Perspective Drawing: Creating Illustrations with Dimension | Matt Laskowski | Skillshare

Perspective Drawing: Creating Illustrations with Dimension

Matt Laskowski, Illustrator & Designer, Boston MA

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9 Lessons (59m)
    • 1. Anatomy of Perspective

      3:37
    • 2. One-Point Perspective

      5:32
    • 3. Two-Point Perspective

      8:25
    • 4. Three-Point Perspective

      4:33
    • 5. Atmospheric Perspective

      3:29
    • 6. Everything is a Box (Demo)

      9:13
    • 7. Successive Objects, Unique VP's, Circles & Cylinders

      6:56
    • 8. Tangents, POV Scale, Grounding People

      8:32
    • 9. Level of Detail

      8:53
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About This Class

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In this class, written transcripts of everything I've said in each video is available to read so you can be sure to fully understand what I'm teaching at your own pace.

Also available are critiques of student projects I've written to learn even more from. Making mistakes are a major part of getting better at your art, and learning from the critiques of other students is a key component of improving yourself. Give this class a shot, we're all a very open, constructive, and passionate group about advancing your art and perspective drawing!

This class aims to teach everything you need to know about the fundamental skill of drawing perspective in order to give your art a sense of place and setting. Understanding perspective brings a grounded reality to your art and transforms the way your audience interacts with it. It is key in taking your work to the next level, and advancing your skill in illustration.

I personally look at perspective differently than other artists. Over the years of my career as a professional illustrator, I've learned how to think about perspective differently in order to better fundamentally understand how it applies to the real world around you. This class is NOT the way you've seen perspective explained a thousand times before -- you all know the typical boring example of a road going straight into the distance with a row of power lines to the side? This class forgoes those dated models in favor of teaching actual mechanics of how and why perspective exists. Some of the core concepts will still be here, such as one, two and three point perspective, of course. But it's how I teach you to think about them that will forever alter the way you draw environments. 

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Above: some examples of my past work.

Perspective is broken down into key points. We will begin with concepts and terminology, including covering the various drawing techniques, and populating your scene with details.

  • Introduction: The basic setup and terminology used for all forms of perspective, and will be used throughout the class and your art from hereon after.
  • One-Point Perspective:  The most basic form of perspective, with one vanishing point. We cover drawing perspective, including what to consider when you do.
  • Two-Point Perspective: How placing a second vanishing point changes the construction of your scene and how the world is transformed around you with new dimensionality.
  • Three-Point Perspective: How placing a third vanishing point further changes the construction of your scene and how to think differently about the spatial relationships of the vanishing points to create believable 3D space.
  • Atmospheric Perspective: Used in conjunction with other perspectives, we cover how atmosphere and color can increase the illusion of depth in your images. We also cover alternative perspective techniques to consider when just drawing or coloring a picture.
  • Additional Considerations: We cover drawing shapes and objects in 3D, such as circles, cylinders, and successive objects, such as stairs. We also take a look at foreshortening!
  • Adding Details that Matter: Make your scene believable! Consistency! Objects, Objects, Objects! Atmosphere! People that are actually standing firmly on the ground! How to build your scene from seemingly nothing! I share my best drawing tips, and address how much detail is necessary. Then you can make consistent progress in your drawings, rather than getting lost on tiny, meaningless details.
  • Your project! Where to find inspiration for your drawing. Considering which perspective to use, and best ways to start working.

Above: Scenery development sketches of mine in two and three-point perspective.

You will create a perspective drawing based upon your interest and subject matter. This can be an indoor/outdoor scene, urban/suburban environment, preferrably something man made. The class is set up where you will be encouraged to begin practicing perspective drawing (at least one drawing in One, Two and Three point perspective,) then once you've done a sketch that you feel strongly about, you'll be encourage to develop that drawing in a more finished full environment!

The overall goal of the class is to have you demonstrate an improved understanding and implementation of perspective in your art, and hopefully how you see the world around you. However, there is an element of environment design in this class as well, since perspective inherently lends itself to drawing realistic spaces. While your project may just start off as a bunch of boxes in perspective, my teachings and the feedback of your peers will certainly encourage you to push yourself to develop your drawings to the next level and produce full scene environments. The information I provide will be crucial to helping you create an environment drawing quicker than you ever thought possible! It's not as daunting as you might think!

The foundation is the most important part of your drawing, so you will be encouraged to share your progress and any other practice drawings along the way to your finished work. 

And most of all, I hope you'll enjoy yourself in exploring your new passion for perspective drawing!

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Above: Pure perspective-liciousness. And soon, you can too!

In this class, you need very little prior drawing knowledge to participate. Perspective is a fundamental aspect of illustration, so if you're just starting out, or are adept but never got around to building these skills, you've come to the right place to learn!

This class can be drawn with whatever mediums you're most comfortable with. Pencil/pen, ruler on paper, or Photoshop with a graphic tablet -- it's all up to you! The most important aspect of this class is that you show an improved understanding of how perspective works, even if that means drawing only boxes accurately in 3D space.

I definitely want to challenge you, though. So I do encourage you to attempt drawing a type of environment as a final project to really put your skills to the test. That said, this class focuses more on the aspect of how we observe perspective in our environments and NOT on people. This course is not about anatomy or character design. It's about understanding the space around you and how to represent it two-dimensionally on paper!

Come on in and enjoy yourself! I want to see you get better just as much as you want to yourself.

