PTC Onshape (CAD) the Complete Guide - 3D Part Modelling | Mathew Alexander | Skillshare

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PTC Onshape (CAD) the Complete Guide - 3D Part Modelling

teacher avatar Mathew Alexander

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

45 Lessons (3h 48m)
    • 1. Class Introduction

    • 2. Setting-up an Onshape Account

    • 3. Navigation Controls and View Representation

    • 4. What are 3D Models?

    • 5. Parametric 3D Models

    • 6. Features and Parts List

    • 7. Sketch Basics

    • 8. Sketches in more Depth

    • 9. Extrude

    • 10. Revolve

    • 11. Exercise Set 1

    • 12. Exercise 2.1A - Solution

    • 13. Exercise 2.1B - Solution

    • 14. Exercise 2.1C - Solution

    • 15. Exercise 2.1D - Solution

    • 16. Exercise 2.1E - Solution

    • 17. Sweep

    • 18. Loft

    • 19. Planes

    • 20. Exercise Set 2

    • 21. Exercise 2.2A - Solution

    • 22. Exercise 2.2B - Solution

    • 23. Exercise 2.2C - Solution

    • 24. Thicken and Enclose

    • 25. Shell, Draft, Rib and Mirror

    • 26. Further Drafting and Split

    • 27. Exercise Set 3

    • 28. Exercise 2.3A - Solution

    • 29. Exercise 2.3B - Solution

    • 30. Exercise 2.3C - Solution

    • 31. Fillets

    • 32. Chamfers

    • 33. Holes

    • 34. Linear and Circular Pattern

    • 35. Measure

    • 36. Curve Pattern

    • 37. Exercise Set 4

    • 38. Exercise 2.4A - Solution

    • 39. Exercise 2.4B - Solution

    • 40. Exercise 2.4C - Solution

    • 41. Exercise 2.4D - Solution

    • 42. Boolean

    • 43. Assigning Materials and Mass Properties

    • 44. 3D Modelling Project Introduction

    • 45. 3D Modelling Project Solution

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About This Class


In this class, we focus on the 3D modelling aspect of computer aided design (CAD) using PTC Onshape. This is the foundation of 3D modelling, and allows us to then look at creating technical drawings, assemblies and much more. Technical drawings and assemblies will be handled in other classes. 

We'll go through all the usual features and tools for 3D modelling, like revolves, extrudes, sweeps, lofts and much more. We aim to cover all of the tool options to make these classes thorough. 

Throughout the class, there are reasonably simple exercises to work through, and then a Capstone Project at the end to create a simple race car component. This component is one that I have used on an actual race car, so it will be a good test to determine whether you have grasped the concepts of the class well.


Would you like to become a designer and create your own products but don’t know where to start? Begin your journey by developing your knowledge in using Computer Aided Engineering (CAD) through the use of the amazing software PTC Onshape!

PTC Onshape is a fantastic tool for creating high-quality engineering models and technical drawings quickly with great ease. It works through your web browser so you won’t be constrained by hardware requirements or update issues. Working and sharing models with colleagues couldn’t be easier, and becoming proficient will take just a matter of hours! PTC Onshape works in an innovative new way compared to other CAD software, in order to maximise collaboration and productivity, and will likely lead all competitors into a new way of thinking,

To ensure you really learn how to use PTC Onshape, the course is structured with video lectures, and chances for hands-on experience through the means on small exercises and capstone projects - solutions are provided for all exercises.

Dive into this course and see what creations and designs you can produce at the end of this course.

We hope to see you take part, enjoy this class and post your projects!

Meet Your Teacher

Hello, I'm Mathew.

 I’m a chartered mechanical engineer and have worked for top engineering companies in the UK, as well as a creator of all sorts of things, whether that’s creating videos, online courses and even race cars (though, I’ve cut down on race cars).

Creating and making things is what characterises me, where currently I have the appetite for sharing what I know largely focused on topics in Mechanical Engineering.

This is my hobby, and I hope that people will find value from content that I can provide, whether that be learning from my experiences or simply for entertainment value.


Have a fantastic day!

