PhD Student Induction Course | Tahir Yaqub | Skillshare

PhD Student Induction Course

Tahir Yaqub, I Teach Online

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18 Lessons (3h 20m)
    • 1. Introduction to PhD Student Induction Course

      4:55
    • 2. Australian Awards Scholarships

      15:43
    • 3. CSC Scholorships of china

      12:28
    • 4. Swedish Scholarships

      9:13
    • 5. Turkish Burslari Scholarships

      11:45
    • 6. 3 Subjects Every PhD Student Must Take and Why

      7:51
    • 7. 5 Questions to Ask Your Potential PhD Supervisor

      11:35
    • 8. 7 Signs Of A Bad Phd Supervisor C

      9:45
    • 9. 7 Step Process of Doing the Literature Review for Your PhD

      13:04
    • 10. How to Write a Research Proposal

      14:11
    • 11. Data Analysis The Big Picture

      9:56
    • 12. 5 Daily Routines to get PhD in Time

      10:31
    • 13. SMART Goals for PhD Students

      7:21
    • 14. How to Write IEEE Conference Paper

      23:15
    • 15. 5 Serious Bibliography Mistakes which Can Result in Rejection of a PhD Thesis

      7:50
    • 16. 5 Reasons Students Fail to Complete PhD

      10:49
    • 17. Various Forms of Plagiarism and How to Avoid

      9:32
    • 18. What is a PhD and how Would You Claim it

      10:16

About This Class

PhD Student Induction Course
Although this PhD Induction Course is for new PhD students but it would be useful for those who are still planning to start their PhD studies and looking to find some PhD scholarships. I have devoted first few videos for finding PhD scholarships in some of the advanced countries such as US, Australia, Sweden etc.
In most of the universities around the globe, there is not much guidance available for PhD students when they start their research journey as a graduate student. Some universities run a very limited training workshops but most of the times students have to figure it out many aspects of their graduate studies a little by little by themselves.
Therefore i started to make these videos for PhD students where I try to explain few very important things about doing research. When i posted some of these videos on social media, hundreds of thousands of students watched and appreciated.
But I noticed that students were asking same questions again and again which I already had explained in my videos. This was because the videos were scattered and some students do not bother to search or sometimes even don't know how to search the required information. I therefore decided to put all my PhD related content at one place. It should however be noticed that all these videos were created over a time of two years and therefore differ slightly in format and style. The purpose however is to guide graduate research students and help them do research. These tips and guidelines will help PhD students achieve their goal.
Every video in this course is a complete coverage of a topic (with few exceptions). i try to cover a topic in 10 to 15 videos, therefore average video duration is around this mark.
Some of the topics which i have talked about in these videos include:

S E C T I O N (A): Finding Scholarships:
1. Australian Award Scholarships
2. China CSC Scholarships
3. Swedish Scholarships
4. Turkish Scholarships

S E C T I O N (B): About PhD Supervisor/Advisor
1. Questions to ask your potential PhD supervisor
2. Signs of a Bad PhD Supervisor

S E C T I O N (C): Doing Research [Tips]

1. How to do literature review/literature survey
2. How to write a research proposal
3. 5 Things phD students should do early in their career
4. Writing your first IEEE paper
5. 5 Daily routines to complete phD in time
6. 5 S.M.A.R.T. goals of a PhD student
7. Data Analysis
8. Various forms of Plagiarism and how to avoid
9. 5 Serious Bibliography Mistakes
10. Why students fail in completing their PhD
11. 3 Subjects every phD student must take during coursework
12. 5 things to pay attention to when reading a research paper
13. What is a PhD & how would you claim it
14. How to make a questionnaire for research

