Performance Management Basics | Geetika Singh | Skillshare

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Performance Management Basics

teacher avatar Geetika Singh, Management Consultant

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

17 Lessons (54m)
    • 1. Meaning and Key steps

    • 2. What should we assess?

    • 3. Performance Appraisal

    • 4. Key characteristics

    • 5. SMART Goal setting

    • 6. KRAs and KPIs

    • 7. Checklist method

    • 8. Critical Incidents Method

    • 9. ADC

    • 10. BARS

    • 11. BSC

    • 12. MBO

    • 13. Multi Source

    • 14. OKR

    • 15. Bell Curve method

    • 16. Psychological and Psychometric tests

    • 17. BOS

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About This Class

Like many management terms, the word “performance management” has been interpreted, and the concept implemented, in many different ways. But the major goal in any good performance management system is to ensure that employees’ activities – what they do and how well they do them – are in sync with the goals of the organization, while maintaining a motivated and happy workforce.

Hence we can say that Per­for­mance man­age­ment is the con­tin­u­ous process of improv­ing per­for­mance by set­ting indi­vid­ual and team goals which are aligned to the strate­gic goals of the organ­i­sa­tion, plan­ning how to achieve the goals, review­ing and assess­ing progress, and devel­op­ing the required competencies of peo­ple.

So, there are 4 major steps in the performance management system. These are- plan, act, track, and evaluate

Performance Management is a very important function in Human Resource Management and if not done properly then can waste a lot of resources of the company.

Here you will learn about:

Meaning of performance management system.

Key characteristics of effective performance management.

Different strategies in performance management.

Here learn about the various strategies used nowadays.

Section 1: Introduction

  • Meaning and key steps

  • What should we assess

  • Performance Management System vs. Performance Appraisal

  • Key Characteristics

Section 2: Various Strategies

  • SMART goal setting

  • KRAs and KPIs

  • Critical Incidents Method

  • Checklist Method

  • Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)

  • Assessment Development Centre (ADC)

  • Balanced Score Card (BSC)

Meet Your Teacher

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Geetika Singh

Management Consultant


Hello, I'm Geetika.