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1. Class Introduction: Hello and welcome to the complete guys one shape, where in this class we will be covering 3D modelling. My name is Matthew Alexander, the lead instructor for this course. And I'm a professional mechanical engineer with over 10 years of experience. Throughout my time. As an engineer, I've designed and created hundreds of components by key aspects to design and creation within engineering is through the use of computer aided design, also known as Cat. Cat can be conducted using many different software packages were on shape is one of these. On shape is an amazing cat package crammed full of useful features, has intelligent file storage and is extremely intuitive to actually use. This cannot be said for other CAM packages. What's more is that on shape is going through rapid development and updates that you don't need to download any patches as unchecked works through your web browser. This also means that you can run on shape on a low performance computer if needed. To top it all off, hobbyists can get easy access to this software for free today. This class covers the cool features of 3D modelling in on shape. But on shape also offers sheet metal design, assembly design, and technical drawing creation to name but a few to ensure you truly learn how to use on shape. This class is structured with over 20 video lectures on how long she actually works. 15 exercises to get some practice, as well as a capstone project at the end of the glass to pull all the information together or hope to see you enroll and enjoy this class. 2. Setting-up an Onshape Account: Hi everyone. In this lecture, we're going to look at how we can gain access to and shape to start actually using it. We can navigate to the main page where you should see a page looking something like this. We can then go up to this pricing button and will then be able to say all the different plans that on shape offers. These are the paid plans and standard might be the one you might want to use if you're going to be using on shape for commercial use. However, for this learning aspect of this course, we can scroll down to the bottom and we can see two different plans. We've got students and educators, and this course is about learning. So you might think this will be suitable, but you may need to have a university or college or school e-mail address to sign up to this one. So we can use the hobbyist and make his plan. This is not for commercial use and your projects will be visible to the public, but it's really a useful plan to be able to learn how to use on shape. Once we're in this page, we can click on this Get Started button. And then we just need to fill out the details. So I felt the details out as an example. And in this box here, which is for best description of U, of hobbyist and Maker, which would be perhaps suitable for yourselves. Just need to then click the Get Started and fill in a few more details. And then on this page again, filling out that the normal details that you have and clicking this, I am not a robot can't recapture. Then we can create an account. Then what happens is on shape will send you an email and you need to go into your email account. And the account, we just need to go and confirm on the email side of things that everything is okay. So I'm just going to do that now. And it turned out that my email went in through to my junk email. So just remember that it could pop up in there. And then just need to click this, activate your account button. And then we just need to add an a password and meet all the password requirements. And click get started. And there you go. Where we're into long shape and we now have an account to work from. So let's dive into the next video or navigation and controls. 3. Navigation Controls and View Representation: In this lecture, we're going to have a look at navigation controls and view representations. So in a 3D model or assembly, you can hold the middle mouse button down, then move the cursor around the page to rotate the part in the white space. And we can hold the control key down, hold the middle mouse button down, and move the cursor around the page to pan the part around. So the partner has the same orientation, but you're moving it around. And then we can use the scroll wheel in and out to zoom. And this is similar to how we work with drawings. So what we can use is the middle mouse button to hold that down and palliate around the page to actually pan. So hold the middle mouse button down, then moves from side to side to pan. And then we can use the scroll wheel to zoom. So note how when we pan in a drawing, I don't hold the control key down, so you don't need to do that. Now, we can actually change those options if you wish. So I can go to, I can click on my name, select my account, and go Preferences. And then I can scroll down to mouse control. So what I've just described to you is the Solid Works variant. But you have got others which you can try. I'd recommend trying these and seeing which one works best for you. If I reference any mouse controls in the future, it will be based around the SolidWorks variant. So we will return back to the document and we can start to talk about keyboard shortcuts. So you have some of the standard shortcuts like you get in other software. I Control zed and Control Y, which is undo and redo. But we also have some specific keyboard shortcuts in on shape. For example, I can press the P key, which Hudson shows all the planes in a model so that we can be pretty useful. You also have the ability to view, show the view normal to the surface that we select. So one way in which we could do this is to select a surface with the left mouse button, then right-click, and then select View normal T. However, there is a quicker way to do this. So if I rotate the part around, I can then click the surface again. And then what I'll do is I'll press the Enter key. So it does the same thing, but a lot quicker. And you'll use that quite a lot. So it might be one worth remembering. We've also got another shortcut which is quite useful. So I could have a number of surfaces selected. And now I can just press the spacebar to de-select them all. The alternative would be to have all these selected and just click until the whitespace. So if there are any other shortcuts you'd like to know about, you can press this question mark and then go to keyboard shortcuts and it comes up with a full list. So if unchecked were to add anymore and this is where you could look to see them. Some of these may not be worth it, but it's probably based on user preference. Okay, so now let's talk about view representation. We can go over to this icon here and select the down arrow. And we have various representations from shaded all the way through to coach your visualization. So let's have a look at those. So let's zoom in a little bit. And you can see that shaded is what we have now. So we have shaded sections on the surfaces and black lines, but all the edges. I can remove these edges by going to shade it without edges. So it may look a bit nicer. But I really think the shaded version is much easier to work with. We then have shaded with hidden edges. So that shows you all the lines which you can't see. So the black lines, but in places where you can't see them. Then you have hidden edges removed, which is kinda like a wireframe. Then we have hidden edges visible, which is a bit law before. But as a wireframe. Then you have translucent, which looks a bit like glass. And you have coach a visualization, which is not really something that I use, but it is something that has been used by people in the past. So I really recommend using the shaded option. I really think it's the easiest one to be using and working with. Lastly, we have in this option section view. So I'm just gonna press the P key, the term these planes back on. And I'm going to click my triumph manipulator to stolen the view. And what I'm going to do. So this window popped up for section view. And that means I need to select the plane. So I can select the right plane and we get a section. Now I'm going to press the Enter key so that it views this section normal. So that's a really useful tool and you will probably need to use this in your own shape career. So one of the brilliant things you can do in on shape is you can actually do a second section. So I can section into planes. So that's really useful. And we also have this arrow key, which allows us to travel through the section depending on where we want to go. So we can put a number in here, say they tend for example. Or we can just drag this hour. And to escape the section view, we just simply hit the cross. Okay? So this is an introduction to the navigation controls and v representations. 4. What are 3D Models?: 3d models and engineering will generally be referring to digital shapes being created in computer aided design, usually abbreviated to cat, where the shapes will represent components. Designing with 3D digital models makes the design process more fluid and progress more rapid than compared to just working in 2D or with physical 3D models. Working with 3D models in a digital environment allows us to work with components at a one-to-one scale. No matter if they're rather tiny, like perhaps in robotics, electronics or wristwatches. But we can also work with very large components. For example, construction vehicles or buildings or airplanes. Because our components a digital, we don't have to worry about components that would otherwise be very heavy. This brings us onto the fact that the calculation of mass of components can easily be calculated when we have a full 3D definition of a component in a 3D CAD environment. Something which would otherwise be difficult for complex shapes. When working in a 2D design environment. We then assemble multiple 3D components together to create our assemblies for my 3D component models and our 3D assemblies. We can then create 2D technical drawings, which are what we use to specify our designs to a manufacturer. We can simply be checked our views onto a 2D drawing. We do not need to manually draw our drawings. It's automatic. A fantastic function which is common in most CAD packages. If we update our 3D model, our 2D drawing can also be updated at a click of a button to reflect the 3D model change. Furthermore, continuing in a digital environment for engineering, 3D CAD models can be taken directly into manufacturing machines, rapid prototyping machines. And these models can also form the basis for conducting manufacturing assessments and computer aided engineering analysis. Like finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics. We won't be covering computer aided engineering analysis in this course. But it is good to be aware of. 5. Parametric 3D Models: Through the progression of 3D CAD models, different design philosophies have been used. If you've used CAD before, you may have been used to manually constructing 2D drawings with lines and circles. Or in previous CAT softwares, you may have constructed 3D models with combining points with lines and those elements to create surfaces and then combine the surfaces to great volumes. This is largely outdated and mostly an inefficient practice. But most CAD packages now work with a parametric modelling approach. This means that you draw sketches which may define a cross-section, specify a path or location. And these are then used in combination with feature tools, such as extrusions, revolves, holes to create your objects. Result is generally a more flexible, user-friendly, and efficient modelling process. Surface design, which uses points, lines, and surfaces to create models, is still used when feature-based modeling doesn't allow creation of certain components. You might find surface modeling design use for automobile exterior, body panel design or turbine blades as an example, With parametric modeling, a good practice to try and follow is to imagine you have a lump of material in front of you, which you can only take cuts from to create your shape. You should try and do this as opposed to adding shapes to your existing model. You will need to start with an extrusion or revolve, but then you take cuts away from this first feature. This helps prevent multiple bodies which can make mass calculations incorrect and cause complications in computer aided engineering. Having said that, there are ways of combining shapes together, which we will have a look at. But it is a modelling convention where you'll be operating at a higher skill level. We'd use the Boolean tool for this modelling convention. 