Phrases, Clauses, Sentences - Improve your English reading and writing | Keehwan Kim | Skillshare

Phrases, Clauses, Sentences - Improve your English reading and writing

Keehwan Kim, Language teaching professional

Phrases, Clauses, Sentences - Improve your English reading and writing

Keehwan Kim, Language teaching professional

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25 Lessons (1h 51m)
    • 1. Course Introduction

      2:04
    • 2. Course Overview

      1:37
    • 3. Parts of speech 1

      5:31
    • 4. Parts of speech 2

      4:28
    • 5. Prepositional phrase

      4:46
    • 6. Complex prepositional phrase

      3:26
    • 7. Infinitive phrase 1

      4:26
    • 8. Infinitive phrase 2

      2:36
    • 9. Gerunds phrase

      2:27
    • 10. Adjective phrase

      3:17
    • 11. Participle phrase

      4:03
    • 12. Noun phrase

      4:39
    • 13. Verb phrase

      6:25
    • 14. Phrasal verb

      5:43
    • 15. Independent clause

      3:21
    • 16. Adverbial clause 1

      6:58
    • 17. Adverbial clause 2

      5:44
    • 18. Noun clause

      5:43
    • 19. Relative clause 1

      8:02
    • 20. Relative clause 2

      6:42
    • 21. Participle clause

      4:16
    • 22. Simple & compound sentence

      4:28
    • 23. Complex sentence

      3:14
    • 24. Compound-complex sentence

      3:55
    • 25. Correlative conjunction

      3:11
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About This Class

In this class, you're going to learn all the different elements of phrases, clauses and sentences, which we can use to form long and complex sentences. Because of the nature of the content, the class is divided into three units

1. Phrases

  • Prepositional phrase
  • Complex prepositional phrase
  • To-infinitive phrase
  • Gerund phrase
  • Adjective phrase
  • Participle phrase
  • Noun phrase
  • Verb phrase
  • Phrasal verb

2. Clauses

  • Independent clause
  • Adverbial clause
  • Noun clause
  • Relative clause
  • Participle clause

3. Sentences

  • Simple sentence
  • Compound sentence
  • Complex sentence
  • Compound complex sentence
  • Correlative conjunction

After watching each lesson, please download the worksheets, which you can find in the resources section.

Thank you and hope you enjoy the class!

Meet Your Teacher

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Keehwan Kim

Language teaching professional

Teacher

Hi everyone!

My name's Keehwan Kim and welcome to my teacher profile page.

I have been a language teaching professional since 2005, teaching mainly English to Korean learners, but also teaching Korean to English speakers.

I have been creating online courses on and off since 2016, but since 2019, I have moved away from classroom teaching and have been creating Korean language courses.

I love everything about teaching and learning languages. I think best analogy of language learning is of trying to go up an escalator that's coming down. You have to work hard to make forward progress, and if you stop trying, it's easy to lose all that progress you have made.