See full profile

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1. Meaning and Key steps: Hi everyone. Welcome to the module on performance management system. In this module, we will talk about the meaning of performance management system. Then we will look at the importance of effective performance management. And at the end, we will move to understand the different strategies and performance management. So moving ahead. What is performance management? Like many management terms, the World Performance Management has been interpreted and the concept implemented in many different ways. But the major goal in any good performance management system is to ensure that employs activities, what they do and how well they do them are in sync with the goals of the organization while maintaining a motivated and happy work force. Hence, we can say that performance management is the continuous process of improving performance by setting individual and team goals which are aligned to the strategy goals of the organization. Planning how to achieve the goals, reviewing and assessing progress and developing the required competencies of people. So there are four major steps in the performance management system. These are plan, act, drag, and evaluate. Beginning with plan. Your plan should be in sync with the organization's objectives or goals. For example, if you are walking for Dominoes and they have the commitment to deliver the product within 30 minutes, then the relevant team should have goals backing that. But if you work for a premium hotel, then the goals of this stuff should have grooming and educates, et cetera, and their goals. If you are setting irrelevant goals or processes, then it would waste the time and energy of people involved. So focus on this, don't act. Then the employees act on the plan. That is they perform and also training or coaching is provided to them. If necessary. This is the regular work that the employees do. The ear around. Next, performance is measured. So we track the work is done. And then the last step, that is the performance of the employee, is evaluating if the action is happening in accordance with the plan or not. The employee is kept in the loop during the evaluation stage nowadays involves two parts. One is the formal evaluation done by the managers and HR is once a year, which is also referred to as performance appraisal. This is also linked with financial rewards. In this formal evaluation, decisions on high promotion, home to let go, et cetera, are taken here. We will talk of performance appraisals in detail in the next video. The second part of evaluation is the more informal evaluation that is done on a regular basis by the managers. So this was about the introduction section of Performance Management. We will dig more deep into this topic in the further videos. Thank you. 2. What should we assess?: Hi everyone. Let's move on to an important question related to the performance management system. And that is when we talk of evaluation of the employees in the last stage. The question is, what do you think we should? Should be assessed on the basis of traits? Should be assessed on the basis of competencies or behaviors, should be assessed on the basis of results. For example, should a salesperson S's on the basis of his, Identify the physical or psychological characteristics of a person, such as being honest, being ambitious, being creative, et cetera. Or should a salesperson, the S's on the competencies or behaviors. Their competencies are typically defined as a combination of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can be reliably measured and that can be shown to differentiate performance. Bishop Bill observable behaviors to avoid biases or gut feeling. Observable behaviors are very important. For example, you should be attentive to customers needs even during your busy periods. Continually improving relationships with customers by focusing individualized attention. You should be taking ownership of customer issues by actively seeking ways to improve customer service. Should a salesperson, the Ss, on the basis of results. That is, the number of sales made, something like that. Now, different people have different views. Many believed that result is the main thing. Many believed that it, relevant traits are there or relevant competencies of behaviors are dead, then that person will be able to achieve the reserves. Another point to support this view is that nowadays, especially with startups, the pings are highly dynamic and it is difficult to foresee the business Exactly and set the targets for the employee. Hence, assessing on the basis of relevant traits or competencies makes more sense. But an important point to highlight here is that the trade or competencies chosen should be in line with the job glue. Between traits and competencies. Competencies is a preferred one as it gives purely defined behavior indicators and produces the dependency on gut feeling. For example, if you want to assess the person on the trade of honesty, then different people might have different views. But if you ask them if they noticed specific behaviors and not in this case of competency, their biases is reduced. But you can combine all three as well. It totally depends on organization to organizations. In the next video, we will talk about performance management and performance appraisals and the difference between B's dumps. So stay tuned. Thank you. 3. Performance Appraisal: Hi everyone. In this video we will talk about performance management as well as performance appraisal. And the difference between the two. Performance management is not just performance a prison. It is sometimes assumed that performance appraisal is the same thing as performance management, but there are significant differences. Let's talk about them. Performance appraisal can be defined as the formal assessment are raping of individuals by their managers and HR. At usually an annual review meeting. It is the evaluate or review part that we discussed before. Remember, Performance Appraisal is usually referred to as a formal evaluation done by EHRs and managers who once a year usually to decide on financial rewards. It is different from the evaluation or review done by managers on a regular and informal basis. In contrast, performance management is a continuous and much wider, more comprehensive, and more natural process of management. Which includes