Photoshop Basic 2 - Color Theory, Tone and Perspective | John Ross | Skillshare

Photoshop Basic 2 - Color Theory, Tone and Perspective

John Ross, Professional Retoucher

Play Speed
  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x
15 Lessons (1h 41m)
    • 1. Introduction

      2:46
    • 2. Pay Attention

      8:02
    • 3. Overall vs. Details

      3:56
    • 4. Light Sculpting

      7:45
    • 5. Photo Evaluation

      12:26
    • 6. Primary/Secondary Adjustments

      9:02
    • 7. Tonal Tools

      11:19
    • 8. Masking Adjustments

      2:56
    • 9. White Balance

      7:48
    • 10. Auto Button

      3:01
    • 11. Emotion

      2:47
    • 12. Color and Tone

      2:20
    • 13. Histograms

      8:11
    • 14. Selective Color

      13:23
    • 15. Hue/Saturation

      5:22

About This Class

Understanding Color and Balancing Tones

Does the lighting take focus away from the subject? Are your eyes immediately drawn to something else? You become good at Photoshop through an understanding of color and being able to balance the tones. You need to introduce proper perspective, with a creative eye. You must be aware of the details, but not let yourself become bogged down in them.

Some topics include:

  • Reading a Histogram
  • Numbers and the Info Palette
  • Reading Tone through Color
  • Color, Mood and Ambience
  • Creating Depth with Color
  • Primary Tone Corrections
  • Primary Color Corrections