etc

Transcripts

1. Introduction to PhD Student Induction Course: Phd student induction course, who should enroll in this course? Although the tightest says that this course should be appropriate for new PhD students and most of the contents are targeted towards the new PhD students. However, I have also covered some of the topics which you might be interested in before you start your PhD. For example, how to find scholarships in some of the countries. I have edit few videos about Australia, US, Sweden, Turkey, and China. Then I also talked about how to find a potential PhD supervisor. Not just request few and then accept anyone who agrees because a PhD advisor can make or break your academic carrier very easily. Then I also have a made-up guide for how to write a personal statement, which you can download and read. And now most of the contents are for beginners, PhD students, for example, what are some of the things you should do ugly in your PhD carrier? Then how to write a literature review, also currently teaches survey or to prepare your research proposal, which is very important. Then how to read a research paper? What are a few things which you should be paying attention to when reading a research paper. And normally you do this in your ugly carrier when you are doing your literature review that I talked about, what could be some of the smart goals for PhD students? What should be your daily routines to complete your PhD in time? And you should also understand what is a Ph.D., What is the significant original contribution to the knowledge which will award you a PhD? I have talked about this topic of Salk, What is this and how to achieve this? Then how to manage your references are bibliography. What are some of the critical bibliography mistakes which you should avoid because those mistakes can result in rejection of your PhD thesis. They may also talked about what are some of the key organizations you should be aware of? What is plagiarism, various forms of plagiarism, and how to avoid this. I do not recommend any software to check the plagiarism, but I will give you some guideline and a criteria on which you can evaluate any plagiarism software before you start using it. Then I also touched a very sensitive topic of abed, PhD supervisor. I will show you seven signs of a bed PhD supervisor. And if you unfortunately have such supervisor, you might also consider changing your PhD advisor instead of hoping and then becoming unsuccessful in completing your PhD. So I have also talked about this topic as well. Now some of these videos I have already posted on social media and hundreds of thousands of people have watched these videos and they have appreciated these videos. And therefore I decided to compile all those videos in this course so that some of you who don't have time to search for all those videos can find all my contents at one place, of course, at a price of $2. So you don't have to, by this course, if you are willing to invest time in searching for these videos on by social channels. Now one more thing about what to expect in this course. I have created these videos over a period of two years. So these videos are not just made in one or two sittings. So every video is an independent video on its own. I properly searched for a topic and created a video on a particular topic. Most of the videos are talking head videos, but you will see the variations in the background, colors and slides which are used due to the reason I explained, based on your feedback and comments. And I would encourage you to comment in the comments area. I might create some more videos and guides in this course. Know, some colleges and universities, they have already contacted me asking about permissions of these videos to show to their staff and students and in future, if they wanted to do so, they can contact me via email and I can offer a special price for their institute. But for students, I have made most of the information freely available on my social media channels. But if students want to save time, as I explained, they will also have to pay a few dollars because that will help me to create such videos in future as well. There will be a link in the description of this video which you can click to enroll in this course. Thanks for your time and I will see you inside the course. 2. Australian Awards Scholarships: In this video, I will introduce to you Australians scholarships, car, Australian Awards. Now, what are these Australian awards? These are the awards offered by the Australian government and administered by these three departments. Department of Foreign Affairs and trades, department of education and training, and Australian Center of International Agriculture Research. Now what is the purpose of these scholarships? The purpose of these scholarships is to contribute to the development needs of Australia's partner countries. So the idea is that talented people from these countries, some to Osteria, get exposure to high quality education and get some experience, then go back to their country and contribute for the development of their own country. And this is also one of the condition of these scholarship that they must return back to their country for at least two years. But before we talk all these details, The important thing is that you should understand the purpose of these scholarships. So let's first have a look at what benefits do we get from this scholarship. So I have listed these benefits here. So you will get full tuition fee for your course, then, then 30 thousand Australian Dollars per year as your living allowance. You will also get the airfare to join your study program, then also an airfare for the reunion with your family after at least 12 months of living in Australia, the scholarship will also pay your overseas student health cover and also you will get 5 thousand establishment allowance when you reach Australia. So there you can buy certain home contents and to some other things. And they will also give you $500 every six months as a supplementary support. It Australia is a society which cares a lot about disabled people. So if you have a severe kind of disability, then your Karen will also get 30 thousand per year. Are you making these videos about getting scholarships? I have got many scholarships in Pakistan, my country of origin, and in Australia. And based on my experience, I tried to put all the key information in this video so you don't have to go anywhere, but if you are applying for the scholarship, so I would advise that or this particular Australian Awards, you need to read three PDF documents. One, I have listed RDD under the benefits as you can see the policy handbook, but there are three PDF documents which you should read. So this is the list of these three documents which you should be ready and whole Australian Awards work is that Australian government collaborates with the High Commission of your country. They work together to select the awardees for these scholarships. So first what you do is you go to their website and from that website you have to click on the participating countries. And then you click the name of your own country, and then you will get another PDF. This is the second PDF you will get the first is the policy Handbook, and this is the second, a pdf which is the country-specific information for you. So if you are an Indian student and I will shortly demonstrate the process for India because they have a very good process, a set for these scholarships. So you just click on India and then you will get another PDF which is specific for the Indian students. And then you do read that video. And the last PDF which you should read, the third one is the OS is User Guide for submitting applications. This is the website where you have to apply. So I will talk a talk about this in a minute. So these are the three PDFs which you should read if you are applying for scholarships? No, this is the most important slide in this video, I would say, because in this slide I have mentioned what the authorities are looking for any Jew to select you as an authority of discourse ship. So there are three main things here. The first is the academic excellence, and the second is the leadership qualities you had. And the third thing is how your study course program in which you are trying to get admission hold that steady program aligns with that development needs of your country. So these are three important things. And the good thing about digital scholarship is that in most other scholarships, your academic excellence weighs a lot more than any other thing. But for this is called a ship as far as my opinion and my experience is concerned, the other two attributes are more important than your academic excellence and those are your leadership qualities. And hold your study program aligns with their development needs of the country because the purpose of this is college. You, as I mentioned in slide number two, the purpose of this scholarship is to contribute to the development needs of the country, of the developing countries. So this is what the Australian government is trying to achieve. They are trying to get some future leaders. So they are not only looking at your grades, that you have got four GPA, but you are a very shy person who just lives in an isolated room all day long. No, they are looking for a German leadership attributes in x2. So therefore, your leadership qualities and Hall used all your study program aligns with the needs of your country. This is the most important thing. So all we get this information about what's your country needs. So as I mentioned, the second PDF, country-specific information, which you will get from the High Commission website, your country's High Commission website, that information, that document, that PDF in most cases that contains what are the priority study areas for your country. So they have mentioned few areas there. It's agriculture, it's the woman, extra disability, whatever. So first of all, you have to identify what are those areas. And the second important thing is you have to find a study program in Australia that fulfills all that criteria for this scholarship. And this, I will show you that in another satellite that whenever you show to wonder what are the step-by-step process for this scholarship? You have to find a study program which matches your country's requirement. Nor Here are two important things you have to do. First of all, you have to demonstrate that you have leadership skills. Who can demonstrate there. So there are other videos available on YouTube, I0, this is not my topic. Otherwise, I could have make a video about how to demonstrate the leadership skills. But there are a lot of videos available on YouTube. You have a look at those videos and to understand that how you can demonstrate to your leadership skills. So this is one thing. The second thing is how you will demonstrate that you have selected. The field of study appropriately. So for this, some countries they have given it a name as a development impact plan. But in Australian policy handbook they call it reintegration plan. So whatever you call it, whether it's a reintegration plans or reintegration means that well, to get the education in Australia and when you come back with the knowledge and ideas, hold your knowledge and ideas will affect the development of the country. So this is reintegration, but one Pakistani High Commission website call it as a Development Impact Plan. So whatever you call it, but you have to write a document showing that your field of study will benefit your country. And know from this point onwards in this video, I'm going to share some specific information, but only those students who are serious to apply. And I will show you one example of India because the Indian process is very established. And the second reason is that India is the largest country among all these countries because some other countries might have a little bit different procedure. So you have to contact you or High Commission regarding the details of this whole process. So first of all, I will show you what are the few steps which you should do in order to get this as collision. And then I will show the Indian government process that hold the process, the applications, and that will help you to understand the process. Now these are the five steps in which you should do to get this scholarship or to get to an application already. So the fastest step is read these three PDFs, which I mentioned earlier. And then you will get the better understanding of the whole process, uh, better than watching this video, of course, then you'll find the study area where your country needs to develop. And then you have to find the, of course, this scholarship is available for vocational education and training for best year program for master or PhD, or even think for post-doc as well, which you can extend after going there per PhD. So this is scholarships available for all these programs. The only thing important is that you have to find a program which fulfills the criteria of the scholarship. And this is returning the policy handbook. And for example, one example would be debt only those courses are eligible which have less than 26% online portion of the course. So if the course is fully online, It's not fulfilling the criteria of the Australian government and you will not get the scholarship. So the pores, which has only less than 26% online portion is negligible. So this is one thing, but there are some other things. So you have to seen the policy handbook. And then finally, if you have to prepare the development impact plan, as I explained earlier, before, I showed you that Indian exemple of how they process the application, I would like to show you the website where you have to apply for this scholarship. So this website is shown here. This is called the online Australia Awards information system. So this is a quarter will you have to apply for this scholarship? And they have mentioned all the details in a user guide. So this is the third video which we referred and who they have examples there. They show you how to fill the form. Everything is on that User Guide, just to read it and apply for the scholarship. And now these are the five tips when you are reading these PDFs, which I referred to again and again, these five tips will be beneficial for you. So whenever you are reading because the first PDF policy handbook is up 140 page document, you don't want to read this again and again. So therefore, make notes of all the important things while you are reading so that you don't have to read it again. Then on page 12 to 16 of debt policy handbook, you have a glossary of terms and acronyms, so just make sure that you read that so you will understand what is a program area, because this program area you will see everywhere on the PDF, what is the reintegration plan, for example? So read those glossary of terms so that you can understand the document while you are reading. Otherwise, it would just be a reading, then you have to make a Timeline. So you should understand that when a particular document will be ready, you have to apply for ISI examination or a TOEFL examination. And what are the dates? So try to make a timeline, tried to note all the documents and when you are reading this, so while you are reading the PDFs, you will understand, OK, I need this document of your ticket are noted. So there's you can understand what documents are required and you don't miss anything. So these are some tips that I listed here. So you can have a look and say, how can you make use of these? And now I will show you the example of Indian government. They have a very good system for these scholarships. So these are some of the institutes which can nominate candidates for this scholarship. So India have listed these Institute that only these institutes are eligible to nominate awardees. And their, every institute can nominate up to a four awardees. And the government recommends that there should be looking for women and disabled people and the people who are traditionally marginalized in India. So this should be recommending these type of candidate for these scholarships, but it's up to the Institute how they nominate. The way it works is that you have to plan one year ahead. So if you are seeking a scholarship for the next year, so make sure that this recommendation, this nomination to get from your institute, either in your final year R1, you just finished because if you are more than one year late, then your institute cannot nominate you. So this is one thing you should note. The second thing is that you should apply to OSS website, which I described earlier a between February and their prey. And then by 15th of May, you have to apply it to the Indian government as well. India Government has an office, so you have to apply there. Then you have to also plan your English language exam. You have to, if you are appearing in exam, which is the Australian exam, I would recommend going for iOS and you have to go get 6.5 and no band less than six. So this is the English language requirement. You should plan ahead so that you can get the result before the interview date. So don't wait for June. There I attribute list comes. If you are planning for this scholarship, you should prepare your English language. And then in July you will be introduced in New Delhi from Guinean government officials. And then the successful candidate will be listed by first of August and you apply the result of this and the pre-departure briefing. These are two requirements of this scholarship by Australian government. So therefore, Indian government has to conduct, any government has to conduct the interview and this pre-departure briefing. And every government should have this kind of very fair a system or it is due to understand process. And if your country does not have this, then you must complete this. You must complain that your government has not set any predefined process because it's a very good scholarship. And if there is no guideline for how to apply whatever their debts or how to get nomination. There is no searching. It means that only a few people who know about this Dickinson anybody, because not many people know about this, you should complaint this to Australian authorities as well as your government has not set any guidelines. There are no dates, there are no process of nomination, there is no process of listing. There is no set dates for pre-departure meeting briefing. So you should report this so that your process could be improved because this is a good opportunity for you. And then after this briefing, then you will be ready for going to Australia and then you should depart for Australia by the next year is January because the session starts in February. So this is how it works. Now this last slide is the essence of this video. Whatever I am talking about in this video is summarized on this slide. The only thing which I didn't talk about is the story building a story. So after looking at a humanized the previous awardees of scholarship, you should build your own story that what is the current developments situation of your country in this particular field of study and hold your study will go on to improve this situation. So if your story is defective, so anybody would be able to identify it very quickly and your application will stand out and have a better chance of getting this scholarship. And thanks for watching and see you. 3. CSC Scholorships of china: In this video, you will get a quick introduction to CSC scholarships of China. It's a great opportunity to get a free Master, PhD or even a bachelor degree from top Chinese universities. So without further ado, let's get started. These are some of the topics which we will be discussing in this video today. First, I will give you a brief introduction, proves CSC scholarship program. What benefits you will get? What is your biggest barrier and what to reward you can get out of it. Does it worth studying in China? And then the most important part of this video would be how you can stand out in the crowd when applying for the scholarship. What are some of the things which you can do so that your application is different than all other thousands of applications and you can get a scholarship. This slide shows you a brief introduction to these scholarships. As CSC stands for China's scholarships, comes in on the right-hand side you will see two websites. These are the official websites of Chinese government. And you should only apply to these websites. You don't have to pay any agent any money at all because there would be just a waste of money and also their time. You can get all the information presented in this video from these websites as well. So I have just summarize some of the information for you. And then there are three types of scholarship for Beslan, masters and PhD there age limits I mentioned on this chart, as you can see, and the duration of the scholarship, then there are three categories for applying these scholarships. Category a, B, and C. The a is better you applied through Chinese High Commission in your country. Category B is where you directly apply to a university in China. And category sees an exchange program between Chinese universities and their partner universities. Now let's talk about the benefits you will get in this scholarship. So these are the benefits listed for a best reprogram. In most cases you are full tuition fees covered. But there is a range for that and we will talk about this in a minute. Then you will get 30 thousand Chinese yuan per year as a bachelor student in China, this is your stipend. Then you will also get 8,400 per year are 700 per month. Chinese yuan for your accommodation. Or University will provide you a free accommodation, then your medical insurance will be covered by this scholarship as well, which is 800 yuan per year. Now, these are the benefits for master's students. Again, the same situation for tuition fee, and you will get a scholarship in the range of 36 thousand Chinese Yuan to 42 thousand Chinese Yuan. And your medical insurance will be covered and you will also get one hundred, ten hundred per month as accommodation or University will provide you a free accommodation? No, these are the peripheries for a PhD program. Again, the tuition fee situation is same, but the stipend is no 42 thousand Chinese u_1 and the accommodation is same, 11000 per month or the free accommodation at university and a medical insurance of 800 us. There are both English Language Programs in China and also the Chinese medium or the Chinese taught programs. But if you're applying for an undergraduate scholarship, it is a condition that you must enroll in a Chinese medium program. You have to pass a Chinese language proficiency test. And that test is taken by top ten Chinese universities. And if you don't pass the Chinese language test after one year, then your scholarship will be terminated like any important and Dever in your life. You should also plan this project six months to one year in advance. So in August to