Photoshop Drawing Course ▶️ Part #2: A Theory of Light And Shade | Xenia Sorokina | Skillshare

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Photoshop Drawing Course ▶️ Part #2: A Theory of Light And Shade

teacher avatar Xenia Sorokina, Illustrator & Graphic designer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

16 Lessons (2h 3m)
    • 1. Introduction

      0:54
    • 2. Magic wand tool

      4:36
    • 3. Magic tool: Assignment #1

      3:00
    • 4. Magic tool: Assignment #2

      2:08
    • 5. A theory of light and shade

      4:44
    • 6. A theory of light and shade in the perspective

      2:46
    • 7. Geometrical shapes: Sphere

      4:51
    • 8. Geometrical shapes: Cuboid

      3:46
    • 9. Geometrical shapes: Cylinder

      4:56
    • 10. Cast shadows: Theory

      5:00
    • 11. Cast shadows: Assignment

      10:23
    • 12. Complex shape: volume + cast shadow

      13:40
    • 13. Tonal composition

      30:32
    • 14. Tonal still life drawing: Basic lighting

      9:17
    • 15. Tonal still life drawing: Multicolored objects

      14:47
    • 16. Tonal still life drawing: Cast shadows

      7:28
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About This Class

This is the 2nd part of the Photoshop drawing series.  If you haven't seen the first class of the course, please, check it out first, because the knowledge we’ve gained there would be needed in this part, as well. 

Into this class we’re gonna be exploring a Theory of Light and Shade.

During the class we'll discuss the theoretical basics, find out how it all works on the geometrical shapes, and will make a few exercises to apply the received knowledge in practice.

At the end of the class, we’ll complete the full-fledged artwork, which is gonna be a tonal still life drawing.

For this class, and for the whole course in general, ideally, you should have an Adobe Photoshop and any kind of graphic tablet.

                                                          

Previous parts of the course:

▶️ Part #1: Linear Perspective

Meet Your Teacher

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Xenia Sorokina

Illustrator & Graphic designer

Teacher

Hello there!

I'm Xenia, and I'm an illustration and graphic design enthusiast. I know firsthand how complicated and confusing the new software, tools and simply learning new skills could be, so I'm here for all the neophytes and enthusiasts to help you with learning new things. 

So if you want to learn something new or refresh already known but forgotten knowledge about Adobe Illustrator, Photoshop, Procreate and digital illustrations in general - you're more than welcome to join the creative journey!

 

