Painting the Eye | Kristy Gordon | Skillshare

Playback Speed

  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

7 Lessons (1h 7m)
    • 1. Introduction to Eye Painting Class

    • 2. Materials

    • 3. Construction of the Eye

    • 4. Color Mixing Lesson

    • 5. Eye Painting: Brush Techniques

    • 6. Eye Painting: Color Lay In

    • 7. Eye Painting: Refinements

  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels
  • Beg/Int level
  • Int/Adv level

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.





About This Class

In this class you will learn to create a well-structured painting of the eye with convincing colors. We will begin by discussing the construction of the eye, to get accurate structure in the underpainting. Then we will move to color and concentrate how to mix colors and how to add details like the highlights and eyelashes. You can use any medium you like in this course. I will be doing the demo in oils and will provide a suggested supplies list for those interested in using oils.  By the end of the course you’ll have a painting of the eye that you’re proud of as well as a solid understanding of how to render the eye which you can carry into all your future paintings! The class will include a demonstrations, discussions and individual instruction. The beginner will learn fundamental principles such as how to mix colors and render form modeling. The more advanced student will discover how to take their work to the next level and achieve the finish that they desire.

Check out my other classes:

Portrait Painting from a Photo: Underpainting (part 1)

Portrait Painting from a Photo: Color (part 2)

Portrait Painting with a Full Palette

Glazing and other Paint Application Techniques

Composition in Art

How to Paint a Baby in Oils

Painting the Portrait in Profile

How to Paint the Flesh Tones

Contemporary Portrait Painting

Painting the Eye

Drawing Facial Expressions: Determined Eyes

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Kristy Gordon

New York Based Artist And Teacher


Kristy Gordon has twelve years of experience teaching and conducting painting workshops, lectures and classes throughout North America. She is an adjunct professor at the New York Academy of Art and has taught at numerous schools and academies including the National Academy in NYC, and The Academy of Realist Art in Ottawa and Boston. Gordon has exhibited her work in solo and group exhibitions throughout Canada, the United States, Europe and China. Her work has earned numerous awards including the Elizabeth Greenshields Foundation Grant and an Exceptional Merit Award from the Portrait Society of America. She has been widely featured in magazines, art publications, radio and television shows, including International Artist, Fine Art Connoisseur, The Artist’s Magazine, Southwest Art ... See full profile

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
  • Exceeded!
  • Yes
  • Somewhat
  • Not really
Reviews Archive

In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.