Transcripts

1. Anatomy of Perspective: - Welcome to part one of drawing perspective in this video will quickly cover the basic - terminology I will be using from this point forward when describing building various - aspects of your scene that you want to draw. - Unlike the canvas or paper you're drawing on, - the picture plane is the actual window we're looking through to see your scene. - When drawing scenery. - It's usually a good idea to draw on an insect cropped area, - because sometimes you may need to make marks or indications of objects outside of the - picture plane in order to understand their scale and spatial relationships to each other. - It also allows for some play and readjusting the crop and aspect ratio of your scene. - After all, - if all you do is draw on full sheets of nine by 12 inch paper, - all of your drawings will have the same size and shape. - Instead, - make a choice. - Choosing a vertical or horizontal oriented picture wide or square shaped aspect ratio. - These were all decisions that help support the feel of the scene. - You'll be drawing the most basic and arguably important compositional element of your - drawing. - The Horizon line is what it sounds like. - It represents the most distant part of your scene, - where all details emerged to a single point. - It separates the sky and the ground above from below. - Don't mistake the horizon line for the physical horizon itself, - however. - Every scene with perspective will always have a horizon line. - But not every scene with perspective will have a horizon. - For instance, - a scene that takes place in space will still exhibit detail that merges to a horizon line, - even though there's no horizon to see. - Some scenes may even have more than one horizon line, - but don't worry. - We'll talk about that in a later video. - The Horizon lines placement in your picture playing determines which way we're looking at - relative to it. - If you look more up, - the rise in line gets lower in your vision and you see more sky. - If you tell your head from side to side it till it's too sometimes, - the scene won't even have a horizon line in the picture plane. - This is a technique that can really help push the sense of scale in your scene. - Depending on where the Horizon line is above or below the picture plane, - we would be seeing nothing but sky or ground. - As the name implies, - the vanishing point is the spot where most details in your seen aim to merge. - Two. - Not all vanishing points will exist on the horizon line, - but in most cases, - one or two will, - for the most basic perspective setups. - As we move forward through the lessons, - the name 1.2 point and three point perspective are referring to the number of primary - vanishing points there are in your scene or thought. - Journals, - by their definition, - are lines that radiate outward from the perpendicular of another point and drawing - perspective or thought. - Channels don't have to exist at 90 degree angles from one another, - but they do radiate outward from a vanishing point. - Orthogonal czar guidelines that help you draw objects, - which properly received back to the vanishing point there oriented to typically, - an orthogonal will radiate outward from the vanishing point to help form the edges of an - object to be erased later. - Once the object is complete, - each vanishing point can have its own set of orthogonal is to help form the different sides - of three dimensional objects or thought journals also don't have to be drawn. - You can measure in orthogonal simply by overlaying a guide such as a ruler and making only - the line you need, - just as long as it recedes back to the vanishing point. - That's pretty much wraps up the basic terminology of perspective. - Now that you've been properly introduced, - why don't we set things up in the next video to put these basic ideas into practice? 2. One-Point Perspective: - There are three major types of perspective that relate to the number of primary vanishing - points in your seen. - This video is all about the first type. - One point perspective just says there are three dimensions in space the vertical, - the horizontal and depth. - There could be three vanishing points to create orthe ogles for each visible side of the - object. - Now, - this isn't to say that one point perspective creates one dimensional images. - All perspective is three dimensional. - However, - without a vanishing point to recede to, - that particular dimension remains parallel. - Since one point, - perspective has only one vanishing point. - Two of the three dimensions and you're seeing will remain straight and parallel to each - other. - The third dimension will recede to the vanishing point to create a sense of three D depth - and distance. - In one point perspective, - the primary vanishing point should always exist somewhere on your scenes horizon line. - Due to the nature of one point perspective, - the vanishing point should be somewhere within the confines of your picture plane. - Since one point, - perspective only deals with the recession of depth, - and you're seeing with parallel vertical and horizontal lines, - the farther your vanishing point gets from the center of your picture plane, - the more distorted the perspective will appear from reality. - This distortion is rectified by the introduction of more vanishing points, - which will be explained in the next couple of videos. - For now, - the best results will come from keeping the vanishing point within your picture plane. - As stated in a previous video, - the horizon line of your scene is important to consider as it determines much about the - look and feel of your final image. - Its position can help make or break different senses of scale and importance of details. - In your seen, - a low horizon line implies a point of view that is looking up or is placed close to the - ground. - For example, - a point of view that is close to the ground better illustrates scale of distant objects - such as tall buildings or mountains. - A high horizon line shows mostly ground and is implying looking down or having some amount - of height for a better vantage point over the senior illustrating, - for example, - looking down at the street from the window of a tall building, - the horizon line place more toward the center of the picture plane implies a more normal, - forward looking point of view and often works best at around standard I height from the - ground to establish a relatable sense of place in your scene. - Something that may take some time to wrap your head around is learning how to draw details - in depth as they received back toward the vanishing point. - Foreshortening is the phenomena of longer horizontal objects appearing shorter and - compressed as we view them from a more front on perspective. - The human arm is commonly used as an example for four shortening viewed from the side, - we clearly see the arm's length and curves. - However, - when viewed from straight on, - the arm appears shorter. - Since those curves have begun overlapping in perspective, - the same happens with all objects from tree branches, - two cars, - two buildings. - It's important to understand how foreshortening works in the senior constructing. - For example, - it's easy to overestimate how far back a building will recede into the distance, - and it will end up looking too long and distorted. - As a result, - there's no easy way to figure out the four shortening of a scene, - but know that the effect becomes more pronounced. - The farther back into the distance you draw. - If you're standing right next to a long building, - it will appear very elongated as it should, - since you're standing right next to it. - However, - if you place that same building a mile down the road in front of you, - all of its length will no longer be apparent. - It will appear very flat. - If you have a row of squares all the same size placed the same distance apart, - all