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: Hello everyone. My name is senior and welcome to the second part of the Photoshop drawing series. If you haven't seen the first class of the course, please check out at first because the knowledge with gain there would be needed in this part as well into these glass, we're going to be exploring a theory of light and shade during the class, will discuss the theoretical basics, find out how it all works on the geometrical shapes and will make a few exercises to apply the received knowledge in practice. At the end of the class, we'll complete the full fledged work which is going to be at zonal still live draw in for this class and for the whole course in general, ideally, you should have an Adobe Photoshop and any kind of graphic tablets. But the knowledge you'll get, you'll be able to apply in any other graphic software or even traditional materials. So if you're ready, let's begin. 2. Magic wand tool: Before diving into the main topic of this class, we need to explore one mode, so that is called the magic ones. And we'll start with a few exercises. Take the magic 1so, which you can find on the left toolbar. By default, there's a quick selection, but if the whole down the icon with the left mouse button or click on it with the right mouse button. Weekend choose a magic one. So the shortcut for it is w. So let's check out how it works. We'll go to the layer with the blue rectangle and we can hover our mouse cursor over this rectangle and click on it. It will be selected insight, and that is how the magic works. If you look up at your upper toolbar, you can see this box called tolerance. And let's take a look how this feature works. So for example, we have these blue rectangle, but it's not just a solid blue. It contains two different hues of one color. Let's get back to the magic wand. And if our tolerance is set as a lower value, like 0, or you can hover the area you want to select. For example, this pale blue rectangle. And it will select Gel this pale blue rectangle, non the whole piece. Therefore, we can understand that the tolerance stands for the sensitivity of the magic one selection. If we now increase the tolerance value to 102%, will go again to this blue rectangle with the incentive select one of these parts. We won't be allowed to do this because we will select all the related Hughes. So the tolerance value might be very useful if we want to select the different hues based on one color. Let's get back to our blue rectangle and let's talk a bit about the layers, nowhere outside Sousa layers. And that means that we can work only with the EXIF one which is selected in the layers panel. Now, these blue rectangle 12, we can select only this rectangle with a magic one. Sue, if we'd like to select the pink rectangle, for example, we won't be allowed to do this while we are on the way the blue rectangle, we need to go to the latest Panel and select the pink rectangle layer there. And that's how we will be allowed to select the area we need. But what if we want to select these intersected area between two of these rectangles, we won't be allowed to do this because these areas doesn't belong to any of the layers. It is just an overlap in intersection of two rectangles placed on the different layers. So how we can solve these problems? First, let's go to the last panel and create the new blink layer above. If we take a look at the upper toolbar, will notice this checkbox called sample all layers, and that is what we need. So check these books. Let's set the tolerance to Xunzi. And now again, get back to the canvas and select anything we want. We wanted to select these intersection and now weekend x2 it, if they want to select the blank space inside this rectangle, we can do it too. So this checkbox is very useful and will be activated problem most of the time. Now let's talk about how useful is a magic one. So 0s in the previous class, we were using x_ polygonal acid. So for selection, which is a great instrument, but sometimes you can miss clique or select something not very accurately and with the magic one, so you won't have such an issue. We can just select something with one-click sake and brush and paint the area over or use the owl delete key combination. It's all very simple. The next thing about the magic one, X2 is how to add and subtract the selection. It works the same way as with a lesser or the markets. So, so if we want to select more than one area, we need to hold down the Shift key. And if we want to subtract the area, we are holding down the Alt key. Also, if you look up at your APA x2 bar, you'll see the same four icons we've seen before. And here they work in the same way. The first one is just selection. The second one, when activated, will end the selection without holding down the Shift key. And the third one will allow you to subtract the selection without holding down the Alt key. Also, it should be noted here that when we are working with the lines and with the magic MTSU, we should check out that all the lines that make it on the area we want to select our closed because the magic one X2 is pretty sensitive. And if you have some kind of a gap between the lines, you won't be allowed to select the area inside and your selection will leak out. So just pay attention to your lines and keep them closed. That's it for getting familiar with the magic one soil. And in the next part, we'll do a few exercises. 3. Magic tool: Assignment #1: So let's dive into the first assignment. Here you can see two areas in the color samples nearby them. The upper one is based on two almost similar card zones, which we'll use to create the gradient, then gradient in comparison to the second one will be all about arranging the accents. And we are going from almost black to the dark gray. In the second case, we are going to be working on the Contras gradient going from black to the light gray. So let's start from the top. Let's create one more layer and take the magic one. So check out that sample all layers. Checkbox is activated, said the tolerance to 20. And let's start with the upper rectangle. Let's select the area inside the rectangle and we need to do one more thing. Sometimes selection might be not very accurate because it ends where the line H starts. And that can cause little gaps between the lines and the selection. If we don't want to have the gap between the line and the Painted area. We can go to the tab, select, modify expense. And two, we can expand this election by a few pixels. In that case, let's set it as one big so, and now we are sure that we weren't held the gap between the lines in the painting area. So get back to the New Layer and let's start by selecting the black color with the eyedropper tool, the area over by using the elderlies G combination. When we have this black area, we need to make the salt gradient from the darker color to the lighter one. Let's select the second color being the salt brush and increase its size. Now we need to go from the right side and create the soft Carl transition where just painting the area over and making the gradient when you're done, deselect graphene, and let's move on to the second gradient. So again, we're taking the magic 1-2, selecting the area and go into select, modify, expand, expand the selection by one pixel, now being the first color, and use our delete hotkeys to fill the area. Select another color with the eyedropper tool. Remember that you can hold down the out key while using the brush to select a different color. And again, select the large brush. And let's start from the right side. We need to create the soft gradients. When you're done, we can test ourselves by holding down the Alt key and by going through the gradient we've made with the eyedropper tool, it should have the great variety of different zones and they should transition smoothly, keep working on these gradient until it looks smooth and has a lot of gradations from very dark to the light ones. It also should have the originally given zones. Try not to use a small size brush because it will make your gradient look like it made from pieces and not like this MOOC transition. So here's our second gradient. Now again, deselect everything and the first assignment is ready. 4. Magic tool: Assignment #2: The second assignment will be a bit more complicated. Here you can see the same colored zones, but the areas we need to paint over AND rectangles, they are half of the circles. So let's do the same as we did with the rectangles. But first, we'll create one Malaya and drag it down under the lines. Now take the magic one x2 and repeat the same steps as before. Select the area inside and go to select, modify, expand, expand the selection by one pixel being the first color. Use our delete geese to feel the area sake the second color start from the bottom side and means the gradient by using the soft, large brush. Test yourself with the eyedropper tool and keep working until the color transition is smooth and has all the views between a given colors. When it's ready, deselected. And let's move on to the second gradient, zinc the magic one. So select the area, go to select, modify, expand and expand the selection by one big. So take the brush, big the color, and use our delete to feel the selection sake this second color and starts to paint over from the bottom and create the gradient. Keep working until you get this smooth transition. And the great variety of the zones. Test yourself with a, I drop it. When you're done this and left and Griffin with the control D. And the second assignment is reading. That's all for the introduction. And in the next part of the class, we'll be diving into the basic theory of light and shade. 5. A theory of light and shade: Lighten sheet allows to see the volume, mass, depth, and shape of an object in space. The offensive term for it is chiaroscuro. One of the most used and useful applications of value is creating the illusion of volume and mass on a two-dimensional surface. When a mass is exposed to light, a solid object will receive more light from one side and another when this side is closer to the light source, here on your screen, you can see the scheme over a sphere and the schematic light going down to our shape. In general, the whole theory is based on the fact that we need to check out the lights, how it comes, how distant it is, what x is it comes from, how it reflects, and so on, on our scheme, the light source seems to be pretty decent because in the distance it travels with the parallel lines. The coloured arrow here is the ray at the angle of 90 degrees. So where strikes this sphere will delight as sport there highlights. Then the light starts to diffuse, the angle decreases and therefore this sphere gets darker. The segmental line is called Shadow H, awkward edge. And this is where our light is blocked from the light source. And it is the darkest value on the dark side of the shape. After the shadow edge line of there goes the shadow side by the Chenault part is non just Blick everywhere. It is formed from free parts. First we have the shadow edge, which is the darkest part. Then we'll have the dark middle tones. And the last one is a reflected lights, LED shed light on the reflected lights. So either objects seats on the surface, the light from this surface reflects back to the object and makes a shadow a bit lighter. To sum up all the above mentioned electrical, the example, we'll start with a sphere and will make the scheme of how the light is going down on these objects. Firstly, we'll create a new layer and take the magic wand to enlist. Third, from the very beginning, this is a sport where light strikes at the angle of 90 degrees. So this will be the lightest part. The highlights will select this part, set the brightness to 100% and fill the area with color, then will go down and we'll select each segment one-by-one, and going to be decreasing the brightness value by 10% for each. Select the second segment, set the value to 90, fill it with color by using our delete geese and the same for the rest of the segments on the light sites. Select the segment said the brightness value to 80 and fill the area with color, repeat with the next two segments and set the brightness value to 70 and for 60, that is how our life is formed. So this part is going to be the middle light zones, nowhere heating the shadow edge. So it's going to be the darkest part of the sphere, as mentioned before. So let's select it and let's set the value to 20 and fill it with color. This is our shadow edge. After that, we need to start thinking about the reflected light and we will repeat the same steps as we did here on the light sites. But instead of dark undertones will start increasing our brightness values. Select the segment Sedna brightness value to 40 and fill it with color. This one goes for 40 and the last one is going to be 51. Of the important rules in the light and shade theory is that we should always keep the values on the light side lighter than the values on the dark side. So the reflected light can be brighter than the incident lights. That means that the reflected light can be brighter than the incident light. Let's check out what we did. We said the reflected light, the lightest part of the shadow side for 50 and our darkest part on the light side is 60. So we're not breaking any rules. If you ignore this rule and made the reflected light brighter, it might ruin your shape or it might show that we have a second light source. And now we're just talking about the basic lightning with one light source. Do sum up, ever. Lives go through light and shade parts. The light side contains a highlight in the light middle zones lie, diffuses and the light middle tones get darker, then starts a dark side or the form shadow. It contains a shadow, age, the darkest part, dark middle tones that get lighter and they're reflected lights. All this parts are here to create the illusion of volume and mass. There is one more important part, and it is a cast shadow. The cast shadow is a shadow that object is resting on the surface or on the other objects, the cast shadow on this sphere, one go beyond these two tangential light sources race. And here's our full scheme of the light and shade on the sphere. 