Photography Fundamentals - A Complete Guide | Matthew Celeste | Skillshare

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Photography Fundamentals - A Complete Guide

teacher avatar Matthew Celeste, Photography Simplified

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

10 Lessons (1h 12m)
    • 1. Course Introduction

    • 2. Shutter Speed

    • 3. Aperture

    • 4. ISO

    • 5. White Balance

    • 6. Dynamic Range

    • 7. Focal Length

    • 8. Resolution

    • 9. Flash

    • 10. Wrap Up

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About This Class

Cameras can be intimidating, especially if you venture off of the AUTO mode. They don't have to be. I want to lay it all out so you can understand each of the parameters that go into making your photograph. This information is platform-neutral. It doesn't matter if you pick up a Nikon, Sony, Canon, Panasonic, Fuji, or any other camera. As long as you have manual controls you'll be able to accomplish what you set out to do.

This course will take you from zero to fully understanding how to use your camera and what each control does. No prior experience is necessary. You may also have been shooting for a little while but are looking to increase your knowledge so you can take your photography to the next level. This class is for you.

Meet Your Teacher

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Matthew Celeste

Photography Simplified


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1. Course Introduction: Hey, guys, welcome to the photography fundamentals. Course, my name is Matt, and I'm gonna be walking you through a step by step of higher camera works and how to take photographs. You might be at the very beginning of your journey, and you haven't even taken a photograph yet. Or maybe you've been shooting for a few years and you want to take a step back and understand what's actually going on inside that camera so you can take it off auto mode and actually get into manual and really control what you're doing either way, no matter where you are, I hope this course is a big help for you. We're going to talk about shutter speed. I s O aperture white balance and a whole lot more. If you get stuck or you don't understand something, the beauty of the video course that you can just watch it again. So make sure you understand each piece as you move along. If you have any questions, I'll be happy to respond. You can use the platform to just send us questions, and I'll get back to Houston as I can. If he carries about my background, that stick around. If not and that's totally cool, you can jump ahead to the next part and get going right on the course material. But I've been photographing since about 2009 and I am self taught, actually went to school for electrical engineering, and I was a design engineer for 7.5 years. I made circuit boards and firmware and code and all sorts of dirty stuff like that, and about halfway through that as an engineer, I had bought a camera and I taught myself how to shoot. And I kind of got bit by the photography bug, which I assume you have if you're watching this course and things just grew, and after a few years I found myself photographing weddings and that grew as well. And I was doing more and more weddings and more and more shoots and had a pick either engineering or photography. So I finally jumped ship and I went over to photography full time and started the company. Blue Flash were based in Rhode Island, and we are primarily wedding photographers, and we do over 100 1 is a year now, so things got pretty crazy pretty fast. but it's been awesome. And I found that the biggest hurdle for a lot of photographers is that beginning point in their career, where they've got the camera in the hands and they don't quite understand how to control it on manual mode. And so they fall back to auto or, ah, shutter priority or aperture priority and don't really know what the cameras doing of what they're doing to the camera in order to get the photos they're getting. And that works for a time. But after a while, it really does help to know exactly what's going on so that you have full control and you can start taking more advanced and complex photographs. So I hope this course gives you the foundation that you need in order to get to that point . It's pretty liberating, and your foot, your photography will definitely take multiple steps forward once you get this under your belt, so stick with me through the course. If you get confused or you're stuck, just rewatched the video, and if you have a lot of questions, you can ask us down below, and I'd be happy to get back to Houston as I can, so let's get to it 2. Shutter Speed: So in your camera are three main parameters. You've got shutter speed aperture and I s O We're gonna start by talking about shutter speed. The thing is that all three of these things work together to create your exposure, but we need to understand each one's individual contribution to the exposure before we can tie them all together. So shutter speed has to do with how fast or how long your shutter, which is the depending on the camera, a mechanical curtain in front of the sensor or maybe in a Marylise camera. It's how long the sensor stays exposed for. But either way, it performs the same function. No matter how it physically takes place, it's how long that stays open for and showed. A speed is expressed in seconds, and oftentimes most photographs were taken in fractions of a second. So you makes you see a shutter speed at 1/60 or 1 1/100 or 1 24/100 or anything like that. 25/100 actually, and that is how long season. So it's usually not very long unless you hear somebody doing a long exposure, in which case you'd be having the shutter statement for multiple seconds, sometimes even minutes or hours for Astro photography and things like that. So I have an analogy for you that may help you understand how the shutter works. So if you think of a barrel outside like a big trash barrel and it's got a cover on it basically in a rainstorm as the rain's coming down, the amount of time that you take the cover off that barrel is how is your shutter speed? So if you have a very quick shutter speed, then you take that cover off and you put it right back on. Are you going to collect a lot of rain that barrel? Not so much. But if you took that cover off and you waited an hour and then you came back and you put it back on, you're gonna have a pretty significant amount of water in that barrel. Now, in that analogy, the water is light and the cover of the barrel is the shutter speed or the shutter itself. So if you think about it like that, the longer your shutter stays open, the more light you're going to collect onto your sensor or film. If you're shooting film. So how does shutter affect our exposure? The slower are shutter speed, the brighter our exposure is going to be because we're letting more light come in because we're allowing it to stay open longer. Now, shutter speed also effects something else in our photograph and that is motion blur. So as that shutter stays open, if it stays open from multiple seconds, let's think about how much can happen in a few seconds in a photograph. If I'm having my picture taken and I'm rocking back and forth like this and that shutter stays open for three seconds, that's one que three. So I just went back and forth a handful of times in that three seconds. If the camera is recording me over those three seconds, I'm gonna look like a ghost. You're gonna see translucent images of me from here to here. Now, if the shutter speed is safe, for instance, 1 320th of a second or let's even say 1 1/1000 of a second. So one millisecond, if I'm going back and forth like this, that shot is gonna open and close like this. So doesn't matter where I am or how moving that shutter is going to freeze my action because it's still quick. Now there's varying degrees of this. Obviously, if you have a very fast moving subject, say, for instance, a train that's speeding by, you're gonna need a pretty fast shutter speed to freeze that motion. If you're photographing a still life seen, maybe you're doing product photography and you're using natural light. Well, you can leave the shutter open for five seconds and doesn't matter because your subjects not gonna move. So it's very dependent on the situation. But understanding how the shutter contributes to motion blur will help you choose an appropriate shutter speed for what you're photographing. There are other contributions to this effect, such as your focal length of your lens. So when