Transcripts

1. Introduction: welcome to color theory, tone and perspective. When looking at your images, ask yourself, What does this image need? Adjustments on the fly away. Hair bags under the eyes, clothing, wrinkles, blemishes, discolorations. What else? Beyond the evaluation of what is needed. Often it's more important. Ask the question of how to actually do it, since we all know that there are easily five different ways to do anything inside a photo shop. We need to evaluate which weighs air, going to give us the results that we want for the least amount of effort. Sometimes you're correct, and when you are, the results look great if you're wrong and the results may look a little in perfect or just flat out wrong now, well, it may be true. In the worst case scenario, just do it all over again. But who wants to do that? Your best bet at doing it right is going to become skilled at finding solutions to each of the different problems that will present themselves time and time again. Within your images. The real goal here is identifying the problems, thinking about the solutions and acting upon them in a way that's going to create the best possible results. Now the possibilities are often endless. However, with some skill, practice and experience, you'll be able to evaluate what works and what doesn't. In a very short period of time. Everyone teaches photo shop and professors themselves to be a guru. Absolutely hate that work moving sliders darker, brighter, redder, bluer and then sending you one your way really isn't teaching you anything. Often the answer is pretty clear. You just need to have that working knowledge of what that answer actually is. The biggest problem I often see with my students working in photo shop is quite honestly, just being sloppy jerky, jagged lines, repeating patterns and a general inability to create consistent and believable results. These classes that you take with me are going to eliminate months and years of trial and error. You may not even remember everything that we actually talk about together. However, you will walk away with a very solid knowledge of what you can do, what you can't do and what will actually give you the best possible results. Just because there is a quicker way from beginner does not mean that you can do it as a professional, and at this point I'm hoping that you're willing to take it farther than just being a basic regular user to someone who wants to take this to a much more professional level. And this class of color theory, tone and perspective is going to allow you to take your photography to an entirely new level of quality artwork. 2. Pay Attention: when it comes to working on your images, it's very important to pay attention to several key elements. When looking at your images, the 1st 1 is going to be late direction now. This is a basic image which you can see. He's standing next to a wall on. The light is coming in and there's nothing strange about it. It looks perfectly natural, but what happens if we took him and flipped him around? Now it doesn't look directly wrong, but it doesn't look necessarily right either. Basically, the reason that it looks a little bit off is because the light should be coming from out here. The reason it doesnt look completely off is because it has the bounce from the wall where he would have some light on that part of his face. But at the end of the day, the reality of it is the light should be coming from the other direction, not just bouncing off of the wall, and that's why it looks just a little bit funny now. This isn't necessarily as important when it comes to the photography of the image, because obviously the late is gonna come from where the light comes from. This is much more about the compositing. When you're dealing with the composites, make sure that you understand where the lights are coming from and have them match. We'll be talking about composition again later in this course. The next thing that we're gonna look at is light exposure. This is very much important to the photography of the image. In this case, the image was shot to light and it's over exposed now, in many cases, you can come back from this type of thing within camera raw. However, in this extreme example, you can't actually come back from it because this background really is gone. I mean, we might be able to pick up a little bit more detail in whatever is going on behind him, but basically most of this is just a lost cause. So getting your exposure right in camera is one of the most important things you could do for yourself because the flip side of that is the under exposure. This is when you don't have nearly enough light going on. And in a case like this, it's fairly easy to pull back much of that lost information inside a camera raw, but it'll end up adding a lot of noise and grain to it. It'll be devoid of clear detail, and it will ultimately just be a dark mess when it comes to the deepest parts of these shadows. So once again avoid going too far under exposure as well. Another area to pay attention to is going to be the light color casts. This comes from tungsten lights and fluorescent lights, and when you take the picture, it adds like a yellow cast or green or blue or something over the top of the entire image. Now the great thing about camera raw is that it will come back from that with a simple click of the white balance. It'll get rid of all that yellow and bring back that pure color. But that brings up my next point, which would be a dual color caste. That's when you have one type of light coming from one direction and another type of light coming from another direction. That's where problems start to happen, really problems to give you a real world situation. Much of what I deal with is within classrooms and the lights that we have overhead or tungsten, zor fluorescence or whatever is going on at the time. But there's also windows in the room, and that's throwing in a cool cast of the daylight from outside. So in many cases, I'm dealing with warm lighting coming from inside and cool lighting coming from the outside . And this is yet another example where you have light coming from overhead on one side of the image, and then a different colored light coming from the ladies on the side. And this gives a crisscross of lighting. And this type of situation gives you a whole lot of headache because you have to really start dealing with creating, masking and cross Grady INTs in order to balance out the image that otherwise has these really stark warms and cools within the same image. And unless it falls within your artistic integrity, it's one of those things that may need to be fixed. Another key thing when it comes to composites that you should be paying attention to is perspective. Having your foreground and background elements match within perspective is another key thing. In order to get it done right. This is a giant poster for the Captain America movie that was released sometime back. I bring it to your attention because this particular image fails in perspective. When you first look at it, it looks fine. You don't really notice anything that's really off about it until I do this. And now just sit on that for a moment. That's when you're going to realize that, yeah, he's wrong. You see, they're trying to go for him to be bigger in, seen as opposed to how the camera would actually see him going up in perspective. But you could also look and see that he has all these issues going down in his lower areas as well as his arms, and it's just ultimately, it's It's a bit of a mess. From a technical standpoint, this is super important for compositing as well as the photography itself. Super important to know how your image is going to look in the end before you get into all the high end technical things that are involved in photo shop, it does you no good whatsoever to spend all this time doing all this retouching all the way around the entire image. When all you're gonna end up doing its cropping, it in any way, so know where you're going ahead of time. For example, I was approached by Advanced Photoshopped magazine to create an article for them that combined photography as well as compositing. I needed to include regular portrait retouching as well as more creative aspects within the layout. Part of what drove my decisions is knowing that it was going to be on the front cover. So I need to look good on its own as well as have the logo at the top text running down the sides as well as a barcode at the bottom. I'll talk about my intention with the cover in a moment. What I want you to keep in mind here is look at the different graphical elements that were included partially. What they asked for was geometric shapes as well as paint spatter. So going into it, I wasn't quite sure what I wanted or how it was going to end up approaching it. Once I had a basic layout, I did a search for some more inspirational pieces, and I was able to put together something that I'm pretty happy with now on a more technical aspect, reasons that this works is because the brightest part of this image is up here in her face . So brings your eye up. Additionally, the warmest part of this image is in her face is Well, that's another thing that brings your i in in order to keep your attention centered. I put this big circle behind her as well as his border down below these air, some more elements that keep your eye lifted up on the page instead of going down and wandering all over the place. When it came to the front cover, I was trying to come up with something that would stand alone on its own, up on the shelf of hundreds and thousands of different magazines. What was something that was going to jump out and catch her attention while still not detract from all the different text elements that we're gonna be all over the place? I put this together for myself simply as a guide. I had no idea what layout they actually needed or wanted, but I thought this was good enough to give me something to work with. And quite honestly, I built this entire piece around a mock up that was similar to this one. There are a lot of different aspects to this image that were pre requested by the magazine . So I had to honor each and every one of them while at the same time keeping in mind things that even they weren't thinking off. So once again, composition is super important to keep in mind all the way through the creation process. So these were just a few key pieces of information that I wanted you to keep in mind as we move forward into the rest of this class. 3. Overall vs. Details: I had a teacher once and he was trying to tell us not to zoom in on all the details and worry about this detail in that detail. Worry more about the overview, the structure of it, the basic fundamental of the image. There's no point in working on the eyelashes. If you don't have a basic structure and framework of the body, you need to head the shoulders, the arms, the legs, the torso. How is the body moving? How is the image flowing? You know, how is it going to crop? What's the best end result? And he wanted you to think about that end result Before you worried about the eyelashes. This particular image was on the front cover of a magazine that was upon the bookstore. And it's clear that the artist really wasn't paying attention to the overview and was way more interested in the details. He had to be in here looking at this, and other than the pixel ization of this J peg, he was looking and going. Yeah, OK, got the eyes looking good yet. White white teeth. Got it. We got hair. Okay, we come down here yet. We got that we got that All that's good. Come over here. Yep. All right. And he's he zooming around. He's worried about all these details, and everything is looking fine as far as he's concerned. And then the only thing that matters is how it looks up on the bookshelf. Which is this. What were they thinking? What happened to her waist? This is horrible. This is absolutely horrible. I mean, despite the fact I couldn't even tell you what magazine this is for because she's completely covering the logo. But that's neither here nor there. I'm talking about the waste, you know, if you're not going to take the time to worry about the structure of the image, you can't possibly get in there and worry about the details. It just doesn't make sense. So what I'm trying to get through to you is build the structure of the character long before you worry about the details of the image. So what this means to you is when you open up a image inside a photo shop and you're starting off in camera raw. Work out the overview first, don't worry about the details. Don't worry about the eyes in the eyelashes and the shirt and wrinkles and all that stuff. Just get the basics down. Fix the exposure. Open up the shadows. Make sure there's contrast in the image. Fix any highlight blowout areas and just the saturation of the image. I mean, worry about the overview things first. Don't get sucked into every detail. After you get this looking the way that you wanted toe look, then you can open it up in photo shop. Once again, evaluate what you have. Decide if it looks good. If not, create some adjustment layers to tweak it a little bit. If it does look good, that's when you can start worrying about the details, zooming in and adjusting the wrinkles and the sharpening and the whites of the eyes and fly away hairs and all those sorts of things. Don't worry about them on the front end. Worry about them after you get the structure of the image solid. When I work on an image within the 1st 2 minutes, I'm deciding. Is this the best a camera could have done if this was like the perfect photograph? Is this what the camera would have done if the answer is no I fix it If the answer is yes, that's when I start the actual retouching, because up till that point, I'm just trying to help the camera, long adjusting the exposure, the grain sharpening and otherwise adjusting all the different things that make up a good, solid photograph, because once you get all that stuff out of the way, the rest of your retouching is going to look all that much better. 