, so let's understand them one Piper for Melinda's is then, as you have object because of the cannon eating and it's in potential and see on the monitor higher the temperature faster the molecule and Gerges, the thermal energy of the substance and by thermal energy we mean hit energias well. Both are same thing. Then we all can be calamities that energy released or absorbed during cankles reaction, depending on the total energy off reacting this more than or less then product. Let's say, for example, head releases of burning off cooling sector. Then we are electrical energy is the energy calls due to attraction and repulsion off electric charges. Then we have energy related to mass, and this particular concept is incorporated into instance hypothesis that mask and become potato energy according to release. And what is well, toe EMC Square and is the Marcie. The speed off light and the value off see the speed of light is what being treated for it and then last but not the least. Nuclear energy is the energy produced it of prison off having a clear molecules in tow to lighter fragments or fusion off to light nuclear to give up, have uniquely this is what nuclear energy is. And then we have what? Ma'rwa Wow is simply the red off doing work energy was the capacity off doing work Power is the rate off doing work with energy, you can do work. And at what rate you're doing work is your bowel power is missing Andrews both second on what if a body does one jewell off used full of work every second. It has a power output off one. What if a body does 4000 jewel of working pants again? It is a power off 400 vote because powers the rate of doing work walked in. But unit time that miss walked in by time or and as you transferred upon nine chicken so larger powers like in thousands jewels 14,000 tools are denoted by kilowatts or make awards . One kilowatt is stent about three. What one made on the stand about six foot and a very practical unit of powers. Also there that is called horsepower in many bikes in many sports cards. Do you pull it concerned with how much house power this particular Ottomans having? So this horse power is the most practical unit off power as press the automobile sector s consent. One horsepower is equal into sound and then and 46 world and one more unit is there. That is kilowatt hour, which is very much concerned with the electricity department. It is 3.6 into tender part six Zeus. So basically the award Kilowatt Megaworld horsepower as that you need off. 11. Newton's laws of gravitation: everybody attracts other body by a force and that fools is what gravitation is. Gravity is the force of attraction between two objects, for example, between the earth and the moon or between the Earth and on apple. The apple fall to the ground because it is attracted by the. However, this is not a one way street, as the earth is also attracted to that. Although this form of graft is strongly that it cannot be defended, this means that objects with last mass like sun and planets exert greater gravitation than those with the small mass like people. Apple car buses, anything all objects, regardless off better they're living beings are celestial. Bodies are subject to repetition. Even the strange stars exert an attraction on the And even though this does US muscles, our son, the gravitational force which they're generate has a bigger effect on us. This is because gravity depends not only on the march often upset but also its distance. The greater the distance between two objects the vehicle their mutual attraction will be, but it will never be Jill us. It is in finite Nugent's lof gravitation, which is the most acceptable off gravitation It's just at the force of gravitation. Attraction between two point bodies is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. This new transmigration, that is, every school to G M. One temple of one out of square first appeared in the Principia Mathematics on July 16 87. It describes why that apple fell from that tree in that locker in Lincolnshire. Whether or not that Apple actually landed on my security instead at some stories would have told you this equation describes why you help stayed rooted to the ground, what lost the Earth in orbit around the sun and what used by nothin's nears to send men to the moon. It encapsulates the idea that all the particles off matter in the universe attract each other through the force of gravity. Newton's law tells us how strong that attraction is. Newton came to the formula after studying the century. Some MSM is from astral. Almost before him, star gauges had spent millennium get get logging, the pushing off the stars and planets in the night sky, and by the 17th century, the German astronomer and mathematician Jonah's capital had bowled out the germ a tree of this moments by looking at the moment off Mars. Kaplan had calculated that planets orbited the sun in elliptical parts and in a kind of celestial clockwork. He didn't derived his three laws of planetary motion that we're going to study in the coming lectures. So cab bloods law explained how the planets more on the sun, but not why. So Newton filled in that gap by supposing there was a force acting between the bodies that will move around each. So the story. The story off that apple, the story of Newton goes like that you don't so on Apple fall to the ground, and it made him wonder why the food always fell straight to the ground. Why did it not We're off to the left or right according to his own laws of motion, because Newton has derided his Newton's Law of Motion, and after that he came toe Newton's law of gravitation. That's obvious thing. So according to his own loss of motion, anything that begins moving from us Standing Start is undergoing a celebration. And where there is escalation, there must be a force. The apple spat in the tree and landing on the on even Newton's head, which means there must be a force of attraction with the apple. And and even if the above ever higher up in the tree, it would still feel this force of attraction the Earth that what do they start? In fact, the attraction shouldn't even stop at the top of the tree, but carry on the way up into the heavens. So this raised another cushion. If everything around Earth should feel this force off attraction, including the moon, why doesn't own nearest neighbor fallen crash onto the surface off line in the same areas that will lead? So the new Newton concluded that the moon did feel the effect of the Earth's attractive forces and that it was indeed falling. But there was a very good reason why drink Crestone. He then used a tot based experiment to explain his thinking. Let's amazing. You are fighting a cannonball high simply from a top off a mounted on a Let's hear from Mount Everest, which is the tallest mountain in the ball, would follow, called transitory, a parabolic part as it moves forward and was attracted by gravity. It was the ground the same thing. Fire the Campbell with more energy that it would land further away from mountain. But it still would follow a gold transacting. Doing so. So what? Newton proposes that if you fired the cannon involved enough energy, it could simply fly all the way under the Neverland because the art would be curving away underneath the ball at the same rate as the ball fell. In other words, the ball would now be in orbit around the heart and business. What happens with the moon? It isn't free fall around the Earth, but it moves fast enough so that the Earth's surface never quite catches it. So in the next lecture, we're going to understand about the acceleration due to gravity. It's a radiation and what is aberrant rate and threw it. Thank you so much. 12. Variation of g: the S oration producing a body do The force of gravity is called acceleration. Due to gravity, it is generally denoted by small Z and its value is 9.8 meters was against square. However, in certain mathematical formulas and mathematical deductions, the value of G are sometimes taken. A stand me to put second square this gene this escalation little gravity's independent, off shape, size and the mars off the body. However, there are certain variations in G like the value of G decreases with height or depth from art surface. The value of G is maximum act pools and it is minimum at a quitter. The value of G decays is due to rotation off art. The solution to to grow t decreases if the angle a spinoff increases and increases if anglers sweet off decreases. So this was very important concept. If the Anglers bill have become 17 times its present value Ah, body on the acquittal become very close. What is weightlessness means this new great Yet it So as I told you the relation of G about the bullies maximum and at the secretary's minimum. Why? So there goes Earth has a are bled spirit type ship art is not a spherical. It's all blitz fair, right? No. Let's understand what is apple and wit and drew it and water its implications. When we're considering the case off lived, going upwards or downwards. See, I've been freed. Is the red associated with the variation off G? Where is the true? It is the actual vit We just corresponding toe the actual gene that that is the actual isolation due to gravity 9.8 meters per second squared. So the true it would be mg simple of it mass into a solution due to gravity. Is the Vegas pointing to the variation of G? Now if lift If I lived in a stationary or moving with the uniforms speed either upward or downward, the aberrant weight of a body is equal to its true it. If it is going off with a celebration, the aptly weight off her body is more than the through it. And if a lift is going down with the situation, the apple and read off a body is always less than the proof feet. Now there's a very curious case. What if the court of the lift is broken it will fall freely. And in this situation the weight off a body in the lift becomes geode. And this is the situation off weightlessness. So what a troll. Early in case of aeration in G, if the endless bit off art becomes 17 times its present value, Ah, body on the greater becomes a bit less because in the greater the shape of the earth is our place Paride. So it's somewhat bulging at the greater So what would happen and the greater the situation off the beautiful body would be coolant in like the gates off this particular lift, a situation off with business will be Children did now while going down If the escalation of the office more than actually acceleration due to gravity ah, body in the lived will go in contact with the sealing off the lift. So this work certain facts and certain directions about escalation due to gravity in the next lecture Villainous, trainable