September you search for the universities and the program it where you want to study, then you contact the professor and the supervisor. If you're doing a PhD degree, you contact the university for further information, for example, then you prepare your application, then you have to follow the university deadlines. What are their deadlines normalised between January to March, then the government will make the decision and the government will inform your university by 30th of j2, then university will take some time and they will send you an offer letter and visa form end of July n You have one month our soar to join the program because the program will start from September. So this is how you should plan your scholarship. So once you have decided that you are going for the scholarship, you are applying for the scholarship. So then these are some of the questions we should get answers for from those websites, which I mentioned in the previous slide. You go there. There. You can search in many ways. You can search from province and then to university. Are you can search using a multiple combination of prophase or university study program. End up medium, whether it's a Chinese or English medium, steady available. So these are the, some of the questions which you should get answers. First of all, you should, because there are some very top ranked universities and sometimes full tuition fee is not covered. So you should take into consideration that if you are going for a top university and you can afford some of the tuition fees. And remember one thing, all these participating universities which are participating in this scholarship program, they are all top universities of China. There are good universities, but there are some differences, of course, similarly, what is the stipend available? What are the accommodation situation? And sometimes you have to get the admission first, although this is not a requirement of the scholarship. And we will talk about this in the last part of the video. But in some universities you have to get the admission first. And then an important question is where to apply. Whether you have to apply through Chinese High Commission in your country, are you have to apply directly to the university. Now let's talk about it. Does it to worth studying in China? And the simple answer is yes, for students who will do bachelor there, most definitely, but for Masters and PhD, I have to explain a bit further. The most attractive part of scholarship is the Bachelor component, the bachelor degree program. There are thousands of scholarships available around the world for Masters and PhD, but not many available for bachelor. And if you are getting this opportunity, you should always try to avail this. But this bachelor program is limited. So most of you who are watching this video probably are looking for a masters or a PhD program. Now here is a very important thing you should note. If you are doing masters. Because you could not get a job after your bachelor degree, then think once again, become after doing a master or even a PhD, chances for getting you a job will even reduce further then the what you have right now. So don't do don't pursue Master just because you couldn't get a job. Instead, you tried to get a job. So this would be much better for you. But if there are other reasons for you to do master or PhD, then of course it's okay. And now there is one problem you might have once you get the scholarship, and that is the language barrier even if you are going for English program. Because in China not many people know English and you will feel a little bit odd wants to reach there. However, if you learn Chinese and then there are more than 1 billion people who speak this language, then you can image in home much increase in your communication ability you will get just by learning Mandarin, Chinese language. China is a business nation and you can get many benefits if you know Chinese. So there is a barrier, but there is also a blessing in disguise. Now this is the last part of this video and this is the most important part. There are some documents which you can submit with your application. There are some compulsory documents and there are some optional documents. So I have listed some of these documents or you might have missed something, but most of the documents are listed on this slide. So here you can see that the documents which are in a dark color, those are all optional documents. You don't have to submit a research proposal. You don't have to submit motivation statement. Are you don't have to get an admissions. All these documents are optional documents. But here is the very important point which most students miss. They think that because they don't have to submit a research proposal. So why bother about this? But think about that from the perspective of the university, which is offering you the scholarship or the organization which is offering via scholarship. They have thousands of applications. Hollywood there find which candidate is best suited for the scholarship. What would be their creditor? You just think about it. And every every application has just CVN, passport and police check and medical and these type of filter, what is the criteria for them to decide? Not only your GPA, not only your marks. So the only thing which will differentiate your application from other student's application will be these optional documents. Think about it. Our research proposal, a well-defined research proposal, is a very powerful document because not everyone can make a good research proposal. And the professor Looking at the research proposal, he will emit it immediately realized that this person is good. Similarly, a letter of recommendation from a good professor in your country that would be good image in that if you have already secured and admission from a university, you already have admission offer letter from a university And then you enclose that letter with your application. What effect this letter will have on the person who is deciding your application. So why not go for it? Now the most important of these optional document is the acceptance letter from your potential supervisor. If you are doing a PhD or a Master program, if you get this letter, your application will be much stronger. Know how to get this letter. Now here is another problem, put and what they will think, Okay, why not get an acceptance letter? And they will throw an email to maybe hundreds of professors hoping that someone will reply. But the problem is the way, the way they write messages, our very poor, what kind of language they are using when they're asking for help. So you must understand how to write an email, how to write an effective email to a professor so that you could get an acceptance letter. And that acceptance letter would be extremely powerful. And what is in that email? You writing that email? I have this degree. I have so much GPI, have these, IF these IMPs, IF these, you are always talking about what you are doing and not even mentioning what he is doing. You don't even know what he is doing. You never searched for it. He might have 30 publications on Google Scholar, which you could have just cite on Google. And try to understand what the professor is doing. What is this field of research? Then write to him, I am interested in your field of research because I like this. And once you have read his research, once you know the professor, you have a greater chance of acceptance. Look further research, what their professor is doing to read his research or her research finds something important. Find something which you can relate in your coursework or in your previous some work and then send an effective email and your chances of getting excepted. We'll increase. Think about this, do some work. 4. Swedish Scholarships: Sweden is a destination of choice for thousands of students every year. This is not just because Sweden is a beautiful country with stunning landscapes and one of the best welfare systems for its residents. But also because sum of Swedish universities are in top 300 world universities. And also because Swedish Government offers scholarships for international students in their master programs every year, nearly 500 students get these scholarships every year. And in this video, I will give you a brief introduction to these scholarships. These are some of the topics which we are going to discuss today. First I will show you one slide about Sweden. Then we will discuss what are these scholarships? What are the benefits you will get? What are the English language requirements for Swedish universities? What is the admission process and what are some of the important deadlines? And then at the end, which is the most important part of this video, I will show you a complete work planned for you, how to proceed with your scholarship application. A complete timeline for you, how to plan your project of this scholarship. So as you all know that Sweden is in Europe and Stockholm is its capital, home to 950 thousand people. The other two big cities have Gothenburg and Malmo. Guttenberg is 570 thousand people, while Malmo has 340 thousand people, the official language of Sweden is Swedish. Majority of people can speak English very when there are two types of scholarship for international students in Sweden, Swedish Institute scholarships and university scholarships. Swedish Institute is a government agency which offered scholarships to international students and researchers. Swedish institute scholarships for global professionals, SIS, GP. These are the scholarships which are offered to most countries. In fact, these scholarships are available to 34 countries and this is the list of all those countries. Before we discuss further about these scholarships and we'll, you can get more information. Let's have a look at the recipients of the scholarships this year. This is the list of recipients here you can see there are around 16,543 applications were received by nearly 5,300 students. Out of these, 3,546 students were able to secure the admission in the university and 318 students go to the scholarships? No. If you scroll down this list down, you can see some of the monster programs where the students got the scholarship and this can give you a little bit of guidance. What Master program is good for you? Now let's talk about what are the benefits of this scholarship. So number one is the 10 thousand SEK per month. So SEK means Swedish corona, which is the currency there. So 10 thousand corona per month, then you get travel grant of 15 thousand corona once during your study, you also get illness and accident insurance and you also get membership of two networks. Now let's talk about the English language requirements. There are a few ways you can show your English language competency. If you are living in an English-speaking country, you might not require any English exam, But for most of the international students, they have to appear either in Ives exam are the TOEFL exam for English language requirement or master program. They use a term called English-language six. And what is English language six? English-language six. If you are giving an IELTS exam, which is the Australian exam, then you have to score 6.5 overall with the no section less than 5.40. And if you are appearing in a UK version of the English language testing system, which is called TOEFL exam, then it depends on whether you are appearing in a paper-based exam, are in an online exam and the scores vary, and these are the scores for both of these exams. Now, before we talk about the admission process, I would like to mention something that if you need any information after watching this video, then these are the three websites which you should consult. And now let's talk about the admission process. Admission process in Sweden is very simple. You can apply to multiple programs and universities using a single application. Now this is the website university admission where you have to load your replication. There are two sessions. These are the deadlines which you should keep in mind when applying your admission. You should note when the online services available, what are the application deadlines, when the notification will come and when the semester starts. So an important point here is that when you are notified for your admission, well, you get the notification, you have to respond, you have to reply to the university. So therefore, make sure that you replied No. There are two semesters. One starts in January, which is called the spring, the other is called auto, which starts in August, September. But the important thing here is that all the scholarships are for autumn session. So there are no scholarship for spring session. I mentioned spring here because if you are applying just in case for spring session and you are not seeking scholarship, then it might be helpful for you. But if you're applying for a scholarship, then you should only focus on the Autumn semester are the semester which starts in August, September. No, I don't want this video to be too long, so I will explain few more things on this timeline so that you can better understand the process. So what happens is that, for example, No, you can plan for your 20-20 autumn session because you are in August. I am releasing this video in August 2019. So around mid-October, the online service will be available and you can put your application. You can submit this application up to 15th of January. So you have three months period in which you can submit the application. And if you need English language exam, you can also appear in the exam. And there are two things. One is that you have to search for the program in which you are trying to enroll. And not only one programs, you have to at least select Foo program. And then you can give options, and then you have to prioritize your programs that This is my first choice. My second choice, this is called ranking. And this ranking you have to mention in your application. And the ranking deadline is also the application deadline. So it means that before 15th of January you have to find the lies there. Preferences for yourself. That this is my first choice or second or third choice. So once you submit the application, you can chain the ranking, but that might affect your admission and as well as the scholarship because then you will be considered as late if you change the ranking afterwards. So make sure that you do this before 15th of January. No, from 15th of January to the end of January, they will give you some time to submit any documents. For example, your English language exam result comes so that you can simply scan it and send it to University. They will accept this because they will verify your toffee layer IS exam online. So you just scan the copy and send online and then they will verify. And then after 31st of January, then you have to make another application for the scholarship on the Swedish Institute website. So there you have to apply for the scholarship. And for that application, you need an application number. And that application number will come from your application to the universe, to the university admission website. So when you apply there, you will get the application number and then replication number. You have to put in your replication for the scholarship which you will submit in Swedish Institute. So in February you will submit the scholarship application. Then after that, you can look for university scholarships as well, because these are, this is your second option. So look for the university, which universities offering a scholarship, and then you apply it to that university directly for the university scholarship. So this is the process. So in April you will get the notification, a few result and if you get the scholarship you have from April to July. So this you apply the visa. And once you got the scholarship, the visa process will be very simple and easy. After that, you can arrange your accommodation and you can go to Sweden. This is a very simple process. If you plan carefully, you can do this for the next year. So this is a perfect time for you to start gathering the documents, start planning, searching for your programs. Searching is very easy. Go to the website and just search with your subject. And once you have selected certain universities, look for their codes. And then later on you can also search with using their program codes, because every program has a code, so it's very easy. So I hope that you can plan this very well because I have put all the information. Thanks for watching and see you next time. 5. Turkish Burslari Scholarships: In this video, I'm going to talk about Turkey, but slurry scholarships, These are the scholarships offered by the Turkish government and students from all countries can apply it to these scholarships. These scholarships are for bachelors, masters, and PhD programs. There are 5 thousand scholarships and it's a great opportunity for you to do bachelors, masters, or PhD in Turkey, which is one of the favorite destinations for two arrays. One thing I always keep in mind when making a video that this is called a ship is not just for once. All the scholarships which I talk about, they are normally offered by the governments every year. And this turkey scholarships. These are also offered every year since 2012, according to a reliable source, in 2018, there were 130 thousand applications for these scholarships from 150 countries. In this video, I'm going to talk about these topics which have been listed here. So I will give you a brief introduction to these scholarships. What is the eligibility criteria, what documents you need, and some of the interview tips. And then at the end I will talk about a little bit about what to expect in Turkey and what is the student life there? No, this slide shows you a brief overview of these scholarships, although the major program is for bachelors, masters, and PhD, but there are some short-term scholarships are also available and we will talk about these in a minute. Are you put some information on this slide? But then I will explain each of these scholarships in detail. No, First let's talk about the Bachelor scholarships. What are the benefits you get in the scholarship? So in a Beslan scholarship, you will get 700 Turkish Lira per month as a stipend. Then we will also get pulled tuition fee for the university, free accommodation, return ticket, and health insurance. You will also get scholarship for one year for learning Turkish language. Now let's talk about the duration of this scholarship. You will get one year to learn Turkish language and then four to six years further studied depending on your course. Now the eligibility criteria is that you have to secure 70% marks in your HSC, our diploma. And you should be less than 21 years old. So students from any country can apply to this scholarship. And if you are in the final year, make sure that you will be graduated by September of 2020 if you are applying this year. And one thing to be noted is that the mass requirement for medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, are higher and you need at least 90% marks in your HSC or any pre-medical diploma. Now let's talk about the Masters program. These are the benefits. You will get 950 Turkish Lira per month free accommodation, full tuition fee, return ticket, and who will get one year scholarship for learning Turkish language and two years for your Master's degree. The minimum margin requirements are 75% in your undergraduate and you must be less than 30 years old. And again, students from any country can apply. And there are higher requirements for medical students. No, this is an overview of PhD scholarship program. You will get 1400 Turkish Lira per month as your stipend and the rest of the benefits are same, you will get one year scholarship pour learning Turkish language and four years for your PhD. The academic requirements are 75%, and the requirement is that you should be less than 35 years of age. And students from any country can also apply for a PhD. So this was a summary of three major scholarship programs, Beslan, Masters and PhD. And now let's talk about some of the short-term scholarship programs available. So these are three different programs. First is called Success Scholarship Program. These are the scholarships where you can study your best year Masters and PhD only for one year in Turkey. And you will get these stipends per month, 440 Turkish Lira for base layer, 594 masters and 884 PhD per month. Then the second program is research scholarship program. You must be less than 45 years of age to join this program. And we will get 3 thousand Turkish Lira per month as your scholarship. And who can avail this scholarship between a period of three to ten months. It's up to you how long you want to do our research in any of the institute. And the other institute will also give you a certain time period within this slot. The third short-term scholarship is Turkish language scholarship. You can get this scholarship between a period of eight to ten months. You will get 2 thousand Turkish lira, permanent S typing, you will get accommodation and return ticket and the fear of your Turkish language program. Now this is the list of documents you will need at various stages of your scholarship application. And in most cases, you will also need a Turkish language translation of your documents. And another important document for graduate students is research proposal, and you must understand how to write a good research proposal. I have a video about research proposal step-by-step. You can start this video on my channel and you will get some very helpful information. I have many other videos about graduate students, like how to do literature review actually Tra, and you can also watch those videos. I have listed all these documents here and you can stop the video and you can note these documents. There are few important things I would like to mention here. The first is that your passport value detail must cover your period of study. It's a good practice to get our ten years passport. And the second important thing is since you need translation of your documents, you cannot just translate from anywhere. So you must ask the Turkish high commission for the places from where you can get the document translated and also about the medical fitness certificates. There will also be a limited number of places from you would be able to get the medical fitness certificate so that you don't have any Kronecker contagious disease. Now it is important to note that one of the criteria for selection is that you also have some social attributes and some extra curricular activities. If you do have these type of activities, your chances of getting the scholarship will increase. So make sure that if you have some extra curricular activities, for example, you are good at sports or in any other activities. You must mention this n. If you have any documents, you must present those documents with your application. This will improve your chances of getting