4. Light Sculpting: now, one of the more important things I do to my images is called Light sculpting. Now, to me, that's a little bit different than the term dodge and burn, which we will get to a little bit later in the course. But generally speaking, I like to fix where the eye goes within the image, and one of the ways that I do that is to redirect the light itself where the shadows fall and the way that it pulls your eye into the focal point of the image. For example, I've always liked this particular image. It's fun, it's quirky, but it has a fundamental problem, which is I don't know where to look. Now at its core, we know that we want to look up in his face because that's the focal point, right? But because the image itself is so bright, but because the image itself is so bright and filled with detail, I'm looking up. I'm looking down and looking over here and over there at the umbrella in the bag and the people in the background and all kinds of things going on, and I don't know where to look until I'm a second into the image, and at that point my brain has already decided there's too much information. So I prefer to help my images along on the front end before the viewer has to make these types of decisions for themselves. I wanted decided for them. Right now we're inside a photo shop, and it's perfectly fine to do what I'm doing inside of quick mask and curves. But I'm actually going to go to camera raw to do it on the front end because it's so much easier inside a camera raw than it is here inside a photo shop. By starting with the raw file, I can come over to this icon right here, which is the graduated filter, and by clicking on that, it's going to pick up the last settings that you used by default. This is one of those things I'm a little hit or miss on its nice to pick up the same settings. If I'm doing the same thing, unfortunately, I'm usually doing something totally and completely different, so this really doesn't help that much, so it's up to you how you want to handle it. But generally speaking, I just start off with a graduated filter by clicking and dragging. Now I want to bring your eye up so effectively, I want ad darkness to the lower half of this image. So I'm just going to take this exposure. Drop it all the way down simply is somewhere to start. Click in drag. That's going to give us a nice, deep, dark area, and we'll certainly bring awry up to the top. But this looks heavy handed. It's obvious I did something. So what I prefer to do is, after I've made this general move, take all these settings and bring them back to zero. This is simply going to take the Grady ation itself and remove all the settings so that I can then go back in and make the changes I want to. For example, I'll take the highlights and bring those all the way down. It doesn't really do too much, but I'll do it anyway. Then I'll grab the exposure and ever so slightly bring it down. Not a lot. Be very careful. Don't overdo it. Once again, we simply want to help it. We don't want to beat it over the head of the viewer that hey, don't look down here right? If you do it softly and suddenly they won't even notice. So now I came from this direction in this way and by using the graduated filter. Using that icon, green means go red means stop. So everything up to this point is going to have this effect applied to it that it's going to trail often ingredient to this point. That's going to stop. And this is the regular image up top. Now I'll often come from one direction and then come from another direction, and I don't usually leave it at the same settings. I'll use one darker than the other, and quite honestly, I usually use the right side as darker. It's a way to stop the eye from trailing off, but the other way is dark enough to keep your eye up. But it doesn't stop your eye from coming down. It's just a play on light is really all it is, so that when I turn it off, when you look at the image, you can't tell I actually did anything at all. I mean, it's very subtle, but when you think about it, where's your eye going when you look away and look back Bam! Right here, right at his face, which is now the brightest point in the image. Now, occasionally I'll do the same thing on the right toe left or the top to bottom. But I try very hard not to do too much. The more you do, the more obvious it is. Which is why, when you use this icon over here called the radio filter and you do it here, it just becomes so obvious that you just did something because it pulls in from all the sides. You know, it just brings in from the sides equally, and I don't care for that because it looks like we did something. Rather, I prefer the strange shape and something you're I can't really grab onto, which is why I prefer this method over the previous one. When taking that basic information and applying it in a much more complex way, you can come up with what is truly a light sculpting way of working, where you're basically taking the lights and the darks and shifting them around the three dimensional objects, adding more contour and expanding the tonal range on those elements, making them a little bit darker and a little bit brighter now when doing this is a couple different techniques that are involved. But generally they're referred to under a master umbrella called Dodge and Burn, and we will eventually start talking about the technique. But the way that I personally prefer is to have one curve that goes dark, one curve that goes light and then painting on the mask, the areas that I want brighter and darker. On this particular image, I did a lot of light sculpting on it to get started. Let me show you the base camera original image right here. This is how it came out of the camera. It's very flat, it's soft and it's even tilted. So I do some basic changes inside of the camera raw to bring me to this point. You see how this is going to darken up the lower part of his body, and it's created by a curve which is brought down like this, which is darkening the highlights here in darkening the mid tones here. And it's being controlled by this mask here. That's simply all it does. But when we put it on, but it's going to darken his body down below, but that's going to illuminate his face. Naturally, I don't have to brighten his face simply by darkening the bottom. It's going to visually Brighton. What's on top on this layer? Here? I'm darkening up the very bottom once again. Here is your curve being controlled by this mask. That's all it's doing. This layer here is going to begin the brightening process. So here I brighten up the highlights on his body, and here is the mask. Once again, what was important was Theobald ality to take this image, which was pretty flat and by using a couple curves with a couple, specialized masks were able to come up with this. So as the course goes on, I'll be going into more detail about how to do this method of dodge and burn, as well as the more standard way of doing dodge and burn, which I don't use because there are some limitations to it that I don't particularly care for. But that's a topic for another cloths 5. Photo Evaluation: photo evaluation is going to be an entire class unto itself, which is actually one of my favorite classes, because it's a ton of fun to tear apart images and think about what can be done to improve upon them. What was done wrong, what was done right and learned from others. Mistakes and successes. This particular section is going to talk about how to evaluate your own images. Different techniques you can do to help improve upon your image is by noticing different details. Simply by changing your perspective, you will achieve a much greater and result in your images very quickly. When I look at this image, I really don't want to do a lot to it. I mean, it kind of tells a story into itself, right? So of the only few things I would probably do is just boost up the exposure a little bit, add a little bit more contrast, maybe a little bit more saturation, and down here, this is the brightest part, which is just too much. So I'm going to click on the graduated filter, come up from the bottom and just a little something like that to help break it up. because I may want to come back into camera raw at a later point in time, I'll hold down the shift key, so I'm gonna open object instead of opening the image itself. So I'm gonna open the object, and then I'm going to subjectively evaluate what I see. I find that often when I come into Photoshopped from camera raw, the different icons in the way the palate to laid out or whatever, I just see things a little bit differently. And sometimes I go, You know what? I don't like that. And then I'll go back in the camera. Ron, fix it. Other times I like it the way that it is, and then I move forward. But in this particular case, our goal is to look at this image and judge what we think can be done to improve it. And when I look at this image, I like it, but I still suffer a little bit from wandering. You know, I'm not really coming down here, but up top. It's kind of bothering me. So So I'll double click on this smart object to go back in the camera raw click on the graduated filter and very subtly come out a little angle and then go. OK, I'm just trying to help it along a little bit. I really don't want to do anything heavy handed. It all okay, that's fine. At least brought my eye into the center point. So now we have to start thinking about how we can improve upon the image. And now I have several techniques that I do in order to force myself to stop thinking in terms that I see and start thinking in terms that I don't see. It's kind of funny that way because our eyes play tricks on us. We see the colors and how they interact with each other. But you know what color is not the most important thing within an image, quite honestly, tone Trump's color. So let's fix this. Let's click on black and White Now, instead of looking at the colors. Now, we're looking strictly at the image itself, and this just helps us say, Hey, you know what? Where is my eye going now? And you know what? My eyes coming down here to this thing and a little bit to this, and you know that's interesting. These are things that we can fix. We can create a little mask in dimness area and dim that area, and that helps. Other techniques that weaken do are going full screen, you know, make it really big and have it cover your entire screen and walk away for a minute. Come back. Take a look at him. What's the first impression that you get from the image? Another technique that I do is make it really, really tiny, you know, Come over here and make just this tiny little thumbnail for yourself and look at this little thing on the screen and say, Does it hold up on its own as a thumbnail? Well, when I look at it this way, I say, You know what? It's very flat. All the colors are in a very limited range. There's not enough contrast going on. There's darks, but there are very few lights. The only lighter areas are once again that box or whatever that was. And then this lines at the bottom. We need to lighten up the subject himself, and that will go a long way towards helping this image, which is what I was trying to tell myself before. But I just didn't have the words to say it in this context. Now I can see it, and now I can say another technique that I have is to go mobile. Now this one's a little bit on the extreme, and I only bother with it when I go to do compositing when I'm putting a variety of different elements together from different sources. But well, you can do is take the image and export it out to a simple J peg that you can view on your phone. That doesn't matter how you get it to your phone. Maybe put it on your own website on 1/3 party website. Or maybe you know how to just copy it to your phone in general. But the point is, however, you can get it to your phone and view it on a portable device in your hands. Hold it, Look at it. Walk into a different room, change your lighting, change your mental thought process. This helps ah lot just being able to look at something and twisted a little bit. I'm telling it, it's amazing what you can walk away from when you have something