planning, removing obstacles, tracking, and then the oppressor. Performance appraisal has been discredited because too often it has been operated as a top-down and largely bureaucratic system owned by the HR department rather than by line managers. It was often backward-looking, concentrating on what had gone wrong, rather than looking forward to future development needs. Performance appraisal schemes exist in isolation. There was little or no link between them and the needs of the business. Line managers have frequently rejected performance appraisal schemes as being time-consuming and irrelevant. Employees have recently, the superficial nature with prisoners have been conducted by managers who lacked the skills required. Hence, to summarize IT, performance appraisal is an important element of the performance management system. Performance appraisal is also called as performance evaluation and involves discussing the performance with the concerned employees. Big organizations usually do Performance Appraisal or performance review once or twice a year. Both are very important functions and if not done properly then might demotivate the stuff. There are different approaches or purposes of appraisals. We'll discuss two major approaches, which are assessment functions and developmental functions. Let's talk about each of them. Assessment functions, it include use of performance, appraisal for salary administration, promotion, decisions, retention, domination decisions, recognition of individual performance and identification of poor performance. To conduct this evaluative function, the appraiser takes the role of the judge. Evaluated functions focused primarily on differentiating between people. Whereas developmental functions include the identification of individual training needs, providing performance feedback, identification of individual strengths and weaknesses. For this developmental function, the appraiser takes the role of a coach or mentor. Developmental functions focused primarily on within person analysis. The focus is nowadays moving towards the developmental functions. Thank you. 4. Key characteristics: Hi everyone. In this video we will talk about the key characteristics that should be there in the performance management system. So let's get started with the first key characteristic, which is it defined expectations? Clearly. It is easy to understand and implement. It includes both positive feedback and constructive critique. It includes a two-way discussion on goals and how to achieve them. Keeps organisations and individuals happy. It involves continuous feedback. It improves relationships between managers and employees. It accurately portrays employee performance. It develops employee or T2 formers and capabilities to effective feedback and coaching. It provides a basis for financial or non-financial decisions. And it drives actions in line with the organization's goals. Now, the performance management system is a growing system. And many companies are moving from the traditional performance management system to the everyday performance management. Let's understand what we mean by these. So let's look at this graph to see the differences between traditional performance management and everyday performance monitoring, which has been new form. So if you see in the traditional performance management VC activity, when in the beginning of the cycle while girls are being set. And twice at the end of the cycle, while reviews are being done. And decisions are being made, mostly for financial rewards. But Performance Management, which the companies are moving towards now, has more frequency of reactivity peaks and they are consistent and at regular intervals. In the traditional performance management, focus is more on the process and not the people. It is Sloman and event-driven. It is seen as a separate form of loop. And it has a three to five. The impact on performance. On the other hand, in everyday performance management and the focus is on people, not on the process. It is informal and ongoing. As you can see from the more frequency of thinks, it is integrated with work and it has up to 39% impact on performance. So we have seen what the traditional performance management look like and also seen how it is now moving towards everyday performance management. To summarize all these, what we studied in this module. Performance management system is a very broad, complicated, and strategic function of HR. It includes activities such as sipping expectations, communicating through the stuff, reviewing progress, feedback, and rewarding or punishing the world. In other words, it's not a one-to-one step, but a continuous process of identifying, measuring, and developing the performance of individuals and themes, strategy and goals of the organization will talk about key concepts or strategies on performance system management. You can imply multiple concepts while designing performance management for your company or for your team. Thank you. 5. SMART Goal setting: Hi everyone. In this session, we will talk about key concepts or strategies in performance management system. You can apply multiple concepts while defining performance management for your company. Or 14. So let's get started and we'll start with goal-setting. And this gums with a quick activity in which you have to write goals of your life. You have two minutes to do this. You can just pause the video and utilize your two-minute to write the goal of your life. Usual answers can be, suppose I want to get rich. I want to have a big house. I want to be happy, I want to be successful, or I want to be a good human. Now you all must be wondering, okay, how our goals should be. Ok. Great. We'll talk about smart goals setting German now. So what does a smart goal setting? You're smart is an acronym. Ok, so your objectives should be smart. That is, S. S is for specific. So the goal should tell exactly what the employers should be able to do. So for example, area of focus will be training and development. Instead of being general and saying that we will talk about HR. Grass Jackie field, goal of life is a specific or not. For example, if we're talking about becoming rich than the specific, How much money do you expect? If you say you want to be happy, then what do you mean by that? Just be specific. Then MS1 measurable. Your goals should be measurable. That is, performance can be measured. It should