the scholarship no, where to apply and when to apply. So on this slide, as you can see that this is the website where you have to apply. This is official Turkish government website, as you can see, dot-dot-dot TR. In order to understand when you should apply for a scholarship, there is a timeline available on this website, but the second link I presented here is the link to that timeline timeframe for all the scholarships, for example, bachelor, master. So they have slightly different dates. So, but all those dates are in the beginning of the year. So you can have a look at this timeline calendar, which will show you all the details. Now let's talk about the interview. There is an interview involved in this selection process. So once you have been shortlisted for the interview, so you will be called to any particular city in your country because they don't arrange interviews in all the cities. So there are n intervals in major cities. So a major city of your country, they will ask you to go there and you have to bear all the expenses. You have to arrange your flight or train or whatever journey, how you want to go to the city. They will not pay for this. And in some cases they might allow you to have a Skype interview, but normally they don't change the date. So once they have given you a date, they will not change it. You can try you can to the High Commission. And for any other questions as well, you must talk to the High Commission in your country or in your city. So what happens in the interview? It is important that you take your passport and all the original documents with you because that is the point where they will want to verify your your documents. Even if you have not graduated yet, you bring all their class keeps up your previous years to the interview. And there are three main preparation to have to do. One is that prepared to talk about yourself? It's a common question. Tell me about yourself. And second important thing is you must be prepared to talk about one of your previous projects. In particular, if you are applying for a research degree at the graduate program. Another important thing is that you must be prepared to talk about your future plans. For example, they might ask if you don't get this scholarship, then what are your plans? So you must prepare a very good answer to this question. Similarly, as I mentioned earlier, you must highlight your social activities, your extra curricular activities. And above all, you must show your interest in Turkish culture. For example, why do you want to go to Turkey? You can say that I like to learn about Turkey, Turkish culture. I R, RI, watch their movies or whatever. So show your interest in Turkish culture. That will be a plus point and your chances of getting approval will increase because that's why they are paying you. They want you to come to their country and adopt to their culture. So this is the reason these countries offer scholarships, in particular for undergraduate students, it is very important to show a keen interest in their culture. Now, let's talk about the student life in Turkey. So in Turkey, student life is a little bit tougher. So you have to devote more time to your studies and less to other activities. So in simple words, you have to study more. They want, they expect you to put more time to your studies. Accommodation is normally government accommodation. They will provide you, but you can also live on your own if you want to pay extra. And some of the Turkish universities are among the top world ranking universities. So you can have a large selection of universities. Most students prefer to go to stumble. That is a multi-cultural city. You will see students from all countries and you can have a good social life outside the university because normally there are not many social activities in universities in Turkey. So I hope that you will try to get this opportunity. Thanks for watching. 6. 3 Subjects Every PhD Student Must Take and Why: In this video, I will show you three subjects which every PhD student must take before starting their research and why. If you are only interested in knowing the names of the subjects I have written here and you are welcome to skip this video. But if you've watched this video full, I'm confident that you will learn a few things. So let's get started. So before we talk about why you need these subjects, I would like to discuss the coursework. So there are various rules for coursework. Some universities asked you to do the coursework in your first year or even in your second year. And some universities allowing you to do the course what, anytime you want. And you can take any subjects here in Australia if you are a PhD student, you can take any subjects whenever you want. I am not a big fan of coursework because in my opinion, it wastes a lot of time. The names of the subject in your coursework might look relevant to your PhD, but in fact, you will be wasting time. And having said that, these three subjects, in my opinion, are still very important for you to take during this course. What are during first, second year of your PhD degree? I will be explaining these subjects in this order. But I would like to request you to put in the comments which subject in your opinion is most important, even if it is not listed in this list. So I would appreciate that and I would like to learn something from you. So let's talk about the first subject. So this object has many names. Sometimes you might find reside design. Sometimes you might get research design and methods are Research Design and Methodology. Essentially, the subject is saying, when you start your PhD, so hold this subject helps you. So what do you start your PhD? You have a broad field, then you do some literature review. What other researchers have done. Then you try to find your research topic. You write a research proposal. Know what sure trying to achieve here. You are trying to formulate your research questions. What questions your research will be answering? For example, why something is happening? What is going on there? What is the relationship between any two vectors are any two variables. So these kind of questions are the questions which your research will be answering. So this object will help you in many ways. And those waves can be summarized in two simple sentences. So the first thing is, the subject will help you to make a research plan. And the second thing is, it will also help you to make our research strategy. Which method to use. There are many methods. Whether you will be doing experiments, whether you will be doing surveys, whether you would be conducting interviews, are doing some case studies, are using just the historical data. So what you are trying to achieve, how you are willing to achieve this. All this UV led in this subject. So these two important things, how to plan your research and how to choose a method. This you will learn in this subject. You will also learn how to formulate your questions. What questions to ask? For example, if you are conducting surveys, which question you should include in your survey, which experiment you should do, and how to collect data. What is the best method to collect your data? All these questions will be answered by this subject. Your plan, your research methods, your questions, everything related to blending of your research. Now let's talk about the second subject, which is statistics. Now, once you get the data, you got some numbers in front of you. A lot of numbers. These numbers have no value until you get the answers to your question. So how to get the answers to your questions? How to prove to someone that you were right. Even if you're wrong, you can still get a degree. Don't worry about that. But how to do that? Statistics will help you to get your answers from the numbers to the answers. Statistics has some very powerful tools. For example, I will start from a very simple example. You all are familiar. The power of the normal distribution, the bell-shaped distribution, the various analysis, linear regression, hypothesis tests, parameter IQ tests, correlation between the variables. So all these powerful tools you will get from statistics, and these tools will help you to get the answers from your data. So before I talk about the last subject, I want to discuss one more thing. That is a small part of a branch of science which is called data science. I'm not a big fan of this big data thing because in my opinion, this is just a pile of rubbish. However, I like to very important part of this data science branch. The first part is how you can tell a story from your data. And this is not for you, not what PhD student, this is for those people who are working in the corporate sector, they must know how to tell a story from a data. Now the second part is for you, for PhD students, and that is how to showcase your data. If you have learned statistic with love, with passion, you already know how to showcase your data. Because this statistic we'll show you how to showcase your data. But if not, then you can search for this keyword. You will find a lot of videos on Youtube. I might make a video later on on this topic. Data showcasing. A showcasing, I love the most. Because this helps you how to present your data in front of researchers, in front of scientists, in front of analysts, in front of engineers. When you are publishing your work, you have to present your data in front of this community. And data showcasing techniques will help you to do this, to present your data in a wonderful way. So therefore, you should learn this as well. If you are not a big fan of statistics. Now let's talk about the last subject I have listed here. It's linear algebra. In many situations when you are doing research, you will end up having some vectors are mattresses in front of, you. Know, when you are handling vectors or matrices, you will need this subject. The subject is a very complex subject. But the good news is that the basic elements of this subjects are very simple and straight forward. You can easily learn this. Now, for example, in few fears, you end up having a large number of variables which are linearly related to each other. So you get a linear equations may be hundreds of linear equations. So in this situation, you can find a functional relationship between them by using linear algebra techniques. There is one very powerful tool in linear algebra which is called SVD singular value decomposition. This is a technique which are most every researcher use during their PhD. It's such a powerful technique. And this technique, can they reduce the complexity of your data? It reduced the redundancy and no eyes. You can reduce the dimensions of your data. So this SVD can lead to another technique which is called principal component analysis. And that technique is a very powerful technique in machine learning. So this object is also very important, in particular for engineering related fields. 7. 5 Questions to Ask Your Potential PhD Supervisor: When choosing a PhD supervisor, This is how it normally works. You send requests to a few of the professors who might have funding. Most of them do not reply. Suddenly you get a response from one of those. You become so grateful and so excited that you immediately make a decision to join their professor. This quick decision could be a recipe of disaster and you could destroy your whole carrier. Because funding is not the only thing you should be looking for. In this video, I'm going to show you five critical questions which you must ask your PhD supervisor before accepting his or her supervision. For those who do not have time to watch full video, I have put these questions here. You can read these questions and you are welcome to skip this video. But for some serious students who want to learn more about this, please watch fully video. Now before we talk about these five questions, there are two assumptions and three important things you should understand. And then we will talk about these five questions. What are my two assumptions? The first assumption is that you are on a scholarship, because in my opinion, PhD must be on a scholarship. If you do not get a scholarship, don't do PhD. And the second assumption is, do you know how many publications you are expected to have by the end of your candidates. And this information is available on University's website. Some universities require only three conference paper. Some might need three conference and one general. And some universities, their donor demand any publication. So these are the two assumptions. Now there are three important things which you must consider before asking these questions. The first thing is that you are a valuable commodity for the university. You are an important valuable person as a PhD student for their supervisor and further university. So don't just be grateful that someone has accepted you because debt supervisor might be more interested in getting you then what you are because you will be doing the hard work to put his name on your publications. You will be doing publications that will rent that university. So don't under evaluate yourself. You are valuable for the professor, you are valuable for the university. This is first thing. If you don't understand this, you might not be able to even ask any question. Second important thing is that these questions are not to be asked in an email. These questions must be asked in a meeting, in a sitting with the supervisor, you have to arrange it. And by looking in the eyes, but politely and professionally. And the third important thing you should understand is that you are not judging the person as a researcher and as a supervisor because you are just a new B in the complex world of academia, what you are looking for is just whether that person is a good fit. You are not you are not in a position to judge anyone, whether he or she is a good or a bad professor. So these are the three important things you should keep in your mind before asking these questions. Now, I will be using worst assuming a male supervisor because it's hard to say he or she all the times. But to a supervisor could be a female as well. Now let's talk about the questions now. The first question is, do you have plans to leave this university within next few years? This is very important for those students who have planned a particular supervisor because they want to do research in a particular field of science. And normally in any university, every professor has a specialization in one field. So if you are only interested in that field and the supervisor goes away, then you will be in trouble because the new person which will be assigned to you as your supervisor will not be knowledgeable in that particular field. This problem will eventually be solved. Somehow. There are techniques and strategies you can do to tackle this situation, but it will waste your time. And it is good to ask this because he might not have any plans and you will be in a peace of mind. And I have seen many students who got this problem. Now you have to accept whoever university assigns to you. So this is good to us. Now the second question is, how the authorship of publications will work? There are few things to understand here. Now there are only few countries and Universities where there is a code of conduct. Normally this is done with you and your supervisor. You negotiate with your supervisor and decide who will be the first author. It'll be the second author and so on. And other important thing is sometimes in a university there are large groups. You also support research work of other groups. You spend some time working with them other than your supervisor in that situation, what will happen, whether day we'll put your name on their publications are not what is going on in the university. So you have to discuss this with your supervisor. What is the practice going on? Are there many groups we have to collaborate and how the publications authorship will work? Now the third question is, would you be able to send me to conferences where my paper has been accepted at least once a year. Now, this is very important. No, I am not a big fan of conference papers and I have mentioned this in my other videos that if you can avoid publishing a conference paper, that is good, always focus on agenda. If you think that you can publish in a journal paper, because conference papers are worthless, They will not add value to your resume. But there are a few students who are not able to publish in journals. And if your university only requires three conference papers, then you should be focusing on conferences as well. So this is the first reason for conference paper. There is another reason for publishing in conferences which I have already mentioned somewhere else in my videos. And that is networking. And when you submit to a conference paper and that your paper is accepted, then it is very important that you attend that conference. And this needs some funding, grants, some living expenses, and only your supervisor or your university can support you. Because you are a student, you are not making a lot of money to support your travel. So therefore, this is very, very important that your supervisor is willing to send you in the conference is because you have to network with other researchers in order to get your potential interviewers in other university for your job opportunities, your carrier development. So this is what you should be focusing on during these five years. How to network with other people in the academia and how to get some job after you complete your PhD. So I always try to attend a conference at least once or twice a year. And therefore, this question is very important to ask in the beginning because if he or she makes a commitment, then he will definitely try to fulfill that commitment later on and you will be happy. Now the fourth question is, do you consider yourself hands on our hands off supervisor know, hands on supervisor. Are those supervisors who are very actively involved in activities. He will be on your shoulder all the time pushing you to do experiments to get some reserves will always be having discussions with you, easily accessible in the lab with you. So this is hands-on or hands-off. He's a person who mostly stays. He needs room. You will not see him. Sometimes weeks, sometimes months. He will give you a free hand, whatever you do. Even showed you, oh, this is the lab and then you and your PhD. Now, this type of person is not always buried. This type of person sometimes suits you. But if you are a mommy, daddy type student who needs step-by-step instructions all the way, who was dependent on tutors during is HSE or Elavil, who was dependent on teachers for instructions Ali's life, then this supervisor is not for you. If you are self-discipline, if to have strong research links with other researchers in the community, then this supervisor will be fine, even better for you. So this deserves a separate video and I will make some time. But this is the important question to ask. Now the last question, how many PhD students you have supervised who also have completed PhD? This is very critical question and the most important question to ask why this question is important, because this question is that a deal breaker? If the person says to you, I don't have any student who have completed the PhD. Then my advice is stay away. Full stop. You don't want to be a practice ground for that person. Now you might ask a question that if nobody joins him as a PhD student, then how he will get experience? Well, the answer is that there are some people who will never ask this question. There exists a bigger fall then you, in this word, actually there exists a bigger fool than any full. So therefore, don't worry about this. This is none of your business, but my advice is that you should not be the first to join this kind of supervisor. There are lot of issues supervising the PhD student. And until someone has some experience, you should stay away. Now, if the average duration of his PhD students is very long, they complete PhD in 70 years, for example. Then there could be some other reasons and you have to dig deeper to try to understand because there are not many options for supervisors for, you know, the last thing I would like to mention is that even if you get the best supervisor, there is no guarantee that you will complete the PhD. Nearly half of the students changed their supervisor in a hope that they will complete their PhD because their expectations were sometimes very high. So therefore, this video was only to help you decide your PhD supervisor. 8. 