6. A theory of light and shade in the perspective: Now let's see the example of code will work in the perspective. Here you can see the sphere that is also divided by segments and these dividing lines look like arcs. So let's repeat this same schematic overview as we did before, but in the perspective lists grid one Malaya and put it under the sphere lines. Now take the magic wand tool and start from the top. Select this area, go to select, modify, expand, and expand the selection by one or two pixels. Make sure you're on the right layer, said the brightness value to 100% and fill the area with color. Keep in mind that the simple old list check books should be activated and let's go down entropy desktops select the area, expand by two pixels, and send the value to 90%. The next two are going to be 8070, and the last one is 60. Now a heating the shadow part. So sends a next segments brightness value to 20 and fill the area with color. From now on we need to start thinking about the reflected light and go a little light that we did zones. So these segments are going to be 3040 as before, make sure that your light is Bart old. The shades isn't lighter than the darkest part of the light side. And one thing missing here is a cast shadow, this ellipse on the surface, which is formed by two tangential arrays, the same way as we had it on the flat scheme is a cast shadow. Let's create one Malaya, select, discuss shadow and go to select, modify, expand, and expand the selection. The rule for the cast shadow zone is that the cast shadow should be darker than the shadow H or the form Shadow of the object. So as we said, the shadow edge to 20%, we need to decrease a brightness value for the cast shadow. Let's set it as 10% and fill the area with color and weds, i'm here and we have this low polis scheme. If a deselect the sphere lines and if we blend properly our sphere segments, we can get something like these. If you want to practice, you can try to blend the segments by yourself for blending uses soft brush in the project and rescue sub, you can find a document called tonal range, which you can use for a better understanding of light and shade theory. Also, you can use it as an instrument to test yourself. All the above-mentioned and everything mentioned on this scheme could be applied to any object, not only spheres that eat for the theory. And in the next part of the glass will check out how to add light and shades on different shapes. 7. Geometrical shapes: Sphere: As soon as we know the basics of lighten shade theory, we can move on and try to make something from scratch by applying our knowledge. So here on your screen, you can see the blank canvas with a semi-transparent black and white background and will start this part by drawing a sphere. Let's make the new layer above all the layers and let's give it a name. Now take the elliptical market Sue, and by holding down the Shift key, will create the elliptical selection. Now, according to our toy long-range listserv aid in the zone two, this sphere from the form shadow. In that case, it's easier to add the light to an object rather than the shadows. Let's start with 35% of the brightness. And it is a lightest shadow that can be by using the delete key combination on the color on deselected and we need to add the cast shadow. So let's create one Malaya, put it below the layer with the sphere and given a name cast shadow here on this layer with the elliptical market. So we will add the LM gated shadow. Keep in mind that it wonderful vary beyond this fear side edges adjusted if you need. And let's add the color, set the brightness value to 15, the lightest gas shadow that can be. And to use the alternate key combination to end the color to the cast shadow. When the base is done, we can move on and start adding the lights, go to the layer with the sphere and loved the transparent pixels. Now we will be working only with a painted area on this layer, and let's start aging. The lights will start with the 90% of brightness. And we're going to be using the soft round brush, makes sure that the flow value is about 35% and smoothing is 0. And let's start adding the lights. According to our cash shadow, our light is going down from the top rights. So let's start A1. The light based on this information, gently go with a brush and start forming the light side. Use the Brightness slider to create the variety of its own. It is the same technique we use to make a gradient in the first part of this class. Here's going to be our form shadow, the darkest part of this fear. And from here on, we need to start thinking about their reflected lights. Keep in mind that the reflected light can be brighter than the darkest area on the light sites here in the light set, the darkest slide is about 50%. So let's keep the reflected light about 40% and the reflected light and keep working on the whole shape. Let's add a bit darker color here for the form shallow. Then we need to add the highlights and she can decrease the brush size for that, we need to add the bright spot here on the top. Don't forget that we can always test ourselves by using the eyedropper CSU. Hold down the Alt key while working with a brush and move it through the whole shape by paying attention to the Brightness slider, we need to have the great variety of dead zones. And also we need to have all the following elements. They highlight light, middle zones, shadow edge, middle dark zones, reflected light, and the cast shadow checkout that reflected light didn't turn out brighter then the darkest slide on the light side. Now we need to add the darker color here for the bottom part, because the reflected light one go here and this area would be in the shadow, we need to show that it seats on the surface. Try to make the smooth transition all the tones by 18, the dark zone here and kinda connecting it with the cast shadow. When we're done, we need to work a little on the cast shadow. Now it looks like a hole in the surface. And for the cast shadow, it's unnatural to be painted with a solid color without Song variations, it should contain three parts. Fancy terms for the cast shadow parts from the darkest 2s, the lightest are unbranched, penumbra and an sombre ends we want focus on the terms and theory. Now, let just asset that we need to make it not uniform. So it goes from the darkest part to the lightest part and the lightest part, one be lighter than the form Shadow of the shape. Let's go to the lay with the cast shadow locked transparent pixels sends a brush color to the lighter one and add the smooth gradient here. The last thing that we can do here is to unlock this layer with a cast shadow, go to the tab, Filter Blur, Gaussian Blur, and add a little blurb for our cast shadow, something like free pixels radius will be enough. Click, okay, and here's our sphere drawn from the scratch. 8. Geometrical shapes: Cuboid: Now let's see how we can add the volume to the cuboid. It works the same way. Most of the time, some faces are illuminated and some of them are in the shadow. Let's see on the example, there is a projection from the top view of how the light goes to the cube would, plus there is a light direction. You can see that these phases AB and the one is hidden in the background, AD will be in the shadow. According to this information, let's start adding the tones to the phases. Also, let's agree that the light goes mostly from the top and the base of the cube. What will be the brightest part of the shape? Make the newly and put it under the lines, take the magic one CSU, made sure that sample all this is checked. And let's start from the top plane selected, go to select, modify, expand, expand the selection by free pixels, set the brightness to 90% and few big area. Select the second plane, expand the selection, set the brightness to 80%, and fill the area. The last phase is going to be in this yellow. So let's say it will be 35% of the brightness. If we hide the lines, we can see that we have a free de, object. Now we need to talk a bit about the darkness of the form shallow. How can we define the darkness of this part? The brightness of the form shadow depends on the angle of incidence of the light that is going to our plane. But on this phase, there'll be no incident light. The light will be reflected. And this information leads us to some conclusion of how we can define the darkness. Here you can see the diagram which shows a relationship between the angle of incidence and the form shadows. You can see the incident light and the reflected light. If the incident light goes straight line parallel to the face and there's going to be the darkest parts. The more return in the Shape away from the incident light, the more we're turning it to the reflected lights. And that means that the shadow on the shadow side is going to be brighter and the light on the light side is going to be darker. Here you can see these correlation. So in the future, pay attention to the angular rotation of your own objects. Okay, let's get back to our cuboid. We can fix this corner, but now it doesn't really matter because it's just an example. So if you want, you can do it by yourself. Use a polygonal lesser CSU to make it more needs. Now let's talk a bit about one thing that is called the beveled edge. And let's see the example schematically. This is our planes that are forming the corner. Now they are exactly at 90 degrees angle and heaven, the perfect intersection. But in real life there's not a lot of things that have this perfect 90 degrees angle and perfect intersection. So most of the time things in our life have the beveled edges. That means that there will be one more tiny edge at the intersection of the planes, which would have a different zone. In that case, when we are talking about the light side, it's very likely that the light ray would strike right at the beveled edge, thereby forming the highlights. And we can show it on our drawing in order to make the objects look more realistic and more good-looking. According to the tonal range, the highlight zones goes from 95 to 100%. So let's stick to something like 97%. And we'll add this tiny edge here on the intersection of two planes. And even after A1, just one line, it's starting to look better. Of course, if they have one beveled edge will have them on the other planes too. But we'll talk about it a bit later. For now. It was just a quick introduction to the beveled edges. 9. Geometrical shapes: Cylinder: As soon as we know how to work with the keyboards, we can explore the multiple shapes in one composition. And by the way, we will discuss how to draw this cylinder. Let's start by exploring the cylinder and the most difficult part of making the cylinders a then they have no ages on their bodies. It is just all rounds and we don't know where to put the shadow, where to put the lights and so on. So let's start by defining the planes. And we can do it by creating this type of the multi-face it prison instead on the cylinder. So it's going to be the same cylinder, but we'll make the faces and the volume and the angles onto this shape because it's easier as we have the planes and the faces of the cylinder, we can compare them with the faces of the cuboid in the backgrounds vary by, we can start solving the problem with the tones. Let's start by defining the direction of the light, for example, is going to go that way. That being clients are incident light and the blue ones are the reflected light ended plane. And now that we have FU parallel faces, the top ones and two on the sides, for clarity, we'll mark the parallel faces with unrelated colors. Knowledge start aid in the zones for the parallel faces according to our light direction and tonal range and is gonna look like this. As always, let's agree that the light goes mostly from the top soil. The top basis are going to be the brightest parts here on the cylinder. We can not just that we have the phase that is parallel to the light direction. And that means that this phase is going to be the darkest part of this cylinder, this shadow edge, because here our light is blocked and that is where the shadow part starts. When we mark the parallel faces, we can add the rest of the tones to the cylinder. We determined that this phase is going to be the darkest part. And that means that the rest of the faces are going to be the middle light zones. Lights are on the left and a bit darker between the two marked faces. As a result, we will get something like that. Let's hide the lines and you can see that we have a politically understanding of these shapes and that they're tonal range is determined in the right way. When we had this schematic view of the cylinder, we can now start blending it, or we can do this same thing as we did with the sphere in the beginning of this part of the class. So let's add that songs for the cylinder from scratch according to the schematic diagram, let's bring back the lines on the cylinder and height, all these layers. We will divide the base of the cylinder and the body on the cylinder by two different layers. So let's start by creating the layer for the base. We will select the base, will go to select, modify, expand, and expand the selection. We need to big this same zones as we had on the schematic multifaceted cylinder, and the same we have on the cuboid. Remember that the base is the brightest part and feel this election with color. Now we can deselect it and let's get back to the body of the cylinder. Let selected, go again to select, modify, expand, and expand the selection, create a new layer for the body of the cylinder, as we did with the sphere, will start adding the light to the cylinder from the form shadowed zone. So let's get back to this scheme, big the darkest Scala, and get back to the layer where we are going to be aid in our volume to the cylinder body, fill the area with color when it's selected. You can work with a selection or you can deselect it and log the transparent pixels. Let start aid in the light to our cylinder, increase the brightness. Take this salt brush, increase a brush size, and we can start it in the light by holding down Shift key and going back and forth until we have the right tones work on the cylinder the same way as we worked on this sphere. Don't forget about the reflected light. And keep in mind that you always can test yourself with the eyedropper CSU women, the great variations of zones. And don't forget that the reflected light can't be brighter than the darkest part on the light side. Keep working on the volume and make the shadow H more visible. Make the tones transition more smooth. Just yourself with the eyedropper tool. Now we can get rid of the lines and bring back our queue boids. We can also add a bit of reflected lights here on the shadow side of the cuboid to make everything look completed. So go to the layer where our Cuba has its stones. Select the shed of phase and with a soft brush, add just a little of reflected light going from the bottom right corner. Get rid of the lines and here's our shapes all done. The last thing that is missing here is a cast shadows. I'll show you them here, but how to make the cash shadows in the perspective, you know, in the next part of the class. 