6. Features and Parts List: One of the first things worth discussing before we get stuck into creating 3D models is the features and parts list. We can hide this panel away by clicking on this button and reselect, sing it to bring it back. It can be useful to hide this panel if you need more on-screen space. But when you're editing your model, you may find this panel to be useful. Our features and parts list shows you the features used to create your model, which you can select to change feature properties. This can be the change dimensional values or change your sketch, or simple changes like renaming your feature. At the top of the panel, we have a total number of features. We have our default geometry, which contains origin point and starting planes. We have a search bar, which simply allows us to search for a particular feature within our feature list. This model doesn't have many features, but I promise you this is helpful for when you have a very large model and detailed components. You may want to consider renaming some of your features as something logical and intuitive. For example, for this front hub, I could state these holes are, we'll bolt holes, which means I can easily locate and correct the feature from this list. You may have to edit features and they may cause updates to propagate throughout the whole 3D model, meaning this whole list of features. Some features may take longer to regenerate. Holes typically are notorious for taking a long time to regenerate, particularly when you have many of them. And then they may also be patterned as well. Can investigate regeneration times by clicking this button. You may decide to suppress certain features whilst you are designing a feature high up in the model tree. To save having to regenerate features that take a long time. We can do this by right-clicking on a feature and then clicking suppress. The feature is not lost to us once we're happy with how we have created our feature early in our model tree. We can unsuppress a culprit for longer generation times and proceed with developing our model. This is just a usability feature in on shape. Using our contextual menu, we can select an option called role to here, which will, if you like, robot, the features used to create your component up to the feature you've selected. This kind of suppresses the features after the point you selected. This can be helpful if you're getting errors or trying to understand how someone has put together a 3D model. You can step through the features that you have generated by right-clicking on the next feature and clicking role to here. Again, we can keep doing this right through to the last feature in our model. Or we can select the role to end, to reinstate the last feature in your list. 7. Sketch Basics: Sketches are foundational in 3D modelling. So getting a firm grasp on how we work with them is important and it will directly affect your effectiveness in using on shape. As described earlier. We will use sketches for cross-sections, paths, rotation, reflection, and locations to use for our features. First of all, sketches are two-dimensional and we need to define a plane on which we draw a sketch. When we start off with an empty document, you will likely create this sketch on one of the three starting in planes, top, front or right. We can click on the Sketch button where a menu pops up, where we are prompted to select a plane. Notice how our top toolbar has changed from the 3D modeling feature tools to Sketch Tools. At the moment, the sketch tools are grayed out as we have not yet selected our plane. In this example, I'll select the front plane and I'll tools at the top have now turned black. We can broadly categorize our top toolbar in sketch mode as these tools which allow us to create lines, points, and shapes. These tools which can manipulate the lines and shapes. And these tools which constrain our shapes with values. These are like the dimensions you use in 2D technical drawings. We'll just add a simple rectangle for now. But first, I want to ensure we're looking normal to the front plane. I can do this either by right-clicking on a plane and selecting View normal to sketch plane. This aligns our view like so. We could alternatively have achieved this same view by clicking on the front face on the view manipulator. The benefit of the first method is that the plane you may want to create a sketch on may not always align to the panes on the view manipulator. I'll then select this tool and place down a rectangle. Notice that inside the rectangle is a slightly shaded color. This signifies a closed profile that can be used for an extrusion. I'll then click on the green tick to confirm the sketch. I now get the feature tools back where I can then turn this sketch into a 3D object with the Extrusion tool. We'll cover how to use extrude tool in another video later in this course. When we create sketches, we can also pick faces of 3D shapes rather than planes. To illustrate this, I'll also add a chamfer to this corner and create a cylinder in the center of this face. I can select this Phillip face, then select sketch. We can tell we are now in sketch mode as our toolbar has changed again. We can then realign our view normal to our sketch plane via the contextual menu. I'll also use the view manipulates arrow to turn the sketch around by 90 degrees. I'll then create a circle and extrude this shape for it to become 3d2. 8. Sketches in more Depth: Let's have a look at sketches in a bit more detail. We'll start a new model for this. Will again create a new sketch on the front plane. In our creation tools, we have offers tool which is line. We can select this by clicking on it. Or you can press the L key on the keyboard. We know to press the L key is when you hover over the line tool, there is an L in parentheses. This signifies a keyboard shortcut. Now, all of our tools have shortcuts, but some of the more common tools do. And hovering over these tools will allow you to identify which tools have shortcuts. The line tool is one that allows you to create a continuous string of lines using multiple successive left mouse button clicks. Closing a profile, D selects the line tool and trace the closed profile in gray. If you don't close the profile, but want to de-select the Line tool. You can do so by hitting the Escape key or using the contextual menu by using the right mouse button and select escape line. If you want to delete a part of a successive string of lines, we can easily do this by selecting a line and pressing the Delete key. We could select multiple lines by clicking each line with the left mouse button. But we do not need to press any key on the keyboard. Once we do this, we have two tools to create rectangles. By selecting two opposing corners, selectable by pressing the G key, or by selecting a center 0.1 corner point, selectable by pressing the Alt key. We have a circle tool with three options. Creating a circle with a center point and the radius point selectable with the CK. Creating a circle by selecting three points that the circle will pass through. And creating an ellipse by selecting a center point, a width, and a height. Our next group of tools is for creating arcs, where we have four options. We can create an arc using three points, which is useful if you have two lines like this. And I looking to create an arc that joins the two, we click a start point of our AAC and the end point of our arc, and then a radius. Now that we get this icon appear when we get close to the radius, that would have the arc tangent to these lines at each end. Notice how the arg snaps to the radius size. We can use the tangent arc in a similar way. But note that the arc is only tangent to the first line. You select. The second line is not tangent, but I can make it tangent by selecting these two lines, then selecting the tangency tool. The tangent arc tool is more useful when you have two parallel lines like this. We can show off how they sent a point arc tool works by first creating two perpendicular lines. Are deliberately set this line of a vertical and this line of horizontal. If you create lines that not vertical or horizontal, but want them to be. The best way to achieve this is to select your line and select the vertical or horizontal constraints. Will then dimension these two lines with this dimension tool. Clicking each line, I can place a dimension down. Then type R value. We can edit our values by double-clicking on the dimension values. Then we can select the center point, octo, press the center point here, select the first of our Okta start from here, then our second of our finish here. We need to trace the cursor with our mouse from our star point to our end point. If I select this point in a lazy way, I might get an arc looking like this. Rather than this. See how the arc is drawn based upon how I drag my cursor after I've selected the first arc point. We can also create conic ox, which allows us to create a nice smooth arc when we have a triangular feature like this. If I select the start point, end point, then intersection point of the two lines, we get a beautiful smooth curve between the two lines. The last of our pre-defined shapes are polygons, which can be created based on an inscribed polygon or a circumscribed polygon. An inscribed polygon is where we have a circle inside the polygon. And a circumscribed polygon is where the cycle is outside, passing through each point of the shape. Once we place either of these polygons down, we need to select another point to define the size. And then we need to drag the cursor in or out from the shape to specify the polygon order. We can alternatively press a number on the keyboard to specify this. The polygon order is simply the number of sides or vertices of polygon has. For example, a square has four sides and therefore has a polygon order of four. We have splines which can be useful for creating non-uniform curves. And I've used this tool in the past for creating airfoil surfaces. If we need to modify the spline by adding more points, we can do so by selecting this spline point tool and click on my spine line. This tool is quite simply our point tool that will allow us to place down points. The tool stay selected for us to place down as many points as we need. We can hold the left mouse button down and drag a square around these constructed geometries such that we can delete them all. Sometimes we may want to add text or models. You'll often find emboss text in metal castings. On shape allows the creation of text features in the easiest way I've ever seen. And a CAD package, selecting the text tool and creating a text box, you can type text, perform some basic formatting. Then the green arrow. Upon hitting the green arrow, a closed profile of letters are created which are ready to be extruded. A really powerful tool that on shape provides us is the use and intersection tools. They use tool allows us to select points, lines, and faces to extract from an already created geometry to be projected onto the new sketch. We can use the intersect tool to extract lines that would intersect the sketch plane. The last tool we have in the geometry creation tool set is this tool here, which toggles our geometry lines between geometry and construction minds. Geometry lines are solid lines which are used for our feature creation. Construction lines are not used in the feature tools. They are simply used to create geometries. For example, I may want to create this flat circular disc with for house. I can use the construction geometry to create the pitch circle diameter that these whole set on. Well, I can find the sketch, the pitch circle diameter is still visible, but crucially, when I use an extrude on shape doesn't complain as it doesn't count the construction geometry as something that needs to be extruded. This tool here allows us to create fillets. If you're not familiar with the term fillets, they are simply radii. I can create a rectangle, click the Philip tool, click two intersecting lines. We also have the trim tool, which allows us to remove a portion of a line between intersections. I can select the tool and hover over a line where the highlighted section shows what will be removed. In the same family of tools, we have the extend to, which, as an example, allows us to select a line and extend it to a new position. And lastly, in this family of tools, we have the split tool. This allows us to put a node into a line such that the original line is split into two. For example, this line fully highlights before using the split tool. Yet after using the tool, that line is now to selectable geometries, we have an offset tool which allows us simply to replicate a geometry at an offset distance. We click the Tool, click our geometry, then drag the offset to a position. Using this error, we get a text entry field to set a value. We have a mirror tool which requires us to select a mirroring plane. Then select the geometry that we'd like to mirror. We also have the pattern tool, which allows us, as the name suggests, to pattern or geometry, where we can set the distance by altering this value and alter the number of instances using this button. We can do the same for the other direction too. We have a number of constraints in these tools here which are useful and worth experimenting with for yourself. These include constraints like concentrate city, perpendicular, parallelism, tangency, amongst others. You simply select the tool and select one or two pieces of geometry, depending on the constraint, will be using all of the sketch tools as we progress throughout the course. These non-dimensional constraints can be revealed by clicking the Show constraints option in the sketch menu. You can hover over these constraints to determine which lines the constraints are constraining. If we need to delete a constraint, we can simply left mouse button click on a constraint, and press the Delete key. And finally, the solid lines of our sketch and our dimensions change color depending on how the whole sketch has constrained. Blue lines mean that the sketch is under-constrained. This means that elements can still move about. It is strongly recommended to fully constrain your sketches before applying features. Black lines for your geometry, describe the sketch as being fully constrained. This is what you should try and achieve. You may also get grayed out dimensions, which second to find that these dimensions are duplicates and redundant. If you foresee any of these great dimensions to a different value, you may also find your geometry turns red. Describing an over-constrained sketch by dimensions and non-dimensional constraints will need to be changed and some removed. To ensure that you get a fully constrained model. You need to imagine your shapes fully, but you also need to fix your shapes to plains as well. A good way to determine how your sketch may not be sufficiently constrained is by grabbing geometry elements with the left mouse button and try to move them. This can help you identify what constraints you need to add. For example, this square has the dimensions in terms of its height and its width, but the lines are still not ten black. Adding these two dimensions, fixing the square to the planes then does fully constrain the model. 