Many of us live in environments where interacting with the language you'r... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Course Introduction: hi and welcome to my course on phrases, clauses and sentences. I'm new Instructor Key. Now let me first begin by explaining what this course is about. This course is all about developing our skills to expand and write longer sentences so that we can be more expressive in our writing. The simplest sentence could look something like this, and we can further expand this sentence by adding chunks off phrases. Then we can add additional closers to further expand this sentence. So this sentence uses various proposition or phrases to infinitive phrases, adverb your clauses, relative closers and conjunctions to expand the sentence and allow the writer to fully express their thoughts and ideas. And this is what we're going to learn in this course, but as well as helping you to become better writers. You'll also improve your reading by being able to dissect sentences and understand the relationship between chunks off phrases and clauses a little bit about me. I've been teaching English for over 10 years and I am Celta qualified and have an M A in applied linguistics. And I wanted to create this course because in the past I saw many students struggle to understand that long and complex sentences found in academic writing. And I think the key to understanding such sentences is being able to identify the elements that make up such sentences. So if this is something that you like to learn about, come enjoying the course, I hope to see you there. But by 2. Course Overview: hi, everyone. So before we get into the actual lessons, I'm going to explain how this course is laid out in this lecture so that you have a better understanding off how to approach this course. This course is divided into three units, and they are one phrases, two clauses and three sentences. And in each unit there are lessons or learning about specific phrases, clauses and sentences that the phrases are the smallest chunks within a sentence. So you will learn the role they play within a sentence first, and then we will look at how we put together words and phrases to form clauses. After that, we will learn how to use or combine closers to form sentences. After each video lesson. There are worksheets, which you can download from the results of section, so please ensure you do the work. She's to test your knowledge off what you learn in the video lessons. The lessons are designed to progressively build on what you learned in the previous lesson . So by the end off this course, you should have a solid understanding off every concept covered in this course. Okay, so before we get into the lessons on phrases, clauses and sentences. Let's first strengthen our understanding off parts of speech, which will help us to understand what we're learning in this course. So in the next lecture will first learn about different elements within the parts of speech season again. But by 3. Parts of speech 1: hi guys. So before we get into the main content off the course, it's important to know what all the different elements off parts of speech are as this will greatly help you to understand all the different aspects off phrases, closes and sentences now, depending on your source. Some books say there are eight parts of speech, while others say there are nine in this lecture will focus on eight parts of speech as the ninth, which is called interjections are words that express strong emotion, and I followed by exclamation marks so they're not so relevant to what we're learning. So the eight parts of speech are now owns. Pronouns, verbs, adjectives determine er's adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions. Now we won't cover all of these in enormous detail, but we want to help you develop strong basic awareness off each element, and in this lecture will cover now owns pronouns, verbs and adjectives. The rest will cover in the next lecture. Let's begin with mountains now and refer to people, places, things or concepts, as shown by these examples. Now what we're interested in is their role in a sentence. Generally, the main role of now is as the subject of a sentence and as the objects off verbs and propositions. Also in certain sentences, they can be subject compliments, meaning that they describe the subject. And they can also be object compliments, meaning that they describe the object so now is can have many different functions in a sentence. Next, we have pronouns. Now most of you probably have some awareness off pronouns, but pronouns are basically words we use instead off other now owns. So instead of saying Tom, we can say he now, depending on the role of the noun in the sentence, we use different pronounce, so we use different pronouns for subjects and objects. Also, all the pronouns function as now owns, except for these in the middle, which are adjectives meaning that they have to be used with other now owns. Lastly, we mostly used reflexive pronounce as objects off a sentence when the object is the same as the subject. However, reflexive pronounced do have other uses, so pronouns are light now owns so they can be subjects, objects for both verbs and propositions and subject compliments. Great moving on. Next we have bobs and we use verbs to describe actions and states. There are many different types of bulbs, and they have many different functions. First, there are lexical verbs like walk and eat. They tend to be the main verb the subject does in a sentence. Then we have the bobs to be to do and to have. Now. These verbs can also be the main verbs in a sentence, but they can also play other roles. For instance, they can help to form negative sentences. They can help to form a continuous tenses or passive verb structures, and they can also form the perfect tens. Also, they play an important role in questions, too. Now, when these verbs are not the main verbs, they are often called axillary verbs or helping verbs. Lastly, there are motile auxiliary verbs, often called just motive. OBS Motive. OBS allow the speaker to display a certain attitude in relation to a bob, so they're usually used with a main bob Great. The last elements off parts of speech we will look at are the adjectives. Adjectives are words we used to describe things, so these are words like hot, big, fast and beautiful. These words can be positioned in front of the noun they're describing, and they can be a compliment. Both a subject complement in an object complement So we can say hot room, Big man, Fast car and beautiful Woman. And we can also say the room is hot. The man looks big, the car feels fast. The woman seems beautiful. Remember that when the adjective is a subject complement, it is always linked by a linking verb. Lastly, adjectives can also be object compliments, and we can say the engines make the car fast. When an adjective acts as an object complement, it always comes after the object. And to have an object complement we have to use certain involves, such as a make core find and keep. So we can say I called her pretty. They found him upset. We kept it clean. So the adjectives pretty upset and clean our object compliments as they describe Mawr about the objects. Okay, so that's the first off two lectures on parts of speech, and I'll see you in the next lecture to cover the rest off the elements. Bye for now, 4. Parts of speech 2: hi, everyone, and welcome to the second lecture on parts of speech. In this video, we're going to cover determine er's adverbs, propositions and conjunctions. Let's first look at determine Er's. The main function of determine er's is to specify or generalized now owns. Now that might sound a little confusing, but with articles, which is a type of determiner. If we say the pen, then we're specifically talking about one particular pen, whereas if we say our pen, then we're generalizing. We're referring to pens in general. So depending on which determiner you use, you can either specify all generalize now. Determine is air, usually positioned in front of now owns, and there are many different types off. Determine er's First. There are articles, both definite and indefinite articles. Then there are demonstrative, and these are words like this that these and those next we have possessive adjectives, which we learned in the previous lesson, and these are words like my your his etcetera. Then we have quantify IRS, and these are worse, like a few, many, much a lot off. We also have numbers, and there are, of course, a lot of numbers. There are also distributive Z and these are all, both neither, and there are also other determine er's, such as another any such and so on now use off. Determine ER's is extremely common in English and the article that is actually the most commonly used word in English. Next, we have add verbs and adverbs have to common functions to modify bobs and to modify adjectives. These adverbs can be categorized into four main types, those adverbs that modify adjectives a called adverbs of degree. And these include adverbs like so very and somewhat in terms off adverbs modifying verbs. First, we have adverbs of frequency, and these are words like always, sometimes that never. We also have adverbs of manner, and we often form these words by adding L Y to the end off adjectives such as quickly and slowly. However, there are also others which don't have L. Y at the end, such as fast and hard. There are also adverbs of time, such as now yesterday or tomorrow and adverbs of place such as here, outside or downstairs. And some adverbs can also modify other adverbs. Okay, so let's now look at propositions. Propositions are some of the most commonly used words in English, and these include was like Act On With and four. They are always followed by a noun phrase, and what comes after propositions are called either compliments or objects. Propositions are used in many different ways, but they are often used in relation to time and places and in sentences. Prep additional phrases have two main functions. They can function like an adjective, meaning that they modify now owns all they can function like an adverb, meaning that they modify verbs. Now we will go into these functions in a lot more detail later. The final element in parts of speech is conjunctions, conjunctions or worse, that connect words, phrases or clauses. And there are three types of conjunctions coordinating, subordinating and correlative in this course will look at both coordinating and subordinating conjunctions in detail when we look at sentence structure, but will also create a special video on the correlative conjunctions so that you can get a comprehensive overview off what conjunctions are and how they function in sentences. Great. That's it for the final lecture on parts of speech, and in the next lecture we will learn about prep positional phrases. See you then. Bye bye. 5. Prepositional phrase: Hi, everyone. And welcome to the lecture on prep positional phrases. Now proposition or phrases are made up off propositions and noun phrases. Here are a few examples, so as you can see in these examples, each proposition is followed by and noun phrase, but it can also be followed by a pronoun, as in the last example, the noun phrases that followed propositions are called compliments or objects prep. Additional phrases have three major functions. First, they can function as adjectives, and this means that they modify and noun in a sentence. Here are a few examples now in the 1st 2 examples that proposition or phrases modified announces they are next to. And as in these examples, when proposition or phrases function as adjectives, they are generally position next to the noun. Is there modifying? However, as in the third sentence, they can also be positioned next to the Bab, most often the beef up and still modify the now in this example that prep additional phrase functions as a subject complement, and this means that the proposition or phrase gives more information about the subject. Secondly, prep additional phrases can function as adverbs, meaning that they modify Bob's. Here are a few examples in the first sentence. The prep additional phrase for the party is add verbal, because it tells us why I bought this. So the prep additional phrase tells us the purpose of the action. In the second example, the prep additional phrase with his friends is adverb you'll, and it tells us who he played football with. Finally, in the last example, the prep additional phrase in the house modifies the verb sang because it tells us where everyone sang when a proposition of phrase functions as an adverb, he can be position after the verb object combination, but it can also be positioned right after the Bob. Now the third important use off prep additional phrases is as adjective complements. Adjective complements give more meaning. More information about an