10. Cast shadows: Theory: In this part of the class, we'll discuss a cache shadows, and we'll start the journey with the beat of mind-blowing theory. So hearing your screen, you can see the diagram which shows us the basics of creating the cast shadows. Let's check out what we have here. We have the light source on the top. And from here we need to draw the perpendicular line to the surface where our object east or to the conditional ground plane that we are going to be using to make a drawing. After that, we have the light direction and it could go in any possible direction. And we also have the lights angle. The light angle goes from the light source. And if it's a natural light source such as the sun, the light rays would travel with a parallel lines where the light angle means a light direction line. This is going to be an intersection which allows us to create this shadow edge has always led. The examples. We're going to be exploring the cube, the cylinder, and the cone. So let's start with a cube and see how we can form the cast shadow according to this scheme. At first, we're determining the light direction. The light direction goes from the bottom corners of the edges that are in the shadow. Here, we decide that the right face and the back face are going to be in the shadow. So from the bottom corners withdrew in the parallel light direction lines. After that, we need to define the lights angle. Light angle goes with the parallel lines through the top corners of the ages that are in the shadow. Now, when we have the light angle and the light direction lines, we can find the intersections of these lines, weeds to find the intersection of the lines that are formed by the same. So here's our edge. There is a so point with a lot angle line goes down and doing it to find the light direction land that belongs to the same edge, let's mark the intersection. We need to find the rest of the intersections in the same way. When we have all the intersections, we can create the shadow edge. So starting from the cube corners where just connecting the intersection dose together, thereby forming the shadow edge. When it's done, we can add that teens. Now, if we hide all the auxiliary layers, we can get the gas Shadow of the cube embedded sql, the cache can be made. Let's see an example and it's going to be the cylinder at first. In order to create the cash Shadow of the cylinder, we need to draw this cross inside a cylinder, which will divide it into half. Women this cross because our cylinder doesn't have the faces, its own rounds ends with don't know how to handle it. So these lines while intersects in the shapes line, would serve as some kind of the corners. Let's move on and find the light direction. We'll draw the parallel lines from all this bottom improvised corners. After that, we need to define the lights angle, lead angle lines will go through all of this for top improvised corners. We have the light angle and light direction. We can find the intersection of these lines the same way as we did on the cube. Keep in mind that we need to find the intersection of the lines that belonged to one edge. Here they are. And when we have the intersections, we need to start making the cache shadow by project in that top base of the cylinder to the surface. And we can do it by using the elliptical market. So we need to recreate it's obeys shape and just put it on the surface. But we need to make sure that we're inscribing the new circle into these intersectional dots when we had that. So base projection, we need to define the shadow edge. So we need to connect the base with the cylinder by using the straight lines. When we have our shadow edge, we just need to add the teamed for the cast shadow and the cast shadow for the cylinder is read in. And now we can move on to the cone. The cone is almost the same thing as a cylinder, but it has just one corner on the top. And that means that we don't need to recreate it. So based circle on the surface, we just need to start with a vertical line going from the peak of the cone, which will define the center of the bottom base circle. From the center points, we can draw a line to define the light direction. Here is going to be just one line. After we determined the light direction, we need to define the light angle, which will also go just for one points. When we have these two lines, we need to find their intersection. When we have the intersection, would need to connect these dots with the corn by using the diagonal lines. And it is going to be this shadow edge. Now edit the gene for the cast shadow and debts eats. Here we have all free shapes with the cast shadows that were made in accordance with the diagram. This was just a theory part. And in the next sub part, we're going to be creating the cast shadows from scratch. 11. Cast shadows: Assignment: So let's move on to the assignment here in this file, which you can find in a project and restless tab, you can find free different tasks. There's going to be the cube, would, the cylinder, and the ledge. Let's start with a cuboid. And we're going to be guided by the diagram from the previous part of the class. First we need to find the light direction, then we need to find the light angle and their intersection will help us to create the cast shadow. Here you can see the proposed slides directions. You can use them, or you can use any directions you want and just try to make everything right. As an example, we're going to use these proposed direction for creating the straight lines. Let's use append to other auctions are the Line tool or you can try to draw the street parallel lines all by yourself, by using the brush and the shift key. If you decide to try the Penzu sake it and pick some Karloff warden direction lines. If you're not familiar with the Penzu, here is a quick instruction. Put the first and the point, put the second one and all done. If you need to adjust direction, hold down Control key and drag the anchor points. If you want to move the line rabbit somewhere in the middle, hold down the Control key and drag it to the place you want it to be. We're starting with the right bottom corner. You can make everything on one layer, but it will be better if you create one Malaya above, move the line you've made and place it right at the corner. When we have our first line, let's add two more lines to the rest of the corners for the light direction. You can do it by selecting this line N by holding down out control. Geez, if you hold down these keys and hover your cursor over the existing line. You'll see that psi Ni plus icon near the arrow. So you just drag it to the side and you'll have a copy of your line. When we have all three lines, we need to select them and we can do it by holding down the control shift keys to select them one by one. Now click the right mouse button and choose Stroke path in the drop-down menu, you got the thick lines. You can undo this and go to the brush to decrease the brush size, get back to the pencil and try to stroke the path once again, when you stroke the path, hit Enter to get rid of the pentose bef lines. When we're done with this part, let start A1, the light angle lines we have right and back faces in the shadow. And that means that we need to create the light angle lines going through that soap corners of these faces. When we have all of them only needed places, we need to select them, pick another color and against drug the path by clicking with the right mouse button. When we have all this lines, we need to find the intersections. Big, another color, sake the brush and mark. All Free Thoughts. Remember that when the intersection of the lines that belonged to one same edge. Now when we have all the intersections, we can connect the dots and create the shadow edge and the cast shadow. You can connect them here with the lines, or you can create one more layer, put it under the cube, would take the polygonal lesser tool and select the needed area. If you miss clicked or screwed up while putting this election goin down, you can hit the Delete key and you'll get one step back. You have your selection, uses song basic brush, and add the shadow. Keep in mind that this is just the exercise so you don't need to be very accurate. But anyway, try to do your best when you're done, deselected, hide the layer with the auxiliary lines and take a look at your creation. You can continue exploring the gas shadows, tried different light directions and maybe different light angles. Just use the same method and always keep in mind which of the faces are in the shadow. Now let's move on and create the cast shadow for the cylinder. You can hide the layers with a cuboid or create a new layer and hide the layer with the cylinder lines. And let's begin. Let's take a look at our theory document and check out the plan of action. Firstly, we need to create these cross inside the cylinder. So let's make it by using the append Sue just with a straight line screened. The first rectangle inside the cylinder uses a given vertical lines on this cylinder as guidelines for creating the parallel vertical lines. Now strong the path and don't forget to change your brush and its size when the first rectangle is rarely make the second one by repeating the same steps. Now when we have this cross, we can define the light direction. So again, let's use the same direction as before. For an example, make the line with a pencil, move it to the first improvised corner and end the corpus for the rest free new corners. Now select them, stroke the path and don't forget to choose a different color for the direction lines. When it's done, let's select another color and let's define the light angle. The light NGA lines will go through all of this fourth Zope dots. When we have the light angle lines, will select them and stroke the path. And now we need to find the intersections. It might be confusing, but keep in mind that we need to find the intersections, all the lines that belonged to one edge finds all four intersections and mark them with a brush. Now we need to make the projection of the top cylinders base to this surface and going through all four intersectional dots, sake the elliptical market X2. And let's try to recreate our shape user transform selection to move it and to transform it the way it will go through all four dots. When you suffered enough and when you have the decent result, when your selection intersects all four doors, click on the check mark on the upper toolbar, select a different color and stroke the selection, deselect everything and will need to connect this projection with a cylinder by using the straight lines. So if you have some parts of the circle that are going beyond the light direction lines, it's so good. We just need this half of a circle lines on their rights. So when they form the shadow edge, let's take the polygonal Assad's rule and let's select this area that we need to create the cast shadow. Create one Malaya sake the brush and entity and for the cast shadow gets rid of the part inside. If you miss click the selection SID. And here's our gas shadow for the cylinder. In order to make it more neat, you may smooth the edges by using the area's at. So let's move on to the last exercise in this part of the glass and let's add the cash flow for the ledge. So hide the previous list and create the new one for the LH. The main problem with the ledge and all the objects that are not sitting on the surface is that they are not sitting on the surface. So in that case, we have an object which is hanging on a wall and we need to find out how it casts a shadow. As always, we'll start by defining which of the phases are going to be in the shadow. So let's say it would be the right one and the bottom one. Now let's define the light direction and will make it a bit different from the directions we use for the cube and the cylinder by using depends on, we'll add the lines go in from the boson corners, all the edges that are in the shadow. When you have all three of them, select them and stroke the path. Now moving on to the lights angle, the light angle lines will go only for two corners. In that case, possibly, we can add one more parallel line to the top corner of the right edge. It will be right, but not really necessary. We will get the needed result a new way. When you've put the lines to the corners, select them and stroke the path. Now we have the intersections, you can mark them all, leave everything like that, because here everything is pretty clear. Now we need to find the shadow edge by connecting the intersectional dots, the shadow edge lines will be parallel to the bottom ledge line on the boards and to the vertical ledge line on the right side. So let's add the parallel lines as always, use append. So when we have the shadow edge will create one, Malaya will take the polygon, elicit x2, and we'll select the cast shadow area. Now take the soft brush and entity and for the cast shadow, deselect everything, hide the auxiliary Alliance and let's check out how it looks. And we are done with a gas shadows. Here's our cuboid, the cylinder and the ledge. You also can use these shapes to practice tunneled drawings, as we did in the first part of this class, you can add the zones for this shapes and add the proper cash shadows with the values from the tonal range documents. Also, if you want, you can practice to build the cash shadows in different directions. And that's it for the cashier. Those assignments. 