9. Extrude: To create an extrude, we first need a closed profile sketch. I'll create a simple shape and dimension the sketch until it is fully constrained, which is when these lines turn black. So we can create our C-shape using some of the smart guides which highlighted in orange to share was Swami can snap to another part of the geometry. We can use this dimension tool to dimension the width to 100 millimeters. Then the plane to this edge for 50 millimeters, and then a depth of 70 millimeters. Again, dimensioning that to the plane with 35 millimeters. Then we created the thickness here of 25 millimeters. And we'll do the same to each of these legs as well. What we get now is all of our geometry turn black, which tells us that our sketch is fully constrained and we're safe to create this sketch into a 3D feature. I don't have any redundant dimensions were closed profile is shaded gray inside and there is no red geometry lines that might suggest the sketch is over-constrained. Pressing the green tick confirms the sketch. Next we can select the extrude tool. Wear a pop up window appears. The extrude tool for creating solids or surfaces. And we can change between these two by selecting either solid or surface. Will look at the solid to start off with within a four options to choose from. If we select the new option, we will create a new part within our model. You would normally start off with this option. I'll create our first extrude to a depth of 25 millimeters. We can extend the extrusion depth by grabbing this error and dragging it back and forth. And we can change the extrusion direction by clicking once on the error. Alternatively, we could enter a value into the depth box and change the direction. With this toggle button. We can add draft angles to our Extrude two along the direction of the extrusion. By checking this box, you can adjust the angle of draft and a direction with this toggle button. We can also add a second value for the opposing direction by checking this box where we get the same options of depth, direction, and draft angle. We also have a slider at the bottom of our pain, which alters the visibility of the new feature we are creating. And not worry about the second direction for this feature though. So I'll uncheck this box and press the green tech. You can see how many parts we have in the 3D model. And this parts and features list will now create another extrude to show off a few of options. If we were creating an extrusion onto an existing part of our 3D model, we can select the Add option, which will simply add material to the existing part. See how when we toggle between new and add, our part count changes. I can click the green tech and we have the new extruded feature upon our original extrude. We can click this part one. And we can see that the whole 3D model is selected, signified by the whole part being highlighted. Selecting Add would be the preferred option to use if you need to add material to a part. Remember, the recommendations start off with a large initial block and only takeaway material from the initial block. This is the preferred modeling convention, as it typically mimics traditional manufacturing methods and can help you in preventing designing components that may be impossible to make. So we will often need to remove material from existing features, which we can do so using the Remove option. So we'll go back to the extrude to feature and edit our adsorption to the Remove option. Then click this green tech. We notice that we now have a pocket where two extrudes overlapped. We could go back into our menu. And I selected the symmetric option and increase of depth, which will create pockets in each of these original extrude sections. We have other options in this drop-down menu, which allows us to extrude in a variety of different ways. I'll change back to the new option and select the up to next, which is where the Extrude. We'll go up to the next surface the new extrusion comes in contact with. We can see this more clearly when we select Part 2. We could select the upper face, which means the new extrude will end up the face that you select in this box. Again, this is more easily seen when we select Part 2. Our last option to explore out of these four options is the Intersect option. Selecting this option simply leaves the overlapping volumes of you extrude with either the whole of the existing part. If the merger though option is selected, or the specific parts is selected. If the merger though button is not selected. The up to part option achieves a similar result as the up to next option. The up to vertex option allows us to select a distance for the new extrude depth to be set to. We finally have the through all option, which simply passes you extrude through all parts. We mentioned earlier that we can also extrude surfaces with this option. Here. We have few options, but all the Romaine work in the same way as the solid extrusion option. The end result is instead a 2D surface rather than a 3D volume. 10. Revolve: The revolve feature tool has parallels with the extrude tool, where it can be used to create solids or surfaces and has these four options on New and remove and intersect. We can create a revolve sketch on the front plane using the horizontal axis as our revolve access. I can use the line tool to create my shape. And we just roughly do this as we make sure that the dimensions are what we use to make sure that the proportions are all correct. I use an arc just to close off this profile, which is symbolized by the gray shaded area. I can then start adding dimensions with this tool here, where I can have this dimension is 38 millimeters. Then I can add this one in 27 millimeters. And then I can add in this one at 60 millimeters. And we continue doing this until our sketches turn black, which symbolizes that we've got a fully constrained sketch. You might need to wiggle the sketch about just to work out whether you've got it fully constrained. But generally, just go through all the x and y's dimensions to start off with. And you should get most of the way there. We again need a closed profile for the sketch to be usable for the Revolve tool. Once we have a closed profile for evolving, which you should remember two dimension, we can exit the sketch by hitting the green tick. We can then select our revolve feature and ensure that the solid and new options here are selected. This box here asks us to select our revolve profile, which is sketch one for us. Then in this box, we need to select a revolve access. We can use this edge of the revolve in our case. Selecting OK then shows our 3D part completely revolved. We may have wanted to revolve a shape that was cheap blur, in which case, we would not have been able to use this edge as the revelation access. We can navigate this issue by adding a second sketch with just a line to act as our revolution axis. We can order our revolve feature in the features and parts tray to below this second sketch, then edited by double-clicking it. We can then change the revolution axis to sketch too, selecting OK to the revolve feature. And this now shows in our 3D model as a tubular feature. So it has a hollow center, which we can see when we rotate the part around. Our parts were completely revolved. But we can change this if desired. Editing our evolve shows that we have a drop-down box which allows us to select a variety of options. The full option will completely revolve the sketch, like what we have just seen. We have the one direction option, which allows us to specify an angular rotation to be resolved and the direction it needs to travel in. We also have the symmetric option, which similarly allows us to specify and included revolve angle. So the angle between these two faces. And we have the two directions option allowing us independent control of each direction in terms of rotation angle. Know that you can put in a negative number 2, which can be quite useful in certain situations. I'll reselect the full option so that we can have a look at cutting a groove into this model. I can create a simple sketch to cut a small groove into the part and dimension it. I can do this rather easily by using a rectangle. Then dimensioning its width at five millimeters. Then dimensioning its depth at 10 millimeters. Then dimensioning this edge to the vertical plane at 18 millimeters. And finally, this bottom edge to this horizontal plane at 15 millimeters. We can then exit the sketch. I can then select the Revolve tool again and select the Remove option. This time. I can select Sketch three as my revolve profile, and I'll use Sketch 2 again from my revolve access. Don't think that because you've used a sketch once, that you can't use it again, I can unhide sketch to using this button in the features and parts list. Then select this line as our revolve axis. And then we can hit the green arrow to confirm the feature. We don't necessarily need to create a dedicated sketch. In some cases, however, we can, if you like, be a bit lazy, with this extrude here, I could select this face is my profile and this edge as my revolve access. This works with adding material or removing it. And lastly, we'll have a quick look at revolving a surface. We do not need a closed profile for creating revolve surfaces. Just a line. We add our revolve axis from a different sketch and select our sketches as required in the Revolve tool with the same drop-down box options. And there you go. A powerful and easy to use feature that you'll use all the time. 11. Exercise Set 1 : Hi everyone. We've now got some exercises for you to practice some of the features that we've just been looking at. So working with sketches using the extrude tool and using the revolve tool is usually more than one way in which you can create parts, but there's usually one way which is most efficient. So in this section, we have exercise 1. Exercise 1, exercise 1 c, exercise one day, and exercise 1. A technical drawings can be found in the resources. And I'd really love to encourage you to have a go at these examples. Practicing what you've learned is really one of the best ways in which to learn. In the next video, we'll be going over the solutions to these exercises. 12. Exercise 2.1A - Solution: Hi everyone. This is exercise 2.1, the solution video for this problem. This part is largely an extruded part, so we're going to need to use the sketch and the Extrude features in on shape to create this. So let's start with creating a sketch on the top plane. So we can then right-click and then select View normal too. I'd highly recommend just roughly creating the shape in the sketch that you see in the section. View A-A from the drawing. And just quickly do this. Don't, don't spend too much time get these constraints. So I'm trying to get this orange constraint, a pair which will really help with the dimensioning of the sketch. But don't spend too long actually making sure the leg lengths or the right or the lines of the right length. It will help if you just quickly create the sketch and then dimension it afterwards, it will all work out in the end. So we can start adding dimensions. So this is 20 millimeters. And we've got another one here which is 10 millimeters. And then again here, oops, just delete that 20 millimeters. And then we've got another one here, which is going to be 10 millimeters. And then we can start adding this overall height, which will be 200 millimeters. This overall width will again be 200 millimeters. Then we need to add in this dimension, which is a 110. And again, this one here too. Again being a 110. So there's a lot of similar dimensions. And what you'll notice now is that all the lines and all the dimensions of turn black, which signifies we've got a fully constrained sketch. So now we can exit the sketch. Then we can then click on the extrude tool. And we have solid knew as our options. Then we can click on Sketch 1. And we can create a blind extrude depth of 20 millimeters. And if we turn it sideways, it's exactly some of the initial part that we need. Now we could have created the shape in exercise 2.1 a in just one step. So we could have put the pocket, which is here, you'll see in the section view in one go. So we could have done this in this first extrude. But I decided to do it in two steps to make it a little bit more digestible, but also to show the extruder Move tool as well. So I can create a sketch on this top plane, top face, and select View normal to. I can then select the corner rectangle, credit quick rectangle, and also add in these edge Phillips, Susan, this sketch folate option and put in some dimensions. And it just so happens to be the right radius for me, but you can change the number in there. Then click on this line and this line. And then in the center, it's quite another, another radius. I can do the same there and, and here as well. So I just need to dimension the square. So this is the width which is 80 millimeters. And then also the height, which again is going to be 18. Oh sorry, that's 80 millimeters. And then this side, which is again ten millimeters. And similarly, this top dimension, which is going to be 10 millimeters as well. And again, worldlines mentions of time black. So let's exit the sketch. Then let's go on to the extrude tool. May want to select the solid and the remove options. Then we just select our sketch that we just created. So Sketch 2. Then we can turn sideways and we're going to get a bit of a better view. We can then select merger though, and then we can use this slider. So this is what it started off with, the four extreme we just made. And we slide it across. And you can see that we've got a pocket now. So we can select OK to that. And there we go. We've got the part in exercise 2.1, a. 13. Exercise 2.1B - Solution: Hi everyone. This is the video for the exercise 2.1 B solution. This part can be created from just a single revolve, and that's what we'll show in this video. So to start off with a credit sketch and places on the front plane. And then will quickly draw the shape in cross-section it on this plane. And then we'll do mention it afterwards like we did with the previous example. So I'm going to start at the center and just create a profile. So I probably should have started the other direction because we need to add a circle in here. But I'll do the other side of this profile, something like this. And there we go. So I'll also add in a circle. And I'm going to do is in a slightly different way to normal, but hopefully you can follow along. So I'm gonna make these points coincident with the circle by adding the coincident constraint. So do that and then need to do the same with these. So I select the point and the circle and then hit the coincident button. So now these points coincident with the line. Then I'll quickly trim this portion of the circle. Okay? So I can start adding some dimensions in now got roughly the shape. And I'm going to start with this circle. So I can do 11.18 radius. And then I can dimension from here to there, which is 40 millimeters. And then I can just move some of these parts around just to make it look a little bit more like the shape we've got. So this is something that will happen when you draw the sketch and then dimension afterwards, but it is usually better to do it this way. I can then do from this point to this point, which is 36 divided by two, because this is a diameter in the sketch, whereas we want a radius because we want to revolve the sketch. That's 118. And again, scan to know some of these dimensions around so I can bring this down. Bring this one down a bit. Here we go. Oh, it's down. And bring this one down. So it's 1. Okay, so a little bit better. So it's a little bit fiddly, but you'll get used to it. And then we can put in this dimension here, which is 25 millimeters. And then we can add in. So from here to here, which is 10.1. And then we can add in this dimension here, which is 73 point 0, 2 divided by 2. Then we'll add this dimension in which is 65.45 divide by two. Here we go. And neat. But in this point, so that's 64 divided by two. So you can see it stunts take a little bit more shape and then make it do this