shooting with a longer focal length, such as maybe 200 millimeters and you're very zoomed in your shutter, speed is going to have to be higher so that the effects of your hands moving is minimized. So when you shoot with a very wide lens, the amount of motion that your lens sees from your hands is going to be less than when you're extremely zoomed in. If you've ever used binoculars toe look at up bird hundreds of 100 feet away and you put those binoculars to your eyes. You know that as you move just a little bit, there's a big movement in the image that you see with binoculars, but that movement is going to be minimized as that focal I'm decreases. So the same thing happens with long lenses and short lenses. So a good rule of thumb just as a starting point. And this is irrespective of what your subject is. Ah, good rule found for handheld is that you want to be two times your focal length, so one over to tension for like so. For instance, if you're shooting with 50 millimeter lens, then you want your shutter speed to be generally a minimum of 1 1/100 50 times two is 100 won over 100. Is your shutter speed. Now this does very depending on the shooter's stillness of their hands. I don't have very still hands, so I kind of have to abide by that rule. There are some people that can be very steady and still, and they can cheat a little bit and get slower shutter speeds at those focal wings, but that's just a starting point. There's other things, too, like you're. Some lenders have stabilization. Some bodies have stabilization inside, and that's gonna let you shoot at slower shutter speeds. But in general, with regular lenses with no stabilization and average shaky hands like I've probably got 1/2 times, your focal length is what your shutter speed should be at a minimum. And there's nothing to say that you can't have a faster shutter speed. It's not gonna hurt you there. It's gonna actually help. So that shutter speed, and like I said before, it's going to also play a hand in hand with aperture and I sl. We're gonna talk about those in the next modules, and they will tie everything together. So in quick review, shutter speed, the longer it's open, the more light it lets in. The shorter it's open, the less light it lets in. Shutter speed contributes to motion blur. If you have your shutter open for a long time, then you're going to be more susceptible to motion Blur. When you have fast moving subjects, you need to have a faster shutter speed when you have a longer lens. You also need to have a faster shutter speed to avoid motion blur. So that's shutter speed. Let's check out aperture. 3. Aperture: all right, We're gonna tackle appetite. Sometimes, really, Apertura might be the most mysterious of the parameters for a lot of people, but it's really not that complicated. I'm gonna break it down for you. We're gonna go back to our trash barrel analogy with the rain storm. So now, instead of taking the cover off the trash barrel, we're actually going to cut a hole in the top of that cover. But that whole size is going to be related to our aperture. So let me take a step back. Apertures Express. Also in a fraction. Although it's typically referred to as F 1.8 or F 3.5 and you'll see an F with a slash in the number. Well, that number is actually a ratio. It's one over that number. And so that number represents how large that opening in the lenses. The aperture is the opening inside of the lens. There's a diaphragm that opens. Sometimes it opens just a little bit. Sometimes it opens a lot when the shutter opens, so 1/3 0.5 for an aperture f slash 2.5. That's saying that that hole is going to open 1/3 and 1/2 of the amount of the total lens opening. So an aperture of F one would be that thing opening up completely because 1/1 is one. It's 100% of the opening, but F two is going to be half off the opening. So if you've got a hole this big, then it's only gonna open half of that amount and so on as you go up. So F nine is only 1/9 and so they start to get really small. As you get up into the higher F numbers for your aperture, it's going to start almost looking like a pinhole that's opening up so back to the trash can. If we've got s 1.8, that's going to be a pretty large opening for your aperture. So we're gonna cut a big hole in that trashcan. We're just gonna take off that part. We cut out and say our shutter speed stays constant throughout this illustration. So we've got ah, one second shutter speed. We take that part, we cut out for one second and then we put it back on. So we had a pretty big opening we probably let a decent amount of water in now to contrast that with the hire aperture, let's say F 11 we're only gonna cut a hole that's 1/11 of the entire lid. So we cut our tiny little hole in the middle, and we take that off for one second and we let the water and we put back on. So obviously, in the latter extreme example, F 11 we didn't let hardly any water in. Now again, the water is like in our illustration, so that shows us that higher apertures are going to let in less light the lower actors and let in more light. So the contribution to exposure from aperture is hi aperture, darker exposure, a low aperture, a brighter exposure. Now aperture contributes to a very important quality of the photograph, other than how much light it lets in. So you've probably seen photographs where backgrounds blurry and the subject is in focus that comes from a shallow depth of field, and a depth of field is simply the area in a photograph that is in focus Now, if the camera is here photographing me, that slice of in focus runs parallel to the camera lens. Okay, so that slice of focus is essentially our depth of field. So if we have a narrow depth of field that slice, I'm gonna turn the sliced so you can see it. That slice becomes very narrow. We have a deep depth of field that slice deepens. So when we have a narrow depth of field or a shallow depth of field, say you're shooting an F 1.4, you could potentially focus on my eye and then everything behind me and even my nose. It's a little bit above average size knows, but even my nose tip would be out of focus. But my I would be in focus because that slice is so thin running right through my eye. Everything behind me is blurry, everything in front of blurry. And there's my eye sharp. Now, if I want to get more focus, I'd go up to say F nine, where that slice of focus is going to deepen and widen. Now, my whole body, my nose tip that back in my ears everything, maybe even the background behind me is going to be in focus. So this is a creative tool that you can harness to change the look and feel of your photographs. You can adjust your aperture for depth of field, but also keeping in mind that it's also contribute your exposure. So you do have to balance those things, and we will tie these in MAWR after we talk about eso until about how to balance them all. So if you want to shallow depth of field, you need to have a lower aperture number, which actually means a bigger opening. The ones It is a little bit confusing because it's a ratio. So the lower that number goes, the F number, the bigger the opening because it's actually one over that number. And for you guys that don't like math, you could just block out what I'm saying. But if you do, you're just changing the denominator. So as that denominator increases, your number actually decreases and vice versa. It's probably more than you want to know about the numbers behind aperture, but again, a quick breakdown lower the aperture number, the wider the opening in the shallower, your depth of field, the larger your aperture number, the smaller the opening your lens and the deeper your depth of field. So that's aperture. We talked about shutter speed, and now we're going to talk about I s O. And then we'll tie these things altogether, and you'll know the three foundational pillars of creating your exposure and look and feel your photograph. 