12. Complex shape: volume + cast shadow: So in the previous part of a class, we will talk about the cast shadows. And you also had the possibility to practice a tunnel drawing by adding the volume to the shapes if you didn't do it, and don't worry, we'll do the similar thing right now. So here we'll start by adding the cash shadow first and then complete the tone of drawing. Here we are going to be re-enforcing the knowledge regard from the previous parts of the class. On your screen, you can see the T-shaped object and a little blend that we are going to be following to create the cast shadow. Here is the same shape on another our board. And according to our plan, we need to start by making the projection of the top fled cube to the improvised ground surface. First will create one Malaya, name it as a projection. And let's start by creating the cross here on the bottom, going through the diagonally opposite corners. For this task, you can use the line tool, you can use a brush tool, or you can use the pencil as we used before. No matter what you chose, pick a different color and start making the cross tried to be accurate and make the lines go through the corners, stroke the path. If you chose a Penzu. When we have the cross, we need to draw the perpendicular lines going down from all four bosom corners of the top shape L AND gate this lines because we will need their intersections with the cross. When we have them all. Let's select them and stroke the path. If you chose a pen to, when we have the perpendiculars and the cross, we can find the intersections, now connect them and we will get the idea of the surface our shape is sitting on. Try to connect the intersections accurately. The new lines should be pretty parallel to the shapes. Leg lines. Stroke the path when you are ready areas, a supplement reliance, leaving only the cross, the perpendicular lines and the new projection. During this assignment, we're going to have a lot of supplementary lines, so try to keep everything neat from the very beginning. Now let's move on to the second step where we need to determine the direction of the cache shadow lines. Let's create one more layer and name it as direction one, We have two shapes and we need to find the directions of both of them individually. So let's start with this tangent cuboid select depends who pick another color. And we need to draw the parallel lines going from all four corners of the cuboid. You can set any direction you want. But as an example, we'll have these one poodle lines to the corners. And when we have them all, select them and stroke the path. Now we have the direction lines on the standing cuboid, but we also need to determine the direction lines on did soap fled shape. That is why we made their projection create one Molly and name it as direction to pick another color. And we need to add the same parallel lines. But now going from all four corners of the projection, LNG the lines if you need it. And when we have all of them, let's select them and stroke the path. It already looks pretty confusing, but to clarify, ARAF scene, let's get back to the layer with the projection and do the following. First, we will mean the edges of the top shape as a, B, C and D will find these edges on the projection and name them as A1, B1, C1, and D1 will also find the direction lines that belong to each edge and name them the same way. The direction lines on the standing cuboid would be a2, b2, c2, and d2, in accordance to the age they belong. You can pause the video now to check out that settles closely and to find the logic in them. When we determined all of these things, we need to determine the light NGO. Let's create one more layer and name it as a light NGO. And as always, the lights angle will go through the top corners of the sides and that will be in a shadow according to the line direction. Lines faces BC and DC are gonna be in the shadow. So let's take the pencil and start creating the light angle lines as we're having out soap shape hanging above the ground level. The light angle lines, in that case are gonna go for both top corner and the bottom corner of that soap shape. So we need two lines on each edge that is in the shadow. When we have them all, let's select them and strong the path. Here's our light angle. And now for all of these lines, we need to find the intersections of the direction lines and the light angle lines. So I'd suggest you to create one Malaya. Arm yourself with a brush. Be brave, and dive into finding the intersections. Let's start from the fled shape on the top. And that means that we'll be working with a direction lines on the projection, they are green. Start with the corner B Slot with a cursor through the hole pair from the top corner fro the direction line and find the intersections marked two dots on the line B1. That's all for the bh cube. The second one is going to be the C. So let's against light with a cursor through the whole path from the top corner, fruit the direction line and find the intersections, mark two dots on the line C1. That's all for the C edge on the top cube. Moving on to the slide with the cursor through the hole pair from the top corner through the direction line, and find the intersections marked two dots on the line D1. And that's all for the DH of the Top Cube. That's mostly all we need for the cast shadow on the top cube. But to make everything clear, let's finish the shadow edge by adding the edge. Drawing will need one more pair of light angle lines going through the H. So we'll get back to the layer with the light angle lines and rubbing the line's direction, move them to the corners, select the same color and stroke the path. Let's get back to the layer where we're finding our intersections and again, follow the bath and mark the intersectional doors. Now we're finally could connect everything together. And here's our shadow edge, oldest soap cube, but we also need to find the cashier though, understanding cuboid. So let's create one Malaya and find these casts shadow. We need to find the intersections from the edges D and B, because the other two will be already inside the shadow. In that case, we need to use a blue direction. Lines, go through the line d2 and find the intersections. Now mark them and you can connect them with the corner of the stadium cuboid right away. Repeat the steps on the line B2 connect the intersections with the corner of the stains in cuboid. It's almost done and we can merge these two layers and name them as a shadow edge now onto one more layer by using the polygon Alyssa tool, accurately select the shadow area. When selection is done, we'll take a look at the tonal range document and select the tone for the cast shadow. Let's set it as 15 and feel the selected area with color. When we have outgas shadow, let's deselect everything and get all the supplementary lays grouped and hidden. So now we have the cast shadow and we can move on to aid in the volume to our shape. Let's move the lay with the lines on soap and Lockett's gave the name to the cast shadow layer and create one more leaf ordered zone as we already determined the light angle, we can say for sure that this area on top of the flood cube is going to be the brightest parts. So let's start from here. Take the polygonal lesser tool and select this area. So when it's selected, let's take a look at our tonal range document and peak some zone for the lights parts. Let's say it would be 90% of the brightness that we are going to use for that. So blame, and let's feel the selected area with color. Make sure that you are feeling the shape with color on a different layer from the lines one. And now we can move on and start working on the other faces. Let's select the lift blame. In that case you can use the magic one. So go to select, modify, expand, and expand the selection by free pixels. And let's make the space a bit darker then our gap. So let's say it would be 80% of the brightness. And let's fill the area with color. Moving on to the next plane, take the polygonal lizards tool and select the area. We'll make it a little darker than the previous one. So let's say it would be 75% of the brightness and as always, feel the area with color. And now we can move on to the shadow side. And let's again take a look at our tonal range documents. We're going to be creating the form shadows, so we need the values from 15 to 35. Let's start from the soul part. It will be a bit darker than the bottom part because on the leg and there's going to be a bit of reflected lights. So take the magic wand to select the area, go to Select, modify, expand, and expand the selection. As we agreed that this part is darker than the bottom part, let's set the brightness value to 25 and fill the area with color. Moving on to the last segment, let selected set the brightness to forsee and fill the area with color. When we're done, let's hide the layer with the lines and fix our misc leaked and miss selected parts to make everything look more needs, fix all the edges and all the faces, and tried to make everything as neat as you can. When we're done with this part, we can move on to some beautification. The first thing we need to add is the cast shadow here on the left bottom face. We need to do this because outlet cube on top casts a shadow on the leg. We're going to use the same method of creating the cash shadow as we used for the ledge. So as we already have the light angle lines, we can move them on soap and find their intersections with the cuboid blame here is the first dot and here's the second one. And the connecting line will be parallel to the bought some top cubes line. So let's just take the public analysts at x2 and made the selection hide the light angle by dragging it to the folder it belongs. Let's make our selection more neat. And when you're ready along the transparent pixels on the layer with its own and fill the area with the same color as the main cast shadow is. Deselect everything and fix this shadow if you need. And the cast shadow on this side is ready. Now we can add FU accents to our faces for making the gradients. So let's start with the cap selected with the magic wand to take the soft round brush, enlarge its size, beak a bit darker color, and create the smooth transition from the right corner to the left. It shouldn't be super visible just as soft touch. When we're done, we can deselect it and repeat the same on the left vertical plane. Then we'll select the shadow on the leg and add a bit of reflected lights. Also, we can work a bit on the cast shadow. As you can remember, the cast shadow is not just solid black everywhere. So go to the layer with the cast shadow lobe, the transparent pixels, and with a large size solved brush make a salt gradient. And the same for the cast shadow on the left and get back to the layer with its own Select the cast shadow area, sake the soft brush and end the soft tone transition going from the bottom. When you're done, deselect ever fan. And one of the engineer will add this beveled edge, which will be creating the highlight between two planes on the light sides. So we'll just take the basic brush, decrease its size being the color from the highlight interval, and draw the line on the edge between two planes. Once again, we're just edited photo light side as an example. And for more attractiveness, if we have one beveled edge, more likely all the edges would have it's ended zones of this beveled edges would vary according to their placement. And that's it for the T-shaped drawing in the next part will be making the multi shapes or no composition. 13. Tonal composition: In the previous parts of the class, we learn how to use a tunnel ranges, how to add the volume to the objects. And we also learned how to add the cast shadows and into this part of the class, we'll combine altogether, will reinforce the knowledge. And we're going to be working on this composition that you see on your screen. Here are five objects and they're somehow related to each other. We need to add the tones and the cast shadows to make them look 3D. In the layers panel, you can find the layer with the proposed light angle and light direction lines. You can use them and repeat ARAF scene that will be happening on the screen. Or you can explore your wrong directions and try to practice them. So let's begin. We'll start by unhide and delay with the light angle ent, light direction lines. And we'll create one Malaya under the layer with the lines as before, we're going to start the whole drawing from the cast shadows. We'll start by A1, the angle lines to understand how the light heats our objects and how it could help us to create the form and cast shadows. And as always, it would be easier and faster to use a pencil to create these lines. Repeat the direction of the given light angle line LNG did, and drag it to the right, will start with a cylinder. So ponder first-line, the weight will judge the cylinder outline and by holding down Control out made a copy of this line and edit to the left side of the cylinder the way it will judge the cylinder outline. So the first two lines are ready and we need to continue to aid in the lines go in through the corners of the objects according to our light, we can say that the blades on the objects that are on the left side are going to be in the shadow. So continue A1, the angle lines, all of them should be touching the left sided corners of the objects. For the objects that are not sitting on the ground, the elongated cuboid on soap and the cube on the cylinder. We are adding the lines on the light angle to both top and bottom corners, just how we did in a previous part with a T-shape. Let Checkout. If they added all the lines, fix their placements, put them on the right places accurately on the corners when they're all done, let's hold down the Control key and select all the lines. Now we'll set the color, but firstly, we'll check out our brush and decrease its size if it's needed. Get back to the Penzu and stroke the path. Now we have our guides in light angle lines, and the next thing we need to add is our direction lines. So let's repeat the given direction line and put it on the grounds that will let us understand the direction of the cast shadows and on the whole ground surface will pick another color, create one Malaya, and stroke the path. And now let's name the layers. The next thing that we need to do is to make the projection of the floating objects to the ground. The floating objects are elongated cube root on top and the cube on the cylinder. We can also reduce it basicity of the angle indirection lines. So let's create one more layer, now gives a name to the layer. And here we can start making the projection. Let's start with a cuboid from the bottom corner where A1, the perpendicular line to the ground. We can use a bottom line of the corn to understand where the ground is and where we need to end the supplementary line, add the copy of this line to the right corner, then select them both and stroke the path. In order to finish out this projection part, we can repeat this line on the bottom part of the cuboid and move it down to closer projection lines. Now stroke the path and let's move on to the cube. So we're doing the same things here. We are pushing the perpendiculars to the ground, make it more accurate and put the lines to the corners. Then let's select them and stroke the path to repeat their boards and lying on the ground and stroke their path. And let's do a few more preparation of things. Let's make the cross inside the cylinder base with the first line will connect the dots where the light angle lines are touching the object, stroke the path. When you are done, the second line will be parallel to the light angle line. Strong this path to when we made this grows, we can determine