7 Signs Of A Bad Phd Supervisor C: Supervision can make or break your postgraduate experience. You should not just become happy that someone has accepted us, your PhD student. You must also try to find out whether or not that person is suitable for you. In this video, I'm going to show you seven signs of a PhD supervisor, which you might want to avoid. So before I talk on this topic, I would like to mention that a supervisor or it can be a male supervisor are female supervisor, but I will be using worse for a supervisor in this video. So when you are trying to secure your PhD admission, normally, you select anyone from the department as your PhD supervisor and start communicating with that person. But this is not the way you should be doing this because university and your PhD supervisor, they are trying to figure out whether you are suitable for this program in the same manner. You should also be trying to figure out whether that person is suitable for you are not most of the time it is not a person who is good or bad. Most of the time the problem is for compatibility. But there are few things you can ask the previous Ph.D. students of that person. You can even send an email to your potential PhD supervisor asking some questions. And I have a separate video for that. What questions you must ask your PhD supervisor before joining him. So keep this in mind that we are not judging anyone as a good or bad person. We are just trying to figure out some of the qualities which appears new supervisor should not have. Every PhD supervisor is different, every PhD student is different. And a person, even he has these qualities. He might have some other very good qualities which we are not talking about in this video. So you should also keep this in mind. Now the last thing before I talk about these seven signs, they're the first graph. This is only for engineering disciplines. I have seen this trend in recent years and I want you to warn my subscribers who are engineers and you might think of doing PhD in future. So there should be mindful of these type of people. And this might also be applicable to some other disciplines. The rest of the six signs which I'm going to show you are applicable to any discipline and stick around till the end of this video because the last two signs are the deal breakers. And if your supervisor has any of these two attributes, then you must avoid that person as your PhD supervisor. So let's start. So the first sign is that this person did his PhD immediately after his undergraduate, and then he started supervising those students. And there is an end. He was an average student during his undergraduate. Now the problem here is that if the person is a top student, a gold medalist are topper in the universe p, then it is normal for these kind of students to go into academia. They have a proven track record. They are very capable most of the times. They are so smart that they know more than the one who are working in engineering. Buddy hook percent is an average student and then he decides to go to PhD, and then he starts supervising PhD Engineering students. Then there is an issue because this person does not know how an engineering project is carried out and what it takes to design and development and unerring product and bring it to the market. So these type of people, they are just looking for an easy life. They think that if they do PhD, then their life will be easy because they will somehow get a job in academia. They have some relationship with the top university professors. And as I have mentioned already in one of my other videos, that most of the academic jobs, they are advertised after they have selected someone. So therefore, these are those kind of people. They have some good relationship with some higher ups and they get a job, and then they start off very easy and very charming leafy style. There is one key symptom of these idiots and you can immediately recognize them. You will find them saying that I am a perfectionist. And if an engineer says this to you, I am a perfectionist. And he has no industrial experience. He has not seen any industry and he was an average student, then he has the full potential to make your life miserable during a PhD because no experiment is perfect, no research paper is perfect, and no PhD thesis is perfect. So this perfectionist can destroy five years of your life. No second symptom is that he criticizes a lot but ignores your Good one? No. Again, there are two things. A positive criticism from PhD supervisor is always welcome. But the second part is more important that he ignores your good work. If he does so, then the benefit for armies pour positive criticism will be less than the de, motivation you will get from ignoring your good work. And that will be extremely harmful for your PhD because you need a little bit of appreciation. Pull your smart successes. In the beginning, you will not do PhD immediately. There will be some small successes you will get during the first few years and then you will eventually get a PhD. Now again, there is a key symptom of these people. And what is that? Although he will criticize you or lot, he will ignore your good work. But at the same time, he will never give you any actionable or a step-by-step advice. You can ask his previous students whether that person is of this type are not. Now the third sign is that he stays extremely formal and inside the shell. I'm not saying that you should start developing some personal relationship with your PhD supervisor because that is not good either. But this person. I always try to speak very short sentences. He will not give you any detail or any specific instructions. Here. We'll leave it completely up to you. He will not even laugh with you on a funny thing, because he is in an inferiority complex. He's not competent and he thinks that he might say something stupid. Now, there is also one key symptom of this person as well, which is if for any reason he has to talk on any complex issue or une, complex concept, he will talk on that subject very casually and he will try to show you, you should already know about this, although it's a very complex topic. So this is a key symptom of this person. Now the next point is that he will not reply to your technical emails in his email. So let's say you ask him any specific details of our experiment you are trying to do, or any specific concept. And you send him an email, a very detailed e-mail. So here's the reply would be okay. In the next meeting, we will talk about this, come to my office tomorrow at nine PM and we will discuss something like that. He will never reply to your email in detail because he's concerned that you might disclose this information later on to someone and he might have said something very stupid. So he will always try to discuss in person instead of replying to your email. No, number five is also very critical and a very good sign up for a PhD supervisor you must avoid is that he will not introduce you to other scientists and researchers. And he does this because he values you LOW. He's interested in his own growth, not in your carrier growth, and he does not see you as his future colleague. So therefore, it does not introduce you to other researchers, are scientists or other professors in the university. Now the last two points, these are very important and you must look this beforehand. And you can easily do this without even talking to his students. And if you find that he has these two attributes, then you must avoid this person because these are very critical. The number one is that he must have publications in recent years with an overall impact factor of greater than five, at least. And the seventh and the last point you must check before joining this person is that he must have at least five students finishing their Ph.D. under his supervision in less than five years period. So there must be some students. See RDD has supervised, you dont want to foster student, and now you might ask that refer Nobody joins him. Then how we will get students? Well, there are other people who are less intelligent than you and who have not watched this video. So there are a lot of other students he will get and when he gets some experience and yet has some publications, then you might be able to join that type of person. So this is it for this video. So thanks for watching and see you next time. 9. 7 Step Process of Doing the Literature Review for Your PhD: In this video, you will learn how to do a literature review for a PhD. So let's get started. There could be many reasons for doing a literature review, but in this video, we will be focusing on doing this for a PhD degree. So what is literature? In our context? Literature is any scholarly writing such as a general paper, a conference paper, any relevant thesis which relates to your field of research. Now what is literature review? In literature review, you identify the relevant literature in a particular field of research. And then to evaluate that literature with an intention to find gaps. And these gaps will be filled by your research. Why do you do literature review? I have talked about the importance of literature review in few other videos. And I will put a link in this video which you can watch. But in a nutshell, do literature review to demonstrate that we know this field of research and that our contribution is original. Literature review is a very important process of any research project. And people have talked about this a lot. But in my opinion, all this process boils down to these seven steps. I don't want this video to be too long, but I will quickly give you a few tips about these seven steps. So the first step is find keyword, find relevant keywords when you start your PhD, most of the time, you do not know the area very well. You have a little bit of idea what you are going to do. But there are a lot of keywords relevant to your field of research which you might not know and the literature will, you will be trying to find out we heavily depend on the keywords for which you are searching. So therefore, you should have a stock of keywords to search for the papers. There are many tools available. Some 2's are not intended for scientific community. They are marketing tools, but I have tested these tools and these tools work very well for scientific purpose as well. So these tools are SEM rush, HRFs. All these tools are marketing people, for advertising people. But because they deal with the keywords, so they can provide you some key words, some broader keywords. They will not give you the specific scientific terminology which you have to figure out by yourself or by talking to your supervisor. But for some students, even the broader keywords are also helpful. So you can use any of these tools. So these are commercial tools. You don't have to pay money, don't buy these tool because you will not be doing this a lot. This is just an initial step and your supervisor can also help you. But I don't want to do is I have installed up free Chrome extension that it's called keywords everywhere and whenever I search in Google, that Chrome extension gives me certain associated a relative related keywords. So this is just a start. Now the second step is finding the pressure and the researchers. Here I have put the researchers as well. And I will talk about how to find the literature, but I will not talk about how to find the top researcher in your field. Because I have discussed this in another video, I will put a link here. You can watch that video for OMB around nine minute and 25 seconds. After that, you can watch that video and where I explained how to find the. Top researchers in your field, and nobody talks about how to find the appropriate literature. No, what most students do is they start typing setting keywords in Google Scholar are in the library databases such as I Tripoli explore our Proquest, whatever literature comes they just collected. Now the problem here is that the amount of literature you will get from the, the amount of articles, general papers, conference paper which you will get by doing just the keyword search, will be too much. You don't have time to read all those thousands of paper. So the solution is that you must use advanced search features. There are certain advanced search operators in every searchable database, including Google. I will show you an article on the screen. You can read this article by Joshua hard week. This guy explains what are some of the advanced search features in Google which you can use if you are searching in Google Scholar, for example. And I will show you two examples. I Tripoli explored database and Proquest Database. So let's have a look at I Tripoli explored database. I Tripoli explored has other search options. And if you click on this little arrow, you have command search. And in commands such you will have many feels and also many operators available for advanced search. You also have complex commands, such example, which you can read to understand how to make a complex advanced such query in Proquest Database, we have these three operators. You also have source type, document type, and language options. So this type of advanced such is available in every database. So make use of this advanced search. Now you know how to use the advanced operator, but here is the load shop. The Noachian is that most scientists and researchers there do not use the relevant keywords, the true keywords and no, although there are some organizations nodes which are trying to force that researchers and scientists must use some so-called approved keywords. But even then, scientists do not do that. They don't use the true relevant keywords in their papers. And it is sometimes hard to find the relevant paper. And you should always keep this in mind that there might be a very important paper still hidden from, you know, the third E-Step is qualifying literature for reading. You cannot read all those which you have found in the search results, even if you use the advanced search operators. So how do you qualify that you should read this literature? You should read this conflict general paper or thesis. So there are few things you can do. Number one, you read the title and at the most only the abstract, which will take you maybe 2-3 minutes. You read these two and you immediately will feel whether this is relevant or not. This is one thing. The second thing you will do is you will look at the impact factor of the paper. If this is a general paper with a high-impact specter ice, just a conference paper, whether it's buying a renowned researcher from some unknown student, for example. So these are few things. You have to determine whether you should keep this R naught. So now you will make. Three different categories. Number one, not relevant, immediately remove that from your list. Number two, relevant. Number three, maybe relevant or not relevant. You are not sure, but you think it might be relevant. These are the three categories. So two of these categories relevant and might be relevant. You will bring to the next step. And the next step is put it on a timeline. Now, why this is important to port this papers on a timeline. This is very important in order to build a story which we will discuss in next steps. You are not doing this literature review as an isolated thing. You are not doing this just to what the other people have done. No, you have to find, you are doing this to critically analyze these paper to see what are the issues, what the discussions are going, how the research is progressing. So all these kind of things. And therefore you are putting this on a timeline so that you can understand what was the starting point of this kind of research, then what happened there, what happened, and how the things are progressing. So these are the articles from 1990 to 95, or 95 to 2 thousand or 2 thousand to 2005. So all of these, so how far you should go this depends on your topic, your field of research, but don't go too far and welcome make this timeline. There should be more papers towards the latest period and less paper as you go toward the older years. So this, you should keep in mind that the latest research is more important for you. But if there are high-impact papers which had been started by many researchers, you must include those paper even if they're older. So this is how you create a timeline of your papers. Now the next step is break it down. Break it down. What? Break it down your field of research and put all your papers into those sections, are those chapters, are those sub-topics? So the best way to do that is by looking at some of the recent textbooks. And in those textbooks, you will find some hierarchical charts of your field of research. So that is your breakdown of your field of research. You break down your field of research in two different areas, then all your papers which you have put on the timeline you will put in these sections are in these chapters how many breakdown as many headings as possible, as many subheadings as possible. Why? Because when you build a story out of it, it will help you there. Okay, these are the areas in my field of research and these are the important papers in these areas. So this is how you break down. Now the next step is build a story. No, this is the most important step. I'll what you are doing is for this step, not the next step. Because the next step, the step number seven, finding gap is the natural outcome of all of these efforts. If you had the intention, if you have done all these their first properly, then you will automatically find the gaps all the way. You will automatically find the gaps. You are not doing literature review to just to write down bits and pieces from other people's work into one chapter of your thesis. No, will not give you any credit. You are doing the literature review to build a story. So the research started in my area in year 1990, for example. These were the researchers, this is what the date. These were the issues. These were the problems, These were the controversies. Then some other researchers came into the picture. They did this. They also addressed this problem. They demonstrated some experiments, but they couldn't find this thing, which I am trying to address. And these stories seems very easy. But actually this is not the only way you can beat this story is by rigorous, extensive reading. There is no other method, no shortcuts to this. You cannot read any abstract of someone else or you can build your own story. No. You have to extensively read all these papers which you have selected in your timeline. And here what I do is what I suggest is, and I will show you on the screen a mind map kind of thing. You can make this in any software. There is a free software available card, free mind. I had made this ONE three mind. So on this screen you can see that these are some of the critical papers which you will put from your timeline to this mind-map. Why I call it mind-map. Because these are those papers which should always stay in your mind. Be so familiar with these papers because these papers will build your story. You put these selected papers, which are part of your story from your timeline into this diagram, into this mind map, then you can assign our relevancy score there. This is highly relevant. This is the impact factor of these papers. So now this is the story which you will be writing on a separate chapter. And I would suggest that your literature review should be a separate chapter. It is not a compulsion repeatedly, it is not a requirement, but it's a good practice. Ie, support this practice. So whenever you read those papers which you have selected for your story or your mind-map, you must read those papers, then make notes in English or in your own language wherever you are comfortable with, MIT notes highlight those parts which are important so that when you are building a story for your chapter of thesis, you should be, you should feel very comfortable and know if you have done all this, then automatically you will find certain gaps. And then you have to link those gaps which your research and how you are addressing those gifts. If you do this, this will prove that your work is original, nobody else has done, and you should be awarded a PhD degree. So there could be many questions about, around these topics. So if you have any questions, please put in the comments section below, and I will definitely answer those questions. 10. How to Write a Research Proposal: In this video, I will show you how to write a research proposal. What is the structure of a research proposal? What are the elements and how to put these elements in a document which you can submit some beer. So let's get started. A research proposal is a document which outlines your intended research. So this is the simplest definition of a research proposal. Why would you need a research proposal? So there are two main reasons. One is that this is part of your PhD admission application. And the second is that you have PhD. You are working as a lecturer, as a professor somewhere, and you want to apply for funding. So in both the situation, the structure of the research proposal will stay roughly the same. However, the strategy will be different. And this I will discuss in another video. Because in this video, we're only going to discuss the structure of a research proposal. Although some investors tried to assist students by giving them a template or a set of questions so that they can answer those questions. And in this way they make the research proposal. But these are some of the elements which are globally accepted as part of a research proposal. So the title, of course, a research proposal hesitated. Then there is the problem statement, then you have to prove that the research you are intending to do is significant and I will explain how you can do that. Then you also need to prove that this research r, This project is achievable. Then the committee, the review committee at the admission committee, wants to see that you have the passion and the motivation. You are self-motivated for a project, for a research project which is PhD, then only your research proposal. You have to describe the methodology you are going to use for your research also, because it is not an indefinite project. So you have to describe your work plan and your timeline. And you also have to prove that you know what you're talking about. So let's say, assume a situation in which you don't know any thing about a specific research area. And you go somewhere and to say, okay, I'm going to do this. And maybe a 100 people already have done that, then the only thing you can get out of it is embarrassment. So how to avoid that? So no, are we discussed first all these elements, what does it mean? Or you can do that. And then at the end, I will show you two more things. First is how to put these elements in a section of a document, which is your research proposal. And the second thing is a slide, which will show you some general tips about writing a research proposal. Now let's talk about tighter. Turtle is mentioned at the top of this list, but you will reach the title at the end of your proposal. And by the end of this video, you will understand why No, the first and most important thing about your title is that your title must be equilibrate at this stage, because at the later stages of your PhD, the title of your research will change. In most cases, it will definitely change. At this state, you must be able to describe this accurately. The second thing is you should give your title a very interesting angle. You should present your title in a very interesting way, giving it an interesting angle, interesting point of view. The third thing is that your title should be a little bit catchier, not too techy like YouTube videos, but a little bit catchier so that it gets the attention of the committee. Now the next important thing is that if possible, your title should contain some benefit, some benefit to humanity, some benefit to your organization, some benefit, general industry. And the next point is your title should be novel or modern. It should contain something novel, your methodology, part of your solution, and your title should be easy to understand if you cannot describe your research work in one r maximum poo sentences to someone, then you don't understand it when you should be able to present the title in easy to understand men. And this is also important because some of your committee member may not be from your field. So they should understand what you are talking about, what is you are intending to do. And the last point is that you should not use any acronyms in your title. So these were some of the points about tighter or the next element of a research proposal is the problem statement. This is very important because you are trying to solve a problem. And in this regard, what should need to do is whatever you present in this problem statement should base upon some data. So you can get this data from Department of statistic, like Bureau of Statistics or some other department, whatever is the relevant department. But you should make this foundation that there is a data available, that there is a problem. You should consider for important thing about problem statement number one, good problem statement must have a question, a problem. What is the problem which you are addressing in your research? And the second important thing is all the negative points of the current situation. What are the negative points? Why there is a gap in the