4. ISO: Alright, I s o we got shutter speed under our belt aperture And now we're gonna tackle I s O and then put them all together. So first off, I s o what does it stand for? International Standards Organisation. It's kind of boring. They do a lot more than just photography. But in case you're ever curious, well, I s l stands for that's what it is. So I s o comes to us from the film days when films had certain speeds there was ice A 100 s 0 204 100 and so on in the film speed meant how sensitive was that film to the light that comes in And the lower that number the less sensitive it waas So if we hold our shutter speed at a constant one second and we hold our aperture at a constant F 2.8 just to pick some random values and we load our camera with I s 0 100 film, we're gonna get a particular exposure If we stuck in I s 0 200 film with the same shutter speed and aperture parameters, we're gonna get ah, brighter photograph because that film is more sensitive to the light. Now the camera on Lee. How does shutter open for a set amount of time? The one second and it only open its aperture a certain amount of 2.8 in both scenarios. So the only variable was the film speed in the sensitivity to light. So in the same way, on a digital camera, Theis so kind of mimics the film speed. But what it's changing is the sensor's sensitivity to light. But it's doing the same thing. So on our digital camera, if we have shutter speed, one second aperture of 2.8, I have so 100 we're gonna get a particular exposure. And if we bump our eyes so the higher we go on the eso, the brighter the exposure is going to get. Now, this almost sounds too good to be true, because it is because we could just bump our exposure as high as we want and take photographs in pitch black and get great looking photographs. But the problem with I s so is that the higher the I so goes, the more digital noise we get and the amount of noise we get varies on the level of camera quality, the better camera you have, the higher you go in I s O before the noise degradation kicks in. But regardless of what camera you have, even if the best camera in the world, you're going to start seeing digital noise at some point. And it's kind of odd that we talk about noise in a photograph because it's visual and we usually hear noise of their ears. But in this case, it's digital noise, and it manifests itself as pixels that are not quite the color they should be. The photograph starts to look grainy, and we actually start to lose dynamic range, which means how good the camera can express darks and lights in the same photograph. So then you might think, Well, I always want to keep my SL as low as possible. Always shoot, and I have some 100. So the quality my photographs is better, and that's perfect in a perfect world. But a lot of times, especially your shooting events and things when you can't control the light, sometimes it's dark, and so you've got to make compromises. So sometimes you may say my lens only goes down to F 2.8 and I can handhold this camera at less than 1/60 of a shutter speed or else I'm gonna have motion blur. So I got nowhere else to go in my exposure except to adjust the I. So So you may end up at I s 0 1000 with those other parameters and you have to take your photograph when you are in good light, say, for instance, outdoors during the day or in a very brightly lit room or whatever it may be you do want to keep it s so as low as possible. There's no benefit to having a high rise. So besides brining your exposure and that's something you only do when necessary. So you would never want to be outside in bright daylight. And I have so 1000 and then crank your shutter speed upto 1 32,000 to compensate. You want to bring down your shutter speed and bring down your eyes so because your cameras going perform better at the lower I s l levels. So now that we talked about how I sew controls on camera aperture and shutter speed, let's put these things altogether. As we just said, You want your eyes so it'd be on the lower end of the spectrum whenever possible. You've shutter speed pretty much has a floor. It's got a minimum that's going to be at, if your hand holding the camera or you're shooting things that are moving or both. So that is going to let it. We're gonna know what we need to do for that. Say, for instance, 1 1/100 and was shooting people standing still, We're not gonna go lower than that. And once we get to the point in our shutter speed that we can achieve no motion blur. All we have left is our aperture, and our aperture is controlling our depth of field, but also our exposure. So exposure wise, let's say, at 1 100 for shutter speed and I s 0 100 we need F 4.5 to get the proper exposure. Well, we also now need to consider what does that do to our depth of field. And it may be that we want a shallow depth of field for this photograph. Maybe we're taking a portrait of one person, and we really want to get that nice, blurry background and foreground, just have the subject being focus. Well, we're gonna want what we want to the aperture. We need to drop our aperture number. So we get a shallow depth of field so that f 4.5 is going to come down to, let's say F 1.4. Well, what we just do our exposure. We kept a shutter speed, constant. What kept her? I sl constant and we dropped our aperture. So exposure is going to brighten up much more than we wanted Teoh. And now we need to compensate. We've already got our I s l at 100. That's where we need to be and we can't go any lower. We have shutter speed were at 1 1/100 Well, if we go down in our aperture, let's go up in our shutter speed because that's gonna bring our exposure back in. And like we said in the shutter speed module, there's really no disadvantage to having a faster shutter speed than you need at that point . Were only controlling our exposure. It's not going affect the quality photograph so we can bumper a shutter speed up to say 1 400 to compensate for the aperture dropping shutter speed and aperture can go opposite ways and keep your explosion the same. So if you think of it like that where they can play off each other and then I eso is almost like an independent control So they all contribute Shutter speed, lower shutter speed burner exposure aperture lower aperture, brighter exposure. I s o higher. I celebrate exposure. So we got to lowers. Make it brother and I s O makes it darker. And then we have the opposite where aperture and shutter speed as the increase it gets darker and as the i S o decreases, it gets darker. So to summarize, I s o the lower it is the more dynamic Ranger camera will have the better quality photograph in the less digital noise. It's also gonna make your exposure darker the higher you go with eso the broader explosions going to get. But the trade off is digital noise and dynamic range decrease. Neither of those are desirable effects. Still, whenever you can, you want to keep your eyes so as low as possible while your other parameters or where they need to be. So I'm gonna give some examples of shooting situations and talk through what three parameters would probably be. And there's just rough estimation is just to illustrate the point. So I'm shooting one person outdoors On a pretty bright day, I'm going to take my eyes So down to 100 that's the lowest. My camera will go and then I'm gonna take my shutter speed and I'm gonna put it up 1 2/100 and I'm gonna take my aperture and I'm gonna put it somewhere down F 2.8 because I want a pretty shallow depth of field and it may take a test shot and say, Well, it's way too bright, But I want to keep my aperture where it is because I want the depth of field. I want to keep my eye sl where it is because I want a clean photograph. So I have left his shutter speed. Someone increase my shutter speed to darken down the exposure, and then my photograph looks the way I want. Now let's say I'm shooting a group of people and I've got layers of people, so I have maybe four layers deep. So now I've got a lot of depth that I want to have in focus. So let's say, for instance, I get out there and my cameras on 1 4/100 of a second. I s 0 200 my aperture is f two and and I take the photograph and it's right where I want it . Except my depth of field is too shallow, the exposure looks good. So I need to increase my aperture from F two to maybe let's say, at 6.3 and I bring it up I increased my depth of field. But now my photos and me to dark I've got my shutter speed currently said to 1 4/100 I'm gonna drop that down because I brought my aperture up, murdering my shutter speed down, and I'm gonna go down to maybe 1 1/100 and take the photograph. And maybe it's brighter, but it's still a touch too dark. I don't want to bring my shutter speed down anymore because I want to make sure I don't get motion blur so good my eye. So I'm gonna give it a couple bumps up, and that's gonna bring my photograph. Now I've got the exposure where I want it. I've got a safe shutter speed, and I've got the depth of field I need for my increased aperture. Okay, One more example were inside in a dimly lit room and way. Have a lens that can on Lee go down to F 2.8 and we're already there. So we've got a rapper set to 2.8, and then we've got a shutter speed down to 1/80 which is, say, the lowest. I can go with this lens, hand holding without getting blurry. And now our eso is on 200 take a shot in its way. Dark. Well, the only thing I can mess around with in this situation besides adding flash which were not getting into now is increased in my eyes. So So I go all the way up to 800 I shoot and it's still too dark and I go to 12. 