lined up to recede to the vanishing point, - you'll find that their length becomes progressively narrower. - The farther away you get uses to your advantage and drawing scenery, - especially buildings far away ones can be drawn much simpler and flatter than one's closer - up, - saving you time and effort. - One point perspective is the easiest form of perspective to draw, - but that doesn't mean it's only used by beginners. - It's a stylistic and compositional tool that could be extremely effective when combined - with the right scene. - Even professional artists commonly drawn one point perspective if it lends to a particular - look they were going for one point. - Perspective is very clean and orderly, - since all depth receives back to one point, - it can create a strong center of focus within your image. - It's very common in one point perspective. - Artworks to find the center of focus located at somewhere around the vanishing point. - If not, - the scene will commonly be much shallower in depth by either having another object blocked - the vanishing point or use fog or lighting effects to shift your focus away to somewhere - else in the image. - Well, - that about wraps up our video for one point perspective. - Move onto the next video to learn all about what happens when we add a second vanishing - point to the mix. - As usual, - there's a full written transcript of everything I've said in this video down below when the - additional resource is section. 3. Two-Point Perspective: - we now know that one point perspective is used mostly for straight on looking points of - view. - If you want to turn the camera to be non perpendicular to the rest of the scene, - however, - you need to introduce a new vanishing point to prevent awkward distortion of objects. - This is what two point perspective is all about. - As previously mentioned, - each vanishing point in your seen relates to one of three dimensions that makes up the - visible sides of the objects you're drawing. - Since one point, - perspective has only one vanishing point to recede the depth dimension of objects. - Adding another vanishing point will cause another of the two remaining dimensions to recede - as well, - leaving only one dimension left with straight parallel lines. - Typically, - the vertical lines of all of your objects will be the dimension left parallel, - just like before. - The second vanishing point in two point perspective will always be placed on the horizon - line. - However, - the distance between these two vanishing points is key to drawing proper looking - perspective. - As you can see, - when the vanishing points air placed too close together, - there's very little room between them for objects to be drawn at a decent scale without - appearing distorted. - When the vanishing points are placed much farther apart, - objects will appear more flat with limited recession of depth. - So what's going on here? - How do you find the proper distance between these two vanishing points? - The answer is a little complicated, - but I think we can work it out. - This is all related to something called field of View. - Anything that can see or record images with a lens has a particular field of view that - allows it to Seymour or less of the environment surrounding it. - If you've ever used a camera with a zoom lens zooming and effectively changes its field of - view from wide to narrow, - the narrower a field of view gets the farther apart. - The vanishing points get in a scene, - a wider field of view. - The closer together they get Human eyesight has an approximate field of view of 135 degrees - from side to side. - This is important to remember, - since you've experienced that fueled of you throughout your entire life. - It's a good reference point to use as we go forward. - First, - we have to take a moment to understand the following the Horizon Line is not actually a - straight line. - It's a circle. - It only looks like a line instead of a circle in your drawing, - because the view of your scene is placed exactly in the center of it. - As we turn in place, - we continue to see more of the horizon line around us. - This is why the Horizon Line never received into the distance. - It only surrounds us. - Next, - we have to consider how the two finishing points in your seen relate to this horizon line - circles surrounding your viewpoint. - Did you know that there are actually at least four vanishing points on the horizon line at - any given one time? - If we look at the horizon line from above and turned it into a compass, - each vanishing point will be located at north, - east, - west and south. - Since you're standing at the center of this compass, - you'll encounter a vanishing point for every 90 degrees that you turn in place. - And since you have a limited field of view of 135 degrees, - you can Onley ever see a maximum of two vanishing points at any one time. - The fact that the vanishing points are all 90 degrees from each other. - It's a very important detail. - This means that no matter where you place the two vanishing points within your scene, - they will always exist at 90 degrees apart from each other on the horizon line, - no matter how close together or far apart you put them. - What the proximity of these two points will affect, - however, - is the field of view of your scene. - Remember how I said that when vanishing points are closer together, - the field of view was wider, - and when they're farther apart, - the view narrows. - Now you know why the vanishing points air locked in their physical distance from each other - . - So based on that knowledge, - we could infer the fuel of you on the scene based on how close, - together or far apart the points appear. - But what about their actual positions inside or outside of the picture plane? - Well, - there's one last major aspect to cover something called the vertical center line. - This is a helpful tool for planning two point perspective. - Basically, - what it is is a marker for the location of the center of the viewpoint. - In almost all cases, - it should exist at the exact center of the picture plane, - just as it always does for your own vision or for uncrossed photos. - It can be moved off center, - but this is effectively the same as cropping your picture plane inward. - So the approach of utilizing the vertical center line is the same. - Regardless, - as we move forward, - the vertical center line can help you properly place vanishing points. - Since we know the vanishing points air, - always 90 degrees from each other, - all we have to do is create a single right angle that intersects the horizon line at two - points where it's corner pivots on the vertical center line. - Let's say we want to draw a scene that is more like one point perspective, - with just a hint of two point death. - One vanishing point will be somewhere near the center of the picture plane. - But how far away should the second point B? - Well, - this is where that right angle comes in. - One side of the angle should pass through the first vanishing point to the vertical center - line. - The second side will intersect with the horizon line. - This intersection is exactly where the second vanishing point will exist. - Note that you have control over how large this right angle is. - A smaller right angle will yield to vanishing points that are much closer together. - A wide angle view, - while a larger right angle will yield far apart, - vanishing points a more zoomed in view. - A good rule of thumb here is that if the entire right angle is located within, - the picture plane you're seeing will contain highly distorted perspective from being too - wide angle typically scaling the right angle so it's corner pivot is located outside of the - picture. - Plane is a surefire way to create normal fields of view that will look good and be easy to - draw. - Notice that as a vanishing point gets closer and closer to the vertical center line, - the other vanishing