1. Introduction to Eye Painting Class: I'm Christie Gordon and I've been a full-time artist since 2004. I've shown my work in exhibitions across Europe and North America, and taught drawing and painting classes at schools like the New York Academy of Art and the National Academy in New York. In this class I'm going to show you how to paint the eye using a wet into wet alla prima technique. We'll start by discussing the construction of the eye and then I'll show you how to apply those principles in the initial under painting. There'll be lots of shots of my palette that'll show you exactly how I'm mixing the colors that I'm using as we move to color lay in. I'll show you how to describe the different planes that make up the eye socket and the surrounding area of the eye, as well as how to add details like eyelashes and I highlights. I'll provide the same photo that I'm using so you'll be able to work along with me in this class. So let's get started. 2. Materials: So in terms of the materials I'm working on, this glass gray palette by New Wave and glass palettes are really nice because you can mix on them, paint with them, and then scrape it off at the end with like a razor blade. And then I really like the gray pallets or wood pallets to because it actually helps with mixing. It's more similar to the color of your painting. So it's easier to mix the tones on a gray or a word palate than it is a white palette. And as far as the colors that I'll be using, I'm using a slightly more limited palette than I usually use. I've just removed the yellows and the greens from the palate to just simplify for the flesh tones that we'll be using. So basically we've got some premix colors over here, which I'll show you and talk about more in a sec. And then I've just got the pure oil pigments. I'm using Lucas paints from Jerry's arts drama. There are really high-quality paint and they're also like, by far the most inexpensive that I found. So I really like them. And so I've got Titanium white, cadmium orange. This is actually naps all red because there's alizarin, permanent yellow, ocher, burnt sienna, and ultramarine blue. This is actually a Prussian blue. You can kind of see if I mix, it looks black at first, but if you mix a bit of white and you can see, and it's a really rich, saturated blue. It's really beautiful. I've just recently added that to my palette. Then we've got Mars Black. And so in terms of the premix colors, that will do this 1 first, this is what I referred to as my base shadow mixture. So you can see proportionally more cadmium orange and just a little bit of ultramarine blue. That's this one, not the Prussian blue. And I'll just mix it up. We'll see if the proportions are right. But basically it mixes to a greenish brown. And then I've got, I've recently added pink to my palette. So I'm using some of the naphthalene ring, which is mixes to a really nice pinkish color. Pink out of the tube is shockingly expensive, so you can just mix it up this way. I find it really useful to have this color on my palette. And I'm just using a palette knife to kind of mix up the colors. I'm wiping my palette knife in-between with a blue shop towel. The next color is a mid-tone gray. So mid-tones kinda like the color of my palette. I'm using a bunch of white and just a little bit of Mars Black. Just mix that up. It should be like a mid-tone. So I creep up on the amount of black because the black can be a really intense pigment so you don't want to start with too much. And once you mix it up, you can tell whether you need to add more. Actually, that's about the color that I do like it to be. It's, it's a little later than this palette, but that's, that's an array. And then the next one is a blue, blue mixtures, what I call it. It's a lot of white. It's a little bit less of the ultramarine. And then the next one will be kind of what I call like my base flesh color. And actually this color will work for all skin tones. It's just a base that will be tinting in various ways for various different shadow effects, et cetera. And basically it's made up with titanium white, so a lot of white, a little cadmium orange, and just a teeny tiny, tiny bit of this blue mixture. So we'll just mix that in. And again, kind of creep up on the amount of blue mixture. It can get really desaturated. It if you add too much. So you can always add more, but just start with like less than you think. And I'll it so make sure you use enough orange for this. I like to have this base, the so-called base flesh color. A little bit on the dark side because it's really easy to add white as you're working, but it's a little bit harder to deepen the color as you go. So this looks a little too saturated. I'll mix a teeny bit more of the blue mixture and the blue extra basically just d saturates the hotness of the orange. So that basically shows you the palette I'll be using and I'll be working on this JSR board today by ampersand. And this is an amazing surface to work on. It's not too slick, It's got a little bit of truth to it. And today I'll be working on an eight by 10 panel. And for my medium, I'll be using this walnut alkyd medium. I really like when an alkyd medium because it has what's called a secretive effect, which means that it helps the paint dry a little bit quicker. But you can also just use linseed oil. In terms of the brushes I'm using, I'll be using a range of two to 12 sized bright brushes from trachoma. I've actually got a brush set put together for you guys, for anyone who wants to get a new set of brushes. Some of them are bright, so you have this square tips top. And the thing that I really love about that is that you can use the leg wide part of the brush to get like a wide stroke or you can use the narrow part of the brush to get a very thin line. Or you can use the corner of it to get like a little dot c. You can get like really detailed with this brush. And they've got like a nice spring to them, but they're also synthetic so they're fairly soft so they don't leave Lake, granular sort of strokes. And then I also have these filbert and I use them a lot for blending. And you'll see in the videos, they just don't. There's a, there's a couple of different sizes, a smaller one and a medium-sized one. And they're just really nice for blending and, and that sort of thing. And then I also have this one. I just have one leg very small, round, which is good for like the most extreme sort of a detail work. And then lastly, I also have these prints to grain or brushes. They're not included on the said. These can be a little bit difficult to find. Sometimes art stores actually have them, so check the art store near you. And they're called graders because it's like wood grain. They have some long hairs and some short hairs. So they make like a lot of little lines like side-by-side, so they're really good for hair and eye lashes. I've got a three quarter inch one. This is a half-inch one and sometimes I'll even have a quarter inch one for doing leg, especially like eyelashes. So to get those the best way is probably to go on Amazon and I'll include a link to that and you can just order them on Amazon. So these are separate from the brush set. So get your materials together and let's get started. 