be clear if the goal was met. We're not. Usually a number can be attached to an objective to make it measurable. For example, you have to send 200 cards every quarter. Now, the goal here is measurable and can find out if the employee or you sold 200 cars in the quarter or not, then we have a as attainable goals should be available. It should not be either too tough or too easy. If it's too often, this may make the employee feel overstressed and they may end up under-performing. They might get the feeling that the company is exploiting them. On the other hand, if they are too easy, then the employee might not feel much intrusted or motivated in doing that. Hence, it should be attainable and slightly higher than the potential of the employees so that they remain motivated and keep on improving too. Then we have R as relevant, relevant to the needs of the participant and the organization. For example, controlling attrition is something which is relevant to an organization. So just think our goals of your life relevant. For example, you have to watch all the movies of Tom Cruise enforced day fascial venue are actually planning to cover some government exams. So sure your goals of watching movies of Tom Cruise isn't relevant. D, t is for time print. Goal should be timeframe. You should choose a reasonable period of time to achieve your objectives. This is a very common mistake. People do. This acts as a guideline and also helps to assess whether the person is able to achieve its goal or not. This was the forced strategy and performance management system, the smart goal setting. We'll talk about next strategy in the next video. Thank you. 6. KRAs and KPIs: The next strategy in performance management system is GREs and KPIs. You will do are very frequently about these domes. They are very common. Now, beginning with what our GREs, GREs or a key result, area in simple terms, may be defined as the core area for which a person is accountable. Example for HR, human resource managers, training and development, recruitment, employee retention, or payroll processing. Now, what our KPI? It stands for Key Performance Indicators that has indicators of performance. How you will be measuring the performance. For example, measuring seals done by a salesperson in assessing his or her performance. This is a sample example for HR manager. Let's start with the recruitment. This is a key IRA or responsibility. He'll give me i is average time to close the position. Target is 60 calendar days, but the employee is able to do it in average of 75 days. Next, we have to calculate the score. Here. It is 60 by 75, which comes out to be 80. Now, this has a weightage of 20, hence, v will take 20% of AD, which is 16. You can pause the video and analyze the rest part of the theories. We'll talk about more strategies in the next video. Thank you. 7. Checklist method: Hi, nixes, a checklist method. In this method, the assessors given a list of cautions about the Junior, these cushions are followed by checkboxes to superior has to put a tick mark in any of the boxes. This method is extremely simple method and doesn't involve a lot of time. So let us see few examples. Example one is irregular. On-the-job, is willing to help colleagues talk will likely with a guest. Properly explained the product has leadership qualities, has analytical skills, and example number two, give complete attention to detail, has complete knowledge of the product, walk well with the teams. Big initiative has creative approach to problem solving. So this was checklist method. Thank you. 8. Critical Incidents Method: Hi, next is critical incident method. In this method, all the critical or important incident which have taken place on the job are noted down along with the employee's behavior and reaction in all these situations, both positive and negative incident I mentioned. This is followed by analysis of the person, his abilities and talents, recommendations for the future incentives and promotion to under this method, the manager prepares a log of critical incident that occurred during the job. And the list of effective and ineffective behavior of an employee. At the end of rating method, these recorded critical incidents are used in the evaluation of workers performance. So let us see few examples. To example one, on 12 March 2019, or customer angrily storm into the shop complaining about the product P ordered was damaged. The sales executive, Mr. Francis, patiently listened to the complaint and promptly replaced it, apologizing for the customer's inconvenience. And then we have on 20th, March 2009, the sales clerk, Mr. Sam, went on a leave during the festive season during which 80% of the sales happened. He provided no logical reasons or the leave and stop responding to the phone calls. So these were a few of the examples of how a critical incident you August maintained. What are the advantages and what are the disadvantages? So let us see the advantages first, this method provides an objective basis for conducting a thorough discussions of an employee's performance. This methods avoid recency bias as it is maintained timely. And then what are the limitations? So negative incident may be more noticeable than the positive incident. It results in a very close supervision which may not be liked by employ. And the recording of incident will consume a lot of time. So that was about DOE Critical Incident Method. Thank you. 9. ADC: Next strategy in performance management system is Assessment Development Center. Adc. And Assessment Development Center has following characteristics. It must measure multiple competencies. It must use multiple techniques or methods or test. It must have multiple assessors. Hence, It's a sophisticated raping process which is designed to minimize as many forms of potential rate bias as possible. And to ensure that each participant is given equal opportunity to demonstrate ability across a range of standardized situations. You can use it only for assessment or only for development or for both. Here. That's an example of multiple tests can be conducted to check for multiple competencies. Just have a look and try to analyze. So this was an example of ADC and it helps reduce bias. Now, talking about advantages of ADC, readers, personal biases reduced as the employees are evaluated by a team of trained evaluators under similar conditions. Here, disadvantages include assessment center is a