the core shadow on the cylinder and the whole form shadow. So make the line starting from the top of the cross line and draw it through this cylinder body. It is breathing the same thing that we did when we were talking about building the cast shadow on the cylinder. Now we just need for a better understanding of the shape and for preparing the layout for upcoming tonal drawing when we're done with it, let's move on to this sphere. We had the intersections of the light angle lines and this shape here too. And again, for a better shape understanding, we can create the supplementary lines inside the sphere, the elliptical market tool, and make the elongated ellipse to show the depth and perspective of the sphere, transform it and inscribe it into this sphere, thereby connecting the intersection of dots on the sides. When you're done with transforming the selection, click on the check mark on the top toolbar and then Strogatz without deselect in the area, click on it with the right mouse button and choose transform selection. Turn it 90 degrees, thereby making the selection parallel to the light angle lines. When you are done Strong the selection and deselect era fan. Now we have almost everything we need to finally start making the cache shadows as graphene, but not all, we need to add the light direction lines go in from the projection of our login cuboid. Remember how we did it with a T-shape? So get back to the projection, seek the pencil and end the lines that we'll be repeating the given direction and going from the both corners over the projection. And that's it for the preparations before working on the cast shadows, when we have all the lines that we need, we can start reaching the cache shadows. Let's start from the top and let's create one Malaya and name it as a shadow edge. Let's start from the sphere. As you can remember, in order to create the cast shadow of this fear, we need to take a look at these tangent lines. We need to create this circle underneath the object according to these lines and according to the surface it season on. So take the elliptical market Sue and make the selection adjusted. If you needed, select some color and stroke the selection. You can see that now our shadow when beyond the surface on the cuboid. And that means that our sphere is larger than the cuboid plane it's sitting on. And we'll need to add this protruding part to the cast shadow on the ground. But for now, as we are exploring the shadow edges, let's leave it like that and let's move on to the next gas shadow. The next in line is a floating cuboid. Get back to the layer with the projection and elongated direction lines over cuboid. If they are too short, we'll need to find the intersections with a light angle lines. So it might be hard and not very accurate if this lines are too short, gets back to the layer with a shadow edge. And let's find the intersections. Slide with a cursor for the whole path from the corner of the cube would through the direction line and find the intersections marked two dots on this line. Repeat with the second corner. Now we need to add the projection of the cuboid side baseline. We can take the pencil, repeat this line, move it down and connected with the intersectional dot we just made. Start with the right edge. Repeat this line on the other edge and stroke the path. Connect the rest of the dots together and get the shadow edge of the cuboid. Now, as we have the cube root shadow edge, we need to relegate to the ground this protrude and part of the sphere casts shadow. So we can repeat the cast shadow of this sphere by using the elliptical markets tool and by moving this election to the ground. Adjusted equidistant to the tangent lines old this fear and also a coordinate to this surface and the perspective. Strong this election when you are ready and let's get rid of all the helping lines so that we don't need anymore. So now we have this shadow edges of this sphere and the floating cuboid. So let's move on to the cone. Let's get back to the layer with the projection and add two lines by using the Penzu. The first one is a vertical line going down from the peak of the corn to the centre of its base. And from the center of the base, we'll add the direction line. As always, stroke the path when you are ready, let's get back to the layer with a shadow edge and end the shadow edge of the cone. We need to connect the sides of the cone base with the intersection of the light angle and the direction line. Here we have the mutual shadow of two objects, so we can not care too much about the accuracy of the cone shadow ends. Now take the error is at x2 and Orissa parts that weeds ON needs. We had the shadow edges of this sphere that cuboid m, the corn. So let's move on to the cylinder x2x3, the cast shadow of the cylinder. We need to remember that it has two parts, the base and the body. So firstly, we need to cast the shadow of the base, which is going to be elliptical sake the L lifecycle market tool and make the selection between the tangent lines, transform the selection if you need it, and then stroke it. Where we have the projection lines on the cube, we have the intersection with the base of the cylinder casts shadow. So from this intersection, draw the line to the left, which will be parallel to the cylinder bought some baseline. And again here we have the mutual casts shadow so we don't need to add anything from the cube to the ground. Now take the areas at CSU and get rid of the lines that we don't need anymore. Also, one more thing is missing. We need to create the shadow under the cube on this cylinder. We need to do this because it just touching the plane and not fully seated on it. So we have a half login object. We just need to add a little line here going from the center on the cube. And the difficulty here, if badness soon that has the circle at side of the plane. And we need to take this into account two, plus we need to keep in mind that our cube is turned a bit to the left. And that means that this line is going to be following the cubes turnaround and gonna be shifted to the left two. So it's gonna look something like that. And that's it for the shadow edges. Now we can move on to actual cash shadow agent. Let's create one Malaya sake the public and unless at x2 and select all the shadow edges, remember to hold down the Shift key to select more than one area or the second icon here on the top toolbar. When all the areas are selected, let's take a look at the tonal range documents as we're going to create the cash shadows, we need to peak at zone from five to 15 interval. Let's say it would be 15. Get back to the main document and sends a tonal value on the new layer that we created user our delete key combination to add its own to the selection. Now select all the helping lines in the layers panel, group them and heights. Let's get back to the cash shadow layer and fix all the sharp edges and inaccurately done areas. You can use the Rotate tool to rotate your canvas and make it easier for a hand flow to fix some elements. Also, you can increase the smoothing value on the top toolbar that will make the fixing part easier and will help you to create the nice ages. So now we have our gas shadows and we can move on to the zonal parts. Let's hide the layer with the light angle and light direction lines and unhide the layer with its own all range. Here is a tiny table where we can add out zones in order to be sure that we're using the same tonal variations on the different objects. Let's agree that in that case, we are dealing with a composition where all the objects are colored in the same way and made from the same material. And that means we need all the objects to be in one tonal range values. So let's mark the first one that we used, and it is our gas shadow. You can zoom on this layer with its able, or you can create one Malia and assemble and dried down its value. And now we can move on to the next steps. So let's start from this fear, greed one Molly and given a name, sake, the magic one, Su Qian Du sample or layers checkbox. If it's not activated and select the sphere, go to select, modify, expand, and expand the selection by one peak. So and again, let's take a look at our zonal range documents who will start from the form shadow because it's easier to add the light and you already know from the previous parts of the class. So let's say the form shadow would be 35%, will set the brightness value to 35, and by using our delete key combination will add its own to the selection. Now you can either work with the selection or you can deselect everything, go to the Layers panel, love the transparent pixels, and start adding the light in this way. Also, we can move the group with the helping lines, own soap, and checkout the direction we need to follow. So in accordance with these lines, let's start A1, the light to the sphere, sake, the basic sold brush, increase its size, said the brightness to eighty-five percent and start to add the lights use the same technique that we used in the previous parts of the class. Hide and unhide the helping lines to make the form shadow correctly if it's needed, send the brightness to 35% again and paint over the area where the core edge should be. Keep working on this sphere by agent the highlight and making this move transition. Older meat delights, ohms, des yourself with a, I drove with X2. And remember that we need to have the great variety of the tombs. Now, the reflected light and keep in mind that it couldn't be brides at then the dark is lead on the Allied sides. Keep working on the core edge. Test yourself with hydro but Sue dry to make this move transitions. And let's add the final dark touch on the bottom of the sphere. There's going to be the place with no reflected light. So we need to connect it with the cast shadow by using the smooth zone transition. When you are done, get back to the layer with its own samples and a2 values to the table as a form shadow, and 85 As a brightest slides. Now let's move on, create a new Les and name it as a cuboid. In order to continue working on are the shapes, we firstly need to understand the light and the object's placement. We already know that there is a connection between the likeness and objects rotation angle, the more our object is turned to the light, the light of the turn face would be. So let's take a look at our objects. We can see that the base of the cylinder is turned more to the light. So it's going to be the light is phase of this free perpendicular faces. We've already marked the value of 85 and it's related to the horizontal surface. That's because our light goes mostly from the top and it firstly strikes the horizontal surfaces like the top of the floating cuboid. But what about the perpendicular faces? They still on the light side, but the values would be defined by their rotation angle. Let's go to the layer with the tonal values and determine the tonal variations will also enumerate the tonal gradation going from level one, the brightest, to the level seven, the darkest. And that will really help us a bit later. So said that eighty-five percent of the brightness as level two, because we've had the highlight, which is level one. Let's determine the next value. It would be 75% and it's going to be level three. And from now on will decrease our brightness percentage by 5% each next. So it's going to be 70 level 465, level five. The shadows will be level six and Level seven. When we have this scheme with degradation on the zones, we can enumerate our faces. The form shadow is level six. We have it on this sphere and we also have it on the left face of the floating cuboid. The gas shadow is level seven. Let's also agree that the shadow on the left face of the cube will be level six. It's almost parallel to the queue bode phase, but to be honest, it will be a bit darker because of the rotation, but the angle is really insignificant. So in order to ease our lives, we can send this phase as level six, and let's enumerate other elements. The cast shadow of the cylinder is seven. The base of the cylinder is leveled free as we established before, the top of the floating cuboid is two, the same as the top of the queue because the faces are parallel. Cube, right? Phase is four and the floating cuboid is five, all because of rotation angle. Now let's hide the helping lines and Jacob, the scheme and all the numbers. And as we already know, all the values, we can begin agent that's owns. Now go to the layer named cuboid. You can hide the gas shadows if they distract, you, start selecting the phases with a magic 1-2 or polygonal listed. So if you're using the magic, wants to go to select, modify, expand, and expand. The selection now starts feeling the phases with determined tonal values. Create a new layer for each shape and keep repeating the steps. For the cylinder. Create different layers for the base and for the body. As for the cylinder body, we can start working from the zonal level six. If we unhide the helping lines, we can see that down from this horizontal line, everything's going to be in the shadow. And it has been said before, it's easier to add the light rather than the shadows. So filled the body of the cylinder with 35% of the brightness. Now lamda transparent pixels on this layer. And let's work on the cylinder as we did before. Big data, sixty-five percent of the brightness and by using the soft brush at the lights. Now we need to add the reflected light is going to be right after the core edge. Keep in mind that it shouldn't be brighter than the darkest light on the light side. And we also need to add this dark part on the bottom of the cylinder as we did on this sphere. Now, unhide the layer with the cast shadows, get back to the layer with the cylinder body and by using soft brush at the smooth tunnel transition. When you're done, let's move on to the corn, make the new layer. And here we'll also start with a form shadow. Now select the shape and use select, modify, expand to expand the selection, field selection with color. And let's move on to aid in the light to the cone and hide the helping lines. And let's take a look our light angle, find where it, such as the corn base, that dot is shown that they begin, of course shadow. So the right part will be on the light side and the left one in the dark. Now longer transparent pixels. Take the salt brush and add the lights on the corn lighten shade bards would have gone to the triangle shapes vets because the peak is very tiny and the surface expanse toward the base work on the form shadow, if you already the lights now at a bit of the shadow on the peak because we have the floating cuboid blocking the light here. You can