3. Construction of the Eye: Before we begin, let's start by taking a look at the construction of the eye. So print out this handout and trace along with me. And that way you'll get like a kinetic feel for the things that I'm discussing. So we'll start by looking at this front-facing eye that shows the construction more clearly. And you can see this line here basically represents the axis that the eye tilts either in towards the nose. The nose in this drawing is sort of on this side. Or sometimes we'll slope away from the nose. So in this case it's kinda like a CAT II type of effect to our, the tear duct is lower than the outer corner of the eye. And then from there you'll construct the upper eyelid with two angled straight lines, with the apex favoring in towards the nose. And then the lower eyelid can be constructed with two angled straight lines with the apex favoring away from the nose. So you get this kind of skewed rhombus kind of effect. And then the upper eyelid, you can sort of use three angled straight lines to break down that curve. And to describe the lower eyelid. Sort of two angled straight lines on the outer edge of the eye, the eyebrow two can be constructed with two angled straight lines with the apex favoring away from the nose. By doing that, you're going to avoid having this curved generalized eyebrow and instead get a more structured look to the brow. And then the iris, which is the colored part of the eye, is fairly large and it takes up half of the white of the eye. So you can see that if you were to break up the white of the eye, it kind of put both pieces of the weight of the eye together. It would make about the same distance horizontally as the ironist. And then the pupil changes in size depending on the amount of light coming in to the eyeball. And the whole iris is covered at the top by the upper eyelid. So you can see, you're not seeing the whole circle, you know, all the way to the top. That would give a really kind of staring, sort of looked to the eye. And instead it looks more relaxed because it's partially covered at the top. And we'll come back to some details in this in a second. But we'll start by just noticing how there's a sort of rounding out effect of these angled straight lines that we discussed in this initial drawing. So you can kinda see how this curve can kind of be summarized by 3 certain angles. And that gives it more structure, more of a clarity to the shape of the curve. And again, you can kind of see how this curve, it's, it could be broken down into two angled straight lines that we talked about. And in the lower eyelid, this, these two angled straight lines here get really rounded out, especially on the outer edge, where it really rounds and wraps around the eyeball. And then we have this little light rim of thickness on showing on the lower eyelid. So it's just this little light ledge on the upper plane of the lower eyelid. And then you've got sort of normally slightly darker front plane at a slight definition to the edge of the lower eyelid. And then the eyelashes curve and criss cross over each other and kind of wrap off of the line of the upper eyelid. And then the light source, which in this drawing is represented by this arrow here. The light source in this drawing is coming this way, so it's cutting down on the eye. And so at the upper eye we get a cast shadow coming down onto the whole eye. And so it's overlapping the white of the eye casting on the way the eye it's casting on the iris. And then if we look at the profile of the eye, the upper eyelid is constructed by these angled straight lines. It's almost like a triangle, but it's open at the bottom. So it's a big red shape. And then it crosses over the lower eyelid. And again we see that little light ledge, the little thickness, which is usually light on the upper edge of the lower eyelid and then a front plane. And then we've got the iris, which is a very narrow oval. It's covered at the top by the upper eyelid. And the interesting thing is that from the profile, you can also see the cornea, which is this clear dome that sits in front of the iris and the pupil. And then also the upper eyelid has more height. See if you kind of look at the height that's made up of the upper eyelid and then the height that's made of the lower eyelid. There. There's more height to the upper eyelid. So if you were to imagine, if we say, if we have our iris, which is an oval in ellipse in perspective, and we bought the pupil right in the center and learn to extend that back right through the center. As we construct the upper eyelid. The upper eyelid crosses over the lower eyelid, lower than that center line. So yeah, again, there's more height to the upper eyelid. And then the other thing is that there's a certain angle created between the upper eyelid and the lower eyelid. So the upper eyelid has quite a bit of thickness and it sticks out quite a bit from the eye and the lower eyelid it wraps more tightly against the eyeball. So the upper eyelid sticks out further and creates a certain angle between its relationship to the lower eyelid and then extending off of the line of the upper eyelid, we get the eyelashes. And again, there's that little light ledge of thickness on the top plane of the lower eyelid. And then as we look at the eye in a three-quarter perspective, all of the same sort of principles apply. You can construct the eyebrows down into two angled straight lines. You can construct the upper eyelid into two angled straight lines and it curves into the eyelashes. And then the upper eyelid. Crease can be constructed with three angled straight lines. Again, the lower eyelid really wraps around, really curves at that outer edge as it wraps around the white of the eye. And the iris from a three-quarter view is an ellipse, so it's a circle and perspective. So it appears more like a sort of oval. And again, it's covered at the top by the upper eyelid. And there's the pupil which is also covered at the top. And you get a kind of cast shadow coming down onto the white of the eye and onto the pupil. Again got that little light rim of thickness that's showing the top plane of the lower eyelid. And I'd suggestion of the front plane of the lower eyelid as well. And then this just shows here how the pupil contracts in bright light and gets larger in dim light. And it often looks better if you kind of make the pupil just a little bit bigger and kind of use that cast shadow that comes down on the I to kind of connect to the pupil. And it just tends to look more relaxed, kind of set into place. A lot of time when we're painting a model and we have like a really bright light on the model, their pupil will get really small. And so just look a bit better if you kind of create a way to have that pupil connect to the cache shadow at the top of the upper eyelid. And then this drawing here, I just wanted to show you in more detail. So we've got the upper eyelid, we've got the iris in front of it sits the dome, the clear dome, which is the cornea. The cornea scoops outwards. But the interesting thing is that in fact the iris scoops inwards a little bit. So I wanted to show you how that applies in a sort of bowl shape. So again, this is a concave shape just like the iris. And I've got light coming from this direction, the upper left-hand side, just like the drawing that we were just looking at. And you can see you there in that case, the lightest part of the scoops he picks up on the lower area, on the right-hand side, the opposite side that the light sources coming from. And we get a cast shadow coming down on the top part of the iris. And so how that affects our final details is that as you discard the iris, and again, you'll get that in the late sources coming from the upper left like the bowl that I just showed you. Again, you'll get that cast shadow coming down at the top so the iris will be darker at the top. And then you'll actually get the lighter part of the iris showing in this lower right hand corner. Basically, whatever is opposite the direction of your light source. So that's where you might put just a little dash of lighter blue. If it's blue eyes are like lighter brown if it's brown eyes, that's where the kind of lighter crystalline kind of colored part of the I will show. And then the specular highlight basically catches on the apex of the cornea. So it's occurring on the same side of the light source and it occurs right at the edge of where the pupil meets the iris. Just that little white dot for hope that'll help you understand the construction of the eye. 4. Color Mixing Lesson: So before we get started, let's take a look at some of the principles of color mixing. So there's basically three things you should be asking yourself as you assess color. What's the tone with the hue and saturation? So tone basically means the lightness or darkness of a color. So on this grayscale value range, with one being like white and nine being black. Where would you place the overall light side on this tonal scale? So not the lightest note, but the sort of overall light side there. What tone would you roughly say? Yeah. Yeah. I kind of think that's about what I would think too. It's like it's definitely not that that's too dark. I would say it's like listening into parent, you know, somewhere around there sort of is that what everyone was kinda feeling? And then there's Q, which is like red or orange or green. It's like the color of the color. And then there's saturation, which is like the intensity of the color. If it's like neutral and light gray or if it's like really saturated, like orange