time-consuming and expensive method. So this was about the Assessment Development Center, the ADC strategy of performance management system. Thank you. 10. BARS: The next strategy in performance management system is behaviorally anchored rating scales or bars. You know what our reading skills. This is an example of a rating scheme. Now sometimes you must have seen that words are used to give meaning to numbers such as very poor, poor, average, good, or excellent. These are all ways of using the rating scales. Now, bars is also reading field as the name suggest, but they don't use simple words to define the ratings, but they give examples of properly defined segregated behaviors to define corresponding readings. Now, let's look at some points about the bars technique. Bars evaluate behavior of employees and give a specific ratings. The ratings can be numerical, such as 1-2-3, or use words such as poor, average, good, excellent, et cetera. And for each of these readings are specific sets of behaviors are attached. So specific sets of behaviors are anchored to specific sets of readings, hence the name behaviorally anchored rating scale. Now, talking about the pros and cons of, but it lets the employee know which type of behaviors are expected of them. This is one of the pros of bars. Another process is it gives appraisers the oppurtunity to provide behaviorally based feedback. Now, talking about the cons of bars. Difficulty raters experienced when trying to select more than one behavior on the ski. This is one of the gans of bars. This entire process of designing a bar scale starts with generating a list of critical incidents are specific examples of poor, average and excellent behaviors that are related to assault end job. Let's talk about a quick example where we have to read a nurse. Situations can be all these sometimes nars, fields to follow doctor's orders of an impatient with patient, doesn't always follow hospital SOPs. Second situation can be always follows doctor's orders. Occasionally impatient with patients, rarely miss hospitals. Sops toward part can be always follow doctor's orders, never impatient with patients. Always follow hospitals SOPs. So here you can rate the nurse accordingly according to the situations, according to the world's bars let employees know which types of behavior are expected of them and gives appraisers the opportunity to provide behaviourally based feedback, as I just told you in the cross section. So this was about burst behaviorally anchored rating scales, but of the strategy of performance management system. Thank you. 11. BSC: Hi everyone. So in this video we'll talk about balanced scorecard. The balanced scorecard for BSC helps you break down the key areas of your business or your business perspectives. Their activities need to be monitored. The four perspectives that needs to be imbalanced. Our financial perspective, customer perspective, internal business process perspective, and learning and growth perspective. These four key areas of your business are intertwined and all must be aligned. Then one is impacted, there is impact on another two. In another words, there will be a trade-off. So basically what we are trying to say is that the evaluate the employee's performance, keeping these four aspects in mind so that it leads to overall growth of the organization. Let's understand why the balanced scorecard is a good strategy for performance appraisal. Just imagine you're the pilot of a plane. Now to accomplish the complex task of navigating and flying an airplane, you need detailed information about many aspects, such as fuel, air speed, altitude, destination, and many other indicators that tell you about the current and predicted environment. Relying only on anyone of these can be fettered, right? Similarly, to accomplish the complex task of managing an organization, managers and need to be able to view performance in different areas simultaneously. Relying on just one aspect may prove fatal for the growth of the organization. For example, you cannot say that the company only needs to provide the best customer experience. And it is okay if the company is running in losses. Or that learning and development of the employees is important even if the customers are unhappy with the product and services the company provides. And I'm sure you understand this. Maintaining a balance in all the four mentioned key areas of business is really very important. So the balance scorecard helps to look at businesses from four important perspectives. And it provides answers to four basic questions. How do we look to shareholders? How do customers see us? What must we excel act? And can we continue to improve and create value? Now, if you see all these four perspectives are very important for an organization's success. Talking about the advantages for Balanced Scorecard, it improves the communication within the organization and provide a feeling of togetherness among employees. Now talking about the disadvantages for Balanced Scorecard, it increases the number of performance indicators which can be confusing for the employees. And it is very difficult to manage all the four perspective and create a required balance. So this was about Balanced Scorecard. Thank you. 12. MBO: Hi everyone. So the next strategy is management by objective. The term management by objective was forced on by management guru Peter Drucker. Here, objectives cascade down through the organization. That is, the organization's overall objectives are translated into specific objectives for each succeeding level in the organization, divisional, departmental, and individual. A second key differentiating factor is the participative management aspect of MBO are agreed by the employees and the managers. In theory, this approach results in employees who not only have a clearer understanding of expectations, but greater buy-in. Mbo management by objectives, methods of performance appraisals are result oriented. Ones that objective is agreed. The employee is usually affected or expected to self audit. That is, to identify the skills needed to achieve the objective. Typically, they do not rely on others to locate and specify their strengths and weaknesses. They are expected to monitor their own development and progress. The objective set should be challenging, yet achievable. Both managers and employees should review past performance and pinpoint the problems. The