relate on this light angle line on the top. After that, let's add the reflected light. When you're done, let's hide the shapes line, and let's start fixing our sheets. And then by using the League and elicit, fix all the gaps on your objects. Let's fix a cast shadow here on the cylinder. What we have now is not enough because the planes of two shapes are merging together. Let's select the area on the cylinder under the cube, including the form shadow. And let's dark in this area will also arrays the sharp shadow and make the blurry one instead, repeat this same shape and darken the area under the cube, thereby divides in it from the cylinder. Will also add a little shadow on the cone PQ. Let's get back to the cylinder, sharpen the edge of the shadow and darken the form shadow a bit more. Now let's move on to even more fixes and beautification. Let's fix a cast shadow because now it looks a little out of the perspective. Select the circular part and transform the selection by inscribing it into the composition perspective. You can unhide the helping lines to make everything correctly. Don't be afraid to fix some places that now look not very right to you. When we fixed all the problematic areas, let's move on and fix the cast shadows. Now they look like the solid black holes on the surface and we know that they should have the tunnel transition too. So let's do the following. I will go to the cast shadow layer, log the transparent pixels, select the basic soft round brush and add the exome gradients. The darkest part of the cast shadow will be near the objects and the tone will diffuse enlightened by going toward the edges. One of the last things that we can do is to hide our list with the tonal values and the table and move on to aid in the beveled edges. It has been said before, not a lot of things in real life have such a perfect join between the planes. Most of the time, two planes would have some beveled edges and these edges would have their own zones and they are going to be smooth in the corner of two planes. Also the light could hit this beveled edge, thereby forming the highlights. And all of these details are making the draw and a bit more realistic. So let's create one Malaya and MDs edges, the basic round brush, and let's add the highlights to our objects. The highlight is going to be something like 95% of the brightness. Let's start with a cuboid. So add the line between two phases. For the rest of the ages will find some tone that is in-between two of the connected ages stones. So this H is 85 and this one is 35. So let's say something like 55 is going to be fine. Let's do the same with the cube. For this edge between the cylinder base and the cylinder body, we can use a conservative Penzu and create the curve. We can fix its curvature by holding down the control key and dragging the line until it has the needed form. When you are done, stroke the path and fix the correlate with an eraser. If it's too much for you, you can add the pilot with a brush by repeating the shape. And the very last being in this part of a class is a excellent gradients on the faces of the shapes. You can either work on the exact list of the shapes by looking the transparent pixels, or you can create one Molly and add the clip and masks for each of them. The clipping masks are a bit better because it's a different layers and you can always undo or fix anything without fixing the whole object. So no matter which technique you've chosen, let's add a bit of light to the phases. Let's start with a cube sake the soft brush being the lighter color and add at sign its edge of the light to the right part of the cube, this part that is nearest to the lights, also with a soft touch at the reflected lights. Try not to overdo it. Let's do the same on the cuboid. Create equilibrium mask, select the vertical plane with a magic wand tool and add the gradient to the face. Add the reflected light to the shadow side. And the same for the cylinder base, create a clipping mask at the touch of the light to the right side and maybe a tiny touch with a darker color to the bottom left parts. And the final touch is to add a bit of blur to the cast shadows. Go to the layer with the cast shadows and unlock the transparent pixels, go to the DepthFilter Blur, Gaussian Blur, and one pixel radius would be enough. And here are these. The multi shaped tonal composition is done. 14. Tonal still life drawing: Basic lighting: After completing this complicated compositional drawing and after exploring how to work with the basic shapes, we can move on to still live drawing, we need to understand that all the objects in still life and in real life are made from the simple geometrical shapes. Here on your screen, you can see the outline of two books that are made from the cuboid ends. We also have the mock, which is some kind of cylindrical elements. So in this part, we're going to be working with these free objects. You're going to have the prepared outline of the objects just to speed up the whole process. Here in this class, we're not talking about building the objects in the perspective. We're talking about the tonal drawings. So if you want to build some composition by yourself from scratch, feel free to do it. And as always, let's start with the beat of preparation will start by exploring the basic lightning. This must be the first thing that you are starting to think about when you're working on either biggest duration or just a simple drawing units to make sure that you know where to put the light or how to manage the given lights. So here on the right, you can see the scheme of the top view with a given light direction. And we need to add that those four are objects according to this information. So when we had the lines, we could easily read the shapes and not just the general silhouettes. In the last panel, we have the layer with the general tone. And that means that we can work either on this layer by looking at the transparent pixels or we can use a Glebe in masks. To create the globin mask, we need to add a new layer above, Click on it with the right mouse button and choose create clipping mask makes sure that it attaches a given layer with its own. Probably at this stage, it's easier to work with the Cleveland masks. Now let's take a look at out soap view so we can understand how the life goals, let's as always agree that our light goes mostly from the top and that it has these given direction. So the left plates are going to be in the shadow and this top and dried ones are going to be mostly in the lights. So when we determine this information, let's start A1, the tones to our Books and we'll begin with the top one, Vet first exercise will be revolved around working mostly on the souls and the interrelationship without paying attention to the cast shadows, add other details. Here. It can use a polygonal lists at school, or you can use a magic one tool, or you can just try to work with a brush. It's all up to you. Let's start from the left shadow part and we'll select all the parallel vertical planes. Malware talking about the cover and the paper of the book. As you can remember, the barrel planes are going to have the same tonal value. Let's say in that case, it's going to be 35% of the brightness. Add the tone for the shape by using our delete geese and moving on to the other planes, select the right vertical one and pledge, aka the value we have on the top horizontal plane, it's going to be the lightest part and we'll just leave it like that. It's 91% here. So let's set the brightness of this vertical plane to something about 75% Then we have these Beijing parts. Saw depletes are different and we need to add the smooth, gentle transition to these two areas. We're going to be big in the middle tones of colors in between. So let's select the upper plane and set the brightness to 80, 82%. That's because it's between 91 we have on the top face and 75 on the vertical one. Now ended zone to the selection, select the second plane. And here we need to dark in the dorm. So let's say it will be 78%. Deselect everything, and let's hide the lines. We already can see that we have the difference between planes and we're starting to understand what object we have in front of us. Get back to the lines and let's add that song for the last part on this side, which is going to be in the reflected light. Remember that it can be lighter than any part on the light sides. So let's set it as 76. 77. Not a big difference, but still a difference. Now, if behind the lines we'll see the silhouette of the book has been said before. We're not aging the cast shadows or paying any attention to the crooked edges. We don't really need anything to be very accurate because now we just make it the basic lights and that will help us to apply the light to the upcoming drawing. So get back the lines and let's move on to aid in the zones for the rest of the objects. Let's work on the second book. We'll start with the right side. So select the parallel vertical planes. All this plates are almost parallel to the side face of did so book, but they're not completely parallel. They are going to be a bit darker than this part on soap. And that's because the more our plane is turned off from the light that Docker, it will be. So lets degrees of brightness to 70% and fill the area with color. The same thing is on the left side. The shadow part is more turned toward the reflected light, so the shadow will be a bit lighter than it is on the book. So let's select the parallel vertical planes. Big the code from the soap box shadow and increase this value two Ferdinand 40%. Now, if we had the lines, we'll see that we have two books, silhouettes also, we need to define these plates inside the book number two, lately we'll cover them with the cast shadows, but now we just need to explore the light there. So the vertical one is parallel to the write phase and gonna have the same tonal value. So let's select it and fill it with color. That's anion diagonal plane will be a bit lighter. Let's say it will be 7475%. Again, hide the lines and take a look at our books once again. And we'll move on to the Mach, select the body of the mock first lip-sync the magic one soul and go to select, modify, expand, and expand this election by two pixels. And we're going to work on the mock body, as you can remember, in order to simplify the work with the cylindrical objects we will use in the rough edges. And here we will proceed in the same way. Sake another brush. For example, this triangle one, which you can find in a project and restless up in just at eight in the ages to the Mach, bear in mind our lightning. The left side of the mug is going to be in the shadow, and therefore the right one is going to be in the lights. So just roughly begin to add the zones starting from the core edge, add the reflected light and a few zonal variations of the middle light zones on the right. Keep in mind that even if we're making it in a rough way with the right predation oldest zones. When you're done, you can either leave it very schematic like that or you can smooth in the edges with a basic soft round brush. And let's make the shadow edge AB darker. When we're done with this part, let's deselect everything and let's select the inner part of the Mark, Zaid. The magic wants to select the area, go to select, modify, expand, and expand. The selection that sounds in the inner part would be inverted. So we need to repeat this same tools as we used for the body of the cylinder, but in the opposite order. Start with a form shadow and put a diagonally opposite to the one on the body of the cylinder. They're reflected light will be on the right and the left side would have the same tunnel variations as the body of the cylinder has. Make the edges a bit smoother by using this soft round brush. When you are done deselect ARAF scene and let's add that zones for the handle. Select the inner part, go to select, modify, expand and expand the selection being the dark zone, and fill the area with color. Select this side of the handle, pick the color and fill it to. One of the main purposes of this exercise, besides exploring the basic light was about creating the map of tonal ranges and finding the planes that are parallel to each other. Plus it gives us an understanding that error fin in decomposition could be divided into the plains, which simplifies the whole work. Now, if you hide the lines, you'll see that we have the proper vision of the objects. The last thing that we can do here is to separate the same coloured planes weekend sued by agent at Zionist accent under the protruding plane. So let's take the public unlisted tool and select the paper on the shadow parts of both books. Will take the dark zone, select the salt brush, and by drawing the various soft line will separate the planes. Now hide the lines and see the difference. 