point gets farther and farther away to either side. - This is normal. - Remember that these vanishing points are like the directions on a compass as one vanishing - point hits the vertical center line, - let's say north. - The other vanishing points are perfectly to your side at East and West. - You can't draw your right angle to intersect with the horizon line, - since North is dead ahead. - This is why one point perspective only has one point. - The other points at East and West are parallel to your scene and cannot project death. - I really hope this makes sense and can help you out. - If you are still confused by how some of this works, - please feel free to ask any questions in the Q and a section of this class. - Don't be surprised if you find yourself drawing with two point perspective more often. - It's very practical to use in just about any level view seen. - Most photos you see most likely can be redrawn with two point perspective just fine. - It's not until we start to look up or down that an extra vanishing point is required. - But since we look forward most of the time, - that third vanishing point tends to be a little unnecessary, - so we could represent most of our daily lives as two point perspective two point - perspective scenes tend to be very different compositionally from one point perspective. - In most cases, - the center of focus will not be where the vanishing points are. - Two point perspective relies more on the scale and placement of important elements within - the scene. - To really have a center of focus stand out two point perspective can also be rotated for - vertically oriented scenes where the Horizon Line is going from top to bottom instead of - side to side. - In such cases, - the horizontal line that make up the objects will be parallel this time instead of the - vertical ones. - When used. - This way, - two point perspective can be used for a looking up point of view, - but only when we're completely perpendicular to the rest of the scene. - Well, - that about does it for two point perspective. - If you have any further questions, - you can feel free to ask them in the Q and a section of the class, - I'll be happy to answer anything you have there, - and that said, - I'll see you in the next video. 4. Three-Point Perspective: - So what happens to two point perspective when you want to Adam or up or down tilt of the - camera, - the remaining parallel dimension will need to recede somewhere, - and this is when the introduction of 1/3 vanishing point comes into play. - In three point perspective, - no lines of your scene will be drawn parallel anymore, - and the explanation of what to do was really quite simple. - All details from each visible side of an object will recede toward a vanishing point done - deal. - Except you're probably wondering what's up with that third vanishing point. - It doesn't seem to follow the rules of the other two well, - but I suppose it does require some explanation. - As you can see in three point perspective, - the third Vanishing Point is never placed on the horizon line. - Along with the other two. - It will be placed to either far above the horizon line when your point of view is tilted up - or far below when it's tilted down and almost never located within the picture plane. - In most circumstances, - the third vanishing point will exist evenly between the two points on the horizon line. - Remember that compass I showed you in the last video. - How the vanishing points we see in two point perspective are like the coordinates for north - , - west, - east and south. - If we were to look at this compass from an angle, - you'll find that the third vanishing points located either directly above or directly below - your head in the center. - If we look straight forward, - the third vanishing point is exactly 90 degrees to the top of our head and forms. - Parallel orthogonal is, - as a result, - causing the scene to revert back to two point perspective. - If we look up or down, - however, - that third vanishing point it's no longer perpendicular to the top of our head, - and we can begin to see its influence on the scene. - Looking up or down even slightly will cause vertical recession of depth to some degree. - The farther you look, - the closer the third vanishing point gets to the picture plane and thus creates steeper - recession of death. - And yes, - if you look up or down far enough so that the third vanishing point reaches the center of - your picture plane, - you got it. - The scene reverts all the way back to one point perspective, - again, - shifting the third vanishing point to the right or left can have a drastic effect on your - scene but could be a desirable one. - Shifting the point changes were the straight up, - down orthogonal lies in your seen refocusing the area where all other details in your seen - received toward doing this can really change the feel of your image causing distortion that - could either be a little awkward or really dramatic experiment to see for yourself. - Most three point perspective artworks you'll find largely have a point of view that just - looks forward with a hint of a tilt up or down. - This slight vertical recession gives a little more visual characteristic to the image - rather than defaulting to parallel verticals with two point, - it takes a little more work. - But the end result could be striking and make the environment feel just that little bit - more realistic. - It can become a pain to map such shallow, - orthe ogles of the vanishing points when they're so far away. - So you may want to practice guessing the third set of or Thorgan ALS, - which can really save time in trouble. - Just as long as they fan out in a consistent manner. - You should be good to go for more dynamic and dramatic points of view, - though mapping out the vanishing point and it's orthogonal is is definitely a good idea. - Dynamic angles like this is really what three point is best used for, - since the effect that can create is so pronounced. - Just remember not to go overboard with crazy angles all the time in your artworks. - What may seem like a more impressive option can become gimmicky if it dominates her - portfolio. - So now that we've gone over basic terminology 1.2 point and three point perspective, - that concludes the first half of this skill share class. - But we're far from done here in the next unit were going to be going over things like - atmosphere, - color and scale, - and how their implementation can really push your perspective even further. - In the meantime, - I recommend going and practicing on what you've learned so far. - A major part of learning, - especially in art, - is doing feel free to share any practice drugs you've done in your project and, - as always, - feel free to ask any questions and I will be happy to get to them. - I'll see you in part three 5. Atmospheric Perspective: - a sense of depth in a scene can still be achieved even without the use of vanishing points - in North ogles. - Ah, - landscape without any. - Obviously geometrically shaped man made objects still has perspective, - but how do you show it? - This is where atmospheric perspective comes in due to the fact that our planet has a - gaseous atmosphere. - Light is absorbed into the air the farther it travels through it, - just as the sky is blue due to shorter wavelength light scattering in the upper atmosphere - . - The same is true for Hayes, - the further we look out to the horizon. - The farther away an object is the more blue in tone and less contrast it will appear. - Our brains interpret this haziness as a mark for distance, - even if the more distant object is larger than the one closer up. - Use this to great effect in your outdoor scenes to help realistically push depth even - further. - Remember that the color of Hayes also changes with the time of day based on the position of - the sun. - During the afternoon, - haze can be more white to blue, - while in the