and like brown would be like a sort of D saturated orange. Does everyone understand what I mean when I say desaturated or saturated? Yeah. So with the flesh colored ball, like in terms of the color like the hue, what do you think is closest to what it is like the hue, what hue? I think so too Exactly. So we know that it's kind of a light to middle tone and I think it's like an orange color. So let's start with some orange. And there's three, are basically four ways to desaturated color. So it's not that saturated, right? Like you can see that first of all, this is too dark tonally, right? Does everyone agree that looks too dark compared to that? It looks too saturated to write like really vibrant, really intense, that doesn't look nearly as vibrant and intense. So the different ways to desaturated color, one is adding white, just adding white desaturated color. Titanium White has a cooling effect when it's mixed with other colors too. So, you know, when it's mixed with this warm orange, it's going to sort of D saturate it. So yeah, adding white desaturated, adding black D saturates, adding brown D saturates because Brown's already kind of a desaturated orange and also adding a color that's opposite the color on the color wheel desaturate. So if we look at this color wheel here, see you just spin it around. So there's an arrow going through here. So if we look at Orange and then across the color wheel from orange is blue. So if you mix like a little bit of blue in that'll desaturated as well. And that's the kind of reasoning behind this color here is we've got the flesh color, which we've premixed and then we've got a blue that's mixed up to a similar tone that's actually in this case slightly darker, but it's close. Maybe it would be better if it was the same tone when you mix it. And so if you add a little bit of this blue to our orange skin tone. Blue and orange are opposite each other on the color wheel. So it'll desaturate the skin tone for places where you see the color being too saturated. And I won't adjust the tone so it'll keep it the same tone. So in this case, right now, let's start by just adding white. And you can see how already it doesn't look as saturated, right? So what do you think? Does that, what about the tone of that compared to this? Do What do you think? Visit to light to dark. Yeah. I think it's too dark too. Does everyone agree that it looks too dark? So let's add some more white. And we're going for the overall like the body of the lights and not like the lightest light, but sort of an overall note just like we do when we're doing like a color block in. So what do you guys think about the tone of that? Yeah, I think that's pretty good too. Let's just start by putting some of this on here. But what do you guys think about the saturation of this? Do you think it's the right saturation? Do we need to desaturate it more? Yeah, I think just like the smallest amount. So I'm just going to mix a little bit of gray in basically. Basically I've got, I've actually created this little value scale here, which I'll talk about more in a second, but it's basically white with a teeny tiny bit of black. And I'm just mixing that in there. So for like an overall light side, I think that this is pretty good. And when we go into the lightest light, I think we'll be able to see better. So I'm just going to draw the basic shape of our sphere here. And actually I'm going to show you after we do it this time, I'm going to do it again a different time with completely different colors and it's going to look exactly the same. So yeah, good question. And no, we could definitely have used the blue and it would look exactly the same. And it's like you might just makes a little less blue compared to the very small amount of gray that I mixed because the blue might have a stronger desaturating power than the graded. But you'll know that as you're mixing it. Yeah. So yeah, part of the goal of this lesson is to show you that you don't need to memorize a recipe for each thing. We can mix the same color like five different ways. So it's pretty cool. So let's go now into the shadow side of the top peer. This sort of warmer shadows sign at the top that you see over here on the right. What do you guys think in terms of tone like on this value scale? Yeah. Like maybe like these two, you mean? Yeah, I think so. Yeah. And the other thing is always flip your eye back and forth between the two things. It'll help you see the jump and tone better. So that's important. So yeah, I think it's, you know, it's it's a good amount darker than the light. And in terms of the color, what kind of colors do you see that top right-hand shadow side as being and it's pretty neutral. When a color is pretty neutral, it can be hard to see like what color it is and you could interpret it in multiple ways. Definitely less white. It's still do you think it's still kind of a little bit in the orange range, it's just like darker and more desaturated. Yeah, that's what I think too. And so something, you know, maybe we could try something like this. So the transparent red oxide, burnt sienna, might be a place to start. This is obviously way too saturated, right? But the tone will. What do you guys think about the tone? Yeah, it's pretty good. Maybe it's a little dark but we'll see it's hard. It's just so saturated, it's hard to know what do you think of it right now. So if we were looking at sort of getting it to be about this color and it needs to be DCE or this tone and it needs to be desaturated. I've mixed this sort of value range here. I'm just going to take from some of the gray that's kind of in that middle area. Start by mixing it in. It might also be easier for us to see when we put it on the canvas. So when I put it on the canvas, now I can see more clearly that it looks too dark actually. To me, compare it to the right side when I'm squinting. And so I think you're right. I think the orange is going to be good. I think orange is lighter in tone anyways. And it's kinda staying in the orange range. So let's add some orange. Let's even add like a little bit of this lighter flesh color stuff just to lighten it a little bit more. And then it's like we make our best shot at it and then try it. The painting that's a good basic color lay in. And so let's go into the bottom and see how that affects things. So what do you guys think of this bottom plane? And the shadows reflect their environment. So since this is sitting on a gray pedestal, it's reflecting the pedestal. So what do you guys see in terms of the tone? What tone like if the light's was here, the darker shadows here. What do you think of that bottom plane on a sphere? The middle one, right? Yeah. It's kinda like it goes light, medium, dark. Right. And then what about the color of that bottom plane down here? Exactly. Sake. Would you say it's a kind of gray almost even possibly that purply gray purple, something like that. Yeah. So we can start with some of our base shadow color. We can make some gray into it. This is like a grayish thing mixing into a into a warmish thing. And we'll just see where that takes us and we know we need to make it a little lighter so I'll mix some white and feel like it looks a bit pinky agree? Or purply gray III leg, it doesn't look as bluey gray as the table, right when you flip your eye back and forth between this and the tabletop. So let's add I could, we could use either red, I'm just going to use some of this one that's a little more pinky purply. And then you can see it better when you put it into the painting so that looks too dark and too purply, not great enough. Let's take more gray. So I'll lighten it a little bit, wiggle along that line. The last thing I'm actually going to do is I'm going to bring a little bit of a mid-tone gray, which is quite cool. You can't even see it on this palette, but a little bit of a mid-tone gray. And I'm just going to wiggle it along this transition. A lot of the time where the light meets the shadow is slightly cooler. Along this what's called the transition. There's the table top and then with the cast shadow, the cast shadow is like. Darkest nearest to the object that's casting it. And it gets progressively lighter and softer as it moves away from the object. So that gives the sense of it's sitting like on the tabletop having it dark and sharper near the object that's casting it. Okay, so that's like a little sort of color