adjective. Here are a few examples, So in the first example, the prep positional phrase about her holiday complements the adjective excited. It tells us what she is excited about. Next, the proposition all phrase in learning French tells us what I'm interested in. And lastly, the prep additional phrase with my brother tells us with whom my father was disappointed. Now when a proposition all phrase functions as an adjective complement. It is always position next to the adjective it is modifying Now. The one last point to know is that when a prep additional phrase is add verbal, it can be used as an introductory phrase in a sentence. Here's an example sentence here. The prep additional phrase at midnight introduces the sentence. Now, when the introductory phrase is short, as in it has fewer than four words, then having a comma is optional. This means that both of the sentences are correct. However, when the introductory phrase has four or more words, then you should use a comma because otherwise it can be confusing. Consider these example sentences in both of these sentences. The prep additional phrases actually contain additional prep additional phases within them in the first sentence. The second prep additional phrase is from his peers, and it functions as an adjective, modifying the now criticism and similarly in the second sentence to school modifies the noun the bus, so they both function as adjectives. Now, when prep additional phrases are long and have four or more words, then we need to use a comma after them. If we don't use a comma after these phrases. It can be confusing to the reader as to where one phrase ends and the next close begins. Okay, so we've gone over a lot of useful aspect. Off prep additional phrases. We learn that proposition or phrases function as adjectives, adverbs and adjectives. Compliments. And when they used as introductory phrases, we should use commerce if the proposition of phrase has four or more words. Okay, so that's it for this lecture. And in the next lecture, we will learn about complex propositions. See you then. Bye bye. 6. Complex prepositional phrase: hi, everyone, and welcome to the lecture on complex Proposition. All phrases complex proposition or phrases are similar to regular proposition all phrases. But just as the name would suggest they look a little more complex, and the reason for this is that regular propositions are individual words. But complex propositions have at least two words. Also, unlike regular prep original phrases, which have three different functions, as in, they function as adjectives, adverbs and adjectives. Compliments, complex proposition of phrases only function as adverbs. Here are a few examples off complex proposition all phrases now. Each phrase consists of a complex proposition in red and a noun phrase in purple, and each complex prep additional phrase has a particular function. They can be used to give reasons to provide additional details or to sequence ideas in order. So let's take a look at some common functions. Off complex prep additional phrases in detail. First, there are those that provide reasons, and the complex propositions that do this include because off do to owing to and things, too. And we can say I passed my test because of my friend in the sentence we can replace, because off with any of the other complex propositions and still make the same sentence. Another common function off complex proposition all phrases is to list ideas. The complex propositions that do this include, in addition to as well as an on top of each of these complex propositions, is used to provide another idea on top of another similar idea. So we can say as well as going to the gym, Jack goes running every Sunday. And like before, we can replace this complex proposition with the other ones in this category and still make the same sentence. Now, another common function off complex proposition is to show relationships of time. The complex propositions that do this include prior to, which refers to something before and subsequent two, which refers to something after so we can say, Prior to this job, I worked for my family business. Now there are also other phrases that function as propositions, such as in the middle of which is similar to jury. However, there are also many other complex prep additional phrases as shown on the screen here, and they show various different kinds of relationships between complex professional phrases and the main close. But the key to remember is that one complex propositions are made up off two or more words , too. Complex propositions are attached to noun phrases, just like regular propositions and three complex prep. Additional phrases always function as adverbs. Okay, so that's it for this lesson on complex propositions. Don't forget to download the worksheet for more. Practice off what you learned in this lesson. And in the next lesson, we will learn about to infinitive phrases. See you then. Bye bye. 7. Infinitive phrase 1: hi, everyone. And in this lecture, we're going to learn about to infinitive phrases. But there is quite a lot to get through with this phrase, so we'll spend the next two lectures on learning about the to infinitive phrases. Let's first take a look at the structure off to infinitive phrases to infinitive. Phrases are made up off the proposition to, and the verb infinitive that is the unchanged form the base form of a verb. And they can often have objects and all modifiers and modifies the either adjectives or adverbs. And these modifiers can also be prep positional phrases. So in this first example, we have to watch movies, and the to infinitive phrase to watch has the object movies. In the second example, the to infinitive phrase to get is followed by the adjective fit. And then, in the final example, we have to retire. And it's followed by a prep positional phrase by next year, which functions as an adverb. So that's the structure off to infinitive phrases. Let's now look at how they're used in sentences. Now. These three example sentences show the three major functions off to infinitive phrases, and they are as now owns adverbs and also adjectives. In this first example sentence, the to infinitive phrase functions as the object of the verb, like the to infinitive phrase tells us what my teacher likes. We can also use to infinitive phrases asked the subject. But while this structure is fine, it is rather formal. And in everyday speech to infinitive, phrases are not commonly used as subjects, and in the last example to infinitive, phrases used as the subject complement, as in the to infinitive phrase tells us what my job is. When the to infinitive phrase functions as the subject complement, it's generally used with the Beaver Bob. We can also use the to infinitive phrase as an adverb. Now, when we used to infinitive phrases as adverbs to modify verbs, they generally tell us the purpose off the verbs action. So in this intense, the to infinitive phrase tells us why my teacher plays football when to infinitive phrase modifies verbs. They can be positioned after the verb object combination, as in this example, but they can be positioned right after the verb or at the front. Off the sentence. However, we can also use the to infinitive phrase to modify adjectives when we used to infinitive phrases to modify adjectives. They are always positioned after the adjective. So in the first sentence to be here, modifies the adjective happy and, in the second sentence, the to infinitive phrase to hear modifies the adjective disappointed. Now, one important point to note is that a to infinitive phrase can function as an object or an adverb when its position after a verb. So in the first sentence to play functions as the object of the verb want. Whereas in the second sentence to buy functions as an adverb, modifying the verb stopped, it tells us why I stopped and whether or to infinitive phrase functions as a noun, an object or an adverb after a bob depends on the Vaal abs they're used with in English. Some verbs can take a to infinitive phrase as now, while other voters cannot, so we cannot use to infinity phrases as now owns as objects. After every bob, this kind of rule is often called ver patterns, and in the resources you will see a ver pattern resource sheet with a fairly comprehensive list of obs that can take to infinity phrases as objects. Okay, so that's it for this lecture. And in this lecture, we learn to use to infinitive phrases as now owns adverbs and adjectives. Compliments. And in the next lecture, we will learn how to use to infinitive phrases as adjectives our Susan in that lesson, but by 8. Infinitive phrase 2: hi, everyone. In the previous lecture, we looked at how the to infinitive phrases used as noun adverbs and adjectives compliments . And in this lecture we're going to learn how to use to infinitive phrases as adjectives. So in the previous lecture we saw this sentence and in this intense the to infinitive phrase modifies the noun. The plan. It tells us what the plan is about, and the plan is to retire by next year. Quite often, when the to infinitive phrases air used as adjectives, they modify announce that can function as both verbs and now owns as in the word plan, which can be both a noun and a verb to give you more examples with words, promise and request, which both function as a noun and a verb. We conform the following sentences, so in these sentences to call and to play our to infinitive phrases that function as adjectives, they modify the noun is promise and request. Additionally, we often used to infinitive phrases as adjectives with mounds that are formed from Bob's. For example, the Bob commit can change to the noun form of commitment, and we can use the to infinitive phrase to modify this now. Similarly, the verb motivate can change to motivation, and we can use a to infinitive phrase as an adjective and modify this. Now, however, as well as words that function as now owns, involves and involves that change into downs we can use to infinitive phrases as adjectives with other now owns. And here are a couple of examples. So in the first sentence, the to infinitive phrase to buy modifies the noun, the book and in the second sentence to lose modifies the noun way when we used to infinitive phrases as adjectives, they are always positioned next to the noun. Is there modifying? So do keep that in mind. Okay, so in this lecture we looked at how we use to infinitive phrases as adjectives, and we looked at using them to modify announce that can function as verbs with verbs, that changing to announce and also wears other general now owns. In the next lecture, we'll learn about Jereme phrases and Jarron Zehr words that end in i N g. See you then. Bye bye 9. Gerunds phrase: hi, everyone in this lecture, we're going to learn about Jeron phrases. Let's take a look at the form first. A Jereme phrase is made up over Charon, which is an I n G form, and he can have an object and or a modifier. So in this first sentence we have the chair and watching, and it has an object movies, and in the second sentence we have the chair and driving, and this is modified by the adverb fast. Now Jergens Inouye function like Bob's as they can take objects, and they can be modified by adverbs. However, it's very important to remember that Jared's are always now owns, and this means that they can be either the subject or the object within a sentence. So in these sentences, the chicharrones watching and driving objects off the verbs like and enjoy. Here are a few more example sentences that use Jeron phrases. So in the first sentence that Jereme phrase functions as the subject off the sentence in the second sentence, that Jereme phrase functions as the subject complement as it provides more information about my hobby, as in, it tells us what my hobby is, and in the last sentence. The gerund phrase functions as the object off the proposition, so they all function just like now owns now. Lastly, just like how we used the to infinitive phrases, as objects with only certain involves, Jared's can only be used as objects with certain verbs to, for example, with the verb enjoy, we can use the JaRon asked the object, but not the to infinitive phrase. And with the verb want, we can use the to infinitive phrase as theon object, but not a Jereme phrase so similar to to infinitive phrases. In the Resources section, you can find the document with an extensive list of obs that can take Jereme phrases as objects. Okay, so today we learned to use Jeron phrases as now owns, and they can function as the subject objects of verbs and prepositions and also as subject compliments. That's it for this lesson. And in the next lesson, we're alone about adjective phrases. See you then. Bye bye. 10. Adjective phrase: hi, everyone. In this lecture, we're going to learn about adjective phrases. Let's first consider the structure off adjective phrases an