research? What are the problems due to this gate? So these are all negative points. So this you will mention in your problem statement. And the third very important thing which you must mention in your problem statement is that why does it matter? Why it is important to solve this problem? What are the benefits and what is the size of the benefit? Again, some data if possible. So this is the third very important element, and the last very important element is that your problem statement must not contain any solution. This is problem statement of draw. Now the third element is significant. Harder when Peru that there is such you are intending to do is significant. So the most important thing you should note here is that this, you can only do it if you have done the literature review. No, a here is a point. If you are applying for a PhD position, accompany hence in literature review is not required. But if you are applying for funding, a comprehensive literature review is required. So I would recommend that you at least do a literature review using Google Scholar because you may not have access to other databases. So with this literature review, you should be able to realize that there is a gap in research. And this gap if filled, because not all gaps needs to be filled, some gaps are useless. There is no quiet up doing research in some bizarre area which nobody has done. So you have to row that this gap is important and it has some benefit for the community, are for the industry, which is the target industry for your research. So literature review, we'll give you information about a research gap and then you have to prove that this gap is important to be filled. The third thing you can do here to prove that your research will be significant is by showing that your method, our approach is a novel approach. And this novel approach has certain advantages, maybe for environment or for anything. It depends on your field. So I'm not going into specifics. I'm trying to keep this video very general. So there's students from any discipline can get some idea. So these are three important points about the significance and how you can demonstrate that. The fourth element, which you need to address is that this is achievable. Intended research is achievable. So the first thing is that there must be some literature, some published peer reviewed literature should be available in debt field of research and sometimes people get it wrong. The thing that if there is no literature, it is easy for us to do the research. But actually it's wrong. Not everyone is Einstein. And if there is no literature available, it would be difficult for you to do research in that field. So make sure that there must be some published literature available, but that literature must be peer-reviewed, authentic literature, a general article, for example, this is one thing. The second thing you should keep in mind that you must keep the scope very limited. If you say that I am going to remove the hunger from this word, that is not achievable. So therefore, if you keep the scope limited, if you narrow down your research topic, that basically what you are trying to achieve is that this goal is achievable, at least this part, this, this narrowed down parties achievable. So don't keep your scope very big because the committee will think that debt is not achievable. No, the third component of this is that you can do the ok, this is achievable. A scientist has recommended this method and he proved that this is achievable, then the scope is also limited. How would you prove that you can do this? You also have to discuss this thing that you can do this. There are few things you can demonstrate here. The first is that if two have some published work in that area, some students are smart. They have publications while they are doing their Masters. So if you have these, you can straight away put your publication on the table. And the second thing you can do is that if you have done some cases study, then you can prove this, that I have done this case study. So, and so because some disciplines, they do research by using case studies. And the third thing, which is most common, you can do this, that you have done a very relevant coursework. So you can say that I have done a very good course one in this particular field, and I am able to do this. So this is, these are some of the ways you can show that this is achievable and you can also do there. Next point is that the people looking at your proposal, one to know that you are self-motivated and you have patient for this patient, for this field of research, you can simply state this statement, but that means nothing. If you say, I am self motivated, IF passion for this, it means nothing at all. So you have to somehow show that you are passionate about this field. So all we're gonna do that. So you can prove this by showing two things. For example, if you have done some volunteer work in that particular field, who can say that I have, I volunteer for discrete, so I am passionate about this. Then if you have made some survey related to that particular field, for example, using a Survey Monkey website, you can make a survey in ten minutes. So if you have made a survey and you have conducted a survey in some disciplines serves as an important part of research. You can say that I have conducted these surveys, I have some results, some data. So I'm passionate about this field, then it will be OK. Then another thing which you can do is that if in the past you have done some unsupervised one where there was little or no supervision, then you can prove that you have done this project unsupervised. So you are self-motivated and there are couple of wheel for example, let's say that you are writing blog posts about that particular topic on various blogs, online, internet, on websites. You can say that I have been writing on this topic for lecture two years. So this will prove that you are passionate about this topic. Now the element number six is that you have to show the methodology, what theory, our paradigm you are going to use for this research, whether you will be using quantitative methods are qualitative methods. If you are an engineering student, you will be doing some experiments. If you are a medical student, you will be doing some case studies. If you are from a marketing department, you might be doing some surveys. So these are the things you should be mentioning in this portion. Now the next point is about timeline and what plan. So there's obvious, you have to give a timeline. And I would recommend that you made this proposal in late it. And you can also make a timeline or beautiful timeline in later case where and I have made a video about timeline. I will put a link here. You can watch that video, how to make a timeline. And the last point is that how would you demonstrate that you know what you're talking about? Again, the very important thing, all of this proposal is based upon some sort of literature review. And this literature review will give you the ability to demonstrate that you know what you're talking about and when you will put your references in the bibliography. And if those inferences are of top researchers, our good general articles. So it will demonstrate that actually you have done a proper research about this and you know what you are talking about. This slide shows you some of the general tips about writing a research proposal. No, this is the last slide and here I have mentioned you what element you should put in which section of the actual document which you will prepare as your research proposal. So this diagram is self-explanatory and there are no hard and fast rules. You could add some more sections in their document. For example, resources are the equipment you need, are some other sections, but generally, these sections are enough for your research proposal. 12. 5 Daily Routines to get PhD in Time: In this video, I will tell you five daily routines upon PhD student to get a PhD in time. When students start appears to degree, they feel a freedom, freedom from stress, full professional life. Or if they're coming from a coursework program, they feel free. And this is the time when they start developing some bad habits. For example, using social media a lot, watching movies or hanging out with friends for a long period of time. The time lost in the beginning of their Ph.D. will never be recovered and they regret it. So what they should be doing instead, in this video, we are going to discuss five daily routines are activities which they should be doing on a daily basis. I am not saying that there should only be doing these five things, but these five things must be part of most of their days. And these five activities all together should not consume more than 40 to 60% of their day. So keep this bigger picture in your mind. So let's talk about what are the activities. So the first thing is look at your notes and to-do list. I have discussed this in many other videos that when you start a PhD, you must start taking notes, whether on your own diary or any web-based diary or any application, any note-taking f. So you decide a note-taking app or getter diary and stick to it. I have also developed a diary for PhD students which is called digit idea diary One, which is available on Amazon if you want. But this is not a sales pitch for that to diary. You can use your own diary. I just have put some columns and if you fill those columns and follow those prompts, your PhD will be under control, but using any diarrhea note-taking app is sufficient. So the first activity is look at your notes and your to-do list. No to-do list. I am not talking about here because you understand how to use it, but what to look at your notes and what you should keep in your notes in the first place. So the things you should be keeping in the north of your diary is, for example, if any idea clicks into your mind, you just put that idea in your notes. If you're reading a paper and you think that you might be doing an experiment, you put that experiment idea into your diary. So R naught can take anything which is related to your Ph.D. so every morning you first have a look at your notes because what happens sometime we got a very important idea. We put on our diary, but then we forget about it. So when you have this routine of having a look at your notes, so you should be able to focus and link all those because this is the problem when you start PhD, there is a chaos. Everything is looking very complex and everything is unorganized. But with the passage of time, all things will fall into places then. Your PhD will become organized. So this is very important that you have a look at your notes every day. Nor the second activity you should be doing is reading at least six pages of a paper. So there are few things you should be taking into consideration. And these are my five tips for reading. As I mentioned in one of my other videos, that you must first of all, create a bank of keywords related to your field of research. You must have a comprehensive list of key words which relates to your field of research because these keywords you will be using to find the literature. So finally, creature by using those bank of keywords, this is your first step. Select the paper and think twice before you select this for reading. Because when you are reading you are spending time which is valuable. So don't just let every paper see that title, read the abstract and then selected or rejected? No, when I say read six pages of paper. So some papers are only six pages. Most of the conference papers, but general papers are long enough, not just read six pages, but also comprehend those six pages dragged to understand what is returning there. Now the second tip is, don't make a long list in the beginning of your carrier because in the beginning you don't know what paper is important or not. Tip number three is that you should send the titles of these papers which you have selected to read who your supervisor, because this is the job of supervisor to tell you whether it's relevant or not, he will be a better judge. So send them title to your supervisor are showing him in the meeting. And the fourth tip is don't print any research paper. I have seen PhD students who have piles of papers on their desks, which they never read again. They just print and never read again. This has happened to me as well. I have printed or papers which I never read later on, so don't print anything. The last step is that while you are reading, you must take notes, highlight the important things, and you can use some app for this purpose. For example, Evernote Web Clipper. I have a separate video on web clipper, you can watch that video. So these are five tips. So you must read six pages and comprehend those six pages every day, at least know the third activity which you should be doing on a daily basis is to learn skills for data analysis. Data presentation and presentation. Presentation means presentation in seminars, which is the most useful activity for a PhD student. I ever separate video if you want to watch about data analysis. But shortly, I will tell you that when you, when I talk about data analysis, you should be looking at the techniques which you can use, statistical linear algebra or some other techniques which you should be using to analyze the data. When we start data presentation, then we're talking about how to draw technical scientific diagrams, which package or which library you should be using. When we talk about presentation skills, you understand what I mean, that how to present your work to other scientists. So this is the third activity. Now the fourth activity is that you decide every day that what is the task of today? What is the important but smart task? Which will bring me closer to my PhD. So this task could be a very small task. For example, designing an experiment, designing a questionnaire, or arranging an equipment or anything like that, which is important are which your supervisor tells you any task, at least one important task for your PhD, you must be doing on a daily basis. Think about it, put it on your notes and do it. No, the last activity which you should be doing on a daily basis is writing. Writing is very important for scientists. And you cannot learn writing just by attending a writing class, although that will help. But you become a good writer by writing. So therefore, every day you must write at least 200 words in the beginning. And as you become a little bit experienced, you should increase these words. So from 200 to 300 to 400. And no, I would like to give you three quick tips about writing. But one important thing to note here is that these, the reading and writing tips are not just enough for you to understand writing or reading. People have made videos of hours on writing and reading because these topics deserve a lot of attention. But these three tips will still help you to understand the bigger picture. So the first tip is that MY BED writing. No, what is bad writing? The bed writing is which a reader can not understand. So after you write something, give it to your friend or a colleague or even to your supervisor. And ask what honest feedback and try to accept the criticism in the beginning of your PhD, this is very important when you are asking for honest feedback, then you have the ability to accept the honest feedback. So I'm white bed writing. For example, if you are emphasizing on a particular thing, whether they understood that part of the writing R naught. So these kind of things reader must understand what you are trying to say. So this is one thing from readers perspective. The second tip from your side is that you must be writing with clarity. Clarity is very important in writing. Don't use fancy words. You don't know how to use them. Just try to write clear, simple, plain English. And the third important tip, which is a little bit hard in the beginning. But I would like to give you here because it's very important that you must understand how to pour Hawaii evidence to something, how to provide the evidence to your scientific claim. And in order to provide the evidence, you need to have some scientific vocabulary. You must understand some scientific terminology in order to support your claim. And this vocabulary is hard to achieve. And remember one thing scientific writing is a foreign language, even for native English speakers, if we're talking about English here. So this is not a foreign language just for you. If you are from a non-English speaking background like myself, this is a foreign language for native people as well, because the scientific vocabulary is totally different than the normal everyday English. So therefore, try to increase your vocabulary. And this vocabulary will again be increased by reading a lot. When you read a lot of general papers, your vocabulary, your scientific vocabulary will definitely increase. And this will help you in writing. So try to write every day and better if you try to start writing your thesis very early in your career. This I have mentioned in other videos. So these are some of the activities which you can do on a daily basis to get a PhD in time. 13. SMART Goals for PhD Students: Setting goals is a proven method of achieving more enlightened. In this video, I'm going to show you what our smart goals and how you can use this approach during your PhD studies to get results. I will also show you some examples of smart goals as a PhD student which you can set. And then we will talk about how to divide up goal into tasks and hoped to achieve those tusks. Most of the time, we make vague goals. We are not clear about our objectives. Let's say you set a goal that you will write, a conference paper, a journal paper during your PhD? No, this is your dream at this stage, and this dream will become your smart goal. We're going to attack certain attributes to this. So let me first explain what this smart stands for. So in this smart stands for specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and T for time bomb. Now first I will briefly explain this and then we will discuss it further. So where do we see specific? Specific means that our goal must be KD and clear. And whether it gives you the example, it will be more clear to, you know, red means measurable and it means that someone should be able to determine whether you have achieved your goal are not. So you should attach some numbers to your goal. For example, how many or how much Amy's attainable and attainable means that you have the knowledge, skills, and resources to attain the goal. And relevant means that debt goal has some meaning for you and you are willing to put some effort towards that goal. You are passionate about their goal. And in times bounds simply means that you must put our deadline on their goal. My first example is, let's say you have started your PhD. So your first smart goal could be something like this. By 31st of March 2020, I will complete my research proposal and distribute it to my committee. Now this is a smart goal because it has a deadline. It is very clear and detailed that you are going to write a research proposal and you will distribute it to your committee. So all this is very detailed, very specific, time-bound, relevant to you. So everything is perfect, which makes it a smart goal. No, setting a smart goal is not a big problem. Because as you can see, that you have to give a detailed description and then our tensor deadline, What is the hardest part of SSM ERP? Now usually understand this, they're the hardest part is the component of this attainable. Although you can easily estimate there this inner integral, because other students have done this, your university has the resources, but the major part is hard to achieve this home to attain your core. And this is the part which you have to learn. Let us talk about industry such proposal, how to do a research proposal. This is the hardest part of this group. So what happens is that once you have written your smart goal there, this is my goal. The next thing is, you have to understand how I am going to achieve this goal. And you divide their goal into tasks. And these are the tasks where you have to learn a lot in order to make a research proposal. There are certain steps. And I have mentioned all this in one of my videos. Or to write a research proposal, you can look at my channel. Now, let us see another example of a smart goal. Let us assume that your research proposal has been approved. Now your next goal is then you are going to do a literature review. If you simply say, I'm going to do a literature review, this is not a smart goal. You should say something like this that I am going to complete the literature review in this field, your field of research by 31st of December 2020. So now this is a smart goal. Once you have a return that is such proposer know your field of research should be clear to you, otherwise, you should talk to your supervisor. And at this stage, your broader field of research should be clear to you, which you should put in your literature review goal. This will make this goal as your smart goal. Now once you have done the literature review, your next smart goal could be dead by the end of this month, I'm going to find top ten researchers in my narrowed down field of research. And normal puts your narrow down field of research, not the broader area which you have put in your first goal. So now this is your smart goal for the next step that you are going to find the top researcher in your field. And if you don't know how to do that, I have a video about this. I think the title is that phi of things which every PhD student should do ugly in their, early in their career. Now let us talk about the most important goals. Writing conference paper or writing in a journal paper. So if you simply set a goal like this that I am going to write a research paper. It is not a smart goal. That thing which will make this smart goal is, for example, you say that I am going to write a conference paper in an IT poly Conference, and I'm going to finish this one month before the submission deadline of the conference and the proposed title of my paper is this. No, this is a smart goal because now you have a proposed title in your mind. Now we have done the literature review and you have some idea about the topic or the title of your research paper. Note, this is your smart goal and now you can start working towards it. Now, for a general paper, your smart goal will be a little bit different because for general paper, you need some experimental results. And now the next step is once you have set these goals, the most important part is, as I mentioned earlier, you have to divide your goal into tasks. And if you look at my videos, most of my videos addressed this problem, how to break down a goal into tasks. So I have a video of a literature review and recent proposals. All those videos are available. Now that deadline of every smart goal needs not to be a very long deadline. You can also set some smart goals on a weekly basis. For example, you can set up like these that I will be writing 20 thousand worth of scientific material every week, one next 12 weeks. So this could be a smart goal because it is measurable, it is detailed, and it has a determiner. I hope that now you know how you can convert your vague goal into a smart goal. And you understand their making a smart goal is not enough. You have to break down into tasks, and then you have to learn how to do those tasks in order to achieve your goal. And hopefully, this will help you to transform your dreams into smart goals and your smart goals into reality. 