study. And so now I wanted to just do this all again and sort of show you how we could mix something that looks exactly the same but with different colors. So this time, I actually went to last thing. Let's get the lighter lights in. And if you just mix white with a teeny bit of gray into your base flesh color. That gives you a nice color for the lightest light. So the lightest lights are light sources of fluorescent bulb and so it's cool. And that's pretty standard that the lights are, there'll be kinda cool. It's well, white would be okay because white cools the color anyways. But it's not Whitey yellow is what it's not. Yeah. So let's do this all again. So this time, so the first one we used orange and white and gray. And now this time let's try using burnt sienna, transparent red oxide. It's the same color, just called different things by different brands and white. So the burnt sienna transparent red oxide is it's like an, it's like a desaturated orange rate. And we made an orange and then desaturated it with gray before. And so now, yeah, looks basically the same. So maybe it could be a little lighter, actually, a little bit more white. The same. So when I critique, I don't say add more of this specific color. I say make it warmer, make it cooler because it's sort of making those adjustments based on what you see based on hue, saturation and tone. Yep. And so now let's mix this color on the upper right-hand side. And last time we did it with the transparent red oxide and a bit of gray and a bit of orange. And so this time, let's change it up and we'll use some red and some green. And so again, so red and green are opposite each other on the color wheel. And so we're going to create a warm, desaturated note, basically mixing some breeding green into the cadmium red light. And then we were lightening wit with our base flesh color last time. So we'll add a little base flesh color to lighten it a little bit. Still needs a bit more lightness. And also you can see how it's easier to be able to tell that it needs to be lighter as soon as you put a stroke on the canvas. So that's why you can yeah. Put a drop down and then Judge Z, you don't need to be like upset if you've put a stroke down and it looks it doesn't look right. You know, it's not like you've messed up. It's just that you've put a stroke down and now you're going to adjust it. And then moving to the bottom part, Let's use blue and orange. So we'll use some of this blue mixture, will use some of this as well. We'll use some orange and some white to desaturate. So we're making that kind of grayish color, grayish purplish. Let's mix a little bit of this green red stuff into it too. We wanted to get a little bit redder, so we'll mix this time I'm using a bit of the cad red. Last time we used the Alizarin permanent. And it just looks a bit too dark, so we'll add a bit more blue, bit more white. And this time for the shadow on the bottom, Let's use blue and brown mix together. Last time I just used white and gray. Get that darkest note in. Actually, let's use more black at the bottom of this one too. I wanted that one a little darker there. This looks a little too warm. I've added a bit more blue into that. And it gets lighter as it moves away from the object there. So that's a basic light color study and you can see how they both look really similar. And they're using totally different colors. And so let's get this light side in there. So I hope that helps you in understanding how to analyze color based on hue value and saturation. 5. Eye Painting: Brush Techniques: Before we dive in, let's take a look at some of the brush strokes I'll be using to create really smooth blended transitions in my painting. So the first brush stroke is called the airplane stroke. So say I've got like a face edge here. This is a little just pretend this is the neck and the jaw for example. And let's put a little bit of a shadow note under the jaw. Now, as I blend out this shadow note, what I'll do is I'll start with my brush is fully loaded with the shadow color right now. And I'll start with my brush in the place where the color is really there. And I'll kind of lift and pull my brush off the canvas. So it's kinda like an airplane taking off. So we've kinda look at it to the side. The stroke has kinda lake. And so I'm like lifting and pulling or they go so it's like an airplane taking off. So it's like I'm lifting and pulling as a go and it creates a kind of blended and right at the end of the stroke, funny enough, the, how an airplane going by above us. I gave you then the recording. But so it especially works when you're working wet into wet and you've got one color on your brush in one color already down. And you can see that as I lived in pull, it basically blends rate at the edge of the place that I'm pulling. So that's called the aeroplane stroke. And then the other brush stroke is what I call the wiggle stroke. So I'll just kind of restate the shadow here. I'm just going to actually warm it up a little bit too with a little more burnt sienna. And so I put it down and see how it's got. Let's even sharpen it up a little bit more. So say you put it down and it's quite sharp wherever the color, where the two colors meet at this point, we've got wet paint here and what paint there? And now what I'm gonna do is I'm going to take my brush and my rag. This is a blue shop towel, but you could use even a cut-off t-shirt or some paper towels. And I'll take all the paint off my brush so it's pretty much clean and kind of dried too. And I'll just do this little side-to-side wiggle as I kind of move my brush along the edge. But I'm trying to soften and it'll sort of the brush will pick up paint as it moves down. So you might just wipe the brush off again and you know, in kind of do it one more time. This is a stroke that takes a little bit of getting used to sort of figured out how to, you know, kinda maneuver the paint. There might take a couple wiggles along the line, you know, to just create a nice soft blended transition where it's got a soft edge. And basically the smaller the wiggle, the sort of more precise the shape of the edge. It will still be liger. I still reads the end as sort of right about here. But the truth is that there's no We're designation of where that edge happens. So again, if we look at it on the lower edge, now let's look at how wide or wiggle. So a broader, expansive soft edge. You can see that it, you know, the wider the kind of wiggle that you do, the more gradually blended that edge will be. So I use the wiggle stroke a lot, especially as I'm turning. Let's just wipe this off year. So say I wanted to like turn the edge of the form, having it darken as it moves to the edge. And I introduce a darker note right along the edge of the form. Then I'll often just do just a nice subtle little wiggle where the two colors meet. So that's a really useful brushstroke to know and to work with. So that's what I call the wiggle stroke. And then the last sort of fresh principle. Let's just sharpen up these edges one more time is paint the idea of painting across the form. So you can see as I'm kind of putting the stroke in initially if we, if we're imagining that this is the jaw line. This way that I'm putting the painting like this is what I would call painting with the form. And it's often the easiest to do. Like say this is the line of the neck. Again, painting with the form following the shape of the edge is really like the easiest way to put the paint on. It's the way we kind of automatically put it on, but it actually enhances the sense of form if you paint across the form. So if instead, as you put that paint down, you're kind of tediously painting across the form. And so a lot of the time the wiggle stroke will actually come in handy for that. You might sort of initially put it down with the form, but then kind of break it up with a little wiggle or just painting. Basically, you want to have the brush stroke go perpendicular to the shape of the edge. And I can change direction a little bit at those, it wouldn't look quite right if every single stroke is exactly perpendicular to the edge. But overall, the general principle of painting across the form is damped the stroke go perpendicular to the edge. So let's look at the application of the airplane stroke in the case of hair. So what I'm doing here, I use this greener brush. This has, as you can see, some long