adjective phrase must always consist, often adjective, and we call this the head adjective, and an adjective phrase can have modifiers in front of the head adjective or behind it. Here are some example sentences with adjective phrases. So in the first sentence we have the adverb extremely in front of the adjective tired so we can have adverbs of degree. And these are worse, like extremely, very and so in front of the adjective to modify that adjective. Now, one adverb of degree we can have after the adjective is enough so we could say something like this car is fast enough. In the second sentence, the head adjective angry is modified by a prep positional phrase, which, if used in this way, is called an adjective complement. So an adjective phrase can be made up overhead adjective and a prep positional phrase. Lastly, as you can see in the third sentence, an adjective phrase can be made up off ahead adjective and the to infinitive phrase, and this to infinitive phrase would be called an adjective complement In these examples, the adjective phrase either has a modifier in front of the head adjective or behind it. However, we can also have adjective phrases with modifiers both in front, off and behind the head. Addictive like this, I am extremely happy with the test results. So in this example sentence, the adjective phrase has modifiers extremely and with the test results in front, off and behind the head adjective. Finally, let's consider how we use adjective phrases in sentences, first of all, with adjective phrases that have modifiers in front of the head adjective they can be positioned in front of now owns as subject compliments linked to the subject by a linking verb and as object compliments. However, if an adjective phrase has modifiers behind the head adjective it's generally not used in front of now owns. It's used as subject or object compliments. And in the last sentence, the adjective phrase has modifiers both in front, off and behind the head, addictive. So do keep in mind off these differences in their positioning. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned to form a long adjective, phrases using modifiers in front, off and behind head adjectives and depending on where the modifiers are. Adjective phrases can be used as subject and object compliments. But for an adjective phrase to be used in front of now owns, They must only have modifiers in front off adjectives. Okay, so that's it for this lecture on adjective phrases. And in the next lesson, we will learn about participle phrases. See you then. Bye bye. 11. Participle phrase: hi, everyone. And in this lecture, we're going to learn about participle phrases. Let's first consider the structure off participle phrases. Participle phrases are made up off either a past participle or a present participle. And remember that all verbs can change into three forms the past simple, the past participle and the present participle, So the past participle usually ends in E. D. But this is only four regular verbs, and regular verbs evolves where the past, simple and the past participle forms. Both end in E. D. However, there are also irregular verbs whose past participle forms do not end in Edie. So do keep that in mind. Let's take a look at some example sentences using participle phrases in each participle phrase. After the participle, we can have modifiers and for present participles, and they are the i N G forms. We can also have objects. So in the first intense, the past participle is doing his homework and after the present participle doing the I N G form, we can have objects as in this sentence, but we can also have modifiers. But in the second sentence, the participle phrase is written by J. K. Rowling and after the past participle written, You can only have modifiers, which in this case is a proposition or phrase by J. K. Rowling. Now let's consider how we use participle phrases. The main function off participle phrases is that they function as adjectives, meaning that they modified, announced they use with so in these sentences, each participle phrase modifies announce before them, which are the students and books. So it's important to know that participle phrases are always position next to the announce . Their modifying now an important point to consider is that participle phrases are effectively like shortened forms or relative clauses, which also worked like adjectives. So the participle phrases in the sentences could be returning to relative clauses like this . Now we will look into relative clauses in a lot more detail later. But in order for relative clauses to be shortened into participle phrases, they must fit to conditions. One is that the relative pronoun in the relative clause must be the subject off the relative clause, and when a relative pronoun is the subject of a relative close, it is always followed by a verb. Second, the verb structure must be either a progressive tense. And that's the beaver plus over by Indian structure or passive structure. And that's a beav up and a past participle structure. And in these structures we can remove the relative pronouns who and that and the beav up. And then we're left with participle phrases. Here are two more examples in these sentences. We can first remove the relative pronouns who which function as the subject off the relative clause and then remove the be verb. And we're left with a participle phrase that functions as adjectives. Okay, so in this lesson we learned how to use participle phrases. Participle phrases are formed with either the past or the present participles, and they are usually the e d and I injured forms and they function as adjectives. And we also learned that they are kind of shortened forms off relative clauses. Okay, so that's it for this lesson. And don't forget to download the worksheet for more practice on using the participle phrases. In the next lesson, we will learn about noun phrases. See you then. Bye bye. 12. Noun phrase: hi, everyone In this lecture, we're going to learn about noun phrases. Let's first take a look at the structure. At its core, a noun phrase consists off ahead noun, and we can have what we call pre dependent elements or pose dependent elements. And sometimes both. And these dependent elements are modifiers, and they tell us more information about the head noun. Let's take a look at what these dependent elements are first. The most common type off pre dependent elements is the articles are unending. Another type of pre dependent element is the possessive pronoun, and these are words like my your and hiss. Numbers are also another type of pre dependent element, so any number we use in front of now owns to quantify that now is a pre dependent element. Then we have determine Er's, and these are worse, like all this and that, and we have part. It'd expressions which be commonly used account uncountable noun, and they are also another type of pre dependent element. We can also use other announced as pre dependent elements, and when they're used with the head noun, they function as adjectives. These noun phrases are often called compound now owns, which are now is made up off two or more now arms. Lastly, as we learned in the previous lesson, we can also use adjective phrases as pretty dependent elements to modify the head. Now let's now look at the post dependent elements. First, we can use relative clauses as post dependent elements to modify the head noun, and we will learn more about relative clauses in a later lecture. Then we have all these elements, which we learn in previous lectures. First, we have participle phrases which a kind, off shortened forms off relative clauses, and they are another common form off post dependent element in a noun phrase. Next we have to infinitive phrases, and then we have a proposition, all phrases So with the head. Now we can use all these different elements as pre and post dependent elements to form now phrases now, now phrases are exactly what they are. They are now owns. But rather than being made up off only the noun itself or with Justin, article noun phrases have formed with various pre and post dependent elements, and they function like any other now owns in sentences so they can function like a subject in a sentence, they can function like an object in a sentence. They can also function like a compliment and also as an object over proposition. And they can also function like an adverb. Now, while is more common to use noun phrases with only one pre or post dependent element, we can also use a variety, off dependent elements and be creative with our writing. And one of the most common uses off complex noun phrases is in academic writing. Here's an example. So in this sentence, the long noun phrase has multiple dependent elements. We first have an article and an adjective as pre dependent elements. And then we have a participle phrase, a prep positional phrase enter to infinitive phrase as parts off the long noun phrase, which functions as the sentence subject. Here's another example. This time we have End of year, which is a noun phrase in itself, functioning as a pre dependent element. And then after that we have a long relative clause, and within the relative clause there is a to infinitive phrase to be cancelled and a complex proposition all phrase due to the current situation and all of that is a noun phrase. Which functions? Ask the sentence subject. Using such long sentences allows the writer to pack a lot of information in fewer words, and this type of noun phrase is commonly seen informal and in academic writing. Okay, so today we learned how to form long noun phrases using various pre and post dependent elements, many of which of what we have already learned in this course. In the next lesson, we will learn about evolve phrases our Susan again in that lesson, but by 13. Verb phrase: hi, everyone. In this lecture, we're going to learn about verb phrases. A verb phrase is a single word or a group of words that function as a verb in a sentence. Now, depending on the structure off the verb, you can make a positive negative or a question statement. Generally, if the statement is a negative or a question statement, the verb phrase requires to help, often axillary verb, which in this case is to Duve up. And the verb that the subject does in the verb phrase is the main verb, which in these sentences are like, however, if the main verb is the Beav UB, then we don't need to use an accelerator bob when forming negative or question statements in English. There are three tenses past, present and future. And then there are four aspects. Simple, progressive, perfect and perfect progressive and depending on which tense and aspect combination of of phrase describes, there are certain structures of oh, phrase has to follow, for example, for present perfect. The verb structure must have the auxiliary verb have and the past participle off the main verb. Also, there are certain features of verb tenses. We should be aware off first, because English verbs don't have a future form to talk about the future. We use various other auxiliary verbs, so we commonly use will and be going to. But we could also use a might and should to talk about the future. Secondly, all progressive tenses follow the beaver plus verb I India structure, though depending on the tents, we can change the tents off the axillary verb Beav ob or use the motor over will to refer to the future. Lastly, all perfect tenses follow the have plus past participle structure, though again, depending on the tents, we can change the tents off the axillary verb have or use the motor over will to refer to the future. So based on these structures, we have to use for progressive and perfect aspects to talk about the perfect progressive tense. We combine features of both the perfect and the progressive structure. So we use have plus Bean, which is the past participle off the beav UB, and then we use Verba Angie. And this means that we can also use more than one oxygen reverb in a verb phrase. Now, in English, there are three main auxiliary verbs, which are to do to be and to have. And we can use these verbs to form negative and question statements, progressive aspect and perfect aspect. However, we also saw the axillary verbal will used to talk about the future and Will belongs to a group off axillary verbs called Moto. Uccello revolves often just called modal verbs. And here is the list off these motive UBS Now with motive herbs. We can also form positive negative and questions statements, and they are always used with the main bob. And the main verb is always used in this infinitive form. Motive. Herbs do not have a past form. The key function off Moto auxiliary verbs is to convey the speaker's attitude or views about the main verb. Remember that English verbs generally are very direct in their meaning. So by using motive herbs, we can make polite requests, talk about