evening it can turn anywhere from orange, - red and even purple If you're not doing a colored picture, - let's say just a drawing with lines. - You can still indicate the presence of haze by making much thinner, - light lines for distant objects and use thicker, - heavier lines for close objects to help push the difference. - Colors can be used to push depth in a scene if it's utilized properly. - Ah, - classic example is bright red versus blue. - Red is a very commanding color and at full value appears brighter than blue. - Red comes forward while blue recedes. - When these two colors are over laid, - it almost appears as though the red swatches floating above the blue one. - The same can be said for the value of a color as well. - When a brighter color is put next to a darker one, - the brighter one will always appear closer in our minds. - This doesn't mean that you should make your illustrations with high contrast light and dark - red and blue colors. - It's just something to keep in mind. - Remember that sunlight tends to be warm, - while shadows tend to be cooler in hue. - If you're coloring a scene, - you can use these color principles to create noticeable divisions of space in your seen - lending to a better sense of perspective. - It goes without saying that the farther away an object gets, - the smaller gets, - too. - But remember to use scale to your advantage, - place objects in your seen that the viewer can relate to in order to get a sense of where - they're standing or how big everything is in relation, - use your foreground in middle ground to good effect. - Play with the scale relationships of larger, - distant objects versus smaller, - closer up ones. - It can lead to interesting compositions and concepts to draw from. - Well, - that's all you really need to know about atmospheric perspective. - Coming in the next couple of videos, - I'm going to be changing the format a little bit. - I'll be doing a bunch of videos that are unscripted demos where I provide some commentary - over the top, - just touching on a lot more of the specific topics relating to doing particular things in - perspective. - There will be several of these videos coming out over time, - so be sure to be on the lookout for any announcements that I make for any new ones that - I've uploaded 6. Everything is a Box (Demo): - so the entire point of this video eyes really just to demo the drawing of a scene from the - starting point, - which is really just a bunch of boxes to a more finished rough state. - And you know, - this is really the way that you should start off just about any picture, - which is a lot of basic shapes like boxes, - cylinders, - spheres and cones, - which are the most basic shapes that you can build anything out of. - And, - you know, - no matter how complex the object is, - you start off with these basic shapes. - So I'm starting this scene off. - You can see I restarted because I didn't like what I was doing there to begin with. - So I I'm now doing this. - I was thinking of doing something like a some sort of tunnel, - some sort of tunnel entrance to maybe an underground base or something. - So just by drawing a lot of frankly boxes, - this is just a big box, - and it's drawing the inside of it and adding details by Champ Ring edges and just ah, - you know, - adding lines. - On top of this geometry that I'm building, - you'll notice that I'm jumping pretty rapidly around this drawing. - I'm not just staying in one spot, - and this is something that you really need to work on if you want to ever actually finish. - Ah, - drawing. - It's probably one of the most common problems that I see a lot of beginners do when they're - drawing backgrounds is that they get really fixated on drawing one particular part of the - environment and completely forgetting about everything else. - And that can be daunting. - You know, - if you're drawing especially like a city scape or something, - you're sitting there just grinding away on one building, - trying to add as many details as you can on to it. - And then you realize I still have to draw like, - 30 more buildings to the cityscape. - It took me this long to draw one. - How how am I ever gonna finish all the rest of these? - And then the answer that is really just it's because you've put too much attention into one - building. - You have to jump around. - You have to build the scene up with the simple forms first, - and once you get them down, - then you can move forward with adding details. - So you'll notice by this point now that I have the drawing up Teoh sort of a better - understanding of what it is that I'm going to do. - I started adding more details, - like to the ceiling of the tunnel and to the right side wall here. - I've just begun drawing this pipe that's wrapping around the top of the tunnel here just - because if you ever look at the underside of a bridge or something, - there's always, - like tons of pipes running along them. - So it was just sort of like a nice extra detail, - you know, - just trying to add more architectural elements to the inside of the tunnel because it's - very rare that you have tunnels that are just completely smooth, - walled all the way down. - They usually have beams, - some sort of veins pains, - whatever is in there, - there's just a whole bunch of them cross beams. - You name it same thing, - adding details to the door here. - It's like a big heavy blast door, - so, - you know, - it looks it looks pretty pretty heavy. - Duty like this is sort of ah, - secure sort of security area. - I'm going to show that by adding this sign up above here, - which again is just simply a box just tacked on to the top of the tunnel, - going ahead and adding those vertical sort of pain like beams to the left side wall. - The tunnel here, - you know, - keeping it very simple. - I'm not getting too crazy detailed with this. - I'm trying to get my idea down pat and making sure that it's working before I go forward - with tightening up details and, - you know, - making sure everything is working out perfectly. - I figure up top, - they would have something like spotlights, - you know, - usually at night time you want to make sure that the entrance area is very well lit. - So if you remember what I showed from the drilling Ellipses and circles video, - a couple of videos back the searchlights are really just cylinders with a couple of extra - details tacked on and then stuck to a pole drawing Two of them here stuck on these polls so - they could be aimed. - A little bit of environmental detail always goes a long way. - You know, - there's ah lot of geometric shape here s o, - you know, - trying to balance that out with some organic shapes, - like like leaves plants have some jutting out from the side over there in between the in - between the ventilation exhaust. - Because, - you know, - I figure this tunnel is probably built into the side of a mountain or really, - just like a cliffside. - Really? - So it's It's probably surrounded by plants of some sort right now in the foreground, - I'm adding some panels, - the kind of panels that you see to like, - you know, - block people just so like warn people to like, - you know, - stay out, - keep away. - So these are just kind of connected together in front here it off to the side, - like sort of closer up in front of the camera a little do not enter signs on them. - It's always nice to have something a little bit closer up to the camera, - Um, - especially if everything is in the middle and background. - Um, - having just at least one thing in the foreground usually helps just with the sense of space - a little bit more, - just adding some really crude rock face up there and, - like, - sort of a smoke guard tower on top of it, - these rock faces air really just sort of random like lines that air sort of generally in - the shape of rocks, - and by this point, - that's really about it. - That's the finished piece in terms of getting it up to, - sort of like