50 and I shoot, and there it is. Looks good. And while it's not awesome for us to have our s O up in that realm of really high in that situation is the only thing we can do to get the photograph we need to get and so probably exposed. Photograph is better than no photograph, and you may be tempted to just keep decreasing your shutter speed to get your explosion where you wanted to be. But once you get down, is that dangerous territory of shutter speed? We're gonna get motion, blur. You're going to start to have a blurry photo. And a blurry photo is not as good as a noisy photo. I any day of the week would rather have a photo with digital noise from high I s l than a blurry photo from motion blur. It's much more acceptable toe have a noisy photo, and it's also something that you can manipulate and edit in post production to minimize the effects off. But a blurry 40 you can never edit away the blurriness, once blurry, always blurry, you're stuck with that blurry photo. So make sure you always keep your shutter speed in a safe zone and use the other parameters to get the exposure that you need. I hope that explains things. There could be more examples, but I think those illustrate the relationship between shutter speed aperture and I s O. If you're still confused about it. Please let me know in the comments and questions that we have to get back to you and explain other examples. 5. White Balance: all right, now that we have the foundation under control started speed aperture and I s so we're gonna move on to some of the more subtle things that are still going to contribute to your photo . Now, the next one is white balance. White balance is a little bit tricky to understand, but once you dio is you click and really help you out. Sometimes you take a photo and it'll seem a little bit too cold or a little bit too hot. The cold photos tend to have a more bluish tone to them, and the hot photos tend to be more orange and red. And your camera has an auto white balance feature. And what it does is it tries to look for a neutral gray in the photo, and it calibrates all the other colors off of that gray. It works good a lot of the times, but there are some times when that auto white balance can't find unusual gray, and it just makes a guess, and it doesn't always come out right. There's other ways to control your weight balance in your camera, and you may have seen different settings. The cloudy day settings sunlight fluorescent light. They have little icons and there in the white balance menu, wherever it might be in your camera. And those are preset white balance settings for certain situations that are usually the same. So, for instance, if you go outside and it's a sunny day and you set your white balance to sunny day, then it's going to be really close in the ballpark and get you a good balanced photo the same idea for if it's a cloudy day, you'll put your camera on a cloudy day and get a photo that looks just about right. But it's really helpful to understand what the camera is actually doing and why those settings are changing the way that your photo looks that way. Ultimately, you can get to the point where you can use manual white balance, and you actually tell the camera the color temperature. No color temperature needs to be understood first, and color temperatures measured on a scale with the unit of Kelvin, and what you need to understand is 5500. Kelvin is typically what a sunny day in the middle of afternoon is gonna be set to 5500 to 6000 K in that range. Now we can kind of get our brains wrapped around that and then work off of that. So when you're inside on, you flip on an incandescent light bulb. That's going to be right around 2700 K Um, and if you're on a cloudy day, you go outside. That's gonna be upwards into the 15,000 K range for the neutral level. Lightbulbs in a House William Incandescent label are very warm, so it's a little bit counterintuitive because you set the kelvin on the camera to a lower temperature when it's warmer and when you go outside and it's cloudy. The light tends to be cooler on a cloudy day, but you're bumping that white balance temperature up to a higher number. So what's going on? So here's a way to think about it when you're in a room with light ball bond and it's incandescent, and I keep saying Candace in because there's many different types of lightbulbs, one being incandescent, another being fluorescent. We have led lady now, and all these different lightings have different light bulbs have different color temperatures and even the L E. D bulbs. They have different color temperatures within the L. A D Type. Same thing with some of the fluorescent light bulbs you'll see on the package. You'll see a Calvin rating on a lot of light bulbs. It's telling you how warm or how cold they are. Sometimes they give you the actual temperature, and a lot of times they'll say it's a daylight ball or it's, ah, soft, warm light and things like that. Those are all referencing what color temps that light bulb is. But for our example purpose, we're gonna go with the traditional incandescent ball, which is 2700 Calvin. And if we take the camera out, we want to take a photograph under this light. What we need to tell our camera is, Hey, we've got a warm light source and we've got to compensate for that. So we're gonna drop our cameras. Color temperature down to match with that light bulb is 2700 k We would set our white balance to 2700 K and the camera knows what the light sources and how warm it is, and it's going to calibrate the colors to that color temperature. Now it's the same thing when you go outside and it's maybe toward the end of the day and it's cloudy, so you don't have the warmer light coming from the sun. That's gonna be a very cool light. And you're going to need to tell the camera. Hey, we gotta add warmth into this photo to get it to a neutral place. So you bump that 7 8000 k. Now, these are all ways to get the camera to be neutral. Sometimes for artistic purposes, you may want Teoh purposely take a photo of the wrong color balance. You might be trying to make a photo feel a lot warmer than it is in its real environment or whatever it may be. So you can take some creative license with this, but we're gonna focus on how to take a properly exposed, properly calibrated white balanced photo. Uh, so within that whole color temperature scale is another adjustment that you have control of , which is the tin. So you've got white balance that's gonna be on the Kelvin scale from generally down into the low to thousands all way up to the high 10,000 range, and you have control over that, and then you have a tin which is gonna be a green and a magenta range, and you can almost think of white balance being on an up and down. And then you've got pink and magenta going left and right, and you can adjust that. You know the reason we have the pink and the magenta tint control is because light sources have Cullerton's to them as well. One notorious one is fluorescent lighting has a very green tend to it. And if you want to balance that out and get rid of that tent so you don't have a photo that looks like everybody's an alien or whatever, then you're gonna need to add some pink into that photo because pink and green or opposite on the color wheel. So you're going to get the pink added to cancel out some of the green that's already being thrown out by the light that you have, and you're gonna end up in a neutral place where your whites look white. So white balance is tough to get the hang off on. It takes a lot of practice, but once you get it, you will get to the point where you walk into a room where you walk into a scene and you say, Hey, you know what? I know this is about 4000. Can we need a little bit of pink tint to get this neutralized? And you can usually get in the ballpark just by looking at a room. Right now, I'm shooting this video and I have neutral video lights. They are set to put off a 55 100 K light color. And so I know I understand my camera 5500 k and I'm all set. It's not always that simple, especially when you're not in control of light. But you will get a feel for it and you'll figure it out after trying it a lot of time. So I do encourage you to go on to the manual white