15. Tonal still life drawing: Multicolored objects: Now, as you can see on your screen, we have the same picture, but we're gonna be working with a multi-colored books beforehand. We will work in only with the relatively bright objects without Watson or difference in the base colors in this part of the class will have the different tonal value in base color for each object. And that means that we're going to be shifting the color range according to the given colors of the objects. At first, we're going to repeat the same steps as we did with the basic lightning, but by bearing in mind the base colors or the objects thereby weeds determine the basic color palette for each of the elements in order to match the colors and tonal range of them. You can do it by yourself or you can use a prepared color pallets, which you can find in the layers panel. So each element has the variation of the zones that we're going to use for agent the volume to the objects, let Chicago outsold view. We have the same light direction and as always, the light goes mostly from the top. And now we can start adding the zones for the shadows here in the list panel, you can find the group where each object has its own layer. You can work on the given list by looking the transparent pixels. Or you can add the layer above each layer with an object and use a clipping mask option. And it has been mentioned before. We're starting with the basic lightning. Let's first work on the book on soap, which is the darkest element in this composition. And we're starting with a shadow parts. So pick the darkest color from the book number one, pellets. Sake the polygonal lists at x2 and start selecting the book cover planes. In that case, we're dividing the cow from the paper because we have the different given collars for these elements. Edits on for the selection. And let's move on to the right sides. Select the face without such in the Bayesian parts. Big the lights at all from the color palettes and feel the selection with color. In our palette, we have only the basic colors. So for the additional parts, like the benzene one, we need to extend the range. Now let's select the upper Beijing blame as before, let Chicago, that's all variations we have here on the top and here on the sides. We need to find some middle songs between these two. So the top is furtive free and the site is 24. So let's say that this part is going to be something like 30% of the brightness when you're working with a darker zones and the darker objects, you need to keep in mind that the variety of the tones here is a bit smaller. Each percent Of the brightness gives you the greater result. Rather, if you're working with the lights at zones, when you're working with a docker objects, even 1% of the brightness could make the great difference. So let's select the second benzene played and set the brightness to something like 27%. Here on the bottom, we need to add the reflected lights. And as always, you need to keep in mind that you can't use the same tones that you use in the light parts. In that case, you can go brighter than 27%. So let's say that this part will be 2526%. If you hide the lines, you will see that we already had the provision of the book cover. Now we can move on to the second book cover, make one Malaya and end the clipping mask sake the polygonal lesser tool and select the shadow blades of the book cover. Peak that drug is stone from the color palette and fill the area with color. Now select the blades on the right, peak the lights at zone and fill them with colored two. If behind the lines, we'll see that we missed this part. Insights in the upcoming future will add the cast shadows here. But anyway, now for a better understanding, we'll define these planes, get back the lines and select the vertical plane. This plane is parallel to the planes on the right. So pink that's on from there and fill the selected area with color selected signing diagonal plane and increase the brightness to 6465%. Feel the selected area with color. Now hide the lines and checkout the difference. When we handle the covers, let's move on to the paper, get back to the first book. If you're working on one layer or create one myoglobin mask and attach it to the lay away their first book. Let's select the paper and let's add this shadow here. Because the books are turned to the light differently, we need to make the difference in the shadows zones on the paper of both books. The first book on soap is turned more to the lights. And that means that the shadow is going to be darker here rather than it'll be on the boson book. So we'll pick the drug is tone of the paper scholar panel and fill the area with color. Now go to the second book and create one more clipping mask. Select the shadow area here and increase the brightness to 62%. And let's select the last part of the paper here on the right, BIG the middle tone from the pellet and fill the area with color, checkout how it looks without the lines and if it's fine, let's move on to the Mach. Go to the layer with the mock, create one Molly and end the Glebe in mask or log that transparent pixels. If you're working on one layer, select the budget on the mock. First, go to select, modify, expand, and expand the selection by CSU peak cells. Now take that triangle brush being the dark installed from the palette. And let's start from the form shadow, roughly mark the planes as we did in the first exercise. Here we have four zones. The base one that is the lightest, which will have on the top horizontal plane of the MAC and free darker wants to form the shadows. So use reader gets zones for the body of the mock. Don't forget about the reflected light. When you have the first free zones plaza reflected light, keep rendering and maybe pick some middle tones and make a few more planes. We're not going to be making it very neat again, here we might say that is going to be some kind of material that we're starting to create and we'll get back to rendering a bit later. So just try to make it look decent for now without being too much attention to the details. When you are done with this part, let's move on to the inner part of the mock. We'll take the magic one soul, expand this election and will repeat the same tones here, but in inverted way. Maybe we'll make the form shadow a bit darker in order to show more volume and we'll repeat it on the budget too. So get back to this part in dark in the form Shadow. Don't be afraid of getting back to fix some places that yet don't look good enough and don't be afraid to shift the tonal range a bit because the pellet is not the constant. We're just in the middle of the process and it's all up to you. And when you're done, let's add that zones for the handle. Select the inner part, expand the selection and add the shadow zone here. Select the vertical plane and ended sold here too. Remember that you can always test yourself by Haydn the lines. Pay attention to the places where we have the plane junctions. Keep in mind the lights. Now take a look at that soap horizontal plane or the mock. This part can have the same tone as any of the tones that we have on the body. This is the brightest part. The light strikes at first and then diffuses and sliding through the other blames. So remember to check out the junctions, digs at places where you've lost a ton on difference and where you are missing the volume. And when we're done with its own, Let's move on to the fixing parts. So let's start cleaning up our objects. You can create a new layer for the fixes or you can merge together all the lives we used for the tonal drawing. The second option probably will be better, will have a few things to care about and to 1B confused by hilarious, but we'll need to work more carefully. So let's take two merging delays. And to achieve it, will select them all in the last panel and then click with the right mouse button and choose merge layers. Now we have everything on one layer and it will help us to fix our drawing a bit faster. Now, Zynga polygon elicit x2 and start fixing the miscalled elements, wide gaps and so on. At that stage, tried to make everything need. Use the brush. If you need to add some parts, O wins faster and easier to use a brush instead of less. So x2. If you are noticing that x1 planes are unreadable or merging with other blaze, like here inside the MOOC, you can make them darker. Just select the area and use control you to increase or decrease in brightness. Also, you can see this sharpen edges added Zope, horizontal blame, all of them OK, that happened because of the magic one X2. And we can fix it with an eraser tool on the sides and with the brush tool inside them, OK, just smoothing the edges and hold them by z. When we're done with this part, we can start agents some details like the beveled edges between the planes according to their placement. Use it in-between zones. Also, you can smudge the corners at beads. We're adding elements to make our objects look a bit more rarely sick, the more detailed your work is, the pre-taped looks. But anyway, try not to overdo it. Now get back to rendering them OK. You can use this soft round brush to smooth in the edges, but again, don't try to make everything super smooth. Even old materials and objects because imperfections make the draw and look more realistic and more interesting, play with a softness and the sharpness of the brush strokes. And as always, we can add some highlights. So Ziga brighter color and according to the life and just making the highlights samba with it can possibly be, don't overdo it. We just need a few patches. And the last thing that we can add here is the x ingredients to the plains. Lonely transparent pixels. Take the salt brush, select the lights are Kala, And it's semi-transparent, mostly invisible gradient for the books. 16. Tonal still life drawing: Cast shadows: And now let's move on to the cast shadows. Here. We wanted the cast shadows the same way as we did with the tunnel composition because it's a bit over complicated. Beforehand, we were exploring how they cast shadows work and we had to learn the basics. Now we can apply our knowledge here and make everything a bit easier. Let's take a look at our top view plan. We already have the direction of the light and we can create scheme here which will apply to the main draw when so create one Malaya, take the pencil entry, beat the direction line. And as we did on that Sono composition, move this line to the corner and repeat on other corners that are in the shadow. Select all the lines, stroke the path and novel. Continue creating this scheme to understand where our guests shadow will be. So let's mark this shadows according to the light direction and knowledge that the light goes mostly from the top, the first area, if this tiny triangle on the boats and book erisa lines that we don't need and mark the shadow. Let's find the shadow edge on the grounds and market to the cast shadow is going to be here behind the objects too, because these back corner gives the shadow. Now let's arrays a helping lines. And schematically that held the cache shadow will look here, and that's what we need to project to the main drawing. So when we have our scheme, we can project it to our drawing. We can go to our mainly a with its own, or we can create another layer for the cast shadows. If you're working on the same layer, let's unlock it and let's start from the bottom book. Put the cast shadow on the surface according to our scheme. Sake the polygonal lists at x2 and accurately start it in the selection from the right corner. Repeat this scheme lines. If they're working on the same layer, we need to make sure that we are not leaving the blank space between the objects in the cast shadow. You can very gently overlap the selection so we won't need to fix anything later, or at least we wanted a lot of fixes. Connect the selection. And now we need to understand how the cashier does work on the different surfaces. The gas shadow zone depends on the color of the surface, its casting the shadow on, for example, these casts shadow on the ground will be a bit darker than the cast shadow here on the bottom book. And that's because our surface of the ground is darker than the book. Let's say the bottom shadow would be 33%, fill the area with Dawn. And let's move on to other shadows. Let's create this little triangle shadow under the toe book, sake the polygonal lists at x2 start with the same parallel line going from the corner and closer selection. So it has been said before, this shadow will be a bit lighter than the shadow on the ground. Let's say it would be something like 37%. The same tonal value is going to be on the bottom of the book cover, starting from the corner, rebuild the parallel diagonal line, select the whole area enclosed the selection, fill the area with the same zone. The difference between the zones on the grounds and on the cover might be insignificant, but still there is a difference. Now let's move on to this vertical plane is going to be a bit brighter than the cast shadow here on the cover because it has a different zone. Let's select this part and let's set the brightness to 41%. The shadow on the cover is 37, the vertical plane is 41. So the tiny middle one is going to be 39%. We adjust a little difference. And now let's move on to the cover on that. So book. So select this area. This one here is a little tricky shadow. Here we need to understand the dependence on the lights and shadows. So here is a little rule. The brighter the illuminated surface is, the darker the cast shadow would be, and vice versa. The darker the illuminated surface is, the lighter casts shadow it would have. So getting back to the book, this is the brightest part of our object. And as it is a brightest part, that means that these casts shadow here will be the darkest on the book. Also, we need to understand that this shadow we have on the book now is a form shadow and it is 15% of the brightness and the gas shadow is going to be darker than the form shadow. So let's say it would be something like 11%. So feel this election with color. Now we need to add the cast shadow here on the mock, because according to the light that so book would cast a shadow on the mock. And here we need to know one more rule. The cast shadow would never cast in the form shadow. Let's see, on the mock, let's create the selection for the cache shadow that the book could possibly cast on the cylindrical object. It will look something like that. We have the form Shadow of the MC here and the cast shadow will stop right where the form Shadow starts. So let's feel the selection with color. Lets it would be 10%. Then we'll take the sore from brush and soften the edge, thereby merging two shadows together. Now let's move on to the final fixes and beautification. Fixed all the parts that need fixes, feel the wide gaps at or array some elements that ruin the whole drawing. Maybe render the things a bit more. Details. Three, yourself, try to look at your work critically and fix the things you don't like. And the last thing that we need to do is adding the gradient for the ground casts shadow. If you remember, the cast shadow have more than one solid zone. So selected with the magic one to go to select, modify, expand, and expand the selection by one big cell. Now let's take the soft round brush and add the drug gets onto the parts that are near the objects. Just a soft surge and the soft zonal transition. And that's mostly eats. The very last thing that you can do is to test yourself by ranking that's zones on your objects. This way, analyze it's owns and if you see that you messed up somewhere, just tried to fix it. I have a mistake here with the reflected light on the dark book. It turned out lighter than the light bark on the cover. So it's the right time to fix sets. Let's take the magic one soul and hide the layer with the lines, select the needed part and expand the selection. Then let's get back to the layer with its owns and send the brightness to 21. Now take the brush and paint over the selected area, Haida lines and fix them. Nice colored parts. Mark the fixed value on the ranking layer. And that will be all for the second part of the drawing course series, which was dedicated to the theory of light and shade. I hope you found this class helpful and if you liked it, please subscribe so you won't miss the next part of the series where we're gonna be exploring them materials, check out the other classes and leave your review. And thanks for watching.