possibilities and make deductions about what might be true. Therefore, motive verbs are often categorized into specific functions. Understanding the meaning and how motive herbs air used is important, as this enables us to write more accurately. For example, in academic writing, people off for make assertions in a more general sense as it can be dangerous to make absolute assertions. So we're making assertions. In academic writing. We often see writers use various mode of herbs to suggest something is possible or probable , rather than not use a motive up and suggest that something is an absolute truth with motive . Herbs. We can also use them in the progressive, tense, present perfect tens and also in the present perfect progressive tense. Okay, so the final verb phrase structure we're going to look at is the passive verb structure. The verb structures we have seen so far in this lesson are or active structures and in active structures. The focus off the sentence is on the subject and in active sentences. The subject does the action off the verb. However, in a passive sentence, the focus is on the object and the verb structure changes to beaver plus past participle structure. So the new subject receives the action of the Bob, and the agent that carries out the action is shown with the by plus noun structure. The passive verb structure is in the past form in this sentence, as the verb in the active sentence is in the past form. However, the passive verb structure can be in many different tenses now. There are many reasons for using the passive structure, but the most common are one to focus the sentence on the noun receiving the action and two when the subject during the action is either unknown or not important. Passive verb structures are commonly used informal writing and also in news articles, which often focus on the results rather than the subject during the action. Okay, so in this lesson, it we looked at many aspects over phrases. We looked at the basics off phrase structures using oxygen, reverb and main verbs. We looked at the verb structures off different tenses. We learned about motive herbs, and finally, we lives at the structure and use off passive verb structures. In the next lesson, we're going to learn about another verb phrase, Fraser Verbs. So I'm Susan again in that lesson. But why 14. Phrasal verb: hi, everyone. So in this lesson, we're going to learn about Fraser verbs. Let's first look at the structure off Fraser Verbs Fraser Verbs are made up off a verb and a particle. These particles can be either an adverb or a proposition, and together they function as a bob. Quite often, Fraser verbs can have a direct equivalent, single word verbs. But there are also Fraser verbs, which do not have a direct equivalent, single word verbs. Also, we can work out the meaning off some phrase of verbs based on the verbs and particles used in the Fraser verbs. However, there are also Fraser verbs, which are difficult to understand just by looking at the verbs and the particles. Here are some examples off phrase of UBS used in sentences. So in this first intense, the meaning is literal. You can understand that handed in is similar in meaning to submitted based on the words used hand in. However, in the second and the third sentence, the meaning off these phrase of herbs is less obvious based on the verbs in the particles. So it's important that you learn the meaning off each phrase of UB when you learn them. Also, many verbs can combine with various particles to form different phrase of loves. For example, develop to give can combine with a particle up to become a phrase of Bob. But we can also combine give with other particles and make give in, give away, give off and so on. And similarly common verbs like take, get and make can combine with various particles to form many different phrase of loves. Additionally, it's also important to note that one phrase of up can have many different meanings. For example, the phrase of herb take off has many different meaning and uses. Here are some example sentences. So in the first sentence, takeoff means something to be successful. In the second sentence we use, take off the talk about not going to work, and in the third sentence we use takeoff to talk about undressing. And finally, we can also use takeoff to talk about leaving somewhere. So when learning phrase of webs, you have to be mindful about one phrase of up having more than one meaning now. Another feature or Fraser verbs is that some phrase of webs are transitive, as in, they can have objects while others are intransitive as in, they cannot have objects, and even in these sentences we have to use is off. Take off that are transitive and two that are intransitive. Now in the second sentence, when we use takeoff to talk about not going to work, the object which always refers to the amount of time you're going to take off, is always positioned between take and off. However, some phrase of herbs always take the object after the verb particle combination. A good example is a phrase of Bob to come across, which we used to talk about finding someone or something by chance. Now, this phrase of herb cannot take the object between the verb and the particle. It has to take the object after the verb in the particle combination, so some Fraser verbs must take an object between the verb and the particle, while others take objects after the verb particle combination. However, another common traits off transitive phrase of herbs is to take objects after the verb particle combination, and also between the verb and the particle. And this third use off take off is a good example of this. So the object in this question, your shirt can be positioned between take and off to. Also, we can use pronouns as objects with phrase of verbs that take an object between and after the verb particle combination. But when the object is a pronoun, it's generally only used between the verb and the particle. So we can say, Can you take it off? But we cannot say, Can you take off it? This is incorrect. Finally, Fraser verbs are essentially Bob's so they can congregate into past forms, and they can be used in many other tenses and also with modal verbs so they function just like any other evolves. Okay, so let's have a quick recap off what we learned in this lesson Fraser verbs of middle or verbs and particles, and they are used like valves. Their meaning can be literal, but some phrase of verbs are difficult to understand. Based on the verbs and particles used, a single verb can combine with various particles, and a single ver particle combination can have many different meanings. We also looked at how Fraser verbs are transitive and intransitive and where objects of position with transitive phrase evolves. Lastly, phrase evolves or use like any other Bob's. So they are used in many different tenses. And with other motive. Bob's okay, so that's it. On learning about different Fraser's, we can now move on and learn about different types of clauses. The first lecture on clauses is on independent closers. See you then. Bye bye. 15. Independent clause: hi, everyone, and welcome to the lecture on independent closes. Now, before we start looking at what independent clauses are, you may be wondering what a clauses in general a clause is a group of words that contain a subject and a verb. However, this isn't an absolute rule, as imperative sentences only have a verb. And since a sentence must consist of a clause, it's still possible to form a clause with just a bob. However, in general, most closes have a subject and a bob, and in this lesson that we're going to learn about independent closers. Let's first begin by looking at some examples off independent closes. Now all these are independent clauses, so let's look at them more carefully. In the first independent clause, we have a subject and a verb, and in the second independent close, there is a subject of herb and an object. In the third independent close, we have a subject of up and an object, but the subject is a compound subject, meaning it is made up off two or more subjects. And lastly, in the fourth Independent clause, we have a subject of up and objects. But this time we have a compound subject and also a compound Bab. So these two now owns are the subject and they do to actions. So the key thing to note is that an independent close can have compound subjects and compound verbs as well as single subjects involved. Also, as you can see, we can have all these additional elements, such as proposition all phrases to infinitive phrases and adjective phrase, ad votes and quantify IRS. And these additional elements add more information to the key components off the clause, which are the subjects and Bob's. Now. The key thing to note with independent clauses is that with independent clauses, we can put a full stop, a period at the end off the claws to make them into sentences. So this means that we cannot form sentences using only the phrases we learned in the previous lesson. A sentence generally has an independent clause, and these sentences made up off one independent clothes are cold, simple sentences. Later on, we will learn how to combine independent clauses to form compound sentences and also combine independent closes and dependent closes to form further complex sentences. Okay, so today we learned about independent clauses and we learned that these clauses are formed using single subjects involves, but also compound subjects involves. We also learned that we can add a full stop or period at the end of an independent clause to form a simple sentence. Now, over the next six lessons, we're going to learn about dependent clauses. And there are four dependent clauses. Add verbal relative noun and participle. And in the next lesson will begin with adverb your closers. See you then. Bye bye. 16. Adverbial clause 1: Hi, everyone in this lecture, we're going to look at the first off four dependent clauses adverb your closes. Now, before we go into what adverb your closes are, it's important to note one key distinction between independent closes and dependent closes . And that distinction is that while independent closes can stand alone as a sentence, when you put a full stop at the end, dependant closes. Need independent closes to become a sentence and, as we look at example, sentences that use dependent clauses in this lesson, you will see them used with independent closers. So today we're going to learn about adverb. You'll closers. Now there are many different kinds off adverb You'll clauses, and it will be difficult to cover all of them in one single lecture, So we will spend the next two lectures looking at what adverb your closest are. First, let's consider the structure off adverb. You'll clauses adverb. Your closes are often made up off subordinate conjunction, a subject and a verb. So in these sentences, the independent closes are in light blue and the dependent closes the adverb. Your closes are in red, and as I mentioned already, adverb your closes cannot be a sentence on their own, so they have to be used with independent clauses. So in each sentence, the adverb you'll clause contains a subordinate conjunction and within the adverb your clothes. There is a subject and a verb now, in terms of meaning. In the first example sentence the adverb your clothes tells us when I will be happy. Then in the second sentence, the adverb you'll close tells us why I ate three hamburgers and in the last sentence, the adverb you'll close tells us how I will drive so adverb your closes are generally categorised into their particular meaning and use. Now there are many different categories off meaning and use, and in this lecture we will focus on adverbs of time, place, manner, reason and purpose. And then we'll look at the rest in the next lecture. First, adverb your claws of time tells us when the action in the main clause happens, and these closes are often introduced by the following subordinate conjunctions. Using these conjunctions, the adverb your claws can show whether the actions in the two clauses happen at the same time or in a sequence. The adverb your closes can be positioned in front, off the sentence or at the back of the sentence. But when the adverb your claws is at the front, the two closes must be separated by a comma. However, if the adverb your claws is at the back, then we don't need to use a comma. This rule of using a comma is generally applied to most sentences. Using adverb, you'll closes next we have adverb your closes off place and these closes. Tell us where something happens Adverb. Your closes off place are introduced by conjunctions where and wherever in a usually position at the back, off the sentence and then we have adverb your closes off manner and these closes Tell us how something happens adverb Your closes off manner are introduced by these conjunctions and they are usually positioned at the back off the sentence. Next we have adverb, you'll closes off reason and these closes Tell us why something happens or why it should happen Adverb your closes of reason are introduced by these conjunctions. Finally we have adverb your closes off purpose and they tell us why something is happening . However, the key difference between adverb your claws of reason and purpose is that adverb your clothes off purpose focuses more on the aim or the purpose. So in the first sentence, the adverb your claws is the reason why I felt miserable. Adverb your claws is not the aim off the action in the main clause. However, in the second sentence although we could say that the adverb your clothes is the reason why I quit my job. It is also the purpose The aim that made me quit my job similarly in this intense the adverb your clothes is the reason why we should cancel the trip. And in the second sentence, the purpose off Jack's parents taking him to the library is so that he can study for the test. The adverb your claws is the aim off the action in the main clause adverb your closes off purpose are introduced by these conjunctions. Okay, So as you can see adverb, your closers have a particular meaning and use and depending on each meaning and use their introduced by a particular conjunction. So let's now do a quick quiz. You'll see sentences appear on the screen and in each sentence, the adverb your clothes will be highlighted in red. And I'd like you to guess as to whether they are adverb your closes off time, place, manner, reason or purpose will leave these words on the screen to help you with the terms. For each sentence, you will have about five seconds to guess the correct name. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin. You can sleep wherever you want to. He walked in the room as if nothing had happened. We got here soon as we heard the news. Seeing as it's raining outside, we should drive to the park. I joined the gym so that I can get fit. That was excellent. Well done. Okay, so today we learned what dependent clauses are and then looked at the structure off adverb You'll clauses and how each adverb your claws has a particular meaning and use. We then looked at adverb your closes off time, place, manner, reason and purpose. In the next lecture, we would take a look at adverb your closes that have other meaning and uses our Susan in that lesson. But why 17. Adverbial clause 2: Hi, everyone. In this lecture, we're going to learn mawr adverb. You'll clauses with other meanings and uses and they are adverb your closes off results, concession comparison and and condition ALS. First we have the adverb, you'll clause of result and these adverb your closes tell us the results often action These adverb your closes used the structure off so that and such that and after so we can use an adjective or adverb and then use the conjunction that to introduce the result with such it's followed by and noun and then we use the conjunction that to introduce the results. So in these example sentences, the results are caused by what's mentioned before that next we have adverb, you'll closes off concession and we use adverb your clothes of concession to show that something in the main clause is surprising. Based on what's mentioned in the adverb, your claws adverb, your closes off concession are introduced by these conjunctions. However adverb your claws off concession can also show a contrast between what's said in the main clause and in the adverb you'll clause and we do that by using the conjunctions while and whereas let's now look at adverb your closes off comparison. These clauses make a comparison between the adverb you'll clause and the main close and we make comparisons between two closes using the words as. And then now you may be familiar with making comparisons between two now owns using as and then and with adverb your closes. The structure is quite similar, but rather than comparing to now owns, we're comparing two closers. Finally, we have adverb your closes off condition ALS and these closes show certain conditions that are required for the main close to be true. These closes are introduced by these conjunctions adverb your closes off condition ALS are categorized into zero first, second and third condition ALS zero conditioners refer to something that always happens when the conditional statement is true. Quite often we use zero conditional is to talk about scientific facts and the tents in both closes are in present simple. The first conditional refers to a possible event in the future. If the conditional statement is true, the tents in the if clause is present simple, while the tents in the main clause is future simple using will and other various motive. UBS, the second conditional refers to an unreal possible event in the present. This conditioner is used to refer to an imagined possible event in the present. If the conditional statement were true, everything is hypothetical. The tents in the If clause is in the past simple, and the tents in the main clause is in the present tense. And we often use the motive verbs would and could in the main clause. Lastly, the third conditional refers to an unreal imagined situations in the past. The third conditional is used to refer to what may have been possible in the past if the conditional statement had been true. The tents in the If Clause is past perfect and attends in the main clause is present perfect, But again, we often use the motive UBS would and could to form the present perfect tenses. Now there are a lot of verbs structures to remember to do ensure you download the worksheet and practice writing adverb. You'll closes off conditional. Okay, so before we end the lesson, let's now do a quick quiz and the same as what we did in the previous lecture. I'd like you to guess whether the highlighted a verbal closes are adverb your closes off result Concession comparison or conditional. Now you don't need to identify the type of conditional such as first or second. You just need to mention that that is an adverb. Your claws off conditional. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start the quiz. Jack can play the piano as well as his sister can. Jack's been working so hard that he collapsed in bed. As long as the weather is nice, will go camping this weekend. Although I studied hard for the test, I only got a C excellent job today. Well done. Okay, so in this lesson we looked at four other types of conditional sentences. Adverb your closes off result concession comparison and condition ALS and we also looked at different kinds off adverb Your closes off conditional and they were zero first, second and third. In the next lesson, we will start learning about noun clauses. See you then. Bye bye. 18. Noun clause: hi, everyone. In this lesson, we're going to learn about noun clauses less. First, take a look at the structure off noun clauses. A noun clause can begin with a sub ordinating conjunction such as that if, how and why and interrogative pronouns such as who's what and which. Then there is usually a subject and a bob. Let's take a look at some example sentences that use now closes. Now the noun closes in. These sentences are highlighted in red, and as you can see, each non close begins with either a conjunction or a pronoun, and they have a subject and a bob. However, with whoever you can be followed by a verb without a subject. And this kind of structure is also possible with pronouns, who and which. So we can say I know who gave that to you. I don't know which is better, and in these now closes, the pronouns are followed by a verb rather than a noun functioning as a subject. Now, a noun clause is a dependent clause that functions just like any other now. So in this first sentence, the noun Klaus what he said functions ask to subject off the sentence in the second sentence. The noun clothes that he would be here. He is the direct object of the verb, said in the third sentence. The noun clause. Whoever arrives first is an indirect object off the verb by In the fourth sentence, the noun Klaus, What I wanted is a subject complement. And finally, in the last sentence, the noun close. What you said is the object off the proposition about so the key thing to note is that noun clauses function like any other noun in a sentence. Now there are many reasons why we would use a noun claws instead over now on itself, and one of those is when we're not sure off the now we're referring to. For example, if you want to order some food someone is having in a restaurant and you're not sure what that dish is called, you can say I will have what that gentleman is having so we can use this noun close as a substitute for the noun itself. Now, another common reason for using a noun clause is to be more concise. For example, instead of saying screaming and kicking in a toy shop earlier was wrong. You can just say what you did earlier was wrong. Now you can, of course, only say something like this when you assume the other person will know what you're referring to. But you can see how this second sentence is much more concise than the first sentence. Another way we often use non closes is to expand upon our knowledge, beliefs and thoughts. And we do that by using verbs like to know, to believe and to think and announed closes are introduced using the conjunction that finally, we often use noun clauses in reported speech. And we commonly use these verbs when reporting on something that someone has said when reporting on what someone has said. There are two important rules to follow. First, if the verb in the main clause is the present simple tents or future tense than the verb in the noun clause, the reporters speech should be the same as the direct speech. So if someone said, I feel great, the verb in the noun clause is the same tents as the direct speech, because the verb in the main clause is either in the present tense or the future tense. Second, if the verb in the main clause is, in the past, simple tense than the verb in the direct speech changes to a past tense. Now this means that if the tents in the direct speech is present, then it changes to past. If the tens in the direct speeches future, it changes to future in the past, using the motive of wood, and if the tents in the direct speech is present perfect, then it changes to past perfect. So in the first example, the verb in that direct speech is in the present tense. So in reported speech, the verb is in the past in portents. In the second example, the verb in the direct speech is, in the future tense serving the reporter speech. The verb is in the future in the past, which uses the motive of wood, and in the last example, the verb in the direct speech is in present perfect. So in the reporter speech, the verb is in the past, perfect tense. So in short, if the verb in the main clause is in the past in portents, the verb the noun close goes back attends from the direct speech similar to the conditions we learned in the previous lesson. There are a lot of work tends combinations here. So do we ensure you down on the worksheet and practice forming reporters speech using the correct tents? Okay, so we went over a lot of different aspects off noun clauses. In this lesson, we first went over the structure off noun clauses and how they function like other now owns in a sentence. Then we learned many different ways of using Now closes such as substituting now owns being more concise, talking about our thoughts and beliefs and in reporter speech. In the next lesson, we're going to start learning about relative closers. So see you soon in that lesson, but by 19. Relative clause 1: hi, everyone in this lecture, we're going to learn about relative clauses now. There is quite a lot of things to get through with relative clauses, so we will spend the next two lectures on learning about relative clauses. We will focus mostly on the structure off relative clauses in this lecture, and in the next lecture, we'll look at how relative clauses are used now. Relative clauses are made up off a relative pronoun. Some require subjects, and all relative closes must have a bob. The basic function all relative clauses is adjectival, so they provide more information about the noun is they modify. And for this reason, relative clauses are always positioned. Next to the noun is they are modifying now, as you can see in the table, depending on whether the relative clauses modifying people or objects, we use different relative pronouns and which relative pronoun we use also depends on whether the relative pronoun is the subject off the relative clause or the objects off the relative clause. In addition, if the relative pronoun needs to indicate a possessive meaning, we use the relative pronoun who's so let's look at the structure or relative clauses in more detail. Well, first, look at relative clauses where the relative pronoun is the object off the