Caplis, Long off plant emotion. Thank you so much. 13. Kepler's law of planetary motion: Kapler derived the law off planetary motion. Beijing Copernicus, Hallyu centric Terry and on the business of Caplis, Long Nugent Love Load Station came to existence. So it's It's like a proper linkage between Copernicus theory to knitters. Log rotation. Kepler's law provides the bridge price. The part. There are basically three loss that Kepler has derived. First being all planets move around the sun in an elliptical orbit, with the sun being at rest at one focus off Torbit, that means the planet describes elliptical orbits with the sun. At one focus, this is called law Off orbits second losses that the position vector of the planet with sun at the Arisen sweeps out equal area in equal in the world train that Mr a d'Avola studio planet around the sun always remains constant. See this 1st 2 laws will report in the year 1609 that this was the that particularly here, in which Galileo used the telescope jobs of the nineties and then last but not the least, Kepler's third law. But glad to that. Let's understand in brief, the second law of gamblers, I told you, the area velocity off planet understand? All this remains constant watches. The consequence off the same. The consequence off this particular laws that the speed of planet increases when the planet is closer to Dotson and decreases when the planet is far from, that means it's speed of planet is maximum when it is at Barry G and minimum when it is that at Mosi. So Parag in opposes what? It's a mathematical, uh, doesn't Lawzi as, but it's a lives is concerned. So paese is that particular distance from the sun, which is the most nearest and in which the speed of planet is maximum and a posey is that position with respect to the sun, which is maximum. So what would happen? The Speedo planet would be minimal. The third Law states that the square off the period off revolution off a planet around the Sunnis, directly proportional to the cube off ministries of planet From this. So if he's the bear, don't revolution and art is the ministers, our planet from the sun, then P square is directly proportional to argue. This is why market takes 88 days and a fluto takes somewhat 240 years to complete a revolution. How they're Fluto, don't have a state of the planet right now. Last year, Self 2019 Sanchez Sohel decided it prove, let's include will begin in 2005. They are excluded. In 2019 they'll again included Pluto's A Planet as the ninth Planet, but it's still controversial in the next way, the year they will again excluded. Then they will included. So let's focus with the eight planets only and when. Whenever the the same scientific community is including the planet, let's read about it. So this Waas What capitalist law off 90 Motion WAAS In the next lecture, we will understand about satellites. Thank you so much. 14. Satellites: in order to put satellites into orbit, the human kind the human res required a rocket that can go against the will of the earth. That means that can work on the acceleration due to gravity that can work of the gravitational force, the gravitational attraction of that. So for that, the central committee phoned a very important that is escape velocity. See that escape velocity is that minimum velocity with feature body should be presented from the surface of art source. It goes out of the gravitation field over than now. Returns to work. This particular example. I told Grand River discussing about new dance imagination when he amazing about a cannonball launching from on terrorists because speed so that it will never ish art surface . So the concept is somewhat like that only this particular escape velocity is independent Mosque shape and size of body and its directional protection. Escape velocity is also known a second cosmic velocity for us it 11.2 kilometre balls again . So if object attends a velocity off 11.2 lamentable second it can escape are that's why the name as a velocity so you can easily guess what would the escape velocity for moon. It is 2.4 kilometer for 2nd 6 times lesser. No. Since the rocket has launched now the satellite is going to be in orbit. There has to be some velocity that has to be maintained. Otherwise, it will fall back towards so that velocity is known as orbital velocity. Off a satellite is going by V not will do under G and the value of escape velocity that is the only window it has a formal. Also, it has ve school do under Fujiya so we can see the escape velocities another two times the orbital velocity and how much is another toe? It's somewhat 1.41 in matter medical deductions. Therefore, if the arbiter velocity of satellite is increased toe under two times or increase by 41% the satellite relieved orbit and escape. That's why the orbital velocity of satellite is very closely monitored. This orbital speed or orbital velocity of satellite is independent of its mouth. Hence said lights off, defend masses revolving door bit off, same radius. How simple Orbital speed. So basically, this set laser, what their natural or artificial bodies revolving around the planet and desk, additional attraction so moving, our natural supplied and the countless number off supplies that I use for telecommunication , defense and other agriculture means or any other areas. They're artificial plates, the artificial satellites out of one due to which you are able toe watch anything in the television. The life broadcasts the Internet. Your using everything is through circulates only deficient satellites. Now the this orbital speed that people discussing about our little speech office acolyte difference upon the radius. So for Mitt, that means the hide off satellite from the surface off earth so greater the radiance about bit lesser will be the orbital speed. So there's a one very important point that you should remember that the orbital speed off site light rewarding very near to the surface. Off artists 7.9 clement upon second, which is lesser than what 11.2 coming up a second. If this sound when 90 minute about second is gonna what England want to claim the person? What will happen? The satellite will ask you, since these satellites are revolving around art, they're bombed rebel period of revolution, just like moon has. But moon is very far away from what the satellites are very closer to. Definitely the period of revolution office accolade would be very much less so. Basically this spirit of revolution. Officer, please. What is the time taken by satellite to complete one revolution in solve it? So basically the mathematical form off the same would be word circumference off the orbit, divided by the orbital velocity orbital speed this period off relational basically difference upon the height off the satellite from the surface of the earth. Get at the height more with the tradeoff revolution and it is independent off its mask against orbital speed as well. It's clear off Revolution Office satellite are independent, off must just like what's that like, which is a rewarding near the surface of art. The orbital speed Watson plan included a passage in the period of the coalition off such a satellite, which is very much near to the surface for this somewhat 84 minutes and then we have geo stationary satellites. They are different, but since they are deficient circulates but their position regarding toe, other supplies are different. So if a satellite revolting equitorial plane in the diet from Earth's rotation that is from West to east with a pair of relation. It went to the timeprint. Off rotation are on its own axis that is 24 hours. Then the satellite will appear stationary. Really do toe aren't that means it is having a explosion just like you cannot say exactly like moon, but just like it's Ah, revolving around the earth along with this kind of satellite revolves around the Earth at the hide off 36,000 kilometer. This particular height is we're placing any observed there, and it's that light there, anything there, it will arbit it little ball along with her. So this particular orbit of just traditionally is that light. It's called a parking orbit. 15. Heat: heat is that form of energy, which flows from one body to another body difference in temperature between the bodies, the amount of heat continue. The body depends upon the mass off the body, according the cannon victory. The heat that body processes is directly related to the kinetic energy or the energy of motion. That is the motion off the molecules composing the 40 the greater the planet taken, as in warm water, is the body heat, then can be considered as energy off motion. But how shall we define gold? Actually, there's no such thing from the scientific point of view, us cold. We can only say that object is older than Object B, which means that it has less heat. The molecules off A are vibrating if is a solid on moving about, if it is a liquid or gas, but they're vibrating on moving about less energetically than the molecules are be so only from a reference point off you weaken. Define cool. But there is no proper definition, proper scientific definition about what is called heat. We know gold we don't, and if the molecule motion in any upset stops altogether at a really low temperature, and that preacher is called us absolute. Chew it and physical into minus twenty, one hundred 3.16 Dignity Celsius. So, strictly speaking, all objects are hot in the sense that they contain at least a certain amount off it. Now, if doubloon amount of work is performed and heat produced due to this particular Volk is Etch, then the blue by edge is Clinton J. This Jay's not Jewell. It is a constant that is called mechanical equivalent. Off it. Its value is 4.186 Tool one calorie, which means 4.186 Zulauf Work is performed. One calorie off heat. Need Toby consumed? Now let's no about some pioneering scientist, those scientists who gives hit a different definition whose findings have done mankind. So first is count room food or we better know him. Us. Benjamin Thompson. He showed that the form of energy could be transformed and hit. The friends and his Jekyll's kept. Charles discovered that he could be transferred into motion surgeons. Paschal Julie. He wasn't 19th century physicist. Later on grew that a given amount off. McNichol Energy always produces the same amount off it. Thank you so much. 16. Measuring heat intensity: the sieges unit off heat is calorie. It is the amount of heat grant to raise the temperature off one gram off. Blow water through one degree senses. Next is international calorie. It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature off one gram of pure water from 14.5 diesels. Extra 15 point by pleading Celsius. The