information acquired then should be used to address organizational goals and the needs. Mbo evaluate employees on how well they accomplish a specific set of objectives that have been determined to be critical in the successful completion of the job. Management by objectives, or MBOs, is a management strategy that uses this mod goals, methods setting objectives that are specific, measurable, achievable, or attainable, realistic, and time-based. Now, this example to understand MBO strategy. Here, objective is 400 sales calls, but the person is able to achieve 3-6 only variances, 360 by 400 into 100, which is equal to 90%. Similarly, you can do or you can solve for remaining. So this was MBO management by objectives management strategy in performance management. Thank you. 13. Multi Source: Multi-source appraisal. As the name suggests, appraisal is done by more than one person. There are many variations to it. Let's discuss few. 360 degree appraisal method and 720 degree appraisal method. Beginning with 360 degree appraisal MXML. Here, performance evaluation done using information obtained from managers, peers, and directory bodies. This could be done anonymously. This method involves the appraisal receiving feedback from people whose views are considered helpful and relevant. Hence, p 60 Degree Feedback appraisal is a powerful developmental method and is quite different compared to the traditional manager subordinate appraisals. The appraisal should also assess himself or herself using the same feedback instrument or form. Now, talking about 720 degree appraisal method in this lecture wherein the assessment is done not only by the stakeholders within the company, but also from the groups outside the organization. These external groups who assist the employee's performance, our customers, investors, suppliers, and other financial institutions. It is one of the most crucial modern methods of performance appraisal because this is the only group that determines the success of the organization as a whole. Hence, this provides a more accurate and comprehensive evaluation of an individual. Talking about advantages of multisource appraisal. This system is more comprehensive as responses are gathered from multiple perspectives. Level of biasness is also less as feedback is received from many persons. Feedback from peers and others may increase employee self-development. In that feedback could be gathered, especially when they are anonymous. Sometimes people are not able to share on the face. Now, disadvantages of multisource appraising. The system is complex and combining all the responses and appraisers may not take it seriously if their evaluations are anonymous. Let's take an example here. This is an example for superior appraisal from this form may be used to evaluate a supervisor, team leader, manager, etc.. Please help us then competing this anonymous appraisals so that we can improve the leadership quality within the company. Now, how to evaluate it? Please complete this one, place it in a sealed envelope and put it in the suggestion box. In order to complete the anatomy of this bomb, please do not sign it or put your name on it. Mentioned name of supervisor to be reviewed. Mentioned the name of department or branch. Now, quickly telling you about the ratings King. There. One represents unsatisfactory. To represent Pool. Three is DOM does bad. Pole represents good. And 5B presents exceptional or excellent. You can rate people according to these given numbers or the words. So this was about the multisource strategy. Thank you. 14. OKR: Hi everyone. In this video we will talk about objectives and key results or, okay, are. In the early 2 thousand, Google adopted the use of an adjacent goal-setting approach called Objectives and Key Results, which was originally developed at Intel. The process of OKR entails that everyone within the company sets objectives and defines good results that are quantifiable and will help to achieve those objectives. The key results must be specific, measurable, and verifiable. If all key results are achieved, the objective is obtained. Okrs are set quarterly for the individual. What an individualist working on, team, specific priorities for the dean, not the bucket of all personal OKRs and company. The big picture and top-level focus for the entire company. 11. Google's CEO sets OKRs for the company at the beginning of each quarter. Triggering all employees within Google to make sure their own personal and team OKRs roughly sync with Google's. The phone deliberately sets ambitious goals, believing that if they achieve all of them the goals and not put aggressively enough. At Google, all individual and team OPR are visible on Google's intranet. This way, employers can find out what their coworkers and other teams are doing. By making goals visible, employs and teams are more responsible about the goals they set. And managers can expect teams to be thoughtful contributors to the community. The main goal of OKRs to connect company deem and individual goals and make people move together in the right direction. Hence, OKRs provide focus and United teams behind a single strategy. This methodology has revolutionized goal-setting and has become the standard for aligning company goals with the employee goals for the world's best performing companies including LinkedIn, Amazon, oracle, Crito, BMW, and many others. So talking about objectives in OKRs, It's a qualitative headline of what you want to accomplish. It's the title, that means a set or a group of usually one or three key results. So talking about objectives in OKRs at this qualitative headline of what you want to accomplish, it's the title back names a set, or a group of usually one to three key reserves. Google's adjust use expressions that convey endpoints and states. For example, climb the mountain, eat 55, ship feature y, et cetera. Telling quickly about the key results. Vicki doesn't resemble KPIs, key performance indicators. A key result is owned by the individual who is assigned the objective. The TR is updated only by the individual who owns the objective that is measured by the TR. In many cases at the senior level, executive levels, group levels, and team levels, you will not see key, this is key results will typically only be seen at the bottom level. Google suggest key results should describe outcomes and not activities. To quickly summarize it, it starts with top