balance and mess around those settings and see how it affects the photo and see if you can start to get to the point where you can just kind of shoot from the hip and guess get in the ballpark and put in your camera, take the photo and may be able to make a minor adjustment. But you won't be way off when you're photographing. You have the choice in your camera a lot of times to shoot in J pay format or raw format. And this matters for white balance, because if you're shooting J. Peg, that white balance setting that you shot in is baked into that file and you can pull it into a computer and go in a post production and adjust the white balance. But unfortunately, because J. Pay is compressed file format, what you're going to do is start to lose quality in that image and your colors. They're going to start to get a little we're looking. If you try to push the white balance too far from what you originally said in the camera, the beauty of a raw file is that you can adjust the white balance as extreme as you want and never have any change in the quality of the file. Changing white balance in post production on a raw file is exactly the same as changing the white balance at the time of shooting in the camera. So theoretically, if you wanted to be a little bit lazy, you could shoot photos on your camera and ignore white balance and do it all in post production. As long as you're shooting raw and have absolutely no difference in the output. I don't recommend that because if you start to shoot, we'll get him on a volume. Then you're going to have a lot of post production work to Dio, so getting it right in camera is helpful. It also lets you see what it is you're photographing and the way that it's going to look. So don't be surprised when you get a post production out. But cameras are getting better and better as the technology improves and auto white balance is getting better and better. A few years ago, I would say Shoot manual white balance no matter what and be in control of what it's doing now. I would say if you're an event photography specifically because you tend to have environments that change really frequently and you're under the gun for pressure and all that, you can mostly get away with auto white balance on a good camera. I still shoot manual white balance because I'm so used to it because that's how I learned and that's what I've done for years, and I can get to the settings really quickly, But it's not something I would focus on if you don't have all the other things fully under control and have complete mastery over them. Such a shutter speed. I s o on aperture specifically. But once you do get those, I think over the long term you're gonna be better served by running white balance on a manual setting. So a quick recap in a little bit of a cheat sheet, if you will. White balance is measured on a scale of Kelvin. It goes from about 2000 to 10,000. Daylight in the middle of the day is about 5500 K So if your photo looks a little bit blue , then you need to warm it up. And in order warming up, you crank your white balance up to a higher number. If your photo looks to warm to hot to orange, you to read, then you need to reduce your white balance in your camera and bring that setting down to a lower number. Pink and green are going to sneak in, depending on the light source. Uh, you will adjust those as you see fit, but you should know that fluorescent lights tend to have a green tint to them. L E D lights sometimes have a pink tint, but that various, because there's so many different types of led lights of different quality in different levels. So what balance is going to help you get control in any situation that you're in? One problem that you're going to run into that white balance isn't always going to save you from when it comes to color is mixed light. So, for instance, if I have these lights here at 5500 K and then I also had a lamp on in the room that was at 2700 k Well, now you've got a mixed light source and you can only white balance for one of them. So you can either take a middle of the road approach and go for somewhere in the four thousands, and you're gonna have a bit of a compromise. You could balance for the 5500 k and that lamp is gonna look very orange. You could balance for the lamp at 2700 k but then those other lights gonna look extremely blue and cold. so the only thing you can do in those situations is take control the light sources, if you can turn one of them off and leave the other ones on or make the compromise or turn the photo black and white. One last bit of color related information that I want to give to you is the other parameter that lights will have on them sometimes is the C R I. And that's the color rendering index. And what that's telling you essentially is it's a number from 0 100 the closer to 100 that you get the more of the amount of visible colors that light is going to illuminate, essentially. So if you have a light bulb with a c R I of 50 that's a pretty low C R I. And what's gonna happen is there's gonna be colors in the spectrum that have completely left out because that light is not going illuminate those particular frequencies, and that will essentially be dark. And we don't see things like this with their eyes were not going to see, um, some color completely missing out of a light. But a camera will be more sensitive to it, and you're gonna have a tough time once in a while and you'll try to be white balance, and you say I can't quite get it right. Sometimes if your light source is a really low quality light source, that's more your problem. And white balance is going to change anything. The sun is a perfect 100. It's gonna have all the colors in it. Incandescent tungsten filament lightbulbs are 100. And when you get into the fluorescence and the L E. D s, they're all over the place, you can buy a really high end led light. You're going to get into the high 98 99 range. You can get really high up there. Anything about 95 is gonna look really nice. You're not gonna tell any difference when you start to get into the low eighties, especially into the seventies, you're gonna start seeing issues. Eso There's something look out for, especially if you're looking for video lights or if you're looking to use constant lights for photography. Uh, those were really important specifications. And you don't want to get a low c r I light source because it's going to look a little bit off and it's hard to put your finger on, but that's what the issue usually is. 6. Dynamic Range: dynamic range dynamic range is how much a camera can see from the darkest darks to the brightest brights. Our human, I has 20 stops of dynamic range. That's a really wide range. There's no camera that can match the human eye right now. And because of that, we have to be aware of the cameras limitations so that we can utilize it as best as possible. So a good high end camera right now is going to give you about 14 or 15 stops a dynamic range, which is really, really good. Uh, but as you have just heard, we have 20 stops roughly and the human eye. So there's gonna be areas that the camera can't see all in one photograph. So if you think of dynamic range is this linear scale, you've got 0 to 100 up 0 to 20 stops, and we keep saying stops. That's just a unit of measurement for what we're talking about. So you've got 20 stops and a camera only has 15 stops. So it's about this big. That scale is going to slide within this 20 stop range. That air I can see we're controlling that with our shutter speed aperture I s O where we want that Cameron end up. So anything outside of this range of dynamic range that the cameras got is going to be blown out on the high end, which means no information. It's completely white pixel or it's going to be completely black, and there's no information on that. So we need to appropriately set our cameras exposure for the scene that will units so that we can capture as much information as possible so that we go into post production. We don't go to kind of bump the exposure down and the white parts of the photo stay white. That's what a blown out pixel is, and that's no good. So dynamic range is really one of the most important camera specifications that often gets overlooked in in exchange for maybe megapixels or something like that. But dynamic range is hugely important. The more dynamic range you have, the better your photographs were going to bay. A great example of where a camera doesn't stack up to the human eye is a sunset. So if you've ever been in a situation where you're looking at the sunset coming down this colors in the