F B s you need off heat is be idiots. You are British thermal unit. It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature off £1 off pure water. Mark my words, It's not one gram. It's £1 off pure water through one daily Thursday night. Now let's understand certain relationship between these different units. One British thermal unit or be thu is goingto one day and 52 calories. One time is 10 toe Mao five B thu or British thermal unit. One calorie, just like I told in the lecture, is 4.186 Jewell and one bound gallery is for 53.6 calories. Sense of you know all about the units we use in our daily life, like when we're burning calories. Basically, we're burning heat off our body when we are doing exercises and no so everything in the links with what temperature. So let's understand. Let's how definition Let's try to have a proper definition temperature because it's like he temperature is also related to concept C. Temperature is dead physical goes, which decides the direction off flew off heat from one body to another body. It indicates the dignity off Hartness. Our goal nets are basically than 10 city off hit off a body in solids. The molecule a practice one another strongly in proportion are fixed. Their motion therefore consists of vibration about the fixed point. The molecules of liquid can move about quite freely from one place to another since they're not explosions and gets is. The molecules are so far apart that the forces are attraction between them with negligible small the more about even more freely than the monocle off liquid and occupied an entire volume. The container, so measuring in density off heat for all three states are quite different in this particular regard because of the monocle attraction forces because of the movement of the molecules. As I told earlier, more the kind against more hotter bodies. So the intensity off you deferments upon kind of energy as well. Let it be solid. Lead to be liquid or gas very becomes harder. The expend no exception. And as they become cooler, they contract heat and as they always flow from body at higher temperature toe body, it will order. Which one exception would be in case of radiation that feel going to understand when we were, we're going to discuss about love thermodynamics and in which I will be telling you about one very beautiful example in which hit is going to transfer from lower to higher body as well, but with some conditions. No, there's a particular state in which no hit flows between, not from between two bodies and that particular condition is called state of thermal equilibrium. It is attained in case if two bodies are at exactly same temperature. It is that state in which no hit flows from one body to another. Now you need to understand a very important thing. That heat and preacher are completely different things. Temperature. What was temperature? It just indicator. It indicates the degree of hotness or coldness on intensity, off it of the body. But hey, it is what he is. Basically, the internal energy transferred from one body to another due to temperature difference. After the heat has been transferred from one body to another, it becomes the internal energy off another body. And what is Internet energy? Basically total kinetic and potential energy of the molecules that is contained inside the body. So very simply speaking, hit is a different entity. Temperature is just indicator off heating density. Thank you so much. 17. Thermometers: prior to understanding about thermometers, we need to understand a very important concept that is called Triple point off water. See, this triple point of water is the existence of water in all the three states, solid liquid and gas. So let's have a brief discussion about the history off two per point off water as well as its implications. See, the year was 1954. The triple point of water has been discovered by the scientific community. It was the point at which the three physics off water that is vapor liquid and eyes go exist in blueberry Mexicans. In the figure this WAAS adopted by the International Agreement US 173.16 Calvin the Super Point can be determined with very great opposition, then the freezing point and does provide a more satisfactorily six point for the absolute thermodynamic cycle on the scale in cryogenics or dissension, Lord Temperature The temperatures waas one Giuliano three Calvin have been produced by the D magnet ization of para magnetic materials mo. Mentally hiding greater estimated to be greater than 10 to power 19 apart. Well, Calvin have been let you buy new CLECs portions and all this was possible because free had a starting point. We had a fixed point in order to re some were in order to achieve something, you need to start somebody. Right? So this triple point of water provided at sweeter starting late and by Isil, let me explain. Seen orderto missile temperature? They have certain skills off them Britain measurement to miss a temperature to fix point taken on Easter Mamata one on the fixed point in the prison point of water or ice Us lower fixed by a lower fix Mind that myth left be And the other fixed point is the boiling point of fort or extreme as upper fixed point or you have to be so these fixed points are initially taken from Tell me so absolute Jill Waas taken us Geo Kelvin and lower fixed point was what? Yes, the triple point of water That was 273.16 and the upper fix point for Calvin Waas 373.15 The inter changing off Calvin two degree Celsius is easy. US Calvin is given by degrees Celsius plus 273 so 100 degree was what the boiling point of water. 273.16 Calvin toe, 373.15 700 Aeration is their only. So this gil, the basic, the basic idea off how to propagate for them and on the same basis Celsius Fahrenheit dream will rank kind. All these different, kind off temperature measurement skills came with the existence the relationship between amongst the three very commonly used skills Celsius, Fahrenheit and Calvinists. Given here you can see it, and you can solve the new vehicles on the basis of this one. Now let's understand about the types off thermometers that represent and on the business off which measurement of temperature can be done. So, basically initially, let's understand what is a thermometer? It's It's simply simply a device which misses the temperature of the body. That's it. There's no other proper definition. This is the Muslim place and a straight forward definition for template a meter. Now there are different kinds of thermometer liquid in glass, clinical industrial resistance There, Mr Pamuk, a ball by metal, perimeter lords and lots off thermometer there. So let's understand them. One by one 1st 1 is liquid in glass thermometer. This time limiter consists of liquid filled glass ball and partially full connecting cap lady tubes. Popularity, capillary action We have studied, and it works on the symptoms bowl. When the temperature off the trumpet increases, the differential, expansion between the glass and the liquid causes the liquid to rise in the capital. So if a liquid is rising in the capital, that means what it is. Vat in the inner surface of the moment. And if it's falling, that means it is not waiting. Basically, it is sticking already. 70 Next one is clinical thermometer. It is a special liquid in glass kind of thermometer, and this thermometer is specifically designed to miss a human body M Bridge. It makes us all a very limited trains or temperature as certified to 43 degrees Celsius, because the normal human boy temperatures How much tardy sounding the Celsius or 98 14 F? This particle thermometer contains mercury, and the duke has a construction next to the bulb. Why? Because they stopped the market thread running back into the bulb so temperature reading can be taken after parameter has been removed from the patient's mouth. That's why a bulb is given. Now, when no way have fever will meet to check our impression through thermometer what we usually do, we usually shake it and then obviously wash it and put it back to this place. Why you're shaking it? Because we need to. That thermometer has to be shaken toe. Get the mercury back past the contruction. Otherwise, it remained there. And in the next time when we when we changed the top temperature that the moment meter will do very wrong readings. Next is the resistance thermometers. They're based on the principle that it becomes more and more difficult. Person electrical through a piece of matter as it temperature rises. These kind of parameters usually continue land top 10 latinum via connected to a power supply. Then we have in the strip thermometers many industrial processes using them. Then we have her Mr Thermometer. It contains certain from MR, which is a small device which office less with distance roof flew off electricity as its that recognizes. Then we have remarkable thermometer in these two different type of metal wires are joined together at two junctions. The temperature difference between the junctions actually make the metal produce a small electrical current, which moves the metal needle across the scale and from there vacant. Take the skill then we have by my adult thermometer. What is a by metal, basically by metal is like a lawyer. It's a but it is Onley. Strictly a combination off to Mendel's allies can become nation. The Muslim broke Michael. It's but a bind. Metal the combination of only two. So this kind of thermometer this by metal Tom um interconnected consists off by Middle Street and then last but not the least. Barometers, which are basically instruments tell up to miss a very high temperature. It uses omitted radiation promesa high temperature. Now let's differentiate between a markedly and alcohol tomorrow. Si ah, margarita moment. It does not backsides off the Duke threat, and does They're very easy to use. They conduct heat well, and this point you kill to temperature changes. But the free just said money's 39 degrees Celsius and hands they're not suitable for Lou Arctic temperatures. Marketer Matassa also has add us and poisoners if they are broken and the expense he was Well, now let's come back toe alcohol to monitor the free just as miners 115 degrees Celsius enhance their very much suitable for low temperature. Basically, Arctic citizens, they're expansions are greater than mercury and vita Dupes can be used here. In this case, however, they have to be colored. Toby seen easily and they also plans to the sites of the two and their trade have a tendency to break us. So these were some certain it com presents between McCaughrean Alcohol Thoma meters. Thank you so much. 18. Effects of heating: heat has effect on almost everything in this planet. All substances