dimension here as well. And that will be 40 millimeters. So you can see it's progressing. And then this dimension here will change things quite dramatically, probably. So we do 75, 97 divided by 2. There we go. And then we've got a few more dimensions we need to put in. So I'm not quite sure. Okay, So I can, I can grab these lines and workout. What is constraint? When I move the cursor around? So it's not going up and down, but it is going side to side. So I need to put dimension to control this width and height as well. So this is a 10 mill hall. So I guess I'll put five millimeters in there. And then I need to dimension this thickness as well. And that is five millimeters. Okay? So I also need to put in a radius here. So I can do that by putting in the radius. Like so. You can see it's got all the way over here because it thinks it's starting off with a default of 10 millimeters. Native change it to something a bit smaller. So one over radius. Okay, there we go. So we've got a fully constraint sketch. So we can hit the tick and then we can revolve this sketch. So, sorry, we need to add in our revolve axis as well. So you may have, may have got there before me. So put it in just a quick line and we'll dimension it really quickly. So we won't worry about the dimensions. Then we go and then we can revolve now. So we have a profile that we want to revolve and then our profile axis. And there you go. There is exercise 2.1 B. 14. Exercise 2.1C - Solution: Hi everyone. This is exercise 2.1. See at least one solution for it. And we're going to run through how you make that component. You're going to need to make this component using the extrude and the Revolve tool in this example. Let's start with the revolve around the outside of the part. So create a sketch AND operator on the right plane. So that view normal too. And it's a largely circular section. And it has a radius of 50 millimeters, which is the same as a 30 millimeter diameter. And then get to, in this 75 millimeters from the center. Got a fully constrained sketch as all the lines and dimensions of turn black. So we can exit the sketch. Then need to create another sketch on the right plane. And just too many to create our revolve axis. So just do this quickly and just really quickly dimension, it doesn't actually matter what the dimensions are as long as we've got the line. And again, we've got all-black dimensions and lines. So you can exit the sketch again. We can then use the revolve tool. Use this circular section as our revolve section. And the second sketch, this revolve axis as our revolve axis. And there we go. Easy. Then we can create the pad on the top plane. So if you normal two again. And we create a simple circle in the center to start off with. Again, it's got a 15 to 30 minutes or 30 millimeter diameter. So we can add that in. Then we can create the first spoke, this top spoke, just by quickly adding in some lines and then we'll dimension them afterwards. So just like that. So notice how I made the lines are coincident with this circle. Then we can add some dimensions in. So this dimension is 15 millimeters. The, the plane, so this plane to the edge is 7.5 millimeters, is that's half of 50 millimeters. And then we can add this dimension here, which I'll make 75 millimeters, such that this top end of the spoke is buried somewhere in the revolve access. Just need then to trim these bottom edges of this bottom line. And there we go. We have a fully closed profile. Then also need to add in the second third spokes. And I'd suggest doing that by adding construction lines. So there's one and we can press Escape key and do the same thing. So line tool and construction. Click on the center and drag it out to roughly at the PCD diameter. Okay, so let's dimension those. So let's also do mention them as 75 millimeters. So 75. And then we can use to do the same for this one here too. So again, it's 75 millimeters. Then also need to angularly align these lines both to themselves and to another datum. So I can add this dimension in here. And this dimension is a third of a sucker over complete circle. A circle is 360 degrees. So we've got 360. And then if you can't do the math, it's divided by three. So because there's three sections, so that's on June 20, that dimension is reasonably easy to work out, but you might get other angles which are a bit more difficult. So you can add in the formula in the dimension, which is a really handy thing to be able to do. So that you can add 120 in here. And we've got a fully constraint sketch again. We just now need to add in these second, third spokes, and we'll repeat that in the same way. So when I drag this line out, like the construction line turn orange, that tells me that I'm parallel to the line. And that's exactly what we're looking for. We can do a perpendicular line now and then add the final parallel line. And I'll make that coincident with the circle. So I can then dimension those, those lines as well now. So this is 15 millimeters like with the other one up here. And then we've also got this 7.5 millimeters two. And that'll turn some of these lines black. What we now need to do is turn this purple line black so we can dimension these lines. So that was this line to this point. That's 0. And you can see those London now ten black. I've now got the trim, this line, this line here is curved line. And I use the trim tool. And only to do that in two sections. And there we go. So again repeated for the third, third access. So start the line coincident with the circle. Make it parallel to the construction line. Draw a perpendicular line, and then a final parallel line to the construction line. Again coincident with the circle. And once again, we can dimension those lines. So again, that's 50 millimeters and another one which is 7.5 millimeters. And then we need to dimension the length, which we can do like this. So there's a couple of ways in which you can set the length of this perpendicular line. And we just trim these lines again. And there we go. We've got a fully constrained sketch for dimensions and the lines themselves. So hopefully, when we try to extrude that there will be any problems. There won't be any lines in the middle, which it doesn't like when we try to extrude. So let's give that a go so we can exit the sketch. Then we'll click on the extrude tool. Click on this sketch, and looking promising so far. And we want to add to this material, and we want to add it 7.5 millimeters in two directions. So we want it about the center, the center plane. So again at the second end position and another is 7.5 as well. Oops, we'll do merge with ALL as well. And we can confirm that. And there we go. There is your part. 15. Exercise 2.1D - Solution: Hi everyone. This is the video solution for exercise 2.1 d. And this is a part which is a little bit complex when looking at just the drawing. So hopefully looking at 3D CAD model and the question's video helped articulate what this component looks like. Essentially, this is a component which has three revolves in each of these revolves is of a cross-section of 40 millimeters diameter. And that is, they're all based on a 150 millimeter pitch circle diameter. So actually this component is quite easy to create. So it's just a little bit complex to understand what it looks like from the drawing. We'll start off with creating a sketch on the right plane. So let me go view Normal To. And then we put a circle here on a 40 millimeter diameter. And then we need to have the pitch circle diameter, so 150 millimeters. But that's going to be divided by two because we're looking at the radius. So there we go. We can then add in our Revelation access again on the right plane. So we put in there really quick line and press the Escape key to stop a line tool. Put it in a couple of really quick dimensions. There we go. And then we can click on the Revolve tool, choose our section, and then choose a revolution axis as Sketch 2. So this one here. So that's one part. We just really repeat that another two times on different planes. So I can put another one on the front plane, for example. So the animal to add a circle again, or 40 millimeters diameter. And then again, so we know it's 75 millimeters as the radius. We just did that chemical Philip constraints sketch. And we need to put in a revolution axis for each of the planes that we work on because we can't use the previous revolution axes, is that in the wrong, wrong plane? So quickly dimension that. And then we revolve this one too. So here we go, which is a revelation access to that. So hopefully you can start to recognize this from the 10 and the technical drawing. Let me add one further and further section. So the top plane. Here we go. Again, dimension of 40 millimeters and a distance of 75 and meters. There we go. And our final revelation axis, which we can put in just here. Press the escape key quickly Dimension this line. And then our final revolve using Sketch five is our profile. And I'll revolution axis sketch sex. And they have it. 16. Exercise 2.1E - Solution: Hi everyone. This is the solution video for exercise 2.18. And again, in this video, you're going to need to use the revolve feature as well as the extrude remove for a few different cuts if you like. So let's have a look. So we can start by creating a sketch and putting this on the front plane, for example. And then we can roughly sketch the profile of the cylinder. And then we'll focus on the cuts so the holes and the slots in the next steps. So we create kind of like an L shape. That's kind of the main, main part of the component that so it's predominantly characterized by. And then we can add in the dimensions. So we've got a diameter of 50 millimeters, which means a radius of 25 millimeters. And then we also have a height of 75 millimeters. So we can add 75 in there. We also then need to look at this wall thickness. So this is going to be a height of two millimeters. And then we also need to do this wall thickness as well, which will again be two millimeters. Got a fully constrained sketches over all of our dimensions and lines the term black. So we can exit that sketch. We can then pick the Revolve tool. And we can select our sketch to be the sketch with just created. And we can use this edge here as our evolve access. So you don't actually need to create a separate revolve axis for this part. And there we go. We can press the green tech for that. So let's add in some of the slots and holes. So let's start off with this hole in the bottom of the part. So let's create a sketch on that surface view Normal To. And then we'll cut a circle. And then we need to Dimension that to be 10 millimeters. So we can just put 10 in there. And then we can use the solid remove on this Sketch, Sketch 2. And then we just need to make sure that it's going in the right way. So yeah, it looks like it's and adjust the slider. We've got a hole in there. Yeah. So you can hit the green tech. So there we go. Nice and easy. Then let's look at the one of the slots. So this slot that you see on the main view, so not section view, but the one on the left. So we can put a sketch on say, the front plane for example. So view normal two again. And this is basically you can create this part, this slot with a circle and then two lines extending upwards. So we can put a circle n. And then we put it in some lines. So we'll put it in a construction line actually. So we can put a construction line over here and more, just put in another one. So construction line over here as well. And then what we want to do is put some lines going all the way up. And again, we want to make sure we can have a parallel line so we get the orange constraints up. Then we just need to dimension this. So we can dimension this width, which are also in turn dimension the diameter as well. So this is 15 millimeters diameter or 7.5 mile radius. And then we have this from a height of 42.5 millimeters from the top. So we just added in 42.5 like that. And then we want this slot. So we'll have this line just above here so we don't get any cat issues, so you don't need to use could be 0. Though I normally just do a little bit above just because we're removing it. So it doesn't really matter if it's above. It's just cleaner sometimes, sometimes you get issues with the edges. So we also need to remove this portion of the circle. Otherwise it's going to complain when we tried to remove the extrude. So we'll just use a trimmed to own that. And as you can see, as normal, we've got a black sketch. So we can hit the green tech and then we can use the remove, extrudes or solid remove. Then we use sketch three as our sketch. And what we need to do is you can see it's only on one side, so we need to do a second direction as well. And we'll make these both through, all through on both ends. And now we just know it's cutting is cutting all the way through. So let's hit the green tech on now. So we're nearly done. We just need to add some holes in the sides here and here. So we can do that by placing a sketch on the right plane. So we've got three holes. So let's put the first one n, and then we can put a second one in a third one, and then we'll do mention them afterwards. So this first one is 20 millimeters from the bottom. This second one is 40 millimeters from the top one. So within 20 there. And then we've also got 60 as well as the last one. And then we need to make sure we've got the diameter's dimensions. So this one, this first one is five millimeters. This next one is 10 millimeters, as we can see in the section view. And the third one is 15 millimeters, going out with five millimeters each time. And once again, I'm going to sound like a broken record, but we've got fully constraint sketch, so now we can leave it. And then we can use the solid remove on sketch for and we're going to use the through all function. So we get all three holes there. But once again, we need to use the second position as well. And usually through all function as well. And there you go. Nice and easy. Hope that was a good part to try out the features that we've learned so far on. Congratulations if you managed to create the part. 17. Sweep: Let's sweep tool is one that can be used to create shapes of a constant cross-section and project that cross section along a defined path. For example, I can create a simple path with a sort of S-shape, ensuring that I fully constrain the model. We can use the radius tool to put a radius in each of these corners. And then afterwards, we'll use this dimension tool. To start constraining our sketch. We can dimension the overall width the sketch to 70 millimeters. And then in the horizontal plane, we can orient the sketch to the planes of the dimension of 35 millimeters, a leg length of 35 millimeters as well. For each of these legs. The sketch is fully constrained. Create a new plane, 70 millimeters offset from the top plane, and then create a simple circular cross section on it. Use the circle tool to create a circle from this point here, from the original sketch, we dimension it to 20 millimeters and our sketch is fully constrained. So we can proceed to use the sweep tool. I can then select the sweep feature tall this button here. We once again, we see some familiar options where we can choose to create a solid or a surface and choose between New, add, remove, and intersect. We are prompted to select our section sketch that we want to project along a path in this box here. And I'll select this circle sketch. And then in the next box, we need to select a sweep path. So I'll select the sweep path in a sort of S-shaped. And you can see that now we have what looks like a cheap bent along what was our sweep path. Now, the last section view has remained perpendicular to sweep path at all points along the sweep path. If we took slices of the cross section along our sweet path, that would look something like this. However, we could have selected to keep profile orientation, which forces the section sketch terrain parallel to the original sketch, which changes the 3D model into a rather odd shape. Again, if we took slices of this section, it would look something like this. Let's have a look at another slightly different case. We could have a section of this shape and a sweep path of a circle. We can select the sweep tool and select the surface option. We could select our sketch from the features and parts list. Or if we wanted, we could select just some edges of the sketch, like these two lines. We can then select the sweet path as the circle. You can see the effect of clicking new lines or deactivating some lines from the sweet entities in the 3D model viewer. This feature tool can be useful in a number of scenarios. One of which may be in the creation of pipes and tubes, especially if you are having to create a complex routing. 