relative clause Now, in essence, a sentence with a relative clause, is a combination off two closers that share the same. Now, for example, in these two sentences, let's say that the first clause is going to be the main clause in the entire sentence and the second clause is going to be the relative clause. The noun shared by the two clauses is the car, and in the close, that's going to be the relative clause. Since a car is the object of the verb, we can change it with which and then position it at the front off the relative clause as a relative pronoun always has to be at the front, off the clothes. We can then bring this relative clause to the first sentence and position it right after the shared down the car. So the combination off the main clause and the relative clause is the car which I bought last week, broke down. Let's take a look at another example Now the structure is very similar and the second clause will be the relative clause and the only difference is that the shared now is a person so instead of which we can use whom or who. So when we combine the two clauses together, we have my teacher. Who nobody likes is very strict. One thing to add about whom or who is that informal writing? It's more appropriate to use whom. But in everyday speech you can use either of them now. This time, let's now look at relative clauses where the relative pronoun is the subject off the relative clause Here are our example sentences. Same as before. The second sentence will be the relative clause, but this time the shared down my teacher is the subject off the relative clause. So again we replace it with the relative pronoun who. So now the relative pronoun is at the front of the relative clause, and it is the subject off the entire clause, so there is no separate subject. The relative pronoun is followed by a verb. Then we positioned this next to my teacher in the main clause, and we have My teacher who gives a lot of homework, is very strict. Here's one more example, and this time the shared now is homework. The relative clause is the second clause. So we change home what to a relative pronoun. Either which or that. And then we position the relative clause next to the noun. It's modifying. So we have. I have some homework, which shouldn't be too difficult. Okay, so let's now look at the thirst structure. There are also times when the relative pronoun is the object off the proposition. For example, consider the following two sentences. The shared now is camping, but in the relative clause, camping is the object of the preposition in. So in this case, same as before. We change camping to a relative pronoun and will use which, as camping is on a person, then position the relative pronoun at the front off the relative clause. Then we move this relative clause to after camping in the first clause. The main clause. So we have My mom wants to go camping, which I have no interest in. However, here's an important point. This proposition in can be position at the front, off the relative clause. So this sentence can be written as my mom wants to go camping, in which I have no interest. Both sentences are correct now to know whether the relative pronoun is the object of a proposition or whether you need to use a proposition in the relative clause. You need to have a good understanding off how propositions are used with certain verbs. Noun is and adjectives as some verbs, noun and adjectives are always used with a certain propositions, such as talk about difficulty with an interest in Finally, let's now look at relative clauses that use the relative pronoun who's consider the following two sentences. Now, between these two clauses, the shared now is my teacher, but in the relative clause, the noun is in a possessive form. It's not my teacher, it's my teachers. So rather than using relative pronouns, who or that we should use whose? So we replace my teachers with who's and then we positioned this relative clause next to my teacher in the main clause. So we have My teacher, whose wife loves animals, has a big dog. So that's how the relative pronoun who's is used okay, so let's now do a quiz. So far, we've learned to form relative clauses where the relative pronoun is the object of the verb . The relative pronoun is the subject off the relative clause. The relative pronoun is the object of the proposition, and the relative pronoun is the possessive noun. In this quiz, you see two sentences. And based on what we have learned in this lesson, I'd like you to join the two closes together and form appropriate relative clauses. You can just say the complete sentence within the given time. Okay, So if you're ready, let's start. My teacher, who I'm scared off, is over there. I watched the movie that was banned last year. Sam, whose parents are university professors, decided to leave university. I lost the wallet which you bought for me. Excellent or well done. Okay, so today we focused on learning about the structure or relative clauses and the functionality off relative pronouns within the relative clause. In the next lesson, we will learn more about how relative clauses are used. See you then. Bye bye. 20. Relative clause 2: hi everyone. In the previous lecture, we focus mainly on the structure off relative closers and in this lesson will focus more on how relative clauses are used. And we'll also look at some other structural aspects off relative close to Let's first look at the differences between defining and none. Defining relative clause is a defining relative. Clause gives essential information which helps to define or identify the person or the thing we're talking about. Therefore, the sentence must have the defining relative clause. The sentence is incomplete without the relative close. So in the first sentence, the relative clause helps to define or identify the man. If we didn't have the relative clause, the sentence will be missing an important element. We wouldn't know who the man is. Similarly, in the second sentence, the relative clause is a defining relative clause as it helps to define or identify the teacher. Now, a key feature off defining relative clause is, is that it is used in the sentence without any commerce. And as you will see shortly, this differs from none defining relative clauses which are separated from the main clause using commerce. Secondly, if the relative pronoun is the object off the relative clause, as in this second example, then we can use it without the relative pronoun. And omitting the relative pronoun is more common in speech than in writing. Now let's look at none. Defining relative clause is You can probably guess the key difference between defining and non defining relative closers. And this key difference is that none defining relative closers tell us extra information about the person or the thing. The information is none essential, and even without that relative clause, the sentence would make sense. So in this example sentence, the relative closes none defining as it gives extra information about the noun my car. Even without the relative clause, the sentence makes sense and, as mentioned before none defining relative clauses are separated from the main clause using commerce. Also in the second sentence, the nun defining relative clause provides none essential information regarding the noun My teacher and it is separated from the main clause using to commerce on either end, with none defining relative closers. The relative pronoun cannot be omitted. Okay, so let's now look at using different relative pronouns. So far, we've seen how we use relative pronouns who? Which that and who's to form relative clauses. But we can also use relative pronouns well, when and why. To form relative pronouns, We can use where with places when with time and why, with reasons to make it clear which place, time or reason we're talking about. Here are some example sentences that use these relative pronouns. So in the first sentence, the relative clause helps to make it clear what kind of university I want to go to. Then, in the second sentence, the relative clause helps to make it clear what kind of season the summer is. And lastly, the relative clause in the third sentence explains the reason why I want to join the police Now. A noticeable feature off these relative clauses is that, unlike the relative clauses before these relative closes are not easily separated. What this means is that in other relative clauses, the relative pronounce just represented another now. But in these relative clauses, it's not that simple. For example, in the first sentence, the main clauses I want to go to a university. But the second relative clause, if separated, would probably be students learn practical skills at the university so, in essence, we need to use a proposition to indicate the meaning off well. Similarly, the relative clauses in the second and the third sentences, if separated, will probably write something like this. So we use propositions that relate the meaning off where and in terms of why the separate sentence can use a complex proposition because off and the main clause generally uses a structure off, something is the reason. And then we add a relative clause using why. Okay, so the final aspects off relative clauses we're going to learn is something called sen. Tension. All relative clause. Now, unlike regular relative clauses, which function as adjectives and modify now owns Centennial Relative clauses comment on the entire main clause so they function more like an adverb. Here's an example in this intense the relative clause relates to the whole close before. So what everyone was surprised about wasn't about the homework, but the fact that our teacher didn't give any homework. So the relative clause comments on the whole close before and because of this function off commenting on an entire clause centennial Relative clauses are always position after another clause, and it is separated from the main clause by a comma. The relative pronoun can be the object off the bob or the proposition, and it can also be the subject off the relative clause. Now it's intentional. Relative clauses can also be used in speech to interject on what someone has said. For example, after someone has made a comment, you can interject using us intentional relative clause to comment on what someone has said and then make a further comment. So this is a common way off using so intention relative closers in everyday speech. Okay, so that's it for the second lecture on relative clauses, and in this lesson we looked at how we use defining and none defining relative clause is we learn how to form relative closes using the relative pronouns. Well, when and why. And lastly we learned about sin intentional relative clauses. We covered a lot of things in this lesson. So do remember to do the exercises in the worksheet. In the next lecture, we will learn about participle closers. See you then. Bye bye 21. Participle clause: hi, everyone. In this lesson, we're going to learn about participle clauses now, just like participle phrases, Participle clause is beginning with either the past participle or the present participle. However, unlike participle phrases which function as adjectives, participle clauses are add verbal. The participle in the participle clause can be followed by an object or modifiers. Here are some example sentences using participle clauses in the first sentence. The participle clause gives the reason for the action in the main clause and the participle knowing is followed by a noun clause which functions as the object. In the second sentence. The participle clause provides a condition under which the main clause can become true. So this is similar to the if conditional clause. The participle is the phrase over. But look after and it is followed by a modifier carefully do know that e d participles cannot be followed by an object. Only I n g participles can be followed by an object. Now, from these two examples, we can see some key features off participle clauses. First, the participle clause can be positioned before the main clause or after the main clause. But in either position it is separated from the main clause using a comma second, you can only use participle clause if the implied the subject in the participle clause is the same as the subject in the main clause. This means that in these examples, they implied subjects in the participle. Closers are the same as the ones in the main clause, and finally, each participle clause is related to certain meanings. In the first sentence, the participle clause gives a reason for inaction, and in the second sentence it provides a conditional meaning. Now, in general, there are five different meanings associated with participle clauses. First, we have participles that give the reason for inaction as seen in the first sentence. And these participle closes can begin with an i n G or an E D