sky every looks really awesome and you've got somebody that you're with and you're looking at them with the sunset behind them, you can see them. You can see the sons that you can see the colors now. You may have pulled your cellphone out or took a camera out, and you try to take a picture of that scene, and you either get the person that you are with is completely dark and you see all the colors in the sky or the person that you're taking a picture of looks normal and properly exposed, and the sky is white and completely washed out. That's because your camera doesn't have enough dynamic range to take both things in at once . Your subject is much darker than that Skye is on. Our eyeballs can see it all all at once, but your camera is basically telling you, Hey, I gotta pick one. I can either expose for the person who's much darker than the background or I can expose for the background, which is much brighter than the person, and that's up to you what you want to expose for inside of that range. There's ways around it in that situation, you could take out a flash and let your subject. Now you're gonna bring the level of light up on your subject to match the intensity of the background. And now your camera gets to play in one smaller, confined area of exposure, and it's got enough dynamic range. Should capture that you can't really turn the lights down on the sky. But that would be the other thing to do is bring the background light down. If he had control over it to match the level of light that's on your subject. So you're trying to balance the light on this can happen. Whether it be outside, it could be indoors. If you've got somebody that's standing in front of a light behind them and it's letting up the room and they're dark, you're gonna need some light source in the front of them, always trying to balance the light, bring everything is close together as possible, and then your cameras dynamic range can wrap around that scene. I know I say this about everything, but this comes with practice being able to look at a scene and save yourself. My camera is not gonna be able to capture all this. I need to make an adjustment. I need to make a compromise. I need to do something to take this photograph out of the ordinary. That's just gonna come with taking thousands of thousands photos. The more you do it, the more you will be aware of what's going on and the more you can prepare for it before you take the photo, look at it and say, What's going on? Why is this dark? You'll just know, Um, that's gonna help you a lot. It may be that someone standing in front of window and you can't cover the window. Maybe there's no shade on or something like that. But you can move the person, move them so the background isn't so glaringly bright behind them. A lot of things can be taken care of just by rearranging the scene that you're taking a photograph of, So this is a very helpful thing to be aware of. You can't control the dynamic range in your camera, but you can control what you're taking photos of, and you can control the lighting in a lot of situations and work with the dynamic range in your camera to take excellent photographs 7. Focal Length: All right, we're gonna talk about open focal length. Is that number that you have on your lens that tells you how it zoomed in, or how zoomed out that lens is going to look when you put it on your camera. A really common lens that almost everybody has is a 50 millimeter. And that land is so common because when you put it on a full format camera and you look through that I've piece, it's gonna look almost the same as your natural eye looks looking out of the world. And so it looks very normal to us. And because that it's become a common lens and the just so you know, the millimeter measurement that it's using has to do with when that lens is attached to the camera, the distance from the lens element to the sensor that it needs to be to get resolved properly. So it's not really super important for us to understand that aspect of it. All we want to know is how these numbers translate to what the photograph looks like. So the general rule is the higher that number is, the more zoomed in and close that lens is going to get to something and lower that number is the wider and zoomed out. That photograph is going to look. So there's two types of lenses. There's a prime lens, and there's a zoom lens. A prime lens is a fixed focal length, for example. Again, the 50 millimeter prime lens is only going to be 50 millimeters no matter what you've got. Focus adjustments, but you don't have a zoom adjustment. Ah, prime lens advantages are. They're usually smaller. They're usually less expensive, and they're usually sharper. And I say, usually for all those, because it's not always the case that you stack a prime lens against zoom lens, and it's better in all three of those areas. But generally it's going to excel in those three categories over a zoom lens. Now zoom lens has a range, so you'll see when you go to look at zoom lenses, you'll see 24 millimeters to 70 millimeters. That means you can put that lens on your camera, and you can spend the zoom ring on the lens and choose any focal length between the low and the high number so I can shoot a 24 millimeters. I can shoot a 27. I can shoot at 42 all the way up to 70 which is really handy, especially when you're doing events or really any type of photo shoot, and you want to quickly change your focal length. You don't have to change your lens. You just spend the barrel the lens and change your focal length. The drawbacks are there bigger. Generally, they're heavier and they're usually more expensive, and they almost always don't get the same level of sharpness as a good prime lens will get . And the reason for that is because when you're spinning that lens, you have multiple lens elements where pieces of glass that are moving further and closer apart in order to achieve those different focal lengths. And they have to be a little bit less precise than a prime lens because of prime lens has everything fixed in place and it does not move. So when they build that lens of the factory, they could get that thing perfect and fix it in place, and that's that. We'll zoom. Lens has to be able to move in order for you to change your focal length, so it's not always quite as dead on as a prime lenses going to bay now. Ah, high end zoom land is going to be better than a low in Prime Lynn. So these rules are just general rules. When you start to get into the bigger zooms like a 72 200 that's gonna be a really big lens that's sitting on a camera. They're bigger than the camera bodies, and they get very heavy. Some lenses have 79 maybe 11 elements in them, and the more glass that heavier they're going to bay, Uh, lenses. When you get down into the lower focal length, such as below, usually about 12 mil millimeters or so, you can start to get a lot of edge distortion on when you get really low they turn into a fish island is because you can only achieve such a wide point of view by turning into a fish eye. So somewhere down in the 567 millimeter ranges are typically fisheye lenses. And when I say fish, I mean it looks like you're looking into a bubble and you can see everything's curved, so that's what focal length is. That's how it affects your photographs. The the other element a focal length is that the more zoomed in that you are, the more compression you're going to get. And that means that if you have your subjects standing 20 feet away from you and you have a wall behind them that's 20 feet away from them and you're shooting at, let's say, 20 millimeters, which is a very wide focal length than that person is going to seem like. They're extremely far away from that wall that's behind them. And if you change your lens to a 200 millimeter, which is a very tight zoom lens, then that person and that wall are gonna be squished together. In your perspective, that's what compression is. It brings all the background elements and your subject closer together, and that's going to become more apparent as your focal length increases. It's become less apparent as your focal and decreases, so if you want to really separate your subject from the background in terms of distance, then you'd have them close to you. You have a really, really wide focal length, and those background elements are gonna seem extremely far away. And if you want the opposite. You're gonna want to get a tighter lens and you're gonna wanna goes zoomed in as you can, and those things will squished together. So does the basics of focal length. The best way