physical in your hand. that is no longer attached to this fixed screen. Another technique I have is to flip it upside down. It's actually not complicated, too. Rotate images around so that you can get a different perspective on things, and you don't have to do anything damaging. Either. Simply go to the hand tool, click on it, and underneath there you will have a rotating view tool. Simply click and drag, and now you can rotate the image upside down. Once you have the image upside down, you are no longer looking at something in a concrete way. You're looking at something in an abstract way. You're thinking in a way that you are not intended to, and you would be surprised what you see in Portrait's because you see people all day long eyes, nose, mouth, eyes, nose, mouth, eyes, nose, mouth. But once you flip it upside down, you're looking at the mouth, the nose than the eyes because it's upside down, and that just helps you stop looking at the details and look at the shapes and the contours and these other elements that really make up the image. And when you find a mistake that way, that's what you need to fix, and you would be surprised at how much better your images look simply by flipping it upside down and changing your perspective. And it's the same reason why having a mobile device helps because you can turn it upside down. You could flip it, you could tip it and really stop looking at it the same way as a flat image but mawr in perspective. And here's an example of three completely different movie posters. The people that have paid to have these created have spent tens of thousands of dollars per poster in order to achieve whatever they think is the best looking image. I want to use the same techniques that we just discussed and apply them to these images to see which ones hold up under the same high level of scrutiny that they do. Just looking at them straight on. Now, when we do look at these images straight on, we don't really think anything different about them. Just like the previous Falcon poster from the other video, it looked fine at first until you see what was wrong with it. So I'm going to take the same images. You've had a chance to look at them. Now I'm going to turn them into black and white, and we're going to re evaluate them once again. So now what do you think? Do they stand up to the test now? I've had several different reactions from my students when they viewed the same images but its core. Here's what we found. The strongest image among this group is the Thor poster in the middle. Because you have the same high detail, you have contrast, you have depth of field, and overall, this image holds up just fine. The one that's slightly weaker is the Captain America poster. One of the strongest points of this image is that it holds the darkness within perspective . For example, things that are closer to you are going to be darker and have more detail, things that are farther away because the way the late disperses them is going to be lighter . So because Captain America is the closest he is, the darkest and a little bit lighter on Black Widow and Nick Fury, and then lighter still is the winter soldier in the background and even lighter than that is the health carrier and these other planes off in the distance. So it does handle perspective very well. And both of these are a good example of what Disney is doing. Disney is the company that now owns Marvel, and they're putting the big bucks behind it. And generally speaking, they're doing an excellent job, both in the movies as well as in their posters. This other one, however, for divergent, is horrible. For now, let's just say that it's got several issues. It's way too dark in the dark areas. It's blown out in the white area, and the perspective itself makes no sense whatsoever. Subliminally, this is what's happening. The Onley poster that actually successfully creates this triangular loop is the Thor poster , because if you look at the divergent poster, your eye comes up and then it's pulled off by this bright sunlight. And then on the Captain America poster is even worse because as you start following it up, then you're I get pulled away by this copter thing in the background, and then it follows the line right off this side of the page. If your images air able to create this loop where it brings your I around and around at least two or three times, then that is a successful image. If you have any breaks like this that pull the I away and off the page, then you need to rethink the layout. When I flip these upside down, where did your eye go to first? I'll give you a minute to look at each of them. Okay, so when I look at this 1st 1 day Virgin, I'm just pulled straight off the poster, like, literally just follow her leg to her body to her head, and I'm often to the sky somewhere and I really don't care. This one is once again, not too good, and it fails the test. The Thor poster. This one's good because it brought my eye into her than to him than to him and then back down to him. Now, once again, this is very important. I'm going from Natalie Portman over to Thor over the low key, and then I has pulled back down to that, this guy in the distance, and then I come across over here to Odin and then often to the different pieces, so my eyes kept within the image. I'm scattered around, and I'm looking at it. I have things to see. Where is this divergent poster? I just kind of trail. Often I'm going. Can you see the difference? Once I look over the Captain America poster, I have the same issues that I did with the divergent where I'm going up his leg, his torso and then I'm off. I'm going. I've following this plane with the smoke. I'm just to write off, and that's not helping me visually. Now. Yes, I'm upside down, so it's not as important, but these air things to keep in mind when you're looking at your images, where did your eye go when you flip it upside down when you make it black and white, when it is now an abstract image and it's no longer something that you expect to see 6. Primary/Secondary Adjustments: when it comes to the color tools you'll actually be using inside a photo shop. I strongly prefer AH, primary group and a secondary group. Basically, I know the primary group inside and out, and you should, too. The secondary group are tools that I use. Sometimes, once in a while, there might go to tools. You should know that group inside and out as well. All the rest of the tools are clutter inside a photo shop. If you were to open up window adjustments, that's going to give you this palette. Inside of this palette are 16 different tools. You will master seven of them. All the rest of them are extreme US tools that service very specific functions that are not necessary in photo retouching. So rather than dealing with all of them at once, I want you to break them up into three separate categories. Your primary tools that you're going to use all the time, your secondary tools that you use once in a while, and then new tertiary tools that you'll never ever use. So what it comes down to is there's no reason to be learning how to use ah C plus tool when you can learn how to use an A plus tool, an A plus tool is designated as the primary tools that do the best job. Most often, the secondary tools are generally offshoots of the primary tools, but allow use in slightly different functionality that you may need once in a while. And all the remainder of the tools are there to take away from your focus and have you sitting there playing with sliders without actually getting to where you need to go. While they all support different functions, they're not things that you need to know when it comes to adjusting the exposure and color of your images. I'm not going to spend a lot of time on these tools in this section because they will be talked about at a later point in time. This is simply a way to collect them all, so you know where to spend the bulk of your time learning. The first primary tool is going to be the curves, which is right here. You can also find under the layers palette at the bottom. There's this half circle, and it's right here curves. Additionally, you can also find it under layer new adjustment layer curves. I prefer to work with the adjustment palate because all I'm doing is clicking once, and I'm working using this way I have to click once. Come down, find it, click a second time and this way requires me to go layer. Find this. Find this. Okay, so this is one click away. This is two clicks away and this is three clicks away. So this is why I always leave this palette open all the time, even though this multiple ways to find the same thing within photo shop. So the 1st 1 is curves again. We'll talk about these tools later, but in this case for curves, I'm gonna take it and bring it up. And now I'm adjusting the exposure of the image with a tool that allows me a great amount of control. Another primary tool that I use is hue saturation. Very simply, I can click and drag, and that's going to add to the saturation of the image. Now, the reason that I use this tool as a primary one is because it has the added functionality of hue lightness which can also mimic the brightness function down here under the brightness contrast tool. It's simply added here, and I can also straight up change colors and do different things with the colorized button . So the hue saturation allows me greater control to do more things. Which is why this is my first tool to go to when I think saturation, because I have greater control in the end. And the last primary tool that I use is this one here called selective color with selective color. And within this tool, I can grab several of the main colors as well as tones and then adjust the colors within the color. Basically, I don't have to do masking in order to make changes in this example. If I go down to the greens, I can pull out Scion, which is going to take this green cast out of the image. Then I can go to yellows and add magenta and very quickly and easily. I balanced out the color cast in the image. Now these three are your primary tools. They're the easiest to use, and we'll give you the best results most of the time. When it comes to the secondary tools, the 1st 1 would be levels levels is very similar to curves. It's tonal tool, and I often go to curves first. But sometimes I'm just lazy, and I don't want to be dealing with the complexity of a curve when all I really want to do is open up the mid tones and put in a little bit more contrast. See quick, easy, different tool, different results. But this one I use in a very limited function, but I use it once in a while, so that's what makes it useful. Another secondary tool that I use a lot is vibrance. With the vibrance. You do have a saturation slider very similar to the hue saturation back up here. The difference is this is a single slider to make life easy, but I prefer the hue saturation tool for the greater control. But this tool is great for simplicity, other than the saturation slider we have. The vibrant slider saturation is good for warms. Vibrance is better for cools. So in this case, I can boost the vibrance, and by adjusting this slider, it's going to ADM or saturation into different parts of the image than just the saturation slider. Well, another secondary tool that I use is, strangely enough, black and white with the black and white tool by itself. It simply makes the image black and white, but I don't actually use it this way. I'll actually use it as a de saturate er in limited areas of the image by using layer masks . So in this example, we have a white mask, which tells the effect of black and white to happen everywhere. White reveals the effect on this layer, and black is going to conceal the effect on this layer, which means I'm going to fill this with black, which you could either go up under edit Phil Black or you could otherwise hit the control Ault with a backspace in order to grab the different colors and an iMac, its command option backspace, which is often the easier way to work. But anyway, because this mask is black, it's stopping the effect of black and white from happening. I can now take my paintbrush, said Toe White. This will allow me to paint over parts of the image with white and effectively turn it black and white, now black and white within an image looks strange. I will finish up with adjusting the capacity where this is opacity of zero, which is stopping the effect from happening, and I'll bring it up to somewhere that I feel. It's not adding the strange saturation in this example. It's not really doing too much, but you get the idea where I'm removing a color cast from sections of an image. Well, there are several different ways to de saturate a section of an image. I use black and white one as a way that I know that that's what that layer is doing. Just by looking at it is, it's the only way I use it, but also I can add a tint back into it. I can give my own color cast over certain sections as well. It just has greater flexibility than some of the other tools when it comes to this specific function, and lastly, one that I use on some rare occasion where I don't