a rough sketch, - you know, - especially by this point, - with a sketch like this, - Um, - you definitely know whether or not it's something that you want to continue with, - like for me with this picture. - This to be something I would actually really like to continue working on. - And, - ah, - if anything, - I'm probably gonna turn this into my own project for the class for you guys to follow along - with for your own project. - I highly recommend trying to do something similar to this. - Even if you're working on paper, - you still start off with your basic shape. - Start off with very light lines. - Don't make heavy, - heavy handed lines. - Start off just on a very light. - Erase things that you don't need any more if you're working digitally. - One of the questions I get asked very often is How do I make such straight lines like this - so quickly? - And the answer to that really is well, - it's a trick in photo shop. - We all know that when you hold shift in Photoshop, - it constrains the line so that if you go from right to left or up or down, - the line remains perfectly straight. - Writer left up or down. - That's what shift constraints mean. - But if you hold shift, - there's a technique called shift clicking. - While holding shift, - take your pen or your mouse or whatever you're you're using and click once in one spot with - the brush tool and then click again somewhere else. - Or tap your pen somewhere else. - Still, - while holding shift and a line will automatically be made between the two points that you - clicked on. - And that's what I basically do for all these straight lines. - Two very quick and effective way of drawing scenes like this. - So I definitely would love to see any of these kinds of sketches that you do or whatever - seen it is that you want to be drawing. - Just remember not to get so caught up on a lot of the little where details keep it loose - and flowing. - Jump around and try to get about as much done as you can within 1 to 2 hours. - This drawing that you see here only took about 30 minutes. - Eso this video was sped up. - So all that said, - I would definitely love to see what you have, - and I'll see you in the next couple of videos. - I hope this was helpful. 7. Successive Objects, Unique VP's, Circles & Cylinders: - so to draw objects successively, - that is to draw the same object over and over at set repeated distances. - We're gonna basically start by drawing some orthogonal. - So here's some here and then we take the first of our objects in this case, - a pole, - and we're going to put the first instance here, - and that's at its full height. - And we put the last instance at the back way back there, - and we simply create a line from the bottom of one to the top of the last one. - And we do the same from the bottom of the furthest one to the top of the closest one. - Where these two lines intersect is the exact middle between these two. - So we just simply draw another one there and we'll do this over and over will go from the - top to the bottom, - who basically subdivide these spaces by crisscrossing these lines from the tops and bottoms - of each new object that we add. - And every time that we do this, - we are introducing another instance of this object in perspective, - and each one is perfectly mathematically the same distance from each other. - Given the perspective of the scene And so here we have some telephone poles, - but some wires on there and this subdividing trick, - this crisscrossing line trick really works for a lot of other things. - You can find the midpoint of any shapes by just simply drawing a line from one corner to - the other and where the lines criss cross in the center is the exact midpoint of that - object. - So use this technique when you need to draw things anything ranging from a power line. - Poles support beams, - even the lines in a concrete sidewalk. - So there you have it, - a little bit of geometry and action. - So here's an interesting concept. - When you're drilling a scene in perspective, - you may find that you fall into this trap where everything you're drawing is all in the - same angle. - Everything is either parallel or perpendicular to each other, - so you can give objects their own unique vanishing points. - As you can see right here, - I'm about to add these two matching points. - There's one right there and right there change the color it as you can see him better, - and these are completely independent, - temporary vanishing points that are gonna be used for just this one box that I'm gonna add - . - And so this box is rotated in comparison to the other one. - But it's still in proper perspective, - given this scene. - So there it is, - sitting there, - not perpendicular nor parallel to the other box. - So let's add one more. - Just as long as I'm keeping these two vanishing points at the same distance as the other - sets, - this box will be floating up here in the air, - looking proper, - just as it would if it were actually floating. - They're just like that. - So you could definitely use this in your scenes to help create a little bit of visual - variation with the inherent monotony that can come with rigid perspective drawing. - So here's a fun trick for drawing circles in perspective. - You might think that circles air just round, - and that's that. - But they actually have areas that stick out more than others. - If you put a square around a circle, - you'll find that the square touches the circle at four specific points. - When you divide the circle up by these points, - you can clearly see that as I tilt the circle here in perspective, - you'll find the parts of the circle that stick out the farthest are not the straight up and - down poles at the top and bottom. - Instead, - the circle appears to be somewhat rotated off access. - This basically occurs because those four points around the edge have moved in relation to - each other, - so they're no longer the same distance anymore. - So, - knowing that you could just put a square around a circle, - it means that drawing a circle in perspective is really just as easy as drawing a square in - perspective. - So once you draw a square at an angle, - just divide it in half by height and width, - so you end up with this two by two grid on the surface of it. - This two by two grid helps you visualize how steep or shallow the curve has to be in that - area. - So just as long as you make sure that the circle you're trying to fit within this square - touches each of those mid points in the grid, - you should be able to come up with a pretty decent circle in perspective. - Doing this takes a lot of the guesswork out of doing it just pure freehand, - and it may take more than a couple tries to get it right the first time for sort of less - angled circles, - ones that you're looking a bit more forward on with. - Believe or not, - these ones can be a little bit tougher to draw than ones that extreme angles. - So my advice is, - if you're having trouble with those, - draw just half of a circle at once. - It's just much easier to do that. - Follow through hand motion for just half of the circle rather than worrying about going all - the way around at once and trying toe line back up where you were. - As for drawing a cylinder in perspective, - it's really pretty much Azizi is just drawing a long box just normally in perspective and - then dividing each end of the box in half with that two by two grid, - just like you're doing with the circles than drawing a circle in each square and then - connecting those two circles together by their two most farthest points. - Just erase the leftover bits and there you go. - You have a cylinder. - So I hope this trick helps you out with anything that you might be planning for your scene - , - and we'll see you again in one of these other tip videos 8. Tangents, POV Scale, Grounding People: - tangents are what happens when two objects share the same line or side with each other. - They can