whether solid liquid or gas, expand on heating and contract on Cooley. Mostly all souls explain when they are heated, hitting off a solid makes its molecule vibrates more vigorously off, the vibration becomes last, the molecules are pushed further apart and the solid expense likely all the directions and the rivers for the same is also possible. And when the reverse happens, the solid is cool. And he did this case. The vibrations become smaller, and the solid contacts, as its molecules that pull closer together by the force of attraction between however solid , do not expect much. When he did what the fourth produced by the expansion can be very much high. That's why concrete and steel beams used in construction work can cause considerable amount of damage. They do not have space to expand when the temperature rises. Gaps are left at the end of bridges to give room for expansion. One end off bridges often supported on rulers, so that free movement is possible as the breeze expense and contracts the problem off expansion off. So leaving still very lines is resolved by hitting the lines when their first lead because , as they call, they tried to contract but unable to do so because they are faster toe heavy concrete. Sabres in Veteran cheapens Now let's understand about the unusual behavior off water at four degrees else's seven Borders school before degrees Celsius, it complex that we can expect because solid liquid and guess they contract on cooling and explain on hitting. But in case of water of any calls from four degrees Celsius fragility Celsius, it expands rather than contracting. Water, therefore, has a maximum density and four days results is also at judicially Celsius, when water freezes a considerable expansion August at every 100 centimeters. Cuba, 40 because 109 centimeter cube of ice. And this this accounts for the busting off Water bites in very cold weather generally Arctic reasons. The unusual behavior off water is represented by volume temperature graph, as you can see here and brittle being in the X axis and volunteering in the via tactics. As you can see here, the expansion of waters between four degree and Joe degree Celsius is due to the fact that about four degrees Celsius water molecules form into groups which break up when the temperature drops below for the senses and the new arrangement occupies a larger volume and this more volume, then cancel out the contraction due to the fall in temperature. That's why water then cooling from four degrees Celsius, Judas else's expand and not contract. Now let's understand about law off boiling. See every liquid changes from liquid to its ripple state at a particular temperature. So this particular temperature is what the boiling point off the liquid. Secondly, there's no change in temperature during the change of state. Totally different substance. How different, Let and hit. Let him hit. We will understand the coming lectures for clean little rituals, increasing volume on the projection. Next, we help boiling point off liquid changes. With changing pressure higher, the pressure higher the boiling point. That's why the pressure cooker does not allow the stream produced to escape and helping building pressure. It means that the substance inside the cooker bill out and preachers higher than the user boiling point the change off morning point with changing clash. One more point in love boiling is that liquid boils at a lower temperature at lower pressures. This explains why cooking is very much difficult at high altitude, because at high altitudes the atmosphere is verified and the boiling point is, Lord, thank you so much. 19. Transfer of heat: welcome everyone in this lecture, we're going to understand about hate more so heat transfer as well. It's specific heat, so let's begin. So what is heat? The basic definition off. It would be a form of energy. This is transferred between two bodies on the system and surrounding by virtue off temperature difference. He'd is a transient phenomena like their study tip us, but it's a work transfer Waas concerned What Cancer waas All so dependent upon. System Bondi Asperger's The boundary of the system was changing. According accordingly, You can say they walk, transfer of us begin, please. But it was not on this room, just like in gets off free expansion case of Nazem This were covered in our players lectures So similarly, Heat transfer also depends upon system country if there's a temperature difference between the system and the surrounding and this defense can be calculated on the business. A system bond rates mxnet Eban tree itself, but it can be calculated if two bodies are interacting and the transfer off them. Preacher, that means he transfer is sticking place If they just emigrated. Defense days. A hate transfer, definitely now, just like in gets off book transfer. He transfer also has a signed convention. If he did so removed from the system, it is bigness negative. And if he does added to the system, it's taken us what you do in case a work transfer. What was the sign? Convention? If they're getting a work out of the system that it is considered as a positive, and if we have to do work on the system, it can be taken us negative. So he removed negative, he'd added Positive. So that's the same convention off heat transfer. Now let's understand the basic stories off Regina feed. This not turned. It's not very much important, but you must know the stories. So they are basically go through this kind victory of gases and second is calorie victory. So the contradictory of gases is similar to the puree that implies, for harmonically bria Marsellus for defining a pressure that means the inter monocle forces the interaction between them as well as if they're striking to a surface. All this concept in the kind victory of gases and calorie victory wasn't really important. Tilly in the earlier times, it has been scrapped for a very long time, but the gallery. Fifth story has find the concept off saturated Weber at such a ridiculous quit. If you want to understand about color victory, you can just google it and it will be in front of you. But it's not in their scope off this particular course, right, But you can. Out of curiosity, you can. This going see? No, let's understand about the bulls off heat transfer. There are the three basic, most of transferred. That villa study from our very basic classes 1910 plants is we must have stranded about them conduction conviction on radiation. So let's understand about them one by one. 1st 1 is the conduction conduction glass a medium. It happens mostly in solid, but it is a very common misconception about conduction. Convection is that people think that conduction August Onley in solid No, it occurs mostly in sorry. It occurs in liquid as well, but mostly because in Saudi and same people conviction, people think that conviction have plans for link been only, but it happens in case of solid liquid as well as guests. But the intensity divorce. So we're talking about conduction for so let's finish it, then we will go forward to conviction. Let's say, for example, here you can see one particular piece of mental Arby's off material. Something is there. Alright and I'm giving it a hit off cue from one particular end. So what will happen? The lettuce, the lettuce off any any solid body is having a lettuce, the crystal lattice that you must have studying your engineering materials like the bravest likely says the FCC businesses structure, recipe structure All this that ever like this already. So those kind of lettis will have a vibration. Well, the vibration of the most at the point off contact were hit, husband supplied and it feel vibrate. And it will propagate tinder very and because he'd transfer from high temperature body do low temperature. So this is what conduction. Now let's understand what conviction is conviction expressing different mediums here. Medium sorry bread. Not my word in connection a single media must required, but in case of conviction, mediums are bad because it's a 100 that means for African connection toe take, please, huh? Interfaces required, like say, for example, solid, then interface, then literate than in the fist. Then guess And now let's understand about radiation in case of radiation. Medium is not at all declared Anybody who's temperatures abo absolute you, it will omit thermal relation. Let's take a very simple example. If you're having a feel all right, applause. A standing next to you will sense it. Even. See my friend, you're burning up. I think your money like I think you should check your temperature so that is through thermal radiation. If if it them. If the temperature off a particular body in Prizzi's infant that idiot, it will try to escaping every location off the surface. 80 off the particle body, each and every point. It's not pointed one direction. Let's. For example, if you're having them britches off under the too big the feather night, it will not be counted in your head. It will be. It will appointed Bulger from each in every part of your body that is exposed to air and the part of body that is not exposed. Teoh. We'll get sweaty. Same thing happens for tomorrow, returning all the materials on that. Let's understand one really curious concept. Let's say we're having two bodies A and B. Both are radiating and giving the heat you a and you be outwards. So we're dealing here with thermal radiation. Okay. Hey, transport is a different concept. I'm a radiation radiating, sweetie, and right. So what would happen? That tendency is what? From high temperature to Lord Ambuja, He feels so. Let's see, the temperature of body is greater than the body. So what will happen? Heat will transfer from it to be So let's take you A B will be there. Great. But since thermal radiation has such a tendency that it radiates in on the direction, it's not a unit additional. So we can conclude that some heat would be transferred from me two years with getting my point. But the net heat would be all this from higher to lower. That's the basic concept, but it defies the second law. Modern innings, they say, is that he transfers from Onley from haemorrhage included. But in case off harmonisation, when we're considering timer radiation in that case, heat transfer radiation transfer can take place from Lord and Richard toe high temperature . It's a bidding, what in concert? So just trying to remember 20. Laws of thermodynamics: Now let's talk about the laws of thermodynamics. So from the very basic level, if he knows there are four basic laws of trouble dynamics. First Law, second Law zero and so chronologically if you're seeing the zero claw came after first and second law, but it