18. Loft: The Loft feature tool is one that allows you to smoothly transition between multiple cross sections with guides if required. We can start a simple transition between rectangles, polygons, between three different planes. To start off with. I'll create two more planes based off of this front plane. One at a 150 millimeters offset, and another offset in the opposing direction. At 250 millimeters away. I'll create a square on the first plane of 50 millimeters by 50 millimeters. So we use the rectangle tool, then dimension the left edge to the plane for 25 millimeters. Then the overall width to 50 millimeters. This top line to the plane of 25 millimeters, and this total depth 250 millimeters to give us a fully constraint sketch. Then I'll create a rectangle on this plane of 75 millimeters by 200 millimeters. Again, using the rectangle tool, you can to mention the total width to be 200 millimeters. This half dimension of 100 millimeters. This half depth to be 37.5 millimeters, and this total depth to be 75 millimeters. And then a small square on this plane at 25 millimeters by 25 millimeters. So again, using the same methodology, it mentioned the total width to be 25, and this half dimension to a 12 and a half, this depth to be 25. And lastly, this half dimension to be 12.5 millimeters. I can then select the loft feature tool, which is this icon here. Like with our other features, we have these common options and they work in the same way as we've previously discussed. When we select the loft tool, we're first prompted to select the profiles. We wish to transition between where I'll select these three sketches. Know that you should select them in the correct order. If I select them in this order, the tool fails. When I select the profiles in the correct order, the tool works. We have these options called Start peripheral condition and end profile condition, which alter how this curved edge transitions between the start and neighboring sections or end and neighboring sections. Selecting this option to be normal to profile means that the beginning of this edge is perpendicular to this plane. We have the option to do so at the other end of the loft as well. We also get a new box appear called magnitude. This biases where the curvature occurs and that negative values can be used. You'll turn certainly could have selected this option to be tangent to profile, where this edge is instead tangent to the profile. We can similarly bias the curve profile condition two and apply it in the other end of the loft as well. Another way in which we can use lofts is by using the match tangent option. To demonstrate what this is doing. I'll create these two sketches into extrudes and drafts to them as well. When we come to use a loft tool, we select this extrude face. And this extrude face. We can then select Match tangent at each end. And hopefully you saw the effect between none and match tangent. What has happened is that the loft feature has detected this angle surface on the extrude and blended up loft projection such that each of these faces is tangent to the start of the loft. And of course the same is applied at the other end. You again have the options to apply magnitudes to this profile condition. We can get a slightly different shape. If we select the match curvature option. We can now start taking this loft tool into more complex usage by introducing the match vertices option. Once ticked, we can specify sequential vertices to show the path with one edge of your loft should pass through. You could specify these two points, or you can play around with the complex shapes. By specifying these two points. You should only be specifying one vertex per profile. We could use the loft tool by specifying a path we would like the changing profile to follow. I've already created a pathway here. And so we can remove the matched vertices option and select path instead. Then select this path sketch. We can change the section count to two. In purple, we have the two section instances that have been spaced along our path. The loft then passes through the vertices of the instances, as well as the initial vertices. You can encounter some issues when using this method. As some geometries will clash with itself. When I crank up the number of instances to six, for example, our loft looks report and discontinuous. The few of the instances you can get away with, the better. One of the most robust ways in which to create complex lofts is by defining guides to define where each edge of the loft should be. I've already created for guides for our model. And so all I need to do is take the guides and continuity option, then click each of the guides. These guides were created using a sketch. Some of the tricky parts to creating all of these guides isn't drawing all of the sketches and all the planes that they sit upon. We can create planes using this icon here. We have several ways in which we can define planes. I chose the three points option and simply specified three points that lie on that plane. I chose these three points to create these two guides. Avengers sketch on the plane. To create the guides, creating a separate sketch for each guide. 19. Planes: And our video on the loft feature, we created a number of planes to create a sketch on. Our sketches are so important in 3D parametric modelling, and that sketches often need a plane to be created on. You'll likely be creating a lot of planes, especially if you have unusual shapes. We can use this plane tool to create new planes. As we saw in the loft tool video, we have a number of options we can choose to create our new planes. The first option is the default. And possibly the most common option, which is to create a plane offset from an already existing one. We simply select the plane we want to create an offset from, for example, this front plane. And then just need to specify an offset value and toggle the direction to what you intend. We can drag the plane using the arrow when holding the left mouse button or reverse the direction by clicking the arrow once. I can create a point on a sketch on the top plane. To show the next option, we can set our Sketch View normal to plane places point down and dimension it to the sketch of 250 millimeters. We have a dimension in the vertical axis, so we don't need to put a dimension down for it. If I can create a new plane and select the plane point option, I can create a new plane parallel to an existing plane, which passes through a point that I select. So I can select the right plane as a plane I would like my new one to be parallel to. And then select this point to effectively set offset. The next option is by selecting a first plane, then a line by which to rotate that first plane about. I'll create a sketch on our newest plain and simply draw a horizontal line. At some point, I'm going to sound like a broken record. But remember, it is really important. The fully constrain your sketches. We have a full width of 150 millimeters, then the half dimension of 75 millimeters. Then I'll create a new plane. Select the line angle option, then select this newest plane, and then the line we wish to rotate that plane through. And then I can type an angle to rotate the plane through. We also have a toggle for changing direction with this button here. Oh, by single clicking on this arrow in the model view. You don't just have to have a horizontal line though. Have a go at trying different angled lines as well. For our next option, I'll create two new points, each on different planes. We place a point out here, and to mention it horizontally for 100 millimeters and also vertically for 100 millimeters. The sketch is fully constrained. So we confirm the sketch. The place our new sketch on this plane and place a point again out here with dimension it horizontally. Again for 100 millimeters, but also vertically, but this time for 50 millimeters. Again, we can turn the sketch as, as dimensions of all turned black. And so we have a fully constraint sketch. And I'll just rotate this model around just so we have a clear view who muses next tool? I can select these three points, which will be what I want a plane to pass through. I find this next method as one I use fairly often when looking at complex components. I can create a plane and select the three points. Option. We already selected are three entities before we select the tool. And so they are populated in this entity box. What you can see is we have a new large plane that passes through each of these three points. We can edit our planes after we have placed them in the normal way. I'll correct this first plane that we have created further out. For clarity in how we use this next option. I can select the front plane and the plane one. Select the plane tool, then select the mid plane, which creates a plane midway between the two entities that we selected. We could do this with plane to plane three. Even though they angled between each other. We get the plane appear in the position where the angular spacing from a new plane to these two planes is the same. We can toggle the flip alignment button such that it changes to this small horizontal mid plane rather than this more vertical mid-plane. Lastly, I can specify a new plane on a curve where the plane is normal to the tangent of that curve. So on plane 1, I can create a simple spline with a couple of turning points in the curve. And note that our spline tool gives us a few points along that curve. I can select the new plane tool and stick the curve point option. I just then need to select the normal line reference. So this curve. And then select the point along that curve where I want to see the normal plane. Like here. These are all going to be very useful to you. So I'd really recommend having a go for yourself in creating planes in on shape. 20. Exercise Set 2: Hi everyone. Now that we've learned a few more features tools, it's time for some practice in using them. You should be creating these models using other the sweep or the loft tool. You will of course need to be working with sketches and you may need to create new planes on which to place these sketches upon. So the exercise we have free to try out, our exercise to a exercise to be and exercise to see. As before, the technical drawings are again in the resources area. Best of luck with those exercises and if it gets stuck, the next set of videos are the solutions to these exercises. 