really destroy the sense of perspective in your scene or the sense of depth. - As you can see here, - I've just drawn to boxes side by side, - but they are sharing very obviously the same line across their top face. - And this shared line really ruins the sense of depth between these two. - It messes with our understanding on where these two objects are in relation to each other. - And if they share more than just that one tangent, - let's say if I added detail like this, - running across both of them, - well, - now it just looks like both of them are fused together. - You would have no idea that this larger, - taller boxes actually sitting in front of the other one. - It's a really good idea to fix tangents as they happen in your drawings. - So all that I have to do to fix this tangent is just draw this box a little bit taller, - and now our full understanding of the space and relationship between these two boxes is - restored. - We know exactly how far apart they are. - We know where they're oriented toward each other. - In three D space, - there is no confusion. - And just to further demonstrate my point, - I'm just going to draw offense here and along with it, - I'm going to create sort of, - ah, - hanging wires. - We're gonna create a curve here and stroke it. - So here is a hanging wire and is, - as you can see, - it is just touching the top of this fence. - The problem with this is that we don't know where this wire is in relation to the fence. - It looks like it's just sitting on top like it's just bowing down. - Just grazed the top of the fence when in fact, - in reality, - this wire is a far ways behind the fence, - and we have no way of telling that. - So to show that we just dropped the wire down and erase out where the fences in front of it - . - And now we perfectly understand that this fence is in front of this wire. - There are no questions to that. - So unless you're doing optical illusions, - it's a really good idea to take care of any tangents that happen earlier on before they - become cemented into your scene in the one point perspective video. - Remember how I showed how changing the position of the Horizon Line changes? - Whether you're looking in a more up or down angle? - Well, - there's something else to this as well, - and has to do with how far below objects drop beneath the horizon line. - This can really change the feel of how high the point of view is off of the ground. - So, - for instance, - in this first example, - if you were to imagine these boxes as being buildings, - it feels very much like the camera is placed a couple of stories up above this. - If you would imagine a street running in between these buildings in the second example, - I'm drawing the buildings, - penetrating not quite as far beneath the horizon line. - It feels a little bit more normal to us. - If we were to imagine these boxes as being buildings, - it feels a little bit more like average human eye height. - In this last example, - the buildings are hardly passing beneath the horizon line at all, - and this makes the point of view feel as though it's placed almost directly onto the ground - . - So between these three examples, - you can see how simply changing how far below the objects penetrate beneath the horizon - line alters our perception of how high off the ground the point of view is, - even though throughout all three examples, - all of the boxes are the same size and scale. - We have a very different feel as to how big they are or how big we are in comparison to - them. - Think about this when designing your scenes. - If you were to imagine these buildings as not being buildings, - but let's just say cardboard boxes inside of a closet. - This changes your perception even more of what the size of the viewer might be. - While this class is not about anatomy, - figure drawing or character design, - I do want to touch on how to place people into scenes in perspective. - Humans are all pretty proportional to each other, - even those of different heights. - If the horizon line is passing through a person at the waist, - then it will always pass through at the waste, - no matter how far away that person is, - provided that the point of view remains the same height, - the same goes for pretty much any part of the body. - If the horizon line is passing through the head. - Then it will always passed through everyone's head. - If it passes through the ankles, - then always through the ankles, - no matter how far away or close up any of those people are. - If someone is taller or shorter, - you pretty much just add or subtract a little bit of height to the person using the horizon - line as a midpoint. - As for making sure that characters air properly standing on the ground, - it helps a lot to draw a square on the ground at the place where they will be standing and - then subdivide that square with an X. - So here's a crude character that I'm just doodling to show what I mean. - If the characters feet are passing below this square, - then I know that this person is not properly grounded to this spot. - The X provides context for the perspective on the ground, - which allows you to more easily draw the fee at the correct angle. - You can also do this same trick. - Let's say if a character is leaning against the wall, - I can simply put this square over here by the wall and put a next through that. - And if I draw to guidelines From the corners of the square up of the wall, - I now have a clear indication as to how far back this character should be leaning so that - they're not passing through the wall. - So here is the character who was standing in this scene originally before I removed her for - these demonstration purposes. - You can see that if I move her above or below the square that I just place beneath her feet - . - She doesn't look properly grounded anymore in this scene. - So the square really, - really helps. - As for finding the proper scale of a character within your scene, - there's not exactly a very straightforward way of figuring this out. - But there is one way that does work for most types of scenes, - and that is that if you know the scale of an object in your seen already, - you can figure out the scale of another person. - It's really important that you try to keep all of the scale of objects within your seen - consistent to their real life counterparts. - You don't want, - for instance, - a bunch of cars at wildly different sizes as they recede into the distance. - If they're all different sizes trying to figure out the scale of a human. - To be the proper size in relation to those cars is going to be really tough. - So in this artwork here, - I know that there's a door at the shop over on the side and I drew these two little black - lines on the ground to show where the door is. - And I know that this character has to be within a certain scale of this door. - So, - given that she scaled properly to the door, - we can now use or Thorgan ALS from the Vanishing point to map her height to basically any - position within this scene, - and she'll be properly grounded in everything. - So that's all for this video in the next one, - we're going to be taking a look at how much level of detail you should be putting into your - drawings based on the drawing size and probably what size they'll be seen. - At that way, - you're not wasting a lot of time on details that ultimately don't matter. - So you there 9. Level of Detail: - in this video, - I'm going to be talking about level of detail in your environments. - A really good piece of suggestion, - if you ever want to finish more complex scenes, - is to learn where to put details without going too overboard to the point that you're just - never going to get anything done. - So this is one of my artworks. - I did this picture a couple of years ago, - and there's one particular part of it that I've gotten some questions from people before, - and that's the area that's behind the chain link fences. - Some