hairs and some short hairs. It's called greener because it's like good for wood grain. And basically I'll just mix up a kind of brownish color, a fair amount of medium on my brush. This is also going to be useful for eyelashes. I take the excess off my brush so there's, it's not dripping with paint. And if we do an airplane stroke is going to really enhance the hair-like texture. So again, the airplane stroke is where I start with the paintbrush firmly on the canvas. And then as I go I lift and pull and it kind of creates this tapered edge. And with the greener brush, it creates a really lively kind of edge. So as I'm doing, for example, eye lashes, let's just draw in the shape of say, an eye here, this is our upper eyelid. To sort of roughly. You can kind of take your grain or brush and start with the place where they start on the line. That's where the color is firmly there. And kind of lift and curl and pull as you kind of go along the edge. And so that's kind of using the airplane stroke to create eyelashes. So those are some basic principles of different brush techniques that we'll be using as we work. And I hope you find that helpful and until you applying them to your work. 6. Eye Painting: Color Lay In: Let's take a look at how I would start the color lay. And for this, I painting. So I dipped my brush into the medium off screen and I'm going to start with this warm color with burnt sienna and Alizarin, permanent and just basically mark in some construction lines of the eye and the eye socket. So I'm using kind of angled straight lines anchoring in the lower eyelid. I've got the eyebrow in just sort of getting the construction and the placement on the canvas and the paint is thinned with a fair amount of mediums. So if I make any mistakes, I can easily erase it with my rag. And into that initial warm color, I'm adding a teeny tiny bit of Mars Black and a bit of our base shadow color mixture or Mars Black. And I'm just going to go into the darkest parts of the crease above the upper eyelid and the line of the lashes and the iris with that color. And then I'll actually get some pure Mars Black and just punch up the very darkest notes. I'd like the pupil area and the eyelashes doing just a gestural kind of indication of the basic eyelashes. And then I mix up an overall shadow side color with some Alizarin permanent, some burnt sienna, teeny bit of the Mars Black just a bit. And also some of the base shadow color mixture just start to fill in some of the broader shadow areas with my filbert brush. While also concentrating on brush technique and letting there be a certain finesse to the edge quality of each brushstroke. And I'm changing up the direction of the brush stroke. So there's some variety in the direction of the strokes. I add a tiny bit more Alizarin Permanent into that mixture that I've been using to just warm it up even a little bit more and carve out that shadow on the outer corner of the eye that kind of anchors the upper eyelid into the lower eyelid, into the eye socket. There's a really beautiful shadow pattern that occurs in there. I started to articulate the tear duct to using pure NAP fall read just going into the basic placement of it and the kind of triangular shape to it. And go a little bit more into the bag outer corner of the eye with some of that reddish brown, a shadow pattern. I also use pure black to kind of punch up the black of the lashes. And as I do all of these initial stages, I've mixed a little bit of walnut alkyd medium. You can also use linseed oil to make the paint slightly transparent and then to mix the base flesh color. We'll be using this so-called base flesh color and will be basically tenting it. So I feel like it could be slightly cooler for some of the lights that I'm going to start with. So I'll do that by just mixing a little bit of gray in. And I'll just lay that into the light side in the upper eye socket area using my filbert brush and kind of twisting it around as I go concentrating on having, you know, nice brushstrokes because it might show through the edge. And as I do all of these flesh tones and the lights, I'm using pure paint with no medium mixed in so that the paint is more opaque and thicker. And in some places I might go a little cooler. So I'll add some gray and some blue mixture and still a little bit of the base flesh color. And so at this point I'm carving up the different planes of the features. So the upper eyelid has a front plane aside plane and another side plane. And I'm just adjusting the temperature as I go so the center front plane is more cool and then the plane to the right is a little bit more warm. So mixing them to the pool that already has some Alizarin permanent. I also add some base shadow color mixture and lightened with a little bit of base flesh color. That's something that I do a lot, is using the base flesh color to kinda lighten the tone a little bit. And I also add some burnt sienna into the mixture and just mix it all together. So we've got a nice sort of deep warm tone. So I'll just carbon that side plane and lighten up by adding a little white as I move through the front plane. So I'm still concentrating on doing interesting brushstrokes that have a certain finesse to them. And so as I move forward into the colors on the light, so I'll either make it a little bit cooler by adding a bit of gray or blue mixture, or also titanium white. Always looking whether it needs to be lightened by titanium white. And sometimes I'll make it a little warmer by adding a little bit of pink or red or even a little bit of burnt sienna. So I'm kind of lightning and pooling the node as the form rolls up away from the line of the crease of the upper eyelid. And I introduced that cool note around the tear duct as well. Just kind of bringing some cooler. The later cooler note in around the pterodactyl to keeping the edge quality sort of interesting as it fades out into the panel. I really like to have like some temperature variation between the warms and cools. Some parts of the cools start out just a little too cool. So I mix a bit of burnt sienna into just tone it down a bit. But I do really like to have that vibration between the warmer notes and the sort of bluish hue notes in the flesh tones. And sort of bringing a darker note in around the plane change between where the brow sort of form comes up above the upper eyelid and bringing a bit of an indication of the browse in. This is just the base shadow side color mixed with a bit of base flesh color. So it makes some sort of greenish like a very complex, rich, interesting shadow side color. Not too dark because there's a bit of the base flesh color mixed in and going into an even lighter note that's a bit more teal in color, so it's sort of less ultramarine blue, a little bit more Prussian blue mixed in into some of the areas around the eye socket. And then I'm going to start to block in the white of the eyes with a gray color. You really need to keep the white of the eyes darker and tone than you might think it played a very common mistake to make the white of the eyes to white. And then it'll just look kinda freaky. So as it rolls to the left, it gets a little bit darker so that we're kind of getting a slightly varied tone across the horizontal distance of the white of the eye. And bringing going in one more time into the crease of the upper eyelid with a nice rich brownish sort of warm it note. So there's some burnt sienna mixed in and a little bit of alizarin permanent. And it's just more into the warm sort of range. And then I kinda wiggle on the top edge of that note to make it a little bit softer edge quality, I also just move around different parts and sort of soften out any of the sharp brush strokes if it's a bit distracting. And then I'm mixing a bit of Prussian blue mixed with some base shadow color in and around the outer perimeter of the iris. Just getting a bit more concrete sort of shape to the iris. And it does get a little bit blue on the outer perimeter of the iris, even though the iris is Hazel, which is my eye. So the center part of the iris, I'm mixing some yellow ocher with some base shadow color into the center part of the eye. But then the outer perimeter gets this slightly cooler, sort of darker rim around it, going in with black into the pupil. And then getting the plane change on the lower edge of the upper eyelid, we see a darker leg under plain, darker and