21. Exercise 2.2A - Solution: Hi everyone. This is the video solution for exercise 2.2 a. And this is a nice example of how she uses sweep tool. So we'll start off by creating the path that the sweep is swept along. So we can select the front plane and then we go Normal To. And then if we create a quick S-shape in the line form, we can then add the radius is here and here. So we then need to dimensionless and we can dimension this height of 100 millimeters. And we also know that this is going to be symmetrical about the mid plane. So we'll do this as 50 millimeters. We have this dimension for half the width, which is 50. And we also have the overall as well, which is going to be 100. So there we go. We've got a fully constraint sketch. So let's Exeter. And then we need to add so that we need to do our cross section for the tube itself. And we need to start perpendicular to one of these points. And ideally be nice to start with this point down here. But we need a plane at that point. So if we did our cyclist section here, it wouldn't quite work. It would feature would have an error. So we need to create a new plane on this point. So you can select plane, and then we can select plane point. Then we can select our entity to be, sorry, that's the wrong plane. So I should have selected the right plane. So we select our plane and the point. And there we go. We've got a plane where we need it. So then we can create a sketch on this plane one. So select View Normal To. And then we pick up on this point. So this point here, just to again. And then we can create our tube section. Then of course we need to dimension. This is where we have an outside diameter of 30 millimeters and we have an inner diameter of 25 millimeters. So it's pretty close to actually. Then we can exit that sketch and we can change the view a bit. And what we can do then is choose the sweep tool. Choose our face or section. Then we can choose our sweep path. Now you can select lines individually like this and you progressively create the tube. Or what I can do, if I just exit those, I can slit sketch one and all the, all the Mongo to that can sometimes be a bit easier. And we don't want to keep this profile orientation tact. That's that would be wrong. It would mess up a bit. Yeah. So this shouldn't be on. And they go, there is exercise 3.2 a 22. Exercise 2.2B - Solution: Hi everyone. This is the video solution for exercise 2 to B. And this should hopefully be a very simple example to practice using the loft tool. This is simply a loft between a rectangle and a small square. To do this, we need to create a second plane offset from the front plane. So, and I'm going to do that at a distance of the loft distance. So we can select the front plane. And then we can offset this by the distance showing the section view, which is 100 millimeters. I'll do it in, in going away from us in the, in the software. So start off with by creating a small square on the front plane. So I can do that with the coral rectangle tool. I'll make that blue. I'll make that around the origin. So we know that this is 20 millimeter square. So we can add our dimensions in like this. And we'll make this 10 millimeters as well from the central plains and make it nice and symmetrical. Okay? Then we need to create a second, Second shapes. So our rectangle on this plane one. So again the viewing them all to credit another using our corner rectangle. And then we can add our dimensions in. So a 100 millimeters wide. And we've got a height of 50 millimeters. So then we make this nice and symmetrical again. So that's a way 25. And whoops, wrong one. So from this edge to the center plane, which will be 50 millimeters as, as half of 100. There we go, fully constraint sketch, so let's exit that. And then we can create our loft using the loft tool. So we go for a solid new loft and we select our profiles in order. Remember, so select the square one and then the rectangle. So the order, it wouldn't really matter in this example, but it does matter when you've got more than 22 faces to be selecting. So that all looks good. So press the Enter key and there we go. There is the video solution for exercise 3 to be actually that was nice and easy. 23. Exercise 2.2C - Solution: Hi everyone. This is the video solution for exercise 2.2 C. And this is again another sweep just with a little bit more complexity as it turns a corner rather than staying in just one plane. So again, let's have a look at creating the sweet power fast. So we can start by drawing a straight path or part of it, at least on the front plane. So select the front plane and the normal T. Then I can create the first portion. So the first half shall we say. So up to the origin. And I can do that on this front plane. And then the next will have to be done on one of the other planes or the right plane probably. So we have a radius between hair as well. And that is a radius of 25 millimeters. So we can add 25 in here. And then we need to add in, add dimension from here to the mid plane, which is going to be 50 millimeters. Furthermore, we need to add an r distance of this point from the other right plane, which will again be 50 millimeters. So we can exit this sketch. And then we can continue this sketch by collecting, by selecting the right plane. I mean, you can start from the origin, go up and draw a line to the right. Again, we can put it in a, fill it in this corner here of 25 millimeters. And then we also need to add in our other dimensions that we had on the previous lines, previous sketch. So again, here is going to be 50 millimeters. So we've got a fully constraint sketch, so we'll exit that when we turn to the side. And you can see this is, this is the sweep path that we have in the drawing. Again, we need to add another plane point such that we can work on from this point. So our sexual needs to start here. So we'll create another plane. And we will use by him point slack the right plane, and select this point. There we go. So you're nice plane on that point. Select the sketch again on plane 1. So there's similarities with the two-point to a question. It's just this dog language, which makes it a little bit more tricky. So we're going to use a, a polygon as well. So we start the polygon at this point. And then we can create a polygon. So we need to select some of there, and it's going to be five or the polygon, so a pentagon. Okay? And then we just need to, to mention it's, and it's dimension with a 20 millimeter inscribed polygon. So that's 20 millimeters. There we go for the constraint again. So then all we need to do now is create the sweep sweep tool. So it knew. And then we can select our profile as sketched three. Sweep path will be Sketch 2 and sketch one. And there we go. There is the solutions to exercise to point, to see. 24. Thicken and Enclose: The second tool, this tool here is an easy and simple one to understand. Its primary use is to add depth to a surface where this surface could be like this sketch here, or the phase of an already existing volume. Selecting the tool, we see a familiar sight with these four options at the top. And then we also get a box here for selecting entities. And then two directions to choose from with a directional toggle button here. First, I'm going to turn this sketch into a surface by selecting this Fill tool from the top toolbar. Then select the sketch, then confirm, easy. Then I select the thickened tool, select our surface, and then set our first direction value and direction. I can also add a second value for the opposing direction. I can still use this toggle button. Even if I have specified a direction value in both boxes, I can select more than one face or surface to be thickened. So I'll try this face here on the 3D part. Remember that our ad option will ensure that we are left with just one part at the end when extending an existing 3D volume. Now that we have two parts because our surface did not intersect with our 3D volume. To understand how the enclosed to works, I've already created a 3D model with a number of elements. The enclosed tool is used to create a part from selecting a number of boundaries surrounding an empty space. This has uses in specific applications and I've not always seen as tool available in other CAD packages for an automotive transmission that I've worked on. One of my jobs was defined a common oil pickup location for an oil pump. To do this, we have to find a location where the oil level always cover a certain point in the transmission such that the oil pump was never starved. This was done in a very laborious and tedious way in an old cat system with on shape using this tool, it would have been much easier. We have three separate entities in this model. This L shaped surface, this disc shape, and this rectangular block placed as an angle. Hopefully, you can identify that there is a portion here in this angle triangular section of just empty space. This is currently empty space and I would like to create it as a part. I can select the enclosed tool and select a number of faces or surfaces, entities. So I'll click this large face, the top of this disk. And these two surfaces, when I click the Confirm button, our entities disappear and we're left with our empty space. But now as apart, we may have wanted to keep our entities that we use to create this new part, which we can do so by ensuring this keep tool option is ticked. Note that the entities we use to create the enclosed space acted as our tools for us to create the feature. Hence, why, when we select this option, our entities remain. 25. Shell, Draft, Rib and Mirror: In this video, we will combine a few new different features together. You would normally combine more than one features together to create your components. First of all, we will start off with a simple extrude, where of course we only exit the sketch once we have fully constrained it. Then we'll make this into a 3D volume. Will next look at what is known as the shell tool, which allows us to hollow out the shape and maintain a constant wall thickness where we can choose to have faces removed as well. We can then select this shell tool with this person from the top toolbar menu. We have only a few options to worry about. The first is that we can take this hollow button, which means this part has a cavity in the center. We need to slit the part, then specify a shell thickness. I can create a remove Extrude so that you can visualize what this 3D model looks like in cross-section. Alternatively, we can untick the hollow option and choose a face that we want to remove. For example, this top face. We can see our results is a buck shape. We could select other faces, two like so. And we can unselect faces either by clicking the faint cross here or here, or by de-selecting the faces on the 3D model. Again, with a left mouse button click. We would also need to specify the directions we want Michelle thickness to grow from. See how a wall thickness changes direction as we toggle this button. Next, we can have a look at drafts. Drafts, or type of features that you may need to include on your designs. Likely for manufacturing considerations. Draft angles are often needed a metal castings, but may also be needed in other manufacturing processes, including injection molding and additive manufacturing that fall into the rapid prototyping category. I'll put a draft angle on the internal upright faces of the shape. Is a bit difficult to see the effect. To demonstrate the effect, I'll show the feature on the external faces too. We can specify a neutral plane where the draft entity faces will be specified as a number of degrees off of perpendicular from the neutral plane. We'll specify our neutral plane as this face here. And then we can specify these external faces as the ones which we want to have the taper applied to. The taper angle will propagate from this neutral plane. We can then set our value of draft angle and the direction. Next we can have a look at ribs. Ribs are often used to increase a component stiffness and strength. We can make these in two primary ways. The first is that we can create a sketch profile like this. Then we can select the rib tool and select the sketch as our sketch profile. Then we select the 3D model part we are working with. For our RIP geometries to be added to. We can select this simply by selecting our geometry. We can then specify a rib thickness and orientation, which we will select as parallel to sketch plane in our example. Alternatively, we can create ribs using the normal to sketch option, which requires us to change what our sketch looks like. I can create two lines on a plane from this top surface of the box. I'll create a straight line that touches the edges of the inside faces of the box. And I'll create an AAC does not touch the inside faces. First of all, we wouldn't have this extends profiles to pump option selected, where when we take the green arrow, we have our ribs President as we drew them. But when we select the extended profiles depart option, we can see that the curved red profile has been extended to reach the edge of the inside of our box. We can also uncheck the merge ribs box, which means that we will not be adding material to our original pot, but instead we will be creating two new parts. Remember, we can see that here in the features and parts list. Lastly, we will look at the mirror feature. We have familiar options in this menu with the new ad to remove and intersect. Options work in the same way as we have seen before in the extrude and revolve tools, we have a drop-down box here though, which allows us to mirror the pot features or face. We'd also need to specify a mirroring plane. The merge with ALL is, as with the other features, the way in which we ensure this operation we're about to do, stays all as one part. So we could mirror our whole pot. If we selected part 1 as our part entity to mirror with this face as our mirroring plane. We could instead mirror this rib feature by selecting feature mirror in the drop-down box. Selecting the feature from the features and parts list. Then selecting this plane as our mirroring plane. To show the face mirror tool. We can create a pocket in the inside wall. Then we can select the marital, select the face mirror option. Select these two faces that create the whole. Then select our mirroring plane again to be this plane here. Then we can confirm this feature. 26. Further Drafting and Split: To use the drafting tool in a more advanced way, we need to learn how to use the split tool. This tool simply allows us to separate a part or face into two independently selectable objects. I'd like to add a sort of upside-down V-shape to the top of this component, albeit at a shallow angle. We'll use the split tool and draft tool to do this. The split tool is this button here. We can select it and for a change, we'll select the splitting a face option, not apart. I'll select this face on the new part I've created as the face. I want this split and select the right plane as the entity to split my face with. When we confirm the split tool, we can now independently select these two faces. I can then select the drafting tool, select the right plane, and then select this half of the face, we just split. Notice how this other side of the original phase also drafts though. This is because we have the tangent propagation option toggled on. If we turn it off, only the face we selected is drafted. This other feature in the draft menu reapply and fill it can be demonstrated by first deleting the draft we just made and adding fillets to all of these edges. So I click the left, top, right, and bottom edges where the tangent propagation Also Phil, It's these two edges. And then reselect the draft tool, select the right plane as our neutral plane, and then select this same face again. And finally check the tangent propagation option is selected. When the re-apply Philip is not ticked, we end up with what is best described as a mess. The original fillets, if you like, remained in place where the draft feature overwrote some of the original fillets, particularly at this smaller end of the part. However, we can select the re-apply fillets option, where the fillets now get reapplied to the new draft edges and should end up as you intended. Let's now have a look at the drafting parting line option. First of all, we need to split the edge faces, which we will do again using the face split tool. You first however, need to add a new plane such that we have selling to split these edges with. I'll offset our new plane 25 millimeters from the top plane. Then we can select the split tool, then face, select these four faces, not holding down any key on the keyboard. And then we select Plane 1 as our entity, which we want to split off phases with. Then we confirm those parameters with this green tick. Then we can select the