corporate objectives, which are then cascaded to department or team OKRs. The resulting Department, team and individual OKRs must be aligned with the top company priorities. In an OPR implementation, the objective is qualitative and answers the question of what is to be accomplished. Objectives are supported by Pterosaurs, which benchmarks and monitors how we achieve the objective. Now, quickly mentioning few examples. Let's take example of PR. Their objective is to increase the brand awareness. And P results would be having 15 media calls or meetings, having team meetings with key industry influencers, securing one speaker at the annual industry conference. Another objective can be creating an amazing corporate culture where key results would be launching buggy programs, creating clarity of all departments and teams, wire clear OKR goals, and maintaining employee satisfaction score of eight plus. So this was about the objectives and key results. This was about the OKR strategy. Thank you. 15. Bell Curve method: Hi everyone. So the next strategy is forced distribution or bell curve. The forced distribution method of performance evaluation derives its name from the fact that those responsible for providing evaluations, the Raiders are forced to distribute readings for the individuals being evaluated into a pre-specified performance distribution. The expectations of a bell curve would be something like excellent is 10%, good. Israeli percent average is 40%, below average is 20% and unsatisfactory is 10%. This is because it is believed maximum people fall in the range of average. Very few are extremely good and very few are extremely poor. Hence, they get the shape of Belgo. Also in order to avoid the tendency amongst the reader to read most of the employees at the higher end of the scale or at the lower end of the skin. This method was developed. Kill the evaluator is compelled to distribute the employees on all points on the skin. In this method, the appraiser is forced to appraise the appraiser according to the pattern of the normal curve. For example, let's say in a group of 20 employees, you would have to be placed in the low category for, in the below average data, getting it in the average for above-average. And two would be pleased in the highest category. The proportions of forced distribution can vary. So this was about bell-curve and forced distribution. Thank you. 16. Psychological and Psychometric tests: Hi everyone. In this session we will talk about psychological and psychometric tests. In this method, clinically approved psychological and psychometric tests are conducted to identify and appraise the employing. A feedback is given to the employee and the areas of improvement are identified. This is one of the most uninteresting and intuitive appraisal methods. This method assist the employees potential for future performance rather than their past one. It focuses on employees emotional, intellectual, and other personal characteristics affecting his or her performance. It usually measures cognitive intelligence, social intelligence like how to build rapport or interpersonal skills. Emotional intelligence. That is how you manage your emotions, for example, stress and anger management. And then entrepreneurial intelligence, where we use resources smartly or jugar or streets mode. This method suits the best for the workforce today. Employers now are quite vulnerable and often fallen a bit while balancing their work and personal life. This method understand that aspect and allows employees to shine in the future. Psychological and psychometric appraisals are conducted to assess the future potential of the employees. Build organizations generally employ full-time industrial psychologist for the bogus. Usually the appraisals consists of written tests, interviews, and discussions with the immediate supervisors. The psychologists prepares his report on the above state characteristics of employees. The report messages to or predict the employees future performance. This will help in taking decisions regarding employees career planning and development, training, placement, etc.. This method is particularly useful when determining the hidden potential of employees because it focuses on evaluating and employs future performance rather than the results of their fast walk. The tools should be in sync with the job requirements. Remember that? So this was about psychological and psychometric tests. Thank you. 17. BOS: Hi, the next strategy is behavior observation scale. Pos. A behavior observation scale contains a list of behaviors relevant to jobs which are assessed based on the frequency with which they occur. The development BUS like bars, also begins with exports generating critical incidents for the jobs in the organization. And categorizing these incidents in two dimensions. Then using behavioral observation scale B OS and appraiser rate's job performance by indicating the frequency with which the employee engages in each behavior. A multipoint scale can be used, ranging from almost never, do almost always. An overall reading is derived by adding the employes gold on each behavioral item. A high score means that an individual frequently engages in those behaviors. And a low score means that an individual does not often engage in those behaviors. Like bars, BUS as effective and directing employs behavior because it specifies what they need to do in order to receive high performance ratings. Managers can also effectively use BLS to monitor behavior and give feedback and specifying behavioural terms so that the employees know what they are doing right? And WIC behavior needs to be corrected. Like bars are below S instrument takes a great deal of time to develop. Say for an example, a doctor indicates with skill points, best, describe the nurses. Let's say the condition is following doctor's orders. Their grading is from one to five, where one indicates almost never. And five indicates almost always. Again, the condition is following hospital SOPs. The rating is again from one to five, where one indicates almost never reaches the nars, never follows hospital SOPs. And then five indicates almost always, the nurse always follows hospital SOPs. Same goes for the Toward condition which is making patient comfortable. The scale head also ranges from one to 51 is almost level, where five is almost always. So this was about behavior observation scale. Thank you.