14. How to Write IEEE Conference Paper: In this video, I will explore I Tripoli author Center and we'll walk you through the whole process of writing I Tripoli conference paper using their latest template. So let's get started. Todays video is a complete training of writing. I Tripoli confess paper. And if you have any questions or comments, please put in the description. If I know r, I could find somewhere. I will definitely answer your question. So what I will do in this video is I will start from I Tripoli author Center. They have a portal on their website where they have tools for authors and researchers. So we will download their official template. I will explain some of the components of the template. And during that explanation, if I need you to watch any video, I will put a link there. You watched that video and then start again following me. And at the end I will explain some very important information about authors and researchers that can help you in getting a good grant, even a job. So how to use orchid or how to find the conference and how to check your images that whether or not they are according to I Tripoli standards are not. So these later today, we will discuss at the end. So we have a lot to cover. So let's get started. If you are using your library website, then you're starting points should be the databases. Oh, first you click hold databases. There must be some temp therein for databases. Maybe after find. Once you are in data bases, then you can click on this. And then you will be presented with this page. And this page has I Tripoli explode database. So this way you can reach these explored a database website. Then you can click on this I Tripoli explore database. On the left-hand side you have this browse column and then Conferences. And here you can find the confidence which you are looking for. I Tripoli also has a tool to find the conference, which I will show you in a minute, but you can search in conference here because sometimes that tool is not very equilibrate and deer are much more confidence even share available with you might want to publish. So there's one I wanted to show you this section as well. Then you but you can do you can click on any of the conference, for example, the seizure confidence of interest. So you just click on this conference and on the left-hand side, you will see this author center. And if you are not using any library website, then what you can do, you can simply type on Google, I Tripoli author center. And then you will see this I Tripoli orthocenter. Just click on that. And you will see this page currently we are looking on conference publications, so therefore you click on this I Tripoli conferences and know when you see this page, there are five different icons here. So you need to click on, write your paper. Then you will see this page. So as you can see orthocenter and conferences. So this page is very important. Pay attention to all the details mentioned on this page. For example, let's click on this meat I Tripoli explore requirements. You must click on this and have a look at these requirements. Because sometimes we assume flu thing for example, we assume that we can attach any PDF to our paper. You cannot attach similarly, you cannot scan any document when, when submitting to I Tripoli, the most important and easy thing for you would be to use later, because if you use latex, all these requirements will automatically be met. You will be producing a PDF file using a special method using the low-tech environment and which will satisfy all these requirements. On the right-hand side you can see a lytic analyzer. And later on I will show you what is this and how you can check on I Tripoli system. That's your paper, is according to Dr. AAA requirements. So this is a way to check your latest paper. So if we go back again, now the second important thing on this page is authoring tools and templates. And if you click on debt, No, you are presented with this page. And on the right-hand side you still see the same sections. But on the left-hand side there is some important information. And the first is that you can click on this I Tripoli conference templates. So these templates are available in word and in analytic formats. So you click on this and then you will be presented with this page. Now here you can create an account with IEEE Tripoli. You should note that creating an account is free, but if you want to join my Tripoli, then you'll have to pay. So I would recommend that you just create an account with the IEEE Tripoli so that you can login. In some situations, you have to login so you wouldn't be able to login to can accept and close this bottom message. I know the thing which we are looking here is this Latex template instructions. This is a PDF document. You can download this document and know you have certain instructions here. But don't worry about these instructions either because we will be using the lytic template. And when we use that template, all these instructions will automatically be satisfied. So just have a look at these if you want. Otherwise you don't really need that. So this is the folder which has a zip folder which contains all the templates for I Tripoli paper. And if you click on that, and now you can save this in any of your desired folders. And I will save this in my little folder, just save it. And this is the zip file. You right-click on this and gt files. And now this will be the name of the folder and you say Just okay, and you can give another name. Oh, no, this folder will be created confidence lytic template and this is the date when this template was updated by Tripoli. On there again. And note this is your conference, 041818 dot tech. This is the file we are interested in. This file we will use to create our paper, but this is the class file of I triple E. So this file controls the look and feel of your paper. So you have to put this file in the same folder in which you will be a putting your dot tech file. So we will just rename this foil to our own name, and then we'll just put our own material into this text file and our paper will be ready. So dot tech is the extension of all latex foils. And I will be showing you in a minute how to use these fires in the lytic and hold true, Modify this template. Now what you do, you open your latest editor. And in this editor, nor we will open this same file which we have just downloaded. You open this file. And the first thing you should do is rename this file, File Save As so I said my first I Tripoli paper. So this is the name of my file which I am going to save. No, after saving these, the first thing you do is just compile this file so that you can make sure that this file is working. Now if some packages missing, this will automatically installed the package and you just say install. Now as you can see here, that this file is missing. So this is an image file, Fig one dot PNG. So because we don't have any image in our folder, we will ignore this error at the moment. And what we will do, we will put an image in our folder and name that image to this file, Fig one dot PNG. And then it will work all these type of errors. If there are some image errors, you just ignore these. Just press enter. And now it will show you that this image file is missing. So what I can do is I can put any image with this file and recompile because firstly, we want to make sure that this file is working. So I will save any image with this name. So what I will do, I will put an image here. And I will give this image the same name, Fig one. Okay, and then recompile the document and know this is our template. And now this is the document which we have produced by using their own template. Now this figure is too large and we will set this and we will do everything about this. But this was just to remove the error. But no, it means that our template is ready, our template is working and now we have to just replace this tech with our own texts and these names with our own injured template. You have to look for these things. Wear this distinct exist. You just change this with your own name and then delete the extra. So you should be able to recognize these. So let's start from this title. So if I minimize this and I look into my template. So the way we work in late techies always are template-based latex. So we create a template and then we modified that template. So here you can see that this is paper title. So I like to put my own title. So you just put your own title in this where the word paper title was returned. And if you recompile again. You will see that know your title appears here. Now this star is, you can delete this u star because this is your own paper. So in wind ADT, This is an editor. You can see that there is syntax highlighting. It means that same type of things are appearing in the same color. So this title is blue, it means title is a command. Similarly, author is a command. If you put your cursor next to the title the command, and then one step after this parenthesis, this parentheses will become yellow and the closing will become green. So you can see that within these two is one command and you have to modify whatever is between these. For example, there are six authors. So if you click next to author After this parentheses, you put your cursor there, you will see that green parentheses is at the bottom. So these are the six authors. And then you can note after every author you have this word end. So this is how this template works. So you have to put a little bit of thought into this that hold this template is working and then you just modified this. So for example, if you have only two authors, so after these two authors, you don't need any of these. So let me delete from this end up to this point, you will not delete this parenthesis because this parenthesis is the part of this author command. The only thing you want to delete is these four authors, because if you have only two authors, so I just delete this. Then you click on this parentheses and makes sure that till you have this author command in tech and no ACLU compile again, you will see that only to author names will be there. Now what we have to author names. So if you have a subtitle, you can replace this line. So this line starts with the node star and our node and ends at you. So this is how you use that template. Every template, whether it's our Tripoli template or any other template, this is the way you use template. So know you have to change the subtitle though, look for this star and note up to this use. So if you go back under the title command, this is the star, you can delete this started to Don't want, you just delete this and this star is superscript before this node. You don't want this. So you count, you can do is you can delete this superscript texts, super escape this command, whole thing. You can delete this and now instead of this note, you can say this is my subtitle. And now again, you go up to the parenthesis because this parenthesis is paired with this footnote size, footnote seismic, that parenthese at the subtitle is a little bit smaller than the tighter. And now you just put this and if any agencies funding you, then you their name here that this research was funded by my uni, let's say, and then delete all the rest. And now if I recompile, you can see this is my title DC. My subtitle had no varies that reference, that reference will appear here. This fund, this research was funded by my unit. You can see that this abstract is bold, this is section and the section numbers are capitol roman and the subsections are ABC. So this section has only one sub section. This section has a, b, and then c, and then these are bullet points. So these are little things you have to look in the template. Where are these things mentioned? You don't have to be expert in later. You just look at the template. We are, are these things modify this if you don't want these bullet points, so you can remove this. There will be some command for these bullet points, which I will show you now. So let's go back to no abstract. So this is the abstract, begin abstract and abstract. So whatever your abstract page you can put in between here, you're just highlight this and whatever your text is, you just paste on top of this. So this will be replaced with your own Epstein. Similarly for keywords, no, every section starts from this word section and every subsection starts with the word subsection. You see the keyword subsection. So you don't have to put a, this subsection will automatically put a based on the IEEE Tripoli class file which you have put in the same folder. So now you just replace all these sections and subsections. There are few other things like this is the bullet point command, begin itemize. So this command between these, these are the bullet points and every bullet points start with this item. So you just select this and you said my first bullet point, then you select this one, this whole thing, and you say my second bullet point, and so on. Now, if there is the mathematic, then you have to use some math and wireless. Anything in latex, which starts with a begin statement means this is an environment like this. Abstract is an NYU. Begin. This in an environment, this is a keyword and wire. So this is section. Then these were the bullet points. So I will put a video right here, which we'll show you how to write mathematics in latex. So there are many equation environments available to us. So you can watch that video, which I will put here and you will see how to write mathematics in latex. And now this is a table environment and I will put up video right here, which will explain you how to write pebble in lighting right here. And you watch that video and you will be able to make this table. Then this is a figure environment. If you have to put a figure as we just put before, you can put a finger right here. I will put a link to a video here which you can watch horror to put images in letting no, these are the references. The acknowledgement is just a section. And if you don't want the section number, you put this star. So this means that this section will not be numbered in your document. So if you look at your document, this acknowledgement center acknowledgement section is not numbered, although it is a section, but this has no number. So that's why we use this star again for references. We don't want references to be numbered, but this is still a section. So there are a few different ways to put references. So this is one of the method which is shown here. You can replace all the references with your own references here. And in the bibliography environment, this is an environment begin bibliography. You can put references in your bibliography environment, but there are other acceptable ways which you can use to put references in any I Tripoli document. And I will put a video here which we'll show you a better way of putting references better than this method, but also acceptable for I Tripoli. That is easier myth, and that is by using a bib tech file, instead of putting every reference into this, you can make comprehensive bib tech file for all of your PhD carrier. And then you use, use that single file to put references in this. So I will put a video here which shows you how to put references in latex. So in this way, if you watch this video and the videos which are linked in this video, then you should be able to write your conference paper without any problem. But let's go back to this page. On this page, there are few other things which I would like to show you. The first one is this publication finding the right publication. This is their tool where you can actually search for any appropriate confidence in your area. So if you click on this tool, so here you can write any keyword related to your field of research. For example, I write a robot, and these are some of the conferences available in my area. I can now get quickly the recommendations. If I click on get recommendations, it will show me all these conferences. But if you have a particular keyword in your abstract, you can put that keyword here. For example, I have robot navigation. You can also add a file and know you can update recommendations and it will show you these are the conferences which are going to be in next few months are next to one. You get provably where you can select which country you want to go, R, which confidence you want to present your paper. And these are the conference dates and these are the abstracts submission deadline. So you should be focusing on these deadlines. So if there is no deadline, it means probably this deadline has already passed. So in this way, you can such rich conference ease into your field of research. But as I mentioned that this tool will not show you all the conferences. Therefore, I use the method which I showed you earlier by searching. Now the next thing on this authoring tools and templates is this orchid identifier. So this orchid identifier is basically abbreviated forum, open research and Contributor ID. It is your unique scholarly identity which distinguishes you from all other researchers. So this is your digital identifier in the research community. This is a very useful thing to have. So you just click on this and then you fill their form and you can get your identifier. And most people ignore this part of this is actually very important because ONE, this orchid identifier, you can not only put your confidence and research papers, but you can also put your employment history and your work record. So this will help you in getting research grants are even getting a job because you have potential employer or the authority or organization which is giving you the grant, they can quickly look into this orchid identifier and they can see the potential you have for research. And if you are the best candidate, you will get the ground. It doesn't matter that you are best in the world are bets and your country, if you are best applicant, you will get the ground. So be optimistic about this. So if you click on this. It will take you to their website, which is orchid.org. And it's a very simple three-step process. It's free. You can get this and it will be your permanent record. The only thing you don't want is don't make a duplicate or k1 into fire. Just register once and keep that save. Now, the next thing I want to show you is this graphics. If you click on Graphics, then you will get this tool. So this is called graphics analyzer. And I Tripoli provides you this tool to check that whether your images are as per their standards or not. So you can check this. So let me show you the example. So first, as you can see that this picture is looking very ugly. So let's fix this first and then I will show you how we can check this picture on I Tripoli website. So just to close this for the moment, in order to fix the size, you have to put a command in, which is something like this. Width equals 0.3 backslash text width means whatever is the text with 30% of debt should be occupied by this picture. So if I just put this before the name of the picture, then the picture will be perfectly fine. So now if I compile, now as you can see that our picture is fine. No, let's check this picture on I Tripoli graphic analyzer and see whether this passes their standard R naught. So what we can do is upload, click on upload graphics. And now you have to enter your name and other things because it will send you a notification. So once you have entered all your details, just let a and then you press next. Now you will see this page and now you browse. So I have created a folder with the name of graphics in the same folder in which we have over paper. And in this folder I have two images. One is the same which we have used, and another is a high-quality image. And first you looked up file size of these images for this is only 38 kilobytes, so very small size. And then you hover over this image and it will show you this is 1.29 MB because the graphics analyzer except phi is less than 25 MB. So often who makes sure that DO implies that less than 25 MB, their first we upload this file. And no, it will show you this message. Completed processing with errors. It means that your file has some errors and it's not acceptable. So what is the error? So you can click on this more details and it will show you here the resolution of your graphic file is too low. So this is a low resolution file which does not confirm to the IEEE Tripoli standards. So now you can see the complete report. By clicking on this, you can share the report. You can print it whatever you like. And know we want to check our second file. So just click on create a new report again, browse and no misled. Second file. It will again process the file. And now it shows me this message completely processing successfully. You can check the complete report. Your graphic file is valid, no errors found. So this is all you check all your files before you before you put those files into your paper. 15. 