feel like really playing with the colors too much. But I do need to give the overall image push one way or the other from a warmer to a cooler or something like that. I'll use a photo filter and by default when you turn it on, it warms up the image, and in this case I'm just gonna leave it like this. But in many cases, and once again adjusting the mask so that it grabs just the flesh tones. Because if the background scene is too cool, then I'll put a photo filter on and just warm up the skin tones. Once again, it's just a quick, easy tool that allows me to do a very specific function. So just to wrap up your primary tools are going to be selective color hue, saturation and curves. And then your secondary tools would be photo filter, black and white vibrance and levels and all the other tools you confined here, like brightness and contrast and exposure. Those could be done within levels and curves. There's no need for these extra tools. Colored balance is interesting, but it's complicated to use. Channel Mixer is also complicated to use color. Look up is interesting, be used primarily for video and Grady. A map can also give interesting artistic effects. The remaining ones of threshold, postural eyes and invert are all but useless. But once again, by focusing on these seven tools that I've just outlined for you. It's going to allow you to focus on what's going to make your images look their best. 7. Tonal Tools: when it comes to making total changes within your images, there are several different ways to go about it. One of your first stops might be within the develop module of late room. If you happen to use light room to catalog your images, you have the option to adjust color and exposure within that program and bring it into Photoshopped. That way, Using that method is very similar to using camera raw within photo shop because the back end engine is basically the same. And when you can start with the raw processing, your end results are often much better. So in this example, I'm going to drag and drop in image into photo shop, which is going to open it up inside of camera raw. Earlier in this course, we talked about camera raw in more detail, but for this example, I'm going to take the exposure, bring it up, open up the shadows as well bring down the blacks to put that contrast back in. I can also drop down the highlights to put tone back into the brighter areas, and very quickly we've taken an image that used to look very dark and flat as this one is, and with a few simple moves, we've brightened up the entire image. And if you'll notice the sliders themselves have created this s shape. The sliders no, always look like this. But if you haven't looked something like this, then you're probably good to go. At the very least, it's a good mental starting point for yourself, while I could open the image just like this and start working on it in photo shop. Since we are talking about the different tonal tools, I'm going to open this up in photo shop without any extra changes to it, so that you could see how I would handle this image without camera rahs and option. I'm going to go through the steps, but I'm sure you're going to find that the results using camera raw are way better than anything I can achieve directly in photo shop. And while technically I can achieve most of the same results, I'll probably end up having to do masking and other advanced techniques, which I'm not going to get into in this video because ultimately it's just too time consuming, which is why the usage of Kameron Light Room is way easier inside a photo shop CC. You do have the option of clicking filter camera raw filter, and that will bring you into a raw processor Once again. This could be used if you're starting with a J peg, for example. And while there are technically workarounds in order to open up J pegs directly in the camera raw filter from within photo shop see a six and older. That most certainly leaves the scope of this video. The easiest way to adjust tone within Photoshopped directly is to use levels. Levels can be found within the adjustments palette, which itself has found under Windows adjustments. Also under the layers palette, you have levels and also under layer. New adjustment layer levels, anyway, that you get there is going to be the same result. Levels work off of the tonal range, which is absolute black toe absolute white with all the steps of gray in between. If you want to adjust the white point, you click on this side, which is above this white bar, and pull it this way, and it's going to brighten up your image. If you want to just the blacks, you're gonna come onto this side and pull it this way, and that's going to make the image darker. If you grab the 50% gray in the mid tones, then you could make the image either lighter or darker with in the mid tones. Exclusively this bar below. You don't usually use because this is going to make the darks flat gray and the whites flat gray. So generally you'd want to focus your attention up top, and in this example, we need to open up the exposure mostly in the middle. So I'm going to bring it this way and then the blacks this way, and that's going to open up the mid tones. But put the contrast back into the image. Now. The problem that you notice in this case is that while yes, technically it is brighter, it doesn't look very good, and that's true. And But I said that at the beginning of this video, you're gonna have a harder time working with the tools built in the photo shop. But we did that for many, many, many years, and there are ways to do it. However, doing it requires masking and other complexities. I'm not going to talk about in this video simply. This is a way that this tool gets used. If you want a little bit of help doing this, you can click on the mid tone eyedropper here and click right there and click right here and click right there perfect in every way. Well, it doesn't work quite like that because it's adjusting things that you don't think it's actually adjusting when using the eyedropper down the side. It's not necessarily adjusting the brights and darks. It's actually trying to balance the color out a little bit for what's dark. What's mid, what's like. I'm not going to use it that way because I want a lot more control out of my images than pushing some auto settings. Speaking of which, here's an auto button perfect in every way. Can you feel the sarcasm? Good, Because if you need to use these automated tools in order to balance your images, then you probably should be going back to my basic one course, because this course is not going to go over every little nuance within every tool. It's more about the concepts rather than the buttons. Now that you've seen, the levels can work, but not great. Let me show you the alternative option of curves with curves. Once again, you can find it all in the different locations. But if you click on curves, it's going to open up this tool palette. In this case, it's going to behave the same as the levels where runs across the tonal range of the blacks to the mid tones to the whites. Except now it's tipped it at an angle, and it runs this way. But effectively, it's running left to right. Except now it's at an angle. So by clicking in the middle and going up, it's going to brighten up the image. If you ever find yourself confused, whether you should be going up or down, it works like a light switch up. The lights come on down, the lights go out, and I really can't make it any more easier than that. But the big difference between levels and curves is that levels would exclusively work on the black, the mid tone and the white. But here you have a much greater flexibility where here you can adjust the highlights, and over here you can adjust the shadows so you can adjust different parts of the spectrum instead of just the beginning, the middle of the end. Here you can get in there and really start tweaking all the different aspects of it in order to get ah, smoother, great Asian and the results you're looking for. So in this example, we simply want to open up the mid tones like this, and then possibly move your blacks just a little bit more down so that it isn't too much in comparison to the levels. This image is starting to look better in that he isn't completely flat here. We actually have some light and dark that begins happening within the curvature of his face and his arm. However, it blows out this area over here because we're right running right across the top, which is actually saying zero white all the way up to 25% of the image, which is why it all blows out toe white. Which is why we also create layer masks which will limit the effect in certain sections in this example, because it's white, it's revealing this effect which is doing this adjustment. I can take my paintbrush set to black and on the mask. I can actually paint out the effect so that it is no longer allowed toe happen in these areas over here. So this section right here goes back to the original image, and this curve is allowed to happen Onley in this area which is over here and again. I'm talking to you as someone who is taking the basic to course and not the basic one course. I'm assuming that you understand some of the technical aspects of what's happening and can follow along. Technically, there are some other tools within photo shop that I tell you not to use. For example, the brightness contrast because while it is brighter and it is contrast here, it actually flattened it out through the mid tone areas. You lack a certain amount of control, and I'd end up having to fix this anyway. Now I'm not saying it's any better or worse than the levels of curbs. That's exactly the point. If curves do a better job most of the time, focus on learning the curves and using the curves over and over again. If brightness contrast works only once in a while, then why even bother and the last way and said a Photoshopped to adjust the exposure is the exposure adjustment, which you would think well, why am I not using the exposure adjustment? Well, simply because this exposure tool palette doesn't work nearly as well as the exposure within the camera raw. Here I'm opening up the exposure, and I can get what I'm looking for inside of the flesh tone. But at this point, I've blown out other sections of the image, and that, once again requires us to go back in and start masking out certain areas, which is a bunch of extra work. It also starts flattening out other areas of the image that I'm unable to correct from within this particular tool. For example, if I move the offset well, I can put a little bit more contrast back in. But then it starts flooding in his hairline. And if I just the gamma here, same thing. So your flexibility becomes a little bit more limited by using sliders instead of the full tonal range that's available within curves Now, lastly, I don't endorse this, but simply because we are talking about this particular topic, you could go under image adjustments and down to shadows and highlights what this tool does . It allows you to open up the shadows and put detail back into the highlights. Does this look good? No, In fact, it looks absolutely terrible. But this is a tool within photo shop that does exist that also works off of the tonal range . If I were to click, show more options, we do have a greater variety of control. But once again it starts getting convoluted, and the results are not necessarily what I want. Additionally, when I click OK noticed, the effect happened directly to the image itself. It does not work often adjustment, which is another reason why I wouldn't use the shadows and highlights option. As we have previously talked about smart objects, I will show you that technically I can right click and go convert to smart object and then go image adjustments, shadows and highlights. And I am able to use this tool as a smart filter, which is incredibly strange to me that it's can work as a filter. But it's not under the filters. I have no idea. Once again, that is, the photo shop engineers doing what they want when they want how they want. But since I'm never going to use the shadows and highlights anyway, I couldn't care less 8. Masking Adjustments: the beauty of masking when combined with adjustment layers, is that you can use the same adjustment layers over and over and over again. That will give you different effects based off of the different masking techniques applied to each layer. Simply as an example, this particular layer uses this curve. When applied with this mask, it basically lightens a certain limited area. The mask itself looks like this. Where the red represents the mast out areas and the clearer areas represent this effect right here. So when we turn the mask off and we turn this on and off, you could see that certain areas become brighter. The curve that I have below this one darkens certain areas which make it look like this. And again, the mask itself looks like this. And we have yet another curve which looks like this, which is similar to the 1st 1 The difference is the mask is just down below at the bottom. As you can see, it's just to darken off these very limited areas down here. When combined together, you actually see this where I'm lightning the top and darkening underneath, so that gives the illusion of the rippling muscles as it goes up his body without this is in effect. He's very flat and dis interesting. But when I turn this effect back on its much more dynamic and visually interesting, But the key take away here is using various different masks with various different curves. I'm able to use the same adjustment over and over again, but in limited areas and with limited types of adjustments in most of my images, you will find the same adjustments over and over again, for example, so I'll be using curves than curbs than curves and curves. Again and mixed in between, I'll be using selective color hue, saturation and several of the other tools that we've talked about previously. The end result is that it looks a lot more complex than it actually is, and most of my images I'm only using 234 different types of adjustments, as opposed to all 16 that are actually available. That's what makes photo shop a lot easier. When you get rid of 80% of the tools, you can still achieve 80% of the results. Once you move into a much more well rounded knowledge of photo shop, that's when you can start picking and pulling from the different options that are available to you. But for right now, just get comfortable doing the same thing over and over again. The repetition is going to help you a lot to achieve the best looking final results. 