gives the ailment it gives the mildest rate gives the benchmark for the Ramadan. Any clothes, the clock, unanimous beans, basically with thermal equilibrium. The first Lord deals with conservation of energy, walk and energy and heat transfer and tell P and the concept off internal energy. All these concepts, all this great aliens we're going to understand in the coming lectures. The second law gives the direction off. Heat through as well isn't probably, and the federal gives. Then property begins Jiro at absolute temperature and absolute zero temperature, basically. So what is the absolute Children impression we're going to understand on Dylan unless we enlist the job. So let's begin with the zero votes that they're not lost is that if three bodies are in equilibrium, let's see, B is the temperature off body and TV's a temperature body B, then body see would also be in the same temperature that Stevie would be will be Cito. It's basically a so I m pretty, this one and which is basically our idea off hit content off a body. It relates to the average canon. Pick energy of the particles it's ups and collects it. For example, if we're considering about the compression off your body, if we're having a fever that savior having a fever of 100 to be said height, what we conclude it's not like we haven't you in one particular part off our body. Our whole body is heated, so basically, the cells inside our body there haven't different vibration there, having different and bridges and thereby breaking with the different pregnancy and their colliding with each other as well. So basically, days average, frenetic energy and more. That means that's it. For example, beer, considering a solid having a particular temperature. All the molecules that is present inside solid are colliding with each other and the benefit of the soul itself. So each and every molecule have a proper Kandic energy, and they are getting excited you to heating uneven Cooley. So basically, there would be a hellish kind of energy off the particulars, often so that relates directly to the temperature. Now, absolute Jill is that richer at is the Paris Ganic, and she off the particle becomes completely chill because there is no moments whatsoever are if there is a moment that averages Joe? So this goes without saying that third laws on Lee Belly for crystalline solid because the very definition of biggest land solid is what the very definition constraints qualities then probie offer disclaimed. Solid Jill and absolute temperature. Absolute Children. Ambridge Physically, No, listen, this train about water, Tom can and make gimmes. It's not thermal equilibrium. My words. As I told in the very first lecture that thermodynamics is big. Basically, the study of three is energy and droppin in Colombia. So this equilibrium is not normally Colombians, that Ahmad enemy Libya. That means they could be mop mechanical Thoma as well as chemical and ID's so that considers that thermodynamic equilibrium. No, let's understand. Water and property is basically, let's say, for example, we're heading Ice Cube. This is solid. I'm again taking the same example as they took in the only election because it makes it easier to have the same example toe understand previous concepts Let's say, for example, we're having eyes. It's a solid, so the molecules are closely back together. There's very a small difference in between each and everyone. Now, if I You did this eyes and it turned out to be water. So what will happen? The molecule will fall apart, will go further from each other. So that means there's a Lincoln is in randomness. And if I hate this particle of water, convert into water vapor and there will be a erratic movement between the molecules that civil, for example, we're sitting in a class. We are in a solid straight because everyone is sitting in their particular benches and they're waiting for the lecture toe. As soon as the lecture is over, everybody will be running out off the class because the left is what they want to roam outside and as soon as they get outside the arena. Water state. Let's say they're randomness has windows, but not in a reddit moment. And as soon as deal goes out off the periphery of the college itself or the institute where they're studying, they will have erratic movement. They will have their bikes, they will go from one place to another some Catholic populism. Some will go to meet his friends, his fellows anything. So that's that were set in motion. So in drop, he's basically the order off condoms. Thank you so much. 21. Types of waves: there are essentially two days off, sending energy from one place to another. The 1st 1 involves at your pants for off Mata, and the 2nd 1 involves what we call of the process. Save a very reserved disturbance which propagates and that you from one place to another without the transport off matter. Or, in other words, we can say that I ve may be defined as a form or pattern off disturbances which traveled with a finite velocity through a medium off, the result of continous periodic motion of the particles off the media. The lives are classified into two types, one is mechanical and another one is known mechanical. The McNichol ville is the village request material, medium like solid liquid or gas for their propagation villas. Known McNichol bears are the vase which do not at all require any medium for the propagation. Further McNichol views are also sub categorizing toe categories. One is longer turnover and another one is transfers will see longitudinal reveals are those kind of fears in which the particles off the medium by Brit in the direction propagation off VeriSign, case or press was views the but because of the medium vibrate, perpendicular it with a direction. Propagation off Phil. Examples off Longitudinal veil would be theirs on the spring or sound years in here. Where is the examples for transport? Veers will be lives on strings under tension, just like in guitar on any stream instruments or the views on the surface of water like a stone, is dropping water in the ripples that it creates. Ah, piece off wood in water, moving up and down. Creating this. So these are the examples. Are transfers lives? No, let's more to non McNichol years or a lot through magnetic fields. See, they don't grand medium, so basically, light and heat are examples of non McNichol views. All this known McNichol views are electromagnetic. This each and every one of them even light itself and the consists off. Four dawns the length of the same that is, from 10 to par minus four to attend a powerful leaders. They are neutral. They propagate as a transfers veil and the proper get with the velocity off light cream to attend a party with parts again. Hence they contain both energy as well. This moment. Maxwell was the 1st 1 toe introduce the concept off electromagnetic news and, ah, German physicist Hendrik Waldorf Hearts Waas. The first to broadcast minutes you radio lives. He produced electromagnetic veers, sang them through space and measure their lantern velocity. And what we know, what we know about Will territory is due to his findings. See some kind off lives. I'm not looked. Amendment like cattle. Abri's kennel raise alphabet arrays, sound waves, an ultra sonic views. They are a different breed. And if we tryingto differentiate them on the basis off the available and that frequency, then commodities would have the Louis Waveland and hands the highest frequency because they're in worse. Three. Proportional the length and frequency of inverse proportion and the long radio waves, which was discovered by Marconi, would have the highest rib land and lowest frequency. Thank you so much. 22. Terminology and properties of waves: as you can see in the figure, the center line their origin is written represents the portion of the medium when no there is present. Avi can regard this particular portion. This particular section is the underst opposition. No, the dark record line represents the medium as a veil is traveling through it. The section of the village that rises about the undisturbed version or the amazing is called the Crest and the section, which lies below the undisturbed portion. It's known as so. The Ville crest is the highest part of the Ville Vera's. The Vitra is the lowest part of the view. Now what is Waveland villain is the distance between Dugandzic beauty Will crest are the distance between Dukhan secu to you the truth. Basically, you need to have knowledge off this three Musketeers Vigeland frequency and amplitude. In order to understand the military, see the amplitude. Amplitude is the maximum positive on negative displacement from the undisturbed ocean off the medium. So if you're considering the crest, we're talking about the maximum for the two displacement. And when we're talking about the trump, then we are just during the maximum negative you displacement from the under stop years. The violent off a veil is the distance between any two and just sent corresponding locations on the veil. This particular distance is usually measured in one off the three bays. First class to the next crest draw to the next. Ra are from the start off reveals. I go to the next starting point, not talking about the frequency, which is often not termed as a part of the video. But it makes quite since in orderto introduce it because it is inversely proportional to frequency a prevalent itself. So basically fragrances what it refers to. How many years amid but $19? All we can say cycles both second. So now we know about three Musketeers off the military amplitude label. Intend, you can see. So let's proper get to understand the properties office. The very first property would be super creation. See when oh well, regis toe a particle, it suffers one displacement. Then do this simultaneously cross this particular particulates off us to displacement one from each parent. The result in displacement off the particulates you can see in the figure is given by the as a break. Some of the individual displacement given to it by the waves. This is what the principal oh superposition is when do identical views traveling in the same direction in a medium, meet each other. And if the crest off one were happens toe all, let the crest of the other the bra off the waves will also allow. So this kind off super portion is called constructive indifference. On the other hand, if the cursed of one were false with the truck off the other, we have destructive indifference. Next property is a reflection. Venna veal strikes a surface off separation off difference media Ah, part off. It is turned back into those no medium this property off bouncing off the Venus is called reflection, just