people have asked me whether or not that cityscape is a photo, - or if I actually hand painted it and to address that question, - it is actually hand painted. - But it's a lot simpler than you might think it is. - If I were to remove the chain link fence textures from in front of it, - and if I zoom in here, - you'll see just how crudely painted this cityscape in the background is, - and this seriously took me very little time to do. - You'll notice that when you see it from far away, - it looks very complete. - It looks like there's absolutely no doubt in your mind that that is a cityscape in the - background. - But there are two elements to this part of the scene that lead to me having to do almost no - serious work to it. - Number one is that the chain link fence in front of this obscures most of the broad - featureless details, - and your brain tries to fill in the rest as to what's behind the chain link fence. - The second part of it is theatrics. - Feerick's perspective at play here there is heavy haze, - and these elements are very low contrast. - So I don't really have to worry about a lot of the more minute details, - because at this distance, - even with the naked eye, - you wouldn't really see them very much anyway. - And this really is exactly how implied detail works. - Yes, - what you're looking at right now is a painting and not a line drawing. - But this general idea carries over to anything that you're going to do. - If this background were drawn with lines rather than blocks of color, - I would have done this exactly as sketchy and featureless as it was if it were painted. - If you're curious by the way as to how this was painted. - If you look closely, - you'll see that there's a general sort of noisy texture that's underneath all of the broad - brush strokes. - And that fills in a lot of the detail that you would generally see in a cityscape. - Things like smaller buildings, - smaller features, - lamps, - trees, - you name it, - anything that would be strewn about. - Then I just take a slightly broad square brush. - And with light and dark colors, - I just paint vertical lines to indicate these larger, - smoother faced buildings. - And then when I zoom out again and turned back on the chain link fence, - you'll see it's quite a convincing optical illusion in this other artwork that I did also a - couple of years ago. - I'm going to zoom into this bottom corner over here onto these distant buildings and just - show you that the actual line drawing on these is handled very simplistic as well. - The closer I get here, - let's see. - You can see at this distance I'm not entirely concerning myself with keeping the lines - extremely perfect. - There are some very simple details here, - but I'm not going overboard with them. - The stairwells on the side of this building are not entirely consistent in their Florida - floor height. - The windows are just tiny squares, - even things like the distant trees coming out from the left side of the building. - It's just sort of like a squiggly line that I fill in with color later, - and it's it's really down to the fact that these air small objects in the overall scene - when you see the entire picture from afar. - None of these details read as crudely as they do here, - and this saves so much time. - I'm not going to draw a building like these distant ones here. - As detailed as I am more close up ones and down below, - you'll see that I've dunmore of this extremely simplistic building cityscape, - painting just implying detail rather than showing riel detail. - Because once again from afar, - it reads fine. - And you're You are never going to see these artworks up this close anyway, - not even in print form and going back and speaking about atmospheric perspective. - Let's take a look at the actual levels of detail in this scene, - which you remember from a couple of videos back. - So if I remove the haze layer here and zoom in on this distant land mass. - With the structures on top, - you'll see that the entire mass itself is simply one solid color, - with only some very, - very base level lighting applied to it and an extremely simple texture. - Which, - as far as I know this probably took me about a minute to do, - since it's so distant and so obscured by the atmospheric perspective, - most of the details, - if I had painted them in any way, - would have faded to obscurity. - Compare that to the parts of the seen up, - close, - like down on the ground here, - and you'll see that I spent much more time putting in details in the texture of the ground - because we would definitely see those even at standard Web resolution. - And lastly, - just to show some line drawings for level of detail here. - This particular drawing is a pretty complete panel from a comic I did back in 2009. - You'll see that as the objects received more and more into the distance, - I put less and less detail in them, - and the reason for this is because you don't want your seen to be chock full of detail all - the way back. - As far As you can see, - that can actually harm the way your picture looks because it will appear too busy. - There will be too much going on a large part of knowing how much detail to put and where - will not only help you finish the picture faster, - but create a better looking picture by the end, - reserving more detail for the areas that matter more will lead viewers to look at those - areas and respond to them or immediately when coming up with ideas, - either for your own work or if you're creating work for concept purposes for a project. - Or, - let's say, - if you were to ever work in a professional studio a lot of the time, - getting your ideas down as quickly as possible is the best course of action. - This means sacrificing quality for speed. - But if the only people who are ever going to see these drawings are maybe you someone else - , - if you want feedback or maybe just on art director, - then really rough sketches like this are really all that is required to begin getting - feedback to know where you should probably go next, - or in the worst case, - if the idea is rejected entirely. - At least you didn't spend a lot of time on it. - So no big deal in this rough sketch called Cartographers Kitchen. - The basic idea here was that I wanted to convey some sort of explorer or pioneer who - doesn't exactly have a lot of space to work with, - to draw up his maps and for exploring the nearby area. - So he set up his little studio inside of his kitchen. - Here. - I wasn't concerning myself too much on what the actual look of a lot of the objects in this - room should be like. - I simply had an idea in my head that there would be something like a drafting table, - a light box table, - probably a much larger map on the wall that he's using for some sort of point of reference - . - And, - of course, - is this is a kitchen. - So there would be, - you know, - typical kitchen stuff, - like the fridge and counters and cabinets. - But then there's the pantry in the corner, - which I thought would be funny if he turned it into some sort of server room for - communications back to where he came from. - A sketch like this took me no more than about 20 to 25 minutes, - and this is a pretty good amount of time to flesh out an idea like this when you're - starting out, - it will obviously take longer, - since you're not used to simply creating random elements and details through muscle memory - . - But if you keep at it eventually, - you'll be able to hammer out work like this in no time at all. - And that's about all I have for this particular video. - I hope this little bit of insight helps you on the creation of your sketches for your - project, - as well as potentially your prospective future as an artist. - At the start of Unit four, - we're going to be taking a look at how to find various inspiration around the Internet and - proper use for reference material. - Have fun on your project guys, - and I'll see you later.