9. White Balance: you're starting to reach the point in your photo shop knowledge that I'm taking you from very basic usage of photo shop and getting you to start experimenting with different options that are available to you that will eventually lead you into a much more intermediate and advanced usage of photo shop. And part of what separates someone from basic to intermediate isn't just the skill set of being able to clone properly or to become comfortable while using curves and layers and all the other things that are part of the core of photo shop. But more so, part of your evolution is going to be knowing the best tool to use and when to use it when you have enough general photo shop knowledge to say this option is going to give me a better result than the other option. This particular video is simply going to bridge a gap for you. It isn't so much to help you think outside of the box. Rather, it's gonna teach you to simply open up a new box. Try different things. Experiment, See what works for you and your photography because as a professional retouch or I work with many different photographers with many different cameras and the types of changes I need to make our generally consistent for each photographer in each camera, but different for each photographer in each camera. In this example, we're going to be talking about white balance, not specifically as how to create a white balance, but rather how many different ways there are to actually do white balance and which one is going to give the best results for the image and on each image, You may want to use a different type of white balance, so let me show you a couple different ways. You'll probably be very amazed at what the results are here were working inside of Adobe Camera Raw, which is the best place to do white balance, whether it's camera raw or light room is the same back end engine, but you're going to get much better results here than trying to do it inside a photo shop itself. Simply come over to the third icon over here, which says, white balance tool, and then we're gonna pick a portion of the image that's going to give us the most neutral color. It doesn't have to be white it doesn't have to be black. It doesn't even have to be 50% gray or 30% gray or anything like that. Simply, it's the part of the image that should be considered the most black and white of everything , the area most devoid of color. When you do look at this image, which part of this image is going to give you the most neutral part of the color? Not necessarily the part that is the most offensive to be more specific. If I were to click back here into this area, that's just green, and we know it's wrong. If I click there, it's going to make the whole image blue cast, and that's not right at all, rather the best place to click on this particular images down here on his shirt, underneath the railing. So if I click right there, that's going to give us a general balance to the image. I'm not saying it's great. I'm not saying it doesn't need to be fixed afterward. I'm just saying, after experimentation, that area is going to give us the most neutral, balanced image, so in this case I'm going to click on open image and Now, I want you to remember that this version was the camera raw version. Now I'm going to do it again in a different way. This time, instead of adjusting the image, I'm just going to open it as it came out of the camera originally. And I'm going to take this version here and go image duplicate. And I'm gonna slide this one over here. So we have the same image twice. And on this 2nd 1 I'm going to click on the only way and photo shop itself that there's even a hint of a white balance which is under levels clicking this grayscale icon here and I'm gonna click in the exact same spot underneath his shirt. It should come as no surprise to you that this isn't very good at all, which is why we don't actually use this. I'm only saying that this is the only part of Photoshopped that has a white balance, and it's terrible. This is one of those things have been complaining about forever. And I certainly hope that in some later version they come up with a better way to do it. But as of recording this video, there is no proper white balance and photo shop, and that's the best that we have moving on. Now. I have the copy that we created over here on this particular version. I'm going to go filter camera raw filter if you're following along. So far, you would think that using camera raw on this version of the image is going to give me the exact same result by going filter camera raw on this version of the image, however, that is not true at all. There's something in there that is different. I don't know what it is, but it will definitely give you a different result. So once again, on this image, I'm going to click on the White Balance tool, going to come back under his shirt and I'm gonna click again and then I'm gonna go, OK, I'll even move this one out of the way. Slide this one over Now you can clearly see the difference between white balance in camera raw as opposed to the white balance in the camera Raw filter again. I don't know why it's different, but it's very interesting to note, simply because the camera raw filter gave us a better looking result. It's a much cleaner version of the image. So I'm gonna take this one step further. I'm going to take this camera raw version of the image and duplicate it with image duplicate. Okay, so now we have an exact copy right here. This time, the image will not only have camera raw as its white balance, but I'm also on top of that white balance going to do filter, camera, filter and once again do a white balance a second time on the same image. Well, why would I do that? You would think that if it's already been balanced once, it's gonna be balanced the second time, it will be the same. But I've already shown that the filter does a different job. So what will happen if we do a double white balance? It will actually give us 1/3 different version, and it's hard to tell unless you really look at it. But it is different here. You can see that the color is money. Here, you could see the color is very bright. And here, visually, it kind of looks like the 1st 1 right. Until I slide this side of the way. Then slide this one right next to it. You should be able to see a difference between these two, which is very different than this one. So again, this one is camera raw. This one is camera raw filter, and this one is camera raw with the camera filter applied afterwards. And here you have three different results, utilizing what otherwise should be the exact same tool. While interesting unto itself, the real take away here for you is the basic user is simply going to use a white balance that's in camera raw and possibly even the camera raw filter, simply out of ease of use, as opposed to any technical reason. It's simply the more skilled in advanced user that has taken the time to experiment with all the different tools and come up with all the different options to realize which one looks the best and which one looks the worst and focusing on the way that's going to give you the best result instead of focusing on the way that's gonna give you the worst results , and the only way you're going to achieve that is with time, practice and experience 10. Auto Button: This image represents not only my wife's obsession with little snowmen, which every year I swear jump off the table and wonder around the house every night. But it also illustrates a common problem of images that are taken under tungsten lighting or fluorescent lighting or something like that. And that's where it gives it this color cast. In this case, the entire image has this orange yellow cast. It also suffers from the basic problem of the flash. In this case, it was just taken with a little pop up on top of the camera. I know for the photographers bad, but whatever. So it popped up in it, flashed right in the middle. And then this is the ending image right here. Now, while there are obviously ways to fix this in camera raw, I'm once again going to illustrate function built within photo shop and give it an interesting twist. First thing I'm gonna do is duplicate this image so that I have to working copies of it. On this 1st 1 I'm going to click on levels and then I'm going to push the auto button. I don't use this auto button, but simply I'm showing you something new and fairly interesting. If you click the auto button, this is what it's going to do by default. Now, I'm not going to talk about whether it's good or bad, simply that it's different on the second image. I'm once again going to go to levels, but this time, instead of clicking the auto button, I'm going to click on the offshoot at the top and then go down to auto options. When I click on auto options, it's going to open up, and by default it's going to give us. The exact same result is the first image, which is enhanced brightness and contrast. Which explains why the image looks like it does. But we do have other options here, For example, find dark and light colors. Okay, again, Not good or bad. Just different. Another one up here named enhanced monochromatic contrast again different. But the one that may be of more interest to you is this one right here. Enhance per channel contrast when you click on this and follow that up with snap neutral mid tones at the bottom. We have an option to save this as our new defaults, so that whenever we push that auto button, this is going to be applied by default. But for right now, I'm just gonna click, OK? And immediately you should see a couple different variations. One, it removed the yellow cast. That's where the snap neutral, mid tone check box came in. But you should also be able to notice that it didn't lose contrast, like this one just got flat. This one is not and based off of the original image, this is what the auto option actually did. Once again, I'm not saying good or bad. I'm simply saying that this is yet another tool in your arsenal that's going to help you create better looking results. 11. Emotion: What is the emotion of the image? Do you want it to be warm and inviting? Or cold and stark? This is one of those topics that starts leaving photo shop in the technical and brings us more into the artistic side. The feeling of the image. How do you want the viewer to respond to what they're looking at? Often it takes very little changes in order to give a different emotion. If we want an image to be more warm and inviting, we can adjust the temperature and the tent and give the image a stronger orange side, which will ultimately give it more intimacy, more privacy, a moment between the viewer and the subject. If we were to take thes sliders and go in the opposite direction, we start leaving behind any level of closeness that the viewer might have had, and we start making them feel a little bit uneasy and put off across the image, and sometimes you want one over the other, and this can be achieved simply by adjusting the white balance, and in the end, it really just depends on what you're going for. I mean, all the different sliders that are available in photo shop are all very important, and they're all going to give you a different result in expanding the tonal range and making the image more technically correct. But it's moving the temperature into warms and cools that really start making the image come toe life and allowing the viewer to feel better about an image. The other thing is going with saturation, as opposed to vibrance, where saturation will often make the image look warmer and vibrance will make the image look cooler. But it all depends on what you're trying to achieve. Sometimes it doesn't really take that much to take an image from a visually dis interesting , properly color balanced image into something much more emotionally charged just by moving the temperature and the tent down into something in the cooler areas, pulling out some saturation and putting in more vibrance. The work that you do on the tonal range just simply adds to this effect and then suddenly goes from something standard to something much more aggressive and painful to view. These are your private moments with your images. This is where you could tell the viewer how you felt when you first saw an image. Sometimes it can be happy, and sometimes it could be sad. Sometimes you want them to know the pain that comes from the subjects point of view, and all it takes is a few simple sliders to really convey that emotion. So once again, how does this image make you feel? It's your turn to tell a story in color. 