5 Serious Bibliography Mistakes which Can Result in Rejection of a PhD Thesis: The bibliography is not just part of your PhD thesis, it is a fundamental part of your PhD. And you should think carefully what you showed ru should not include in the bibliography because it can desert in your thesis instantly rejected by the examiner. And in this short video, I am going to explain you some of the precautions which you should take while making the bibliography was let me clear that we're not talking about errors in your bibliography. I have made a video about how to download references for your bibliography and create a big tech fight. If you are using latex, you can watch that video. If you are using Mendeley or some other software, then you should avoid any errors. But even if there are some errors, this is not a serious issue because your thesis will be sent back to you for minor corrections. If there are only some errors, we are talking about some serious mistakes which you can easily do if you don't know. There are not many details about this. So therefore, this video is very short, but still very important for you. So let's talk about what are these five things. So the first is mix of references. So when your thesis is presented to your examiner, the first thing the examiner below, of course it depends on the Examiner, but an experienced examiner will start looking at your thesis from the end. That person, most probably we look first on your bibliography and what he or she is looking for is a mixed list of references. What an examiner would expect is that most of you are references are relevant to your thesis title. Most journal articles, some our conferences and few are other like technical reports are any PhD thesis. And the title of the references are the title of the research papers which you have listed there. They are closely related to your period of research. So this is just an overlook of your bibliography. And this leads us to the second, which is irrelevant keywords. Sometimes you want to put a reference to something which is related to your work, but which is in a paper which is not related to your research. So if the title of the paper is totally different to your field of research, so try to think again whether you really want to put that reference in R. You can get the same reference from an earlier paper, which is somewhat related to your research field because the keywords in the titles of the research papers in your bibliography are very important. I have mentioned this earlier that when you start your PhD, you should make a very comprehensive list of all the related keywords in your field of research. These key words will help you in finding the relevant papers. And also while you sit back and start writing your PhD thesis, because I would like to see a bibliography pulled up related keywords in the title of the papers and the title of their technical reports and everywhere. Now the third is text book references. When you started your PhD, sometimes you don't know a basic and you try to understand something very basic. Some basic law of science are some basic principles in your field of research. And we find this in one of your textbook. And if you don't know this, you might be tempted to put the reference of that textbook in your PhD theses. Remember, all text book references in the PhD thesis can lead to a disaster because all that knowledge is the unestablished knowledge. You should not be mentioned that in your thesis. But if you have learned some specialized technique, I remember that during my PhD I learned Principal Component Analysis, which was a technique for data analysis. I put the reference to that technique. But then book is a specialized book that is not a textbook. So if you are putting a reference to a very specific book related to your field, that is perfectly fine. But if you don't know the Pythagoras theorem and then you put a reference to your HSC book or even a university level book that is a total credit. The next point is failing to put a major work in your bibliography. You must understand who are the top researchers in your field of research. And this is the first thing you should understand when you start doing PHD. I have made a separate video and I will put a link at this place in this video, which you can watch to learn how you can find the top researcher in your field. In the beginning of your PhD, you normally start reading some conference papers because general paper at that time might be too difficult for you. And you are so attached to any of those conference paper that you select that for your bibliography and you start putting in the references. But you don't know that dead particular receptor has presented his whole work later on in a journal paper, which is his major work. And you should be aware of that work. So once you find the top researcher, then you have to keep yourself abreast with their latest work. For example, my PhD was in mobile robotics and a scientist named Sebastian throne was a leading researcher in that field at that time, my thesis does not contain any of his reference, then it will be an instantly reject because I am missing a very renowned scientists. So make sure you don't do that. And the last point is about toxic references. Some of the references are so toxic, I would say that they can lead to our east into rejection of your PhD thesis. What are those toxic references? Well, some people have presented some research work are some keywords they have thrown up in the industry which had been proved to be wrong, incorrect, and flood and know if you get to know any of those papers. And then you try to build your argument type, to build your story on top of that paper and saying that this is wrong because this end I have done this and debt. Then basically you are trying to prove something wrong, which has already been proven to be wrong, incorrect. And if an examiner sees any of these kind of thing in your theses are in your references, then it will be an Eastern rejection and you will fail your PhD. You're 5-years efforts will be lost. Your thesis will not be sent back to you for correction, you will fail Absolutely. So therefore, I wire this critical mistake. You should be aware of these type of receptors. And note regarding what you should put in the bibliography. There is no set rules that harmony general papers or how many conference papers you should put there. But because I know that students want to get some numbers. So therefore I'm throwing these numbers that you should be putting 60 to 70% general papers in your bibliography, ten to 20% conference papers, and five to 10% other references, such as technical reports are some PhD thesis. So this is just my own personal opinion. This is not written anywhere. There is no such rule. So I hope that this short video will help you avoid these little mistakes in your bibliography. And if you have any questions, please put in the comments and I will definitely answer your questions. Thanks for watching. See you next time. 16. 5 Reasons Students Fail to Complete PhD : Every day students are starting PhD all around the world, but a lot of them will never finish it. And in this video, I'll show you the five main reasons students quit and never complete their PhD. So let's get started. Please note that this video is not a de-motivating video, and a large number of students who start a PhD also finish it. Normally for students, it is difficult to get an advice whether PhD is good for them, are there good for VHD? And this question is hard to answer and students should seek some advice before they start PhD from people who they trust, because students are embarking on a carrier which will consume a big part of their life. And most understood, they assume that PIDA is good and having doctor with their name is a big deal. So this is a short video and which may help some new students in some way by providing a bigger picture. And I would like to see your comments and micro Mecca detailed video. However, the purpose of this video is that out of these five reasons fast three cancer can be prevented. And we should guide the students who are stuck due to these three reasons and make a difference. But for the last two reasons, they're a little bit different and those students do not deserve getting a PhD. So let's talk about the first reason. Most of the time, when students start their Ph.D. they are highly motivated. They have big goals. They think they have become somewhat special just by starting their PhD pumped up. They think that they are someone who is very special, the god of this scholarship, the gorgeous PHD position. Out of the thousands of other students. And they must do something very big. They can do something really big. And they must do something very big, which should chain the whole word holds science and technology or whatever their field. So they are so pumped up. Motivation up to an extent is good for doing PhD. But this over motivation is not. And this over motivation is due to not understanding what actually the PhD is. And they think that they have a good results in HSE, in their Elavil or in their bachelor degree. So they must do something very big and they can do it. And the metal of the effect is that still they need to learn a lot of things. And this getting highest score enter in Bachelier at the city level. This means nothing, father, PhD, or are even getting a job in advanced countries. This means nothing degree. 99% of the time, your degree does not count. Even if it counts, is 33% of the time. And the rest of the 2 third are your personal attributes and your communication skills. And most cases, their basket degree is even not relevant to their Ph.D. And this, you realize this. Now coming to the second reason, which is misunderstanding the rule of the PhD supervisor and their expectations that very high, most of us think of a supervisor at the Paulson who distributes PhD degrees. He or she even place them in a room next to his or her room for the next four years will make them from time to time handover to them some bits and pieces of their Ph.D. degree, which they will just put together like a jigsaw and their PhD degree will be. Ready and on their part, what do they do? They enjoyed their time with their family, with their friends because they are plenty of free time. They don't care about anything because they think their supervisor will take care of all the things in after four years. Somehow they wouldn't become doctor. After some time they realize, they start to realize that the guidance is little, the work is hard, and the expectations of their supervisor from then from them are even higher than their expectations from their supervisor. Then this start filling this test. And then mentally shoes. Then start developing some mental issues. Then they start talking about a, you know, choice of supervisor is very important for a PhD. You will, you will see them talking like this. And after a few more months, they will say, oh, you know what, I want to do, something which I am passionate about. Actually, they were very passionate about the PhD. But they didn't realize what the PhD is, how to proceed, how to handle this important terrier episode. So then after some time they just quit and don't get me wrong. That selecting a proper supervisor in your area of interest is another important theme. But that is less important than making too much expectations from your supervisor. Know The third reason, which I call it lost in the literature review. So what happens is during the first year, supervisor says to them, you have to do a literature review, the review of the research papers into your area of research. And they started looking for papers. Every title looks good. Every time I tell every heading looks relevant to their subject. And they start selecting some papers. And then they start to focus on a similar area, the reads, the more papers then they realize there are some references in the papers, then they start reading those references. And with the passage of time, though, that pile up paper grows and grows and grows and they are completely lost. They have no idea what to do, where to go. Everything looks so relevant, so good, every graph is appealing. Every experiment is the attracting. So they are lost in their literature review and after one year, they just give up. The fourth reason is, which I call gambling. And you will think What's the gambling has to do with PhD. But actually, this gambling happens in third world countries, so-called third-world. You might agree or not. But so what happens there is because your PhD can give you a promotion. If you are a lecture. If you do PhD, he can be promoted to associate professor or something like that. So there are a group of people who know that PhD is not for them, bear not for PhD. They won't be able to complete PhD. But The gamble they think, okay, let's try less enrolling a PhD program. If you do, we will become associate professor, some more money. But they know that they are, is there a lecture? They are even not during their lecture she properly, but they just gamble. And some might think that ogive, you will put some other work together and compile the thesis. But unfortunately for them, with modern tools, this is not going to happen. The copyright infringements are very easy to detect with modern tools. And this also leaves in a separate video which I will make some time. So they never complete, they're never able to complete their PhD. So this is the fourth reason. No recommendation for them is instead of doing this, they should have invested some time in proper carrier development. Are even in carriers change activities. Not a fifth reason that happens in advanced countries. So therefore, I put these two specific reasons. One is for the third world countries and the last reason is for the advanced countries. While this is further advanced countries, because he had was countries. One thing is that there are lot of fundings available, like in Australia where I live. There is a huge amount of funding, PhD funding available. But this funding is for local students only. No international students can apply. So this funding is for local students. But unfortunately, the local people here don't give much credit to PhD. Phd is useless. So they don't party spirit in those funding opportunities. But some people know this, denote this fact. And these are the type of people who I call them carrier students. The adult students ship as the carrier. So what do they do? They know how to get funding, they know how to read application, they know how to communicate. Their communication skills are really good. And they get these findings. They start Ph.D. After 4.54 year, they quit. They go to another university, start in a different subject and did never complete their PhD because once they complete, they become ineligible for any further funding. This is the requirement that the student should not have a PhD degree before. So they do it like this. So why they do this? There are a few reasons. Number one, corporate jobs are very difficult in here. Long working hours. And some people don't want to work too long hours. They hit these nine to five jobs, which actually end up nine to seven, is seven to seven actually. So they don't want to do that. They enjoyed the easy lifestyle, the work part-time. They get student for benefits from government because we wouldn't have concession that there's things. They also get some benefits like Social Security benefits. So they enjoyed their life time with their friends and family and they never complete their PhD. So these carriers students are a special type of creature which only exist in advanced countries. So they're sit for now, all we do is becoming very long. I hope that you find this video useful. And don't expect too much from yourself. Don't expect too much from your supervisor. And don't think that every paper is irrelevant to you. Try to figure out which paper you should read and which paper you should never read. Never, ever. So tense for watching. See you next time. 17. Various Forms of Plagiarism and How to Avoid: Today we are talking about plagiarism. And this would us while PhD or research students, scientists, lecturers and assistant professors who want to publish their work. In this we do, I'm going to show you only three slides, but my suggestion is that you watch this video till the end. Otherwise you might miss some important information. And what are these three slides? Once timing showed you why you should avoid plagiarism, then I will describe five different forms of plagiarism, which you may not know before. And then when it comes to checking the plagiarism, there are lot of software available and students are confused. Which software to use R naught, I am not going to recommend any software. I will just mention a few, but I will give you a method of criteria which you can use to evaluate any software, whether or not you should use that software to check the plagiarism. Now another question is if you are not copying someone else's work while you should bother checking your paper before submission. And the reason is that even if coincidentally your one sentence is matching with someone else's work, it is still considered as plagiarism because publishing houses, they are becoming state and state every single day. They can tolerate one or two words matching up to three or four. But if a complete sentence is matching with some other research people or on some other website, then you are in trouble. So what this would do a poll, and I am confident that you will get some value. The first question you might ask, why should you avoid pledges? I have mentioned three very simple reasons here. The first is that it is easy to detect plagiarism. Now you cannot just put something, copy and paste from some other resource without citing and hope that nobody will detect. No, it's not possible to know the algorithms is software is so advanced that it will easily detect the pleasure is in particular the software used by the editors of large publishing houses such as IEEE Tripoli, Proquest, Science Direct. So they are so advanced, they can detect one word, two or three word for word matching, and up to three or four word, they might tolerate you. But if five or six words of your article are meshed with any previously published article, it is clearly plagiarism. And if there is one complete sentence for sure, it's pleasure is. And then these publishing houses will prohibit you from publishing on their platform and you can destroy your reputation and even your carrier. And if you look at any of the platforms, they have list of authors who had been prohibited from publishing on those publishers, like I Tripoli, anybody can such if you are prohibited or not, and then nobody will ever accept your paper. There is no need to lecture any PhD student on this topic is very straight forward that you always must use your own ideas, your own words, and your own explanation. Now in this video, I have put only three slides because for a wise person, this information is enough. And if you still want to try and hope, then it's up to, you know, before I tell you how to avoid plagiarism, what are a few things? Because there is a chance that it's a coincidence that one of your sentences matches with someone else. So there are few things which you can do about this before submitting your paper. So that is in the third slide. But first, Let's have a look at what are various forms of plagiarism. So the first thing is very obvious exec copy from a source without citing the second ism is exact copy from few different sources and citing few of them, but not citing all of them, you must cite all the sources from where you are copying anything in your menu scape. And the third reason is wrong citation are citations to sources not available anywhere. So you cannot trick the system. You cannot put some wrong citations and then try to get some credit for that thing. So always make sure that your citations are correct. Even Mistakes are not allowed. You cannot say later on, oh, sorry, it was a mistake. Number four, citing all sources properly, but absence of any original contribution, you cannot do this. That you put some very valuable information from two sources and make a paragraph are makeup page and there is nothing after your own work. All is copy and pasted from other sources. That is also a plagiarism because you are not putting forward anything from your own efforts. You are just copy and pasting while you are submitting their thing. If the only material in your document in your paper is copy and pasted from other sources, then y, what is your, what are you presenting if you are in this situation? So then what it means? It means that you are trying to put forward work from other people and trying to prove that this is your what is your paper? How can you do that? It is clear plagiarism, so you must have some original contribution in your paper. Number five, replacing few words here and there. But keeping the essence of someone else's work, the original work is from someone. You are just trying to make few sentences by replacing the words. This can be easily detected by modern software, so you cannot get away with this, don't do this. So these address some of the forms of plagiarism. And if you search on the web, you will find some other explanations a little bit more in detail. Now the last and the most important slide, how to avoid plagiarism? Well, there are only two things you can do. The first thing is by not copying any material in your manuscript without citing, as I mentioned earlier, just one sentence and you are gone. It's plagiarism. And the second thing is by checking your manuscript before submission. Coincidentally met, you might put a very short sentence and someone might have already used their sentence. So this is the thing I can imagine that there might be some coincidental matching. So for that, you can check your manuscript before submission. No, you can use any of the software, which I have mentioned here at the end, few of them. But I have two points for you, which I have mentioned here. So these points are very important for you to understand that every software claims that they have millions and billions of paper in their database, don't trust anyone. Okay? Simple thing you can do is you can see who are their partners. They have a list of publishers which are partner with that particular software. You just look at their partners and then go to that publisher website. The major publishers like IEEE Tripoli and Proquest and Science Direct and all these. And those publisher normally are trustworthy organizations. So see how many articles they have, how many articles are in their database. And then you can ask them that whether you are partnered with this particular software R naught, because if so freely is unable to detect your manuscript, you are using a free software or something like that. That is not enough. Because free software, number one, they don't have a big database. And number two, the problem is you can only check maybe 1000 words are 1500 words, then you have to check again and again, again and again. So it's very hard. So your university might have some software where you can check our asked her supervisor, he might have some subscription or something. So check on a good software. So don't trust the software. If they say that they have millions and billions of paper, see the list of their partners and tried to verify how much they might have. Then the second thing is that whether the software is capable of checking their domains, like the material on the website. This is also important. And the third thing is that what are other features available in that plagiarism checker, for example, whether it can check or 25 thousand word document simultaneously. Whether it can take on two or three word for word bases are what what are the features? No, I have mentioned three options here. It doesn't mean that I have used all these. I have just used glomeruli and I am not very happy with that, but it's OK. I know don't use even grammar. Lee. I just used it for some period of time. But it was okay. But I don't think it's it's it's very sophisticated. So another option I got on the Web was cross ref. I never used it. You can see and have a look. Similarly copy scape has a good reputation. So these are the three options which have good reputation, but you have to check on your own because only you are responsible for your manuscript. So this is the true about plagiarism. I hope that you will take it very seriously.