to experience it is just to grab a few lenses that are different focal lengths and play around and see how it affects the look of the photo. I would encourage you toe put your camera on a tripod, get the widest lens you have, and get the most zoomed in lens that you have and take a photo of the same scene with both lenses and compare and see how those background elements and foreground elements are further apart and closer together. And then that way, when you're in a situation where you need to photograph that looks a certain way in your head, you know how to achieve it with focal length 8. Resolution: all right, We're gonna resolution and a little warning. There's gonna be a lot of numbers in a little bit of math. So if you are allergic to that kind of thing, you can skip ahead to the next part. But if not, here we go. So what does it mean when your camera is 32 megapixels? And what is it? Megapixel? What? The pixel. A pixel is a picture element. That's what it stands for. Picks, picture L element, and a megapixel is simply one million pixels. So a pixel is just a dot of a color that is part of an image, and an image is made up of a ton of pixels. So when your camera is 30 megapixels, that means that each photograph that you take has 30 million dots that make up the image. So why, as photographers, should we care about resolution? Well, for one, if you don't have enough resolution in your camera that you're not gonna have enough dots to accurately represent what you're taking a photograph of. For instance, if you only had a four pixel camera which doesn't exist, but if it did, you'd only have four squares essentially or dots. However, you want to think of them to represent your photos. So if you took a picture of a landscape, can you represent that landscape with four solid color dots? It probably pretty tough. Uh, could you do it with 100? Probably little bit better. It's gonna look like a mosaic. Um, because you would see the individual dots because they're so course. But if he had millions of them, Well, now you're not gonna see dots anymore. You're going to see an image, a photo image. So that's the idea. And your camera. When you take a picture, it collects the information in each one of these pixels. Each one is individual. Put them all together and makes your photograph. Now that's all great. And most cameras now have plenty of resolution to take photographs that look great at almost any size. So it's almost a non issue, Uh, but we still need to be aware of how that resolution translates over to physical prints. There is a limitation to how big you can print a photo from a particular image at a certain resolution, and in order to figure that out, you can take your cameras. Megapixel number. You can take the fact that each photograph is a 3 to 2 aspect ratio, which means for every three across the top it's two down, and that just expands, so you'll have you. There are three pixel by two pixel photograph. Well, you have a six by four or 12 by eight. The ratio of the long edge to the short edge remains constant, and we could take that information and we can do a bunch of math, and I'll show it on the screen to get from megapixel to length by with. But there's a lot easier way to do that, which is just to take your photograph, throw it in your computer and usually can right click and hit properties, and it's gonna tell you the dimensions of that photograph. So it's a shortcut to get to that now that we have the dimensions, which, for example, will say it's 3000 pixels by 2000 pixels just to pick some round numbers. What do we do with those? Let's say we want to print, I don't know. 12 by 18 Photograph told inches by 18 inches. Do we have enough resolution to print at that size without seeing the little dots and without that picture started to degree. Well, a photograph is printed at various DP eyes, which is dots per inch. Usually, you wanna have a minimum of 150 dp I to get a good quality print. So for every inch of physical photograph, you need 100 and 50 dots or pixels to make that up. So if you have a 12 inch short edge and you have 150 dots per inch, then you're gonna need 12 times, 150 pixels on that edge. So quick math, that's 1800 pixels. So if we had a 3000 by 2000 photo to thousands are short edge. We need 1800 pixels or dots to make up that to mention the photo, we have enough. We have 2000. We need 1800 and so we've got 200 left over. It's fine to have more. You don't want to have less, and then you can do the same math for long edge and make sure you're okay. You condone. Drop down to lower DP eyes for your physical prints. It's just a matter of where you feel comfortable, how big you're gonna make it. Generally, the larger and image gets, the less DP I that you need. Because as of image gets gigantic, for instance, take a billboard, for example. You're not gonna be standing right in front of a billboard looking at it. You're gonna be very far away looking at this giant image the further away you are, the less dp I that image is going to need toe look like it's a solid image and not a bunch of dots. If you ever stood really close to an old TV back in the day like a tube TV, you get up there and you can see each little RGB pixel on that TV screen. Uh, when you step back, you don't see any of that. You just see the image. It's the same idea when you make a print. So if you're gonna be up close to an image 150 dp, I minimum is a good place to be. If you're going to be printing some gigantic mural that people are gonna be stepped for the bathroom or a billboard, you can get away with less. But for most normal mortals that air printing wall art 1 50 db i or greater is the best place to bay, so you can see that in order Printed 12 by 18 at 150 DP I you need about 1800 pixels on the short edge and 4500 pixels on the long edge. Most cameras are going to give you that, and they're gonna give you more than that. So it's usually a non issue. But if you ever are gonna print big and you wanna make sure you're gonna be safe, that's the way to do it. There was a time not too long ago where megapixels was the race that all camera manufacturers were competing against. And they were just trying to get the highest megapixel count. Because consumers seem to be really attracted to a high megapixel count that's kind of subsided a bit, but there are still cameras out there with 40 50 8100 megapixels and sometimes people are still attracted to that. But before you get really excited about a gigantic amount of megapixels, just consider a few things. One is that the higher the megapixel count, the larger your file is going to be a lot of your file is going to be, the more storage is required to store all your files. So if you're a wedding photographer on event photographer and you're taking thousands of photographs each week, um, then that's going to be something you want to consider because your storage can very quickly get out of control if you shooting with an 18 megapixel camera. The other thing. It's a little bit more technical, but it's still important. Is that the more megapixels that your sensor has on it, the more tightly packed they have to be because that sensor is only a certain size and it's not going to be getting any bigger unless you jump to a different format camera. But DSLR is typically are full format if you're shooting on a professional level camera and it's a 35 millimeter sensor, so if you have ah 100 million pixels on that sensor, they're gonna be really close together. If you have 20 million well, they have a lot more room to kind of spread out, so you're gonna have larger pixels when they're tightly packed. They have to be smaller pixels and there gets a point just limited by physics, that the pixels are so small that they're really not gaining you. Any additional resolution, because it might be so small that that camera can't differentiate between three information in that tiny spot versus the tiny spot next to it, and you get bleed between the pixels and you effectively don't have that. I have a resolution. The other thing is that low light performance actually decreases with a higher resolution, and it's because the pixel size becomes smaller. The smaller pixel size on the sensor, the less light that it can absorb without having noise. So you'll see cameras that are specifically taylor, too. Video and low light. They purposely have lower resolution sensors. For example, the Sony A seven s Siri's has a 12 megapixel sensor. They could make it bigger, but there's no need because the resolution in the video doesn't demand any higher resolution, and