12. Color and Tone: something that can help your subjects stand out. Within their background is some basic knowledge of color and tone. More specifically, warms come forward cools, go back, just like lights come forward and blacks go back. While it always depends on what your actual images, knowing some basic things like Cools going back means that you can enhance cools, to push things away and then make things warmer to bring them forward into the more obvious focal point. But the same time it takes a little bit of experimentation based off of the individual image, sometimes taken away, the cools in order to enhance the warms, is going to help bring the subject forward. Other times, enhancing the blacks and then pushing lights away can help bring the subject forward. Which, of course, is the exact opposite of what I said. It's really about understanding some of the basics and training your eye to look at the image and see what pulls you in this example. If you were to look away from the screen and then look back, what's the first thing that catches your eye? The first thing is your face, and then you're immediately pulled down here into this dark area in the front corner, and the reason that the dark is pulling you is because it's his big blob right there surrounded by all this light area. So this is an example of where cropping would help or cloning out over the offending object . Or perhaps we could even play with it and by darkening the other side of the image to help balance it out. Now, I'm not saying this is technically right. However, when I look away and I look back, I'm no longer being pulled over here because this is a balance to it that helps re center my eye into the brighter areas which are up here. But when you start talking this way, it takes us back to the earlier sections where I talk about turning an image black and white to remove the color and just see the tone, turning an image upside down to look at it and see what you see. These are the things that are going to make your images aesthetically look correct, and with a little bit of control, you can make them technically correct as well as visually correct. By pushing and pulling the lights and the darks and the warms and cools, you can redirect the subject's attention to where you want it to bay. 13. Histograms: hissed a grams or something that you should use as a guide. Nothing mawr. The problem is what the hissed a gram tells you on a technical level is not necessarily what you want on an artistic level. Let me give you an example on this particular image. It's actually pretty well balanced. The way to read the hissed a gram is that here is your black. Here is your mid tones and hear your whites. And basically, when you have these peaks and valleys that run from one edge to the other, that is a nice, evenly balanced image. And in this case, we do have quite a bit of peaks and valleys that are going on from one edge to the other. We can certainly improve upon it. Simply all we need to do is open up the shadows, push back the blacks, open up the exposure a little bit, and somewhere in here it's not really that bad. Once again, we have tone that runs from one edge of the image to the other, and visually it seems to work for us. So this would be an example of a good image with good hissed a gram that looks technically correct. So allow me to take a moment to explain the hissed a gram itself. When you look at a hist a gram inside a camera, raw light room and photo shop, what you're seeing is the different channels of red, green and blue all overlap together when you see just blue. That means there is density on that part of the Blue Channel, but not on the other channels. When you see these little peaks of red, well, that means that there is density in the red, but not in the other channels. And then, lastly, you don't see it here, but you would have green peaks as well, and that makes a pure red, green and blue. You see other colors here, for example, scion, magenta and yellow. Those are actually the complementary colors to the red, green and blue. And when different colors overlap, that's when it creates the different colors for us. But when the densities of the red, green and blue overlap in different ways, that's what gives us the different colors of san magenta and yellow. When there are areas that have the red, green and blue all together, that's where inside of camera raw, you see it as white. So do you understand that? All I'm saying is that you have peaks and valleys for the Red Channel, the Green Channel, the Blue Channel. When areas of those channels overlap, it's going to create scion, magenta and yellow. When all the channels overlap together, it's going to create the white here, inside of camera raw. Here we have an example where all of the colors air pushed over to the left hand side of the hissed a gram. That means that the image is visually dark. When we look over the image itself, the visual image tends to agree with the hissed a gram, and because of that we can use the hissed a gram as a base reference for ourself. And if we want to balance this image out a little bit more, we need to push the colors over to the lighter side of the hissed a gram. And we would do that by taking the exposure and moving it over so that these colors get pushed out because we're leaving the black side of things. We need to put some black back in, so that pushes it over the peak here, and these little peaks here on the white are probably representative of the side of his shirt, which is getting a little blown out. And if we want to compensate for that, we would grab the highlights and pull him down just a little bit. Now it is looking a little bit flat inside of these highlights here, which is true. So we would need to play with the tonal range a little bit more to train. Balance this out. However, Remember when I said we're going to use this as a guide? Nothing Mawr. I'm way more concerned with how the image visually looks. Does it have contrast? Are the darks opened? Is there still detail in the highlights? These are the things that I'm more concerned about than the hissed a gram itself because sometimes the hissed a gram. Maybe technically correct, but it kind of lies. Let me show you. In this example, the hissed a gram is telling me that something is terribly and horribly wrong, which is technically true. However, when we look at the image, you can clearly see why it looks the way that it does. It's picking up all the brights back here, and it's peaking here where all the black is, but visually and artistically, it's 100% fine, which is why I'm more concerned with how it looks visually, as opposed to technically and as one last example. I want to show you how this hissed a gram looks here inside of camera raw. I want you to look at it and make note that the background is gray. You have your colored peaks and then you have white, which represents all the colors overlapping. When I say open image and I go in the photo shop and then I go toe window hissed a gram. I want you to see how it looks very different, because here you have a white background and a gray where all the colors air overlapping. This is an example of the adobe engineers not talking to each other, and one department is doing one thing, and the other department is doing another. But I want you aware that these hissed a grams even though they look visually different a little bit. They are technically the same, and I would like to show you one other thing as well If I click on one of these adjustments , it doesn't matter which one. And I do something to the image. I want you to see two completely different things. One is that you get this little triangle up in the corner of the hissed a gram. What this is telling you is that this hissed a gram is not 100% accurate updated. It actually wants you to come over here, click on the triangle and say OK, now, as far as its concerned, it's technically correct. Why does it make you do this? I have no idea. I'm sure that back in the day, keeping up with the hissed a gram as you actually adjusted, the image might have been processor intensive. But I'm pretty sure in today's day and age, the hissed a gram can actually keep up with me without too much trouble. I'm not an engineer, but I'm just guessing now. The second thing that I want you to notice is what actually happened to the hissed a gram itself. You can clearly now see that we have these comb lines built into the hissed a gram where it is actually missing data. Well, why did that happen? Well, that happens from this image being eight bit. Remember back to your bit depth. Eight bit is to 56 shades of gray times 256 times 256 for the red, green and the blue, which is going to give you 6.7 million colors. What this is saying is that somewhere in here we've actually exceeded the 6.7 million colors and it has to make up the information, and it created the gaps within the hissed a gram. This version is a 16 bit that I just pulled out of camera raw. Now I'm going to take the same curve, drag and drop it onto the 16 bit image and now the 16 bit image. Now I have the hissed, a gram that gives me the same broken information. However, this time when I click on the triangle with the exclamation point in it, now you can see that it fixes the hissed a gram, and it actually looks correct to properly make this move without the need to fake the display of the missing information, The 16 bit has enough overhead toe actually handle it Why? Because instead of 256 shades of gray per channel for the red, green and blue, now each channel has 65,000 shades of gray time. 65,000 shades of gray times 65,000 shades of gray. Which takes me back to the same thing I've been saying since the first class of basic one, which is when you open up your images from camera raw. They should be in 16 bit and not eat. 14. Selective Color: back in my basic zero class. I use this example to show how to use the selective color tool, which very quickly works like this. You click on this adjustment right here, which is selective color, and you can then choose the colors that you want to adjust, and then you adjust the individual colors based off of science magenta, yellow and black. So, for example, if we want to adjust this back wall and we want to make it purple, well, we have it on science. Simply add magenta suddenly the Wallace purple. If we want to. Just the yellow of her shirt. We simply go to the yellows. We can pull out Scion, and that gets rid of that. Green and blue cast very quick, very easy and simple to use. However, in the real world situations, it's not usually that quick, that simple or that easy. In this example, we bump into a very common problem when actually using the selective color tool. I'm going to click on the selective color and choose to adjust the pink of the hair so the one that we want is magenta, and then I will adjust the magenta as but When I do this, can you see what actually happens? It's not only grabbing the hair, but it's also grabbing the skin tones down here back here and over here is well, I'll do it again so that you can see how Mawr areas than just the hair move. Similarly, if we want to adjust the blue of her hair over here, then we would go to the scions. And once again you can see that not only is it grabbing the hair, but it's also grabbing the areas in this face in this faces well, and that doesn't even mention the green that's on the makeup right next to the area that we actually want to adjust. So this introduces some problems for us, So rather, what we want to do is limit the areas that it's actually selecting so that we have greater control. I'll throw away the selective color to start with and then use the simple lasso tool and simply come along and drag as a marquee around the area that I want. Then I'll click on the tool, which will automatically apply that mask. Then I can grab the color that I want and then it just accordingly. Now, if you notice it's only grabbing her hair and her face and not the other areas as well. In this case, they don't want it to grab the faces well, so I can grab a simple paintbrush with the layer mask selected, change the brush and then paint with black on the