like when we are going to study in light the angle of incidence, physical tangle of reflection. This concept you have not studied yet but we're going to discuss in the coming unit. Next is, well, radiation. This particular property distinct uses, transfers views from a long, eternal veers. Mark my words in the case, off transfers waves the displacement of the particle of the medium is perpendicular to the direction off propagation and can be in any one of the infinite directions when the displacement better now for transfers were lies in a single plane, the very said Toby plane paralyzed. So if somebody ask you, was the basic different difference between transfers and a longer term mineral veil, you can simply give one word. Answer. While rejection nexus diffraction, it is a bending off light around edges off struggle and spreading into Joe Metical. Shadows in known as defection sound can be heard around the corner due to diffraction self and then vol reflection. When a year passes from one medium to another, it usually bank, since the ville travels at different speeds in different material. How sound their struggles in different millions in different material that we're going to discuss in the coming lectures and how light barrels how God's light is also real light is a primitive were like is a non mechanical bill. So basically we're like no understanding what what's. The victory is basically, so for that, we're having all this discussion, and gradually, when we come toe the corresponding section, the corresponding lectures were going toe. Get more enlightened. Thank you so much 23. Sound Waves: Some of these are long regional McNichol. Please, According to the AFP treatment seasons, these long regional McNichol ways that you are dealing through three categories are he believes in for a sonic leaves and grass on it. The audible views lies in the frequent seasons off 20 Hertz to 20,000 hertz, and they're called Oliver Views because the senses you do human here this kind of years are generated by vibrating bodies. Such a student fork vocal cord of Utah, Our promise. Playing in a band. All these are people that our years nbl in presenting views. These are the long regional mag nickel views having treatment see lesser than 20 years. So this kind of years are produced by his source off. Because size such as art cracks, volcanic eruptions, ocean views by your elephant by Gilles Sector, then we have a very important category off song views that is, these views help frequencies greater than $20,000. Human ear cannot even detect these interviews, but suddenly, just like dog, it's bad. Mosquito can detect these moves that's on the only memory that can not only detect but also produces our Panasonic views. If you have seen a dog trainer. He carries a medical facility back, visitors guard and reserve and that whistle Crease Ultrasonic waves, which controls stock, which used them. Such instructions. Now let's understand about sucking applications off my personal use first for sending signals. Second, it's for measuring the depth. Doxy Turn for cleaning lots, aeroplanes and machinery. Parts of blocks for removing lamb shoots from the chimney off patrons were human cannot reach where any person cannot reach industrialisation off liquid and last but not least, ultra sonography. Those understandable second characters bigs up some loudness or intensity. Seething, insecure sound in any point in space is defined us a Mongol energy passing, normally polluted area held around that point more unique. It depends upon amplitude off vibration off sound making object and dispense from the object of the year. See, the intensity of sound can be missing in decimal, but the aside you need on densities. What but we does then consider your sound at the point is inversely proportional to the square off this year's off point from the source and directly proportional with the scratch off Aboriginal vibration and squared off frequents in Pensacola. It is due to the density itself a sound obvious, lower or faint through the year. Actually, that sensation off a sound pursued in here is visited by it. Another go. That's why you call it loudness in that city there that same thing, but a neurologic difference in different situations. So loud Miss is basically the first with sensitiveness off the without mrs nothing but intensity or something, like with friends still human here we call it loud. So the unit off loudness is that, and one more unit of long is there that this will be edge when for next, let's understand what is breach and what is frequency frequency They already go would let's understand about beach, which is the property off sound that people seen as higher lower tones, which is that gap bespeaks off song. Distinct uses a sharp or the city streets on from a great model or flags. It is missing cycles per second, or CBS and indifference of one frequency completely high end efficacy. High reading the beach and Biswas with Reversed, which are very important. Technology generates status. Call weeds, the big produced by sums off same amplitude but slightly different frequency. That's 100 and 104 hours condition. But a different should not be less than there. No need, bits can be generated, and weeds are what music without bills you cannot have a music on for that. The difference in frequency should be less than then. Only look injury weeds. Then we help. What the ozone Seiko are these statistics off sound, which enables us to distinguish between sounds? Problems by Bruce George, is having the same intensity and which investigated the quality difference upon number of frequency in related intensities off waters then view echo. The sound is result after being reflected from a high power or mountains. It's called Echo. In order to hear a good, the minimum distance between the observer and reflecting medium are reflecting and, ideally, should be 17 meters. Or, to be more precise, 16.6 workers. Wallace On this kind of very interesting phenomena off somebody's that is topless. See, Dr Effect is an aberrant genes, different pregnancy offers. Do you know they're really motion of the source of the virus and the observer? Or, in other words, if there is a related motion between sound source and observer, the apperance frequency off sound heard by the floor. It different from the actual frequency of sound and meet A by this world. Ah, classic example off the debris that would be the rising breach off it and bullets as the ambulance approaches the observer and the dropping beach as it moves away from tops over. That means when the distance between the source and observer decreases the Apprentice, Rickman see increases and vice versa. Not only sound lives, but also light beers really obvious and even ocean gives exhibit the drop. The doctoral, effective and applied light could be used to determine whether stars and directors are traveling away from What was that celestial objects they're approaching the park. Have a speck project. It was the violet, um, under shipping either direction, ability to the velocity of the with respect. The rack shift shown by all Galaxies outside the Milky Way is the principal argument in favor of the theory that Barry, in what is expanding in all this, we know two populus effect, Then apply blue light. Another important application, or Doppler effect, is in the poplars. Radar on a dart system used a medicine that really people a city of the system and they locked Target remote guidance, aerial mapping, vernacular target location, fire control, traffic and roll. Intercepting. Controlling all these kind of things. Airborne systems, everything between support. Noble effectiveness. Thank you so much. 24. Speed of sound: The speed of sound is different in different mediums. In a medium, the speed of sound basically depend upon elasticity and density of the medium. And since the speed of sound, different support intensity of the medium. It is maximum in solids and minimum in Cassis when sung, and that's from one medium to another medium. Its speed and virulent gingers, but for grant see, remains unchanged. So in the this context, we consider that the most fundamental property off avail would be considered in a medium. The speed off sound is independent off frequency that's lies the most phenomenal property. Now let's understand the effect of Gracia on the speed of sound. The speed of song is, in fact, also independent off pressure. That means speed limits unchanged by the increase or decrease off pressure. The speed of sound increases with the increase of them creature of the media, the speed of sound in here in this pipe somewhat 0.61 meter bus again when the temperature is increased by one day senses, there are certain implications off humidity on the speed of sound as well. The speed of sound is Morning, Hugh Media Benning, Dry Year. Why So because the density off Hugh Media is less than the density off dry. As you can see in this particular table, the speed off sounding different mediums are given out off all these values. The Speedo sounding here that is 300 Paquito mid a plus again, is the most prominent, and it is in Jodi Resources. And if you see the speed off sound in here at 20 degrees Celsius, it's 343 meter positive. So, as I told the speed or something airing, this is by 0.6 meters per second when the temperatures increase by one degree Celsius. So with the grantee degree senses increase, you can do the Mets. Now. What about the up sex that I'm moving with the speed of sound and the speed gated and some or lower than sound? So for that we have a particular terminology that it's going Magnum. See, the mag number is defined as that issue off speed off sound to the speed of sound. In the same medium. That means the ratio off speed off sound source through the speed of sound in the same media. If Mac number, which is doing by M is get rid on one. Then the body is called supersonic. And if the mag number is greater than five bodies called hypersonic and if mag number is lesser than one, the body is said to be more with subsonic speed. Thank you so much. 25. What is Light: lined is a form of energy. Having the properties of vibration are very motion and transposing space it proper gets as a electromagnetic field, and it travels always in a straight line and at a terrific speed off 300 about it in the spectrum off electromagnetic fields. It lies between ultraviolet and infrared prison and has prevalent between 3900 arms toto 7800 on strong. The light of the sun takes about 8.5 minutes to restart. The sun starts fire. Candle flames are burning lamps. I mean their own light and their goal. Luminous bodies. But certain cool objects like our moon art houses