redder. So there's different planes to the eyelid itself that gives a lot of depth to the eyelid. When you can see the different planes, especially the little, the thickness of the eyelid and then going in again to the crease of the upper eyelid, just sort of refining the shape with this dark warm note and then kind of working to smooth like the shadow patterning. Some of it was so transparent when I initially put it in that it just really shows almost a little too much like brushstrokes at this point. And introducing along the place where the lights meet the shadows. Just a slightly more cool sort of note. And then kind of like softening everything in just by kind of blending it with my brush a little bit more. And it just takes a little bit of work to kind of smooth it all together and kind of get the brush stroke like the quality that I want while still having it feel fresh but, but just not having anything that is too distracting, you know, remaining. I find like as I refine, as I get into the details a little bit more in one area, it's sort of calls for a little bit more softening of edges here and there in another area. And finally working the turning of the form as it rolls to the top plane towards the brown, just refining the transitions a little more. So that basically shows you how I would approach the color lay in of the eye. So go ahead and get the color layer and started for your eye. And next we'll take a look at refinements. 7. Eye Painting: Refinements: So as I move into the finishing details, I'm going to continue to refine form and eventually add things like eyelashes, an eye highlights. So right now I'm just kind of working the turning of the form that rolls down underneath the eyebrows towards the line of the upper eyelid. I'm also kind of refining the temperatures. I see like a little bit more of a cool note right at the edge of the lower eyelid. And I'm going to describe that top plane that I talked about in the handouts of the lower eyelid. The sort of leverage, the little light rim of thickness on the ledge of the upper eyelid. And this is kind of a pinkish, fleshy note. So I'm using some base flesh color mixed with a little bit of naphtha. Read for this note, then I soften the transitions between each of the planes that make up the upper eyelid. Just doing a little wiggle stroke to kind of soften the transition between each of them. And now I'm starting to deepen into the darkest note. Right above the upper eyelid. It hits a really dark, warm, burnt sienna mixed with base shadow color mixture. Note just really hitting the full contrast. And looking at the shape, the exact shape that's created as that note rolls down towards the place where the tear duct connects with the face and anchors the eye into the face. And I'm also punching up the cache shadow underneath the upper eyelid. And I'll just do a couple gestural brushstrokes for the eyelashes. You don't want to overdo and over paint the eyelashes. Just a suggestion of them will look nice. And describe one more time that plane change from the top plane of the upper eyelid to the darker, warmer, lower plane of the upper eyelid. It's really important to get those plane changes to the eyelids. And using pure naps I'll read, I get like the triangular shape of the pterodactyl little bit more clearly and go in with a little bit of white mixed in with the nap. So I'll read to get the slightly lighter glistening notes inside the tear duct. And I'm just placing some slightly darker notes as the upper eyelid moves back towards the crease of the upper eyelid. So I'm getting that tonal shifts that occurs as we rolled back on that plane and just softening edges. Softening the edge between this darker note in the shadow underneath the eyebrow. And punching up that line with a nice rich brownish darkish note. Carving out the angles that make up the upper eyelid. Really like getting the sort of clarity to that shape. And also going into the iris for this slightly darker note, really making sure that it rounds around the shape of the curvature of the eye. And then just softening that note of the white of the eye where it meets the tear duct. It's got a very blurry soft edge and carving out the shape one more time of the of the skin that's coming out around the tear duct with a coolish note like base flesh color mixed with some gray. It's mixing into the red of the tear duct a bit, but I'm sort of working with that. And just introducing a few more cools into some of the colors. The front plane of the lower eyelid has a little bit of a cool no mixed with some of that base flesh color and some gray and a little bit of the blue mixture. And I'm using vertical strokes. You can see I'm kind of wiggling my brush vertically. So it's like carving out. It's like running down the shape of that front plane, softening the edge one more time there. And just continuing to sort of refine forms and refined planes, softening transitions, and kinda making the shapes more accurate. And then just going in one more time into that upper ledge of the lower eyelid. And again, I'm using a bit of base flesh color with a little bit of naphthalene red makes chin so it's kind of a pinky note. And also making the white of the eye have a certain rounded quality so that it's rounding into a darker note at the corner of the back, the back corner of the eye, introducing a little bit more of the yellow ocher of the colored part of the eye, moving up to a bit more of a burnt sienna noted at the top. And this line coming down from the tear duct. This is actually a suggestion of the skull. It's the shape of the orbit of the eye, of the eye socket, the whole of the eye socket brick kind of meets the nasal bone. Yeah. So it's the bony structure is actually showing through right there and just kinda wiggling with a little wiggle stroke at any edges that need to be softened and lightening up a little bit at the very top of the form that's rolling up from the upper eyelid. I'm introducing a little bit more of a cool note along the eyelashes so you can see that I kind of do something and sometimes come back to it and refine it a little bit more. I'm kinda working the colors, making it a little bit less saturated in that brown side plane of the upper eyelid, darkening a little bit on the lower eyelid as it rolls back. Just so that it sort of has dimension and it's like going back in space, just kind of dabbing along it. And then I kind of dab some highlights onto the lightest part of the rim of that ledge on the lower eyelid. And adding some little highlights on the center area of the upper eyelid. And initially they went on a bit strong, so then I just saw it in a little bit. And really like working the rounding of the white of the eye and the curvature of the iris, getting it to be nice and round. And that transition into the redness of the tear duct. Just making sure that it occurs really gradually, really in a soft blurry sort of edge that is really going to help give a lot of sense of foreign to the eyeball itself. And just continuing to work that lower ledge of the upper eyelid, the lower plane, the lower warmer plane. And the way that it gets a little redder as it moves into the tear duct and refining the tones. That very upper lid kind of rolls into a slightly darker note as it rolls to the left. So just really controlling the tones, making sure that nothing is too light right in that area, while still maintaining the sense of the different planes that make up the form. Putting a little teeny little dot of light pinkish color right in the very center of the tear ducts to give that kind of Glimmer. And adding some tiny little highlights around the tear duct in the form there. And kind of refining the shape of the iris. So it's darker around the outer perimeter of the iris. And then it gets a little later as we move to the center. And I'm punching up the contrast of the lashes when we're time introducing them back. Since I kind of painted over them at 1. Just with little quick little strokes. I'm also putting the little I highlight in, which occurs right at the place where the pupil meets the iris coming from the light side. So in this case it's the left side of the pupil. And also softening the edge of the iris. So once you've got the oval shape of the iris, I don't want any hard edges. I want it to just be slightly blurry, slightly soft. And I'm kind of adding some of the later notes within the