mask. And then you see, that's what I painted. So then we quickly and easily selected just the hair. It was a couple extra steps, but it wasn't complicated at all. If I want to do the same thing to the pink Hera's well, I would once again use the last So tool do a swipe around the hair, and in this time I'll come a little closer and do that. So now I can go selective color magenta is and then adjust it as needed again. It's an extra step, but all in all, it's pretty easy. And now here's another example where it gets even more complicated. In this case, I'd like to change the color of her skin. However, her skin isn't actually a color per se. It's more of a tone, and that tone is very similar to what's behind her over here and behind her over here, not to mention up in her Hera's Well, So how do we actually handle this situation? Well, the best way to handle this is by using a mask attached to the adjustment. So the basic idea here is you could either create the mask first or you can create the adjustment first. It really doesn't matter how you do it. Ah, click on the adjustment Selective color. And instead of picking reds, yellows, greens, blues, magenta as I'm actually going to pick the neutrals and when I do pick the neutrals, I now have the option to come in with wide swings of color. But it occurs over the entire image. What I actually want to do is limit these options just to the skin itself. So in order to do that, I need to create a mask first. And it can't be a loose one like the one we just did. It actually has to be a tighter mask. And in order to do that, I'm going to prep my tools in order to give me the best and results. Which means I'm going to click on quick Mask paintbrush 100% capacity. I'm going to check my brush that the hardness is going to be 80% because I'm going to be following along a hard edge. But I don't want 100% because that's just too hard. 80% gives a nice hard edge, but still soft enough that it blends pixels just a little bit. I'm going to zoom in on the image, and then I'm going to use my brackets, which are above the enter key of bracket left to make it smaller bracket right to make it bigger. And I'm going to use the bracket left to make my brush smaller to come into the tighter areas. And then I'm going to click once, hold down my shift key and click again, and that's going to give me the straight edge. And I'm going to keep holding down the shift key while I click, click, click and click, and basically, I'm going to go around this entire skin area. Now. I'm not gonna bore you by watching me actually do this. I'm just gonna go around the outside of all of her skin areas doing this, holding down the shift key and going click click, click and then around certain areas. I might just paint. But when I can't, I'm just gonna go back to the shift clicking because it's going to allow me to create this mask as quickly as possible. So now I just spent about 10 minutes going around the outside of her body, and there's one last area that I've left behind, which is the hairline. So I left that behind because I wanted to show you how I went around the whole body, using the same size brush with the same size hardness. When it comes to an area like this up here along the forehead, I'll actually back off from this hardness of 80% usually to around 20%. And then I'll give the brush a much larger size, and I let that feathering do the soft edge for me. Generally, I'll have to refine it afterwards, which means that depending on the change itself, I'll have to adjust it as needed. A little softer, a little harder, whatever. But this is basically just how I handle those situations where I have a hard age next to a soft edge. I'll do all the hard edge first and then I'll go back and do the soft age afterwards. Otherwise, you're constantly changing a brush bigger and smaller and softer interest extra work when you can otherwise zone out and just do what you need to do. So now that we've gone around the image and we've done all this, can you tell what I've missed? Yes, there's actually a section in here that I didn't dio. Can you tell what it is? Well, it's actually her lips and her teeth. I actually left those behind because, as I did my work ago around the outside and and I was about to apply the inside of it when I realized that I didn't do her lips. So let's zoom in here and do her lips. The difference was changing this brush from 20 to 80 making a little bit smaller once again and then come in here with the shift clicking and very quickly mask out this area because when we do something that the skin we don't want it toe affect her lips as well. Often you'll have to go in here and do the, uh, eyes as well when you're working on somebody's flesh tones. Okay, So now that we've traced the outside of it now, we actually have to fill in the inside. How would you go about filling in the inside? This is a topic I've covered in various videos more than once over the course of basic one and basic, too. While, yes, you could just take your paintbrush and begin painting in the inside of it. That's actually way too much work. Ah, much easier way is to click on the magic one tool with contagious. Probably selected already. I've never unchecked it. I'm just pointing out that it should be selected as well as a pixel based layer or a smart object. You can't have an adjustment layer selected. If you do, this won't work. It has to be the background or smart object or clone layer or something along those lines. Why? I don't know. It's silly, but it is what it is. So with your magic one contagious and the background selected, you can now click once anywhere on the inside of the skin in this case, and now it's going to fill in right up to the edge in this section because we have a lower section. We have to hold down the shift key and that allows us to add to the selection. Now that we've added to the selection, we zoom in and we see that it comes to the edge, but it doesn't actually overlap into. Additionally, when you look up here, it doesn't even come close. So we need to compensate for this. First, will come over to these harder edges and will make this selection expand out into the green area. And we do that by using select modify, expand. The amount of pixels is completely dependent on the image and the thickness of the brushstroke that you made but in this case for pixels is fine. Now it's coming to the line, but it has not taking care of this softer edge will have to come back in afterwards and take care of that very specific area. But for now, this is good. We will now fill it with black, which is an equal to the temporary color we have selected, which in my example is green and that comes from double clicking on the quick mask icon that brought up that preferences palette that I showed in an earlier video so we can go. And it, Phil Black go, OK, and now it fills it with green up to the edge and then it overlaps that edge. And now when we de select, we now have a nice clean fill inside the image. The only area that we need to take care of is right here, up in the hairline. And in which case, now we just go with our paintbrush, make it a little bit bigger and just simply fill it in very quick. Very easy. The only time consuming part of this was creating this outside framework of that mask. Now, when we come out of it now, we have just the skin selected. As we have the skin selected, we can now apply our adjustment layer to it. And in this example, I'm going to click on the selective color Select neutrals and then it just the color accordingly. In this case, when I make this move on the neutrals, it's doing too much work inside of her face. You see how it got way to nuclear in the darker areas. So instead of the neutrals, I'm gonna change this back to zeros, and this time I'll try whites. Well, that wasn't quite what I had in mind, either. Perhaps a mix of both would work. I'll bring them back two zeros, go back to the neutrals at a little bit of magenta at a little bit of say, N. Then I can go into the whites at a little bit of magenta and a little bit of San, and that might be a little bit closer to what I had in mind originally. But the point of this exercise is that rather than using the colors to make our selections , we use the tone to make the selection within the quick mask to then adjust the specific colors to make the adjustment that we actually wanted. 15. Hue/Saturation: If all you want to do is add some saturation toe on image, you could use the very simple tool called vibrance, which is this one right here. It gives you two very simple sliders, vibrance and saturation. Can you remember from an earlier video what the differences between vibrance and saturation ? The official definition is that vibrance is going to move the weaker colors and saturation is going to move all colors equally. My own personal definition is that vibrance is going to move the cool's first, then the warms and saturation is going to move the warms first than the cools. And again, if all we're looking to do is just add some saturation in the image. We can use this vibrant stool with two very simple sliders to give it a little punch there , a little punch there and call it a day. But unless I actually want to push the cools, I don't really use this particular tool. Rather, I'm going to use hue saturation. The reason that I use hue saturation is that it gives me greater control over my color selections within a single tool, because I can also do some light tone adjustments as well. I can use this tool very simply by taking the saturation, boosting it up. However, this tool will do a lot more. Let's say, for example, I want to change the color of the car from red to something completely different. Let's say purple. The only tool that will actually allow me to do that with ease is hue saturation. Let me show you the first thing I want to do is create a mask for the red of the car, depending on the type of control you actually need. This can either be complicated or simple. The more complicated way is the way I would actually do it, because it's going to give the greatest amount of control. In that example, I would use select color range, and I would select the reds of the vehicle. Click OK used the hue saturation adjustment layer with the mask attached to it. Now here's the funny thing with how you use this tool. We can click saturation and boost it up, and it will add saturation of the image, which is currently masked to the right of the car. However, if you were to move this Hugh slider around it's going to straight up change the color of the vehicle. The problem here is that the color that it changes to is based off of the color that it waas not necessarily the color that the slider is on. If you look the slider itself, it's pointed to green, and the vehicle is now purple. It's one of these strange color combination things that I truly don't understand the way to get this tool. The work the way that you expected to is to click on the colorize check box. Now, when you slide it over to blue, it will give you a blue car. Green will give you a green car. Yellow orange. You get the idea. While you can make wide changes to color, I would recommend staying within the same general family, mostly for simplicity's sake. But as you're about to see, you don't necessarily have to. At this point, we have selected the color. We select the amount of saturation that we want, and then we adjust the tone of the color change. For example, if we go darker, it's going to add a deeper color to it. If we go later, it's going to brighten it up till looks a little bit funny and not realistic At this point . I would then go in and edit the mask itself so that we have a better mass going forward with the effect. This takes a little bit of time to do it and get it right. But you get the idea now. There is a simpler way to do this, which may or may not work for you. It completely depends on the situation. Rather than taking the time to mask the car, I'm going to do something a little bit different. I'll go directly to the hue saturation adjustment layer. But rather than click on the cull Arise button, I would actually click on this icon right here, which has the little finger. This allows me to click on a specific color that I want to alter, and if you look down here, it actually gave me a parameter. Within this color range, it's going to make this adjustment happen. So if I slide this over a little bit, notice how it completely changed the color of the vehicle. If we want more of a color selected, we can click in this little area and open it up and open it up. But the more we open it up, the more of the different areas become affected by this color. So instead, we're actually going to keep it limited to what we need it to bay now. As you can see, it did a pretty decent job on the car. In fact, I really loved the job that it did on the car. The problem is that it wanders often other areas, like up here in the skin tones. As you can imagine, it didn't originally look like that. So in these cases we would still have to alter the mask. Anyway, it just simply depends on how you want to approach the situation.