would, and numerous object that we come into contact with in our daily life, Munley reflect light that is received from other sources of late. Those objects, which allow the light toe, master them so that other objects can be seen through our core transparent bodies that includes class here and water. On the other hand, objects like medal Kodak sector we should not allow light to master them are called back bodies. There are yet another object which allow like to penetrate them, but not sufficient enough for the observed beyond them to seem clearly they are called translucent. Some Spence is. They allow Onley Bart off incident light toe passed through them. Example would be a toilet paper, and the living example off a translucent substance would be a jellyfish, As you can see, you can see like clearly through them, but not totally through them. In quantum, Tory Lite is regarded as a pocket, a bundle of energy called foot on light bills. US Ville US Vallas particle. Hence light has dual nature. Light is a form off energy like music. Any radiation host Cleveland. Excited, sensational, pregnant or illumination. The retinal light travels from place to place. It has a fixed speed in empty space. Is in many ways, it's baby. It is entirely consistent with the glory that it is a electromagnetic ville, but in its emission from electron in an atom, and it's a absorption on other reaction. With that comes in it's part light beers more like a stream of very small particles. As I told earlier, ah, bundle of energy called for Don. Now let's understand about certain sources off light. Do we have already discussed luminous and non luminous bodies next let's understand about something girls see mitt. Yours medios gives off light when hated by friction as the past to the atmosphere. The light given off the result off hit is called in can be sent light. The same thing goes for a candle. Also, that same thing goes for a forest fire. Also next we have final place there. What? The other living organism. They give off light. The production off light by living organism is called bioluminescence. Other than fireplace, see, blank tins are the other kind off living organism which shows bioluminescence properties you must have seen in certain beach areas. There in the night, the sea surface looks blue in color. There are very several selected areas. But if you can see here, this is what bioluminescence looks like. Now the substances that amid light when struck by ultimately raise or other form of radiation are known as Florissants, and those that continue to blow up that the radiation has stopped are called fast for ascent like a medium. Now let's understand about the speed off light sees. It was first measured by Roma in 16 78 80 and it was concluded that it is maximum in vacuum , and here that that was what 300 everybody with positive? No, The speed of light is dependent upon one very important technology that is called refractive Index. See the fact index off medium is defined as the ratio off a speed off lighting vacuum that is treated and for it to the speed off light in the medium that is under cushion. And it is generally denoted by milk, the speed of lighting that commits gently denoted by C and it spit off lighting. Medium is considered us V. Some you will be equal to see by fear. The spill off light is different in different mediums. Well, City of Light is large in a medium which has a small, reflective index. As you can see in this table, speed off like responding to lifting Williams acumen. So in that Comey have 348 in water were 2.2 540. In rock salt, it is 1.96 In glass, it's 248 interdependent, a turpentine oil, it's 2.4 and in nylon, some 1.96 So basically depends upon the flag to index itself. Thank you so much. 26. Reflection: light moving in one medium went falls at the surface of another medium. Part off light returns back to the same media, this phenomenon off returning back off light in the first medium. At the interface off to media, it's known as what deflection off light. Now there are two laws off reflection. 1st 1 says that incidently reflected gray and normal do the reflecting surface at the incident point. All lie in the same plane. Second losses. The angle off reflection is equal to that angle off incidents as we are discussed in the military itself, the same goes for sound waves as well. Now let's understand how reflection from a clean meter works, but we're not going to discuss the mathematical deduction of the same. Rather, we're going to focus upon some interesting facts about reflection through a plane meter. See, that name is in a plane. Middle East virtual and laterally in worded. That's why when we tried to read something from a media, it's look in wanted the size of the amazing equal to that of the upset, and the distance off image from the middle is equal to the distance on image. Upset from the media. That means if you're standing one meter away from the middle, you are imaged that is generally from the middle. It's one meter behind it. So there's one more very strange and very you just concept about plane Miller's that is even object most words away from Middle. With this spirit, let's Velocity V that it's related to the object. The aim is most words of it with the speed to me, that means if you are running towards Miller, your initial building wife, us fosters you strange but true. Now, if a plane media is rotated by certain angle keeping the incident ray fix that reflected re is rotated by an angle off duty ETA. This is a simple mats. You can understand that one more very interesting fact about a plane mirrors that you see anyone's full amazing a plane Middle ah, portended well as a mirror off at least half off his or her height. Some video common examples off the application. Playing Miller will be first, a kaleidoscope in which three strips off plane middle are place that 60 degree with colored glass pieces inside that produces different patterns on being rotated. You must have played with kaleidoscope. If you had a 90 s kid and if you are a 1,000,000 IMG it, then you must never help late. Pathetic Alito school. So you can google it. Second uses is patty scope. We're mirrors facing each other, our station at 40 time degree. So generally in submarines, this kind off device periscope is used in order to look in order to have a look out. Now some mirrors are not playing some mirrors that gold as well. Such mirrors generally form part off surface office here, the center of the sphere off Wish the middle forms of parties called the center of curvature and the line passing toe the middle of the mirror and the center of the creature is called. What Principal axis. There are two types off gold or basically spherical mirrors. Gone care and connects. Ah, conch jumiller off conversing mirror has a reflecting surface that budgets in words that is away from the incident. Light their users. It's shaving glass as a reflector for the headlights off a vehicle in Searchlight in upload , author mo scope, Examine eye, ear and nose by the doctors and in solar cookers. Then we have convex mirrors, which produces Onley, virtually Mrs, which are direct and smaller than the absent. They're generally uses a rear view mirror in vehicle because it provides the maximum really filled off of you and miss families. All this direct. They're also using sodium reflector lamps. 27. Refraction: a streaming bull looks last deep than it really is, and it's Dick appears to be bad of any place apart and in water. These effects are many. Other are caused by reflection and which is internal, pending off light rates when light passes from one material on medium into another. So simply putting when rheal flight propagating in a medium and does the other medium it veers from its part and this phenomena off changing the direction on propagation light at the point where even it passes from one medium to another. It's called reflection off light when Rio flight enters from greater medium to dance and medium, let's say, for example, from water tow glass, it Davis twas the normal drawn on the boundary off to media at the incident point. Similarly, in passing from dancer to later medium Ari Dave, it's away from the normal, then goes without saying if like this incident normally on the bonded that is pallor to the normal, it enters the second medium undivided, just like love reflection. We also help love reflection as well. The first law, this same as the last reflection that is incident. Ray reflected three and normal drawn it instead. Point always lying. The simply second law is big different. It's also coldest Neil's law. It is this that for a given color off light, the ratio off sign off angle of incidence toe the sign off angle of reflection is a constant, and this constant is what refractive index we have already discussed about reflective index when we were talking about speed off light. But in this lecture, you're going to have a broader definition and, ah, better understanding about the fact to Dex. See, it is given by new, and if you're talking about no particular medium, we can see one. Muto. It is a constant. It was what the ratio of sign off angle off incidents and sign off angle of reflection here you want to is the refractive index off second medium with respect to the fuss media. This is another term that is called absolutely factor index off a medium. It is defining their issue off speed off like in free space that it's vacuum put back in the given PDM This this protective index waas what were discussed when we were referring about Scoot off light. The fact index often medium is different for different colors. It decreases with increasing violent off light hands. Refractive index off a 1,000,000 is maximum for violet color off light and minimum for the red color flight. Who I saw because while it has Louis prevalent and regular light has highest prevalent, the fact index off a medium decreases with increasing temperature as well. But this is a variation is very small act, sometimes netted symbol as well. When a ray of light and us from one medium to another medium, its frequency and face to not change is on leave Ireland and Melo City changes. That's why they are called 15 C, as the fundamental prop would be. I'll feel now. Let us see certain illustrations off reflection, bending off linear object when it is partially dipped in a liquid inclined to the surface of the liquid, just like a stick appearing to be bent. The new place one end off, it's in water. Then we have to inkling off stars that is you to defect yourself and the oil ship off the sun in the morning and the evening time. That means in the sunrise and the sunset object in a dancer medium