participle, as seen in the second example. Second, we can use participle clause is to talk about the results of an action to talk about results of inaction. We only use the i N g participle and it must be positioned behind the main clause. Third, we can use participle clause is to talk about two actions happening at the same time when we talk about two actions happening. At the same time, we can only use the participle in an I N G form. Next, we can also use participle closes to give a conditional meaning to use. Participle closes with an if conditional meaning. We can only use the past participle the E D form. Finally, we can also use the participle clause toe ADM or information about the subject in the main clause when giving additional information about the subject. In the main clause, you can use both E d and I N g participles. And as you can see, the participle, closers can be at the front or at the back off the sentence. Now, in order to understand the meaning off the participle, you need to understand the context and the relationship between the two clauses. So while there are certain rules, we have to follow informing participle clauses with certain meanings, there is a great deal of overlap in the way they're formed. So it's important that you understand the relationship between the two clauses in the sentence. Okay, so today we learn how to form participle clause is and how they're used as adverbs. And we also looked at how they're used to indicate five different meanings. We're now going to move on from learning about clauses. And in the next lecture will start learning about sentences. See you then. Bye bye. 22. Simple & compound sentence: hi, everyone in this lesson that we're going to learn about simple and compound sentences now. In an earlier lesson, we learn that we can make an independent clause into a simple sentence by adding a full stop or a period at the end and as well as subjects involves simple sentences, can have various modifiers, such as prep additional phrases and to infinitive phrases. So all these example sentences are simple sentences which are made up all the single independent close. Now compound sentences are made up off at least two independent closes, and these closes air joined by coordinating conjunctions in English. There are seven coordinating conjunctions, and they are full and nor but or yet so. And the easiest way to remember these is to remember the acronym Fanboys, which is made up off the first letter off these conjunctions. Now we use four to give reasons. So it's similar to because and we use and to add another similar idea we used nor to present an alternative negative idea and we use, but to show a contrast ing idea. Then we have or and we use or to present an alternative and yet to show a contrast ing idea . Finally, we have so and we use so to show on effect. In general, you can just add the conjunction between the two independent clauses and also add a comma after the first clause. However, if the clauses are short, then you don't necessarily have to use a comma in British English. It's more common to use coordinating conjunctions without a comma. That one important aspect to highlight is that the structure off the second clause changes when we use a conjunction. Nor so instead of the verb structure being don't like. The verb structure changes to do I like. And the reason is because the conjunction, nor already contains the negative meaning. To give you another example to connect these two independent clauses with verbs in negative structure, we first ad nor between the two clauses and then we change the verb structure. In the second independent close to does she speak, then joined the two closes together to form a compound sentence. However, it is also possible to form a compound sentence with more than two independent closers. Here's an example sentence. So as you can see here we have three independent clauses, joined by two coordinating conjunctions and before each conjunction, we use a comma to separate the clauses. Let's take a look at another example sentence. So in this sentence we have three independent clauses, and we use so to introduce the effect after the first independent clause and the two effects are presented as two alternatives using the conjunction. Or here's another example of a compound sentence. Now this is a really long sentence, and in this example there are three coordinating conjunctions joining four independent clauses. So this is quite a long compound sentence now. There is no strict rules on how many independent closes a compound sentence can have, but as a general rule, it's probably best toe have no more than four independent clauses in one single compound sentence. And the reason is because if you have too many clauses in a single sentence, the sentence can become confusing. Nevertheless, creative writers often play around with various punctuation and conjunctions to extend their sentences, so there is no absolute rule on this. Okay, so in this lesson we looked at the structure off both simple and compound sentences and how we use coordinating conjunctions to form compound sentences which are made up off. At least two independent closes. In the next lesson, we will learn about complex sentences. See you then. Bye bye. 23. Complex sentence: hi, everyone, In this lesson, we're going to learn about complex sentences now. Complex sentences are sentences made up off one independent clause and one or more dependent closes so complex sentences can have adverb your closes. Relative clauses, noun clauses and participle closes. So all these sentences, consisting off one independent clothes and one dependent clothes, are complex sentences. However, a complex sentence can have more than one dependent clause. Here's an example sentence. So in this sentence we have a relative clause that modifies the subjects off the independent clause. My boss. And then we have an adverb clause at the end using the subordinating conjunctions because let's take a look at another example sentence. Now this sentence has quite a few dependent closes first, we haven't adverb your clothes, and within the adverb your clothes, there is a noun close that functions as the subject. Then, in the main clause, there is a relative clause, and within the to infinitive phrase, there is another noun clause, which is the object of the verb infinitive. Believe so. In this single sentence, there are four dependent closes again, you may be wondering how many dependent closes you can have but there is no absolute rule on how many dependent closes you can or should have. You have to make a judgment as a writer. And if you feel adding more information reduces the clarity of your writing, that you should think about ending that sentence and starting a new one. Okay, so before we end the lesson, let's do a quick quiz. You will see sentences on the screen, and I'd like you to say how many dependent closes there are within each sentence this time rather than having a timer. Please pause the video to give yourself a much time as you need. And then when you're ready, you can click on play and we will reveal the answer. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin the quiz. - Excellent job. Well done. Okay, so today we learned about complex sentences which are sentences made up off one independent clause and at least one dependent close. Do make sure to download the worksheet from or practice. And in the next lesson, we'll learn about compound complex sentences. See you then. Bye bye. 24. Compound-complex sentence: hi, everyone. In this lesson, we're going to learn about compound complex sentences now. Compound complex sentences combined features off compound sentences and complex sentences so these sentences are made up off two or more independent closes and one or more dependent closes. So here's an example of a compound complex sentence in the sentence. We first have an adverb your claws when I finish work. And then there are two independent closes, joined by coordinating conjunction. But so this is an example of a compound complex sentence as it has two independent closes and one dependent close. However, compound complex sentences can be much more complex with various clauses. Here's an example off such long sentence. Although I was advised to study Italian, I didn't want to learn a language which I had no knowledge off. So I chose Japanese. Since it's something I'm more familiar with and I can get help from. My sister actually studied Japanese at university, so this sentence is made up off multiple closes. We first have an adverb your clothes. Then we have an independent clause, and at the end we have a relative clause modifying a noun, a language. Then we have a coordinating conjunction. So linking an independent clause, then we have an adverb clause introduced by the sub ordinating conjunction Since and then we have an independent close introduced by the coordinating Conjunction and and finally we have another dependent close introduced by the subordinating conjunction. As so, all in all, this sentence has three independent closes and four dependent closes. Now, with the number of closes you can have in compound complex sentences again, there is no absolute rule on this, and you can have as many as you like. However, it's really about judging whether adding more closers will make the sentence less clear or not. As quite often, long sentences can be confusing to the reader. So if you do write long sentences with multiple clauses, you should read over the sentence to make sure the sentence is not confusing to the reader . Okay, so before we end the lesson, let's do another quick quiz similar to the previous lesson. You will see sentences on the screen, and I'd like you to guess how many independent and dependent closes there are in that sentence again. We won't have a timer, so please pause the video when you see the sentence. And when you think you know the answer, play the video and we will reveal the answer. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin the quiz. - Excellent work today. Well done. Okay, so today we learned about compound complex sentences which are sentences made up off two or more independent closes and one or more dependent closers. We're nearly coming to the end of this course. But before that, we have one more lecture on correlative conjunctions. So our season again in that lesson, but by 25. Correlative conjunction: Hi, everyone, In this lecture, we're going to learn about correlative conjunctions now correlative conjunctions are to conjunctions that work together to coordinate two clauses as well as to now owns. They essentially place equal importance in the two closers, since both closes are introduced by conjunctions, four most commonly used correlative conjunctions are either or neither nor both, and not only, but also let's take a look at example, sentences using these conjunctions. First, we have a sentence. Using either all you can either order a steak or you can go for a salad either, or is used to present two choices. And in this sentence, the choices are either ordering a steak or going for salad. In this way, it's kind of similar to using just or but using the correlative conjunction either or emphasises that these are the two alternative choices. Now, something I haven't mentioned yet is that coordinating conjunctions, Fanboys and correlative conjunctions can be used with just now owns, so this sentence could be written as you can either order a steak or a salad. The meaning of the two sentences are exactly the same. Then we have a sentence using neither nor you can either order a steak, nor can you go for fish. This so neither nor is used to present to alternative negative ideas. And the verb structure in the second clause is inverted just like when we use the conjunction, nor only next we have both and which we used to say that both things are the same. I ordered both steak and fish with the correlative conjunction both, and it's more commonly used with now owns than with full clauses. Finally, we have not only but also I normally order not only steak, but I also order some garlic bread we use not only but also to list to similar ideas. In this way, it's similar to the coordinating conjunction and now there are many other correlative conjunctions we use to coordinate either clauses and noun phrases. As listed here. Each correlative conjunction set has its own use, and the structure is also different. For each correlative conjunction, the worksheet will explain how each correlative conjunction is used, so do ensure you download the worksheet and do the exercises. Okay, so that's it for this lesson on the correlative conjunctions. And this is the final lesson off this course I hope you found everything useful. And most importantly, I hope this course has helped improve your reading and writing of English. Thank you for taking this course, but by