iris. One more time. The little radiating outwards like a son whom little lines. And so as we really move into the very finishing touches, we want to make sure that we have enough contrast, not too much, but you know enough. So I'm darkening one more time into that plane where the the form above the upper eyelid rounds into the crease of the upper eyelid and also where the brow merges and melds into that shadow that's right underneath it, the really nice rich burnt sienna note. So yeah, I'm using a burnt sienna note. And I'm just softening that. Once I have put the full contrast of it in, I kind of soften the edges of that with this little wiggles stroke that I'm doing. I'm introducing in this case a little bit of a cooler note. So it kinda contrasts with the warmth of the heat of the burnt sienna and just really working that form. So it just turns gradually darker, darker, darker, darker all the way very gradually into the crease above the upper eyelid. So it's really important to get the turning of that form. It's a really beautiful form. Yeah, that one right underneath the eyebrow, just rounding gradually darker. And then also right at the outer corner of the eye, a really beautiful form, almost like a smoky eye shadow. Where the line of the crease of the upper eyelid kinda of rounds and turns and blends into the form that describes the place where the cheek bone meets that form. That's right underneath the eyebrow. And so I'll put that in. And then I'm introducing a little bit of a cool note right at the transition. A lot of the time you'll find that there's a cool little band of cool right at the place where light meets shadow. So I'm introducing a note that's got some base flesh color and some Prussian blue and a little bit of the shadow mixture because it's a slightly darker cool in this case. I'm also adding some of the cool notes to the latest parts with some blue mixture and titanium white and a little base flesh color, so it's not too blue. So I'm kind of introducing the notes where there is some cooler, cooler moments in the lights and the transition between the light side and the shadow side. And then kind of softening the edges of those notes so that they blend in and, you know, kind of fit in. And still looking for places where you can have a nice gestural brushstroke and just continuing to kind of soften edges, soften transitions. Just lightly, lightly brushing. You know, at places where there's a strong transition, a brushstroke maybe stands out too much or something like that and I'll wipe my brush off in-between on my rag actually off-screen so that the brush is sort of clean, so it just kind of moves the paint that's already there, like wet into wet, sort of together. Just creating a nice blended transition, a nice smooth sort of blending. I'm also punching up the highest dark is contrast area, which is right underneath that line of the lashes on the iris, also in the pupil. And doing a few more little gestural, little strokes for the eyelashes. Keeping it kinda loose and gestural. And just going through and softening a couple edges of the black and the iris. And kind of pulling a darkest, very dark note right at the back corner of that i and then kinda working it in and sort of mixes into the paint that's there. So that it just kinda, it actually lightens it up a little bit. And just carefully hitting a few of the latest crystalline notes with the yellow ocher mixed with base shadow color mixture. Just to get kind of sparkly crystals. I part of the iris. And I'm using a small little bright brush, which is the square tipped brush. So I can actually kind of use the corner of that brush to go in and get very small details. And I've also just wiggling along the edge of the iris one more time, just softening it one more time and making sure it's dark enough, you know, introducing a little bit more Prussian blue right at that edge so that it's darkest at the very edge of the eye. And just pulling the line of the lash one more time with just plain black right along the lower edge of that upper eyelid. In continuing to soften, soften forms, you know, just kind of brushing at any places where the two brushstrokes meat and it feels a little bit too sudden or too contrasty. Going in one more time to that back corner of the eye. The very darkest note as it at the back edge and at the top edge, just really pulling the full contrast in. And that's a dark, warm note. It's catching a bit of glare, but it's not pure black gets blackish brown, so it's got some burnt sienna and some base shadow color mixture, some black as well, but it is kind of on the warm side. And I'm kind of softening the top edge of that brush stroke and just softening that transition to, again, I'm sort of wiggling my brush along the edge of where the two strong brushstrokes are meeting to just create a sort of wet into wet blending of the paint that's already on the panel. So I'm working on this side clean of the eyelids a little bit more and just refining things. And I also extend the lashes down over the lower eyelids so that it overlaps. And I'm just kind of doing some nice gestural strokes with thick paint as I really go into the top plane of the cheek bone with a slightly lighter or slightly cooler note. I'm doing nice brush strokes because it's nice if the edge for this painting looks kinda like it has a certain finesse. So I'm kind of rotating my brush around and just trying to make nice looking brush strokes. And I'm continuing to soften edges. Just a wiggling my brush at any of those transitional brushstrokes that need softening, just blending wet into wet, and continuing to punch up that crease of the upper eyelid with a nice warm note. Really just working over and over to get that turning of the form from the lighter note at the top as it rounds, darker, darker, darker all the way to the crease of the upper eyelids. So gradually and then softening some of the edges again and adding a couple more little cool highlights on the very center top. The upper eyelid, kinda dabbing at that ledge on the lower eyelid, the little light rim of thickness one more time. Just to make the paint sort of feel more like a forum unless like a kind of streaky paint blog. So I'm just dabbing and I'm like placing the paint along that edge and it's thick paint. You can see that it's got like a thickness. It's kind of impasto and then I kind of dab at it one more time to, you know, like softened it down a little bit. I'm kind of moving my brush vertically to carve down on the front plane of the lower eyelid now, which is also softening the transition from the top plane without losing it. Yeah, just softening it a bit and softening one more time. The transition from the front plane to the side plane of the upper eyelid and softening one more time. The transition from the white of the eye to the right of the tear duct. Just making sure that there's a nice clear little light rim of thickness all the way along the top ledge of the whole lower eyelid in kind of working the shape of it as it meets in the tear duct. And I'm using thick paint for those light notes, that looks good If thick paint is used for the latest notes. And softening one more time along the outer perimeter of the iris and also darkening towards the top of that white of the eye. Teeny bit more. And having the lower the lower edge of the upper eyelid just be a little bit clearer, a little bit darker, a little bit more change from the top plane to the lower plane. And kind of emphasizing the curvature of the white of the eye ball just a little bit more later in the center, darker towards the top and the bottom. And I'm really spending a lot of time to make sure that the edge of the iris, the shape is a nice ellipse which is a circle in perspective and then the edge is very soft. Yeah, all the way around. And the yellow ocher notes of the crystalline part of the eye move to more of a burnt sienna. As the iris moves up towards the cast shadow that's coming down on it. And I'm darkening the pupil one more time, making sure that it too is a perfect ellipse. The circle in perspective in that the eyelashes kinda connect into that darkest note. And then I add the I highlight. So that shows you how I would begin with under painting loose through color, lay in and add the finishing touches in an eye painting. I really hope you've enjoyed this class and it makes all the difference in your paintings.