when seen from a reader , medium appears to be smaller, like a fish in a pond or in a bacterium or in a fish bowl. When viewed from here, appears to be at a smaller depth and actual death. Ah, coin At the base off, a vessel filled with water appears raced. Now let's talk about total internal reflection, but plateau that we need to understand a very important terminology that is critical angle seen. Case of propagation. Light from dancer to their medium through clean laundry. Critical angle is the angle of incidents for which angle off refraction is 19. Ignace, now in total internal reflection are in short, could weaken right. It P I R. If light is propagating from dancing, medium was the river medium. An angle of incidence is more than the critical anger. Then the light incident on the boundary is reflected back in the Benson a medium, and it's still it is not obstructing the law Reflection it's are being the love reflection . This phenomena is called total internal reflection as total light energy is getting reflected and nobody's getting absorbed at all or transmitted without obstructing the law. Reflection draw. Lovely reflection has not been compromised at all. Now there are certain conditions for the i. R. Walker. First, the light must be proper getting from dancer to Raylan medium and second, the angle of incidents must exceed the critical angle which was fought. Dangle off incidents for which angle off refraction is 90 degrees. Certain illustrations off total internal reflection would be miras and looming shining off air bubble in water, increasing duration or sense visibility and, most important, sparkle off diamond sparkling off diamond. Basically, and then these commercial uses off the area that is optical fiber see optical fiber concerts off thousands off stands off a very fine quality glass, or quads, which has refractive index off somewhat, 1.7 to 1.8, and each is time is coated with a layer of material off lower reflective index 1.5 for 1.4 it need light is propagated along the axis of fiber to multiple the IRS, even though the fiber is good without the loss of energy and this particular technology bring revolution toe Internet. It brings revolution, do many things. It provided connectivity toe. Next, I will some other applications off for optical fiber would be transmitting optical signals and the two dimensional pictures and for transmitting electrical signals by converting them into light. But the most important application, a spotless my point of use concern is in the medical field. See, optical fibres are used for visualizing the internal sites off the body by doctors, and that is called endoscope E, in which doctors can look inside the internal organs and they can detect various animal stairs. Mexia also rode kidney stone or something. Thank you so much. 28. How eclipses occur: regarding a clips is there are many superstitious beliefs in many countries, but it's a very beautiful thing. The scientific background behind neck lives can be explained through the set of that you can see see shadows. Shadows are formed because light travels in struggling and if a large or extended sources used their shadows. Lazar and has a center dark prison and this center dark reason is called Umbra, and it is surrounded by a ring off partial shadow, which is known as the number. And this is the very busy foundation off. What glimpses see the information off eclipses is based on the principle of shadows in gates off Luna Rick Eclipse. When the moon is situated in the umbra, that means that shadow portion, the black shadow portion, the complete clips will be observed. Otherwise, it will be watching in case our solar eclipses. The source is bigger than the or back body that is born in this case has there will be both the umbral umbral cones behind them when seen from any part in the pen Enbrel portion, the eclipse observe will be partial and then seem from the part in the umbral portion. The eclipse will be complete, and this is the reason why a trips can be seen from certain areas of the world and at the certain areas. Partial eclipse can be absolved when the moon is at a greater distance from the earth. The apex off the umbral corn may not touch the Earth's surface, and that gets total. Eclipse will not be seen from any part of that, but when seen from the reason just below the affects the sun up es Basi Aniela drink. When a total solar eclipse, a proper solar cribs, bunkers even if it's a day, it appears as a night, the sky become stark and even stars can be visible. 29. Dispersion of light and rainbows: the year WAAS, 16 66 Newton was performing experiment. He allowed a narrow beam of sunlight to fall on a dry, angular glass prisma. It produced a band off colors on a white is green. You didn't concluded that white light is a make sure of many colors off white with the prison separates. But because the Mattoon decks off glass is different for different colors. The refractive index is greater for violet light because it reflected the most, and it is least for that light. So on Busy Czar his findings. We came to a conclusion about effect that is called dispersion. Off light. See venereal flight are specifically speaking. When a day off, I'd light his past properties. It gets pleated into its constituent colors. The colored bag. No pain on a skin after dispersion off light. It's called spectrum. The dispersion off light is due to different day aviation suffered by different colors of light. The deviation is maximum for violet color, and it is minimum for red color off light, the different colors dead Newton found in his experiment that appeared in the spectrum. But in the order off the guild, that means V for violet I for indigo before blue G for green by for yellow over porridge and R for read. A pure spectrum is one in which the colors do not or left as they do when a prison alone is used. Ah, convex land has to be used to focus on each color. This particular experiment also supported the fact that the velocity of light in a medium is maximum for that color. Forage refractive indexes minimum Clearly the velocity of violet color off light is money, mom in a medium and refractive index off that William its maximum for similarly, the velocity of light in a medium is maximum for red color and refractive index. Off that mini a medium is minimum for regular for dispassion off light. The Rambo is one of the most commonly observed example. It is formed vents and light passes through the droplets off water suspended in the air after a shower, Limbo is the color, displaying the form off on arc off X circle, hanging the sky officer during or after the really still drizzle, appearing on the opposite side off. Son Remo's are also categorizing food types, primary limbo, and then we have second Temple primary members are formed uto refraction and one B. I R. One total internal reflection off light falling on the raindrops in the primary Rambo. The correct color is on the corner back site, and the violet is on the confused. These primary Rambo's has an angle of it off about degrees at an hour's angle of elevation off 41 degree. Then we have second Rambo. They're very there are basically, really great. They are very hard to be seen and their form do toe full fractions and booty IRS the order of color on the second day. Rambo is just oppose it to that off primary limbo, and it hasn't glove it off 3.5 degrees. That is 1.5 degree more than the primary Rambo, and at a average elevation they have 52.75 degrees, and they help less intensity than the Primary Limbaugh's. Thank you so much 30. Color of objects: the working off a human eye is similar to one optical instrument. It's lance is a transparent structure made of proteins. The focus emits force on a screen behind the lands called the Rodina. The retina sends electrical signals from the brain through the optic Nall so that we can pursue upsets. The brain organizes no signals from the iron interprets Demas colored visual images. See, the images is the visual images is the reason that we have have some similarities with apes , monkeys, many kinds of birds and some species. Officials also have ever numerous other animal sickles differently from the way veto. So these are certain examples off how different animals see colors. How the reasons off different animals are now vz objects because of the light. You see everything because of the light deflect. Most of the objects around us reflect on the part of the light that is incident upon them, and it is the reflected part, which gives the upset their color. When a rose is given a white light, it's battle appears red and the leaves appears green because the battle reflects the red part of the white light, and leaves reflect the green bark. When the same rules is building green light, the battles will up your black and the blues will appear great in blue or yellow. Light bought the battles, and the lives will appear black. White light can be produced by a mixture of red, green and blue rights. In fact, all colors can be produced by a so table mission off these three colors. Rag cleaning. Therefore, this Glaser call Primary colors. Other girls are just yellow Muzenda. These are second Nicholas colors. Bridges mixing lights of primary colors can be operated from the colored triangle, as you can see, mixing red and green, we get yellow the red and blue Muzenda green plus blue, CIA. Also, green placements and drug use white, the legacy and despite and blue plus yellow gives fight. So basically do colors, which you fight light when put together, are called complementary colors. Blue and yellow would be then complimented colors right. However, when blue and yellow pains I've mixed together, they produce green and not white because it is expected. This happens because the pigment in common use out off impure colors. When blue and yellow pains are mixed and viewed. Invite light the only common color reflected by them is green. All the remaining components absorbed by either blue or yellow pin. Does the mixture PS cream? The color television has any do color Mixed. Unused light from the picture in is to be televised is split up into red, green and blue components. With the help off the dike. Loic mirrors in the video camera the three colors that that then incident on three separate camera groups, which produces corresponding electrical signals. And these signals are then transmitted toe Spend TV receivers, which produced the picture or image fighting the three girls. So this concludes our physics fundamental scores. I hope you have learned a lot and you are going toe. Apply the same knowledge in your day to day life and in your mix. Thank you so much. All the very best.