that low resolution on the sensor is allowing it to have incredible low light capability so higher isn't always better. It depends on your needs. What you're trying to dio, and for most people, about 25 30 million pixels is probably the sweet spot where you want to pay 9. Flash: The last big monster category in photography is flash. And I'm not gonna go into extreme depth on flash, mainly because it's such an expensive topic. It's a class really, all on its own. I actually have another class that specifically talks about flash and flash only and lighting photographs. So I'm not gonna go into it in great detail here. I'm going to give you some high points, give you a little taste of the basics, and, uh, and then you can experiment a little bit. And if you want to go more in depth, check on my other class on lighting photographs. Flash is a great tool to have in your arsenal. Uh, it lets you take control of almost any situation that you would otherwise have to make some compromises on and not get great photographs. You may be indoors, and the light is just poor. It's low light situation, low quality light, and you can take it, flashes out and make it look beautiful. Sometimes you're outside and you've got a great sunset, and you want to take that photo. We talked about it in dynamic range section. You need your flash to light up your subject. So a couple things about flash some cameras have pop up flashes on them and you may have used him. And you see the dreaded red eye in your subject's pop up flash is pretty much the worst type of flash you can use, and it's because of the angle of the flash. How has your subject and because it has no diffusion on it. So it's a bear flash. Very strong, harsh small light source going directly at your subject from the front, and the red eye effect is because that lights going into their pupils and you're actually seeing the blood in their eyes reflect back out at you. Eso The way to avoid red eye is to have your flash source be not on access with your subject. So just being able to take your flash and move it over to maybe, like 30 degrees, that reflection from their eyes is going to go away from your camera and you're not going to see the red. Obviously, you can't do that the pop up flash, but you can do it with speed light mounted on top of your camera, and now you have control of the direction that light. You could bounce it off the ceiling. You can bounce it off the wall. You can put modifiers on it, so that gives you some more control. The other thing you can do is have a completely off camera flash so you'd have a trigger on your camera that would pop a flash that's just on a light stand wherever you want to put it , and now you can put umbrellas on it. You can put soft boxes, you but all sorts of modifiers to defuse that flash and make that a larger light source thing about sizes of light. Source. My sources is that the smaller the light source, the harsher the shadows air going to bay and the larger light source, the softer those shadows are going to pay and light sources. The light source itself may be big, but if it's really far away from your subject, it's effectively small. The most gigantic light source we have is the sun, but for photographs, it's a very hard, small light source because it's 93 million miles away. If the sun were a few feet away, it be a little bit warm and also it would be a hugely gigantic light source, and there would be no shadows because that light would wrap around your subject. So it's all relative. You can get a two foot by two foot soft box, which is not huge but really up close to your subject. And that's gonna be a soft, larger light source is may all be confusing, and it's just cause I'm skimming the top of the flash world again. This does require a lot more in depth information to kind of make sense of it all. But one other thing I want to mention is that you have manual control of flash, where you set the intensity of the light yourself all the way up from full power all the way down to usually 1 128th power and then a bunch of setting between. The other option you have is T T l, which stands for through the lens, and what's happening is the camera is looking at the photo you're about to take this all happens within a split second. Look at the photo says to itself. Okay, I'm gonna need this much extra light that's not in the ambient and it says, Hey, Flash, I need half power flash at half power when I take this photo and then the photo gets taken , the flash pops and you have, ah, theoretically properly exposed photo, just like white balance. Auto White balance. It's not always perfect. It's doing the best that they can do with what it sees, but it can always get it right. T t l is handy. Personally, I use manual flash all the time for everything because I prefer to be in complete control in a studio setting. You'd always want to use manual flash because you want consistency. Generally, the light in the set up is not changing, so your flash intensity shouldn't change. And when you're on T T l, the camera could possibly modify the flash brightness a little bit from frame reframe. But you just wanted to be the same all the time. So manual said it, get it properly set and then take photographs. Um, flash allows so much creative control over your photographs. So many interesting things that you can't do with just ambient light. It's an entire world that I definitely recommend you explore. Um, but I'd also say maybe stay away from it a bit until you get all these other basics down cold because flashes just another layer of complexity. It's not. It's not terribly hard, but you can't do it. But if you have all these other things down and then you add flash, you'll be able to figure out what the flash is doing and how to control them and how to change things so that your photo comes out the way you want. The last thing I want to leave you with Flash is that your shutter speed doesn't affect the flash intensity. So when you take a normal photograph with ambient light and you increase your shutter speed , it's going to get darker. If you decrease the shutter speed, it's gonna get brighter. Well, if you have a flash photo than that, exposure from the flash is not going to change as you adjust the shutter speed. And that's because you could have your shutter open for one minute. But that flashes going in a pop for milliseconds on. You could have your shutter open for 1/60 of a second, and that flashes still got only pop for one millisecond, and so you're gonna get the same amount of light out of that flash where their shutters open for a long time or a short amount of time. So you're shows me it's only gonna control your ambient light. It's not gonna actually a flash. And that key concept allows you to balance light because now you have an independent control of ambient while you're flashes are independently controlled by the intensity on the flash. This lets you do really awesome things. Your aperture is going to control both simultaneously because it's controlling how big the opening of your lenses and how much light it's going to absorb. So it doesn't care so much about length of time. It's only saying how much light is coming through my lens, and how much am I gonna let through with the whole that I'm opening up and then you're eso is also going affect both because it's the sensitivity of the sensor to the light that it sees. So aperture and I s O are gonna affect Ambien and flash exposure. Shutter speed is only going to effect Ambien. That's a lot on flash. It's a lot to take in a short amount of time but again, you know, Watch this again. You might pick up a few more things. And if you really want to dive in, check out that other class on flash. 10. Wrap Up: Thank you guys so much for hanging with me throughout this course. I hope that it was helpful. I hope that you've got a whole bunch of new things that you wrote down that you're ready to get out there, experiment with and try and learn from. And I hope that you can fold it into your photography arsenal and you can take amazing photographs. You can know where cameras doing, and you can know how to make the adjustments you need to make to achieve the photo that's in your head. So if you have any questions, please let me know through the platform you're watching this on. I love to hear from the viewers, and I love to hear from you guys on. I'm happy to help out if I can answer any questions. So good luck with everything. Get out there in practice. You got all the info you need. Now, just, uh, get out there and shoot. All right. Good luck, guys.