drafting tool and click the parting line option. This option effectively allows us to apply a draft only to a certain point on a face. We select our pool direction, which is sort of like our neutral axis, that the direction normal to the pole face is the direction along which the drafts are created. So I simply need to click these edges, rotate around and click these other two edges as well. For our entities, we can add an angle of 10 degrees to our draft. And we can slide this slider from left to right to see what we have created with this feature. We have our usual toggle buttons to change which face is drafted and the direction which the drafts Act in. And we have a drop-down box here, which allows us to select the one sided, symmetric and two-sided options. If we switch to our symmetric option, as the name suggests, we get the same draft on each face acting in opposing directions. With the two-sided option selected, we simply get the freedom to adjust the draft angles and the direction of each face independently. Finally, we'll look at using the split tool with surfaces. We may have two surfaces like this. And we may want to trim one of these surfaces using an intersecting surface. For example. We want to trim this blue surface with a gray surface, cuts it, and keep this side. We could do this by first selecting our part that we want to split. And then the entity which will cut the first part by our gray surface will disappear unless we select this keep Tools option. One thing to note is that in order to split this blue surface are gray surface must completely overlap the blue. When I reverse our split selections, you can see that the gray surface geometry appears with an orange outline. You may also see these orange lines appear when other features fail using other tools as well. 27. Exercise Set 3: Hi everyone. It's time for some practice on using the tools that we've just looked at in the previous videos. It's a good time to do so as some of these tools are used less often than extrudes revolves. For example, we have Exercise 3 a, Exercise 3 bay, and exercise three C. As a hint, you'll want to use the shell tool for exercise 33 b, where you may want to use the shell tool twice in 3D. As usual, the technical drawings to work from or in the resources area. Have a go and see how he gets home. Like with the previous examples, we'll be going over the solutions to these problems in the next set of videos. 28. Exercise 2.3A - Solution: Hi everyone. This is the video solution for exercise 2.3 a. And this one uses the shell tool primarily, but we will also need to use the extrude tools for both creating a block and then removing a small aperture. So this part is a little bit like a tissue box. So first of all, we'll start by creating a sketch on the top plane. So select the top plane, then go view Normal To. And then we'll just create the simple box to start off with. We'll dimension this component. So we are 240 millimeters across. And then we are 120 millimeters tall. And then we can Dimension that to this mid plane. So that's going to be half that 60. And then we also have 120. Okay, fully constraint sketch. So we can exit. Then if we create a pad or an extrude, sorry, of 80 millimeters. And what we can do, so it will just readjust the view, is we can then use the shell tool to create the wall thickness that we see in the drawing of two millimeters. So we select the shell tool. Then we select our well, we slept the hollow option and we just select the part that we want to shall we say, put in the shelf thickness as well of two millimeters. You want it going in. So we select this option, but this option, it might, might be different depending on how you selected it. But for me, the material isn't going outwards. It's going inwards. So you can confirm that and we can't really see it, but we will see it when we put in the Remove pockets in the top. So to finish off this component, we just need to create a sketch on the top plane. Select View Normal To. And then we put in an ellipse, can start with the origin, put in a height and a rough width as well. And then we can dimension this. So it's 150 millimeters from top to bottom. So that's 150. And then we've got a width as well. So that width is 70 millimeters. So we confirm that they're fully constraint sketch that makes the extrude solid remove. And then we just need to do a short depth. So you can see there and there you go. You've got the component that we have in the drawing. You can see it's hollowed as well. So now we can see it's hollow in this next step. 29. Exercise 2.3B - Solution: Hi everyone. This is the video solution for exercise 2.3 B. Hopefully, this is actually called an interesting part to be, to be creating and 3D modeling. As it's perhaps a little bit more relatable than some of the other components that we've looked at. The process flow that will be going through. Where is where we'll start off with an extrude to represent the rectangular block of this component. Then we'll create the eight disks on top. So we'll extract those as well. Then we'll create a shell so that we can shell the majority of the component. Then there are three tubes at the bottom which will be formed of three extrudes or one extrude or three cylinders circles. And then we'll show those three afterwards as well. So let's start by creating a sketch on the top plane, allowing the view normal to how we see it. Putting a quick block in there. And then we can dimension this block. Well, so this will be 3.31.8. And then to the mid-plane will be 31.8 divided by two. And then our height is 15 when eight. And then half of that. So 15.8 divided by two. A fully constraint sketch means that we can exit it. It can then go to the extrude tool and create an extrusion to a height of 9.6. Then what we need to do is create a sketch on the top surface, again, aligning with the normal to it. And then creating these eight circles. So we can create our first circle of AI diameter of 4.8 and a distance of 3.9 to each edge in this y-dimension, and then in the x dimension as well. Now what you could do here is you can pattern this feather seven instances if you're familiar with the pattern tool. But as we haven't covered that yet, I'll do this manually. And what I'll do is I'll speed this next section up so that you don't have to watch me dimension eight circles. Okay? So that's the sketch fully constrained. So it will exit the sketch. And then we will create the extrusion. So we can select Sketch 2. And these will be to a height of 1.8 millimeters. There we go. So now what we need to do is create the shell. And we want to pick the shell tool. And then what we want to do is remove one of these faces so we don't take the hollow option. We simply select this face and then select the correct wall thickness, which will be 1.2. There we go. Brilliant. So now what we need to do is create the three tubes down here. And that will be formed of an extrude. And then we will shell each of those new extrusions so we can create a sketch on this bottom face. So their view normal too. There we go. So we can create three circles here. And on the other side. And these will be 2 mentioned with the center distance of 7.9 on both sides. And then the diameters is quite a specific value of 6.5137. And we have that for each of these Final one of 6.5137. Okay. So we can exit the sketch, create an extrusion of sketched three. And then what we can do is we can select the up to face option and then select this face here. There we go. So this nicely, nicely flushed with that face. Then for the final time, we select a shell tool. And we want to again remove this face over here and leave a wolf shell thickness of point 86. So we can stack multiple faces. And then we can select nought 0.86 millimeters. And then we can confirm the sketch. And we've completed this part. 30. Exercise 2.3C - Solution: Hi everyone and welcome to the video solution for exercise 2.3 C. This component is, has got a lot of views on the drawing, but it's actually quite simple. You can create this in a number of ways, but hopefully you use the mirror, rib and drafting tools to create this part. Let's first start with one of the main, one of the sides of this components, and then we're going to mirror it. So to start off with, I'll use the view and I'll start with a 30 millimeter diameter hole going all the way or sorry, extrude going all the way across. So Dimension that to be 30. And then that extrudes. So if I'm doing half of this will be they'll pump 110 divided by two. So I can then go Extrude. And then new to a depth of 55 loops is be 55 millimeters. Okay. Then I'm going to make the larger desk raised up from this top view. So I need to create a new plane. And that will be 15 millimeters above the top plane because we've got 110.5 of that is 55. 55 minus 40 is 15. And you can see that on the drawing. So this will be 15 millimeters offset. And that's in the correct direction. Then I can create a sketch and go view a more two. And then we can start creating this larger desk. And this will be to a dimension of 125 millimeters. So then we can extrude that. And that'll be an extrude depth or 40 millimeters. So to the top of this. So I could alternatively set up to face and then selected this face. Okay? Then we'll make the main pocket. And we can see that we've got a number of ribs. And in the Detail View, you can see that we are 10 millimeters down from this height to the top of the rib, and then a further 10 millimeters down to the bottom of the main part of the surface of this part. So I can then put another circle here. And that will be a dimension of 115 millimeters. And then, as we just said, so 10 millimeters to the top of the real part and then 10 millimeters from the top of the rib down to the main surface. So that's total of 20 millimeters. And then we need to select the sketch three. And that needs to go in the other direction and when to select the Remove option. So there we go. Okay. So we were meant to keep this circle in the middle. So I'll just go back into that sketch and add that back in. So this would be a diameter of 30 millimeters. So doing so means that we keep this section. Then we should add in the ribs. And these are to a height of tammy, 10 millimeters offset from this surface. So I can add in a plane from here, offset by 10 millimeters. Then can create a sketch on this new plane. And we can put a line going across like that. And we don't have to worry about this dimension too much because we can use the extended profiles option in the ribbon tab. Alternatively, you can do it right to the edge. But I'm just going to show the extent profiles just to see how that works, just for experience. I can then also add in a line representing the vertical ribose as well. So do the same vertically and quickly dimension it. So D on the bottom one as well. I can exit that sketch. Then I can select the rib option, read preacher, and then select Sketch for and then parts. We just select the part one because that's more it needs to merge with. And then extend profiles to the end, select Normal to sketch plane. And there you go. So if I don't have this extend, then they weren't go right to the end. So I deliberately didn't do it to the end, just to show you again using this option. Okay. Also in detail, see we can see that we have draft angles on these ribs. And this would be quite typical for, for many parts to have draft angles on ribs. So we can select the draft tool. And then we can select the neutral plane being plane two. Then we can select entities as these, all of these faces. And we'll do this to a draft angle of 30 degrees. So if I zoom in, we can see the fact so that went in the correct direction. So if we had the other direction, it would go in. So this yellow, these yellow lines show where it was. And we can now see this shaded area where it's going to be. So this is the correct direction, as we can see from details see. We can then select the other faces. Keeping an eye on that. It's going in the correct direction, which it is on the ones I've already selected. I just rearranged. And then again, just going around all of these faces. So that's all of them selected. Okay? So that's one side done. Now all I need to do is select the marital, select add. And then we can select the part one, part two, Mirror Entities mirror. And then we can set the mirror plane is this point here, this face. And there we go. Here is the video solution for exercise 2.3 C. 31. Fillets: In the next set of videos, we will be exploring three features which are very common in part modelling. I'd be surprised if you do not include just one of these in any component that you manufacture. These features are fillets, chamfers, and holes. In this video, we'll be focusing on phillips. I've created a simple shape to help articulate how all the options for Philip features work. Let's like the Philip TO this button here where we have first of all asked to select an entity to fill it. Sometimes it will be best to pick lines where you can simply left mouse button click subsequent lines to create a fill it. You do not need to hold a keyboard key down whilst doing this. Sometimes however, we may want to apply fillets over a number of faces, in which case, it may be more efficient to select faces. For example, I can click one of these internal faces. Notice how all these edges have also been filleted. And not just that the edges of the face that I selected. This is happening because the tangent propagation option has been selected. Day selecting this option means that only the edges of the face I selected are filleted. The tangent propagation option allows us to quickly apply numerous fillets where two clicks is all that is needed to fully fill it. These edges, which would have taken many more if we just clicked all the edges. We have the ability to change the Philip cross section type, where the difference between these types are shown in these three images. This is the regular circular cross section. This conic and this the curvature. The clinic and the curvature cross sections have an additional input parameter which alters the fill it. Though all of these fillets are five millimeters. For the conic folate, we set a row value from between no point 1 and 0.999, where this end of the spectrum corresponds to row values of less than nought 0.5. This curve of knowing five. And these curves of greater than 0.5 where this curve is no 0.999. A similar trend is observed when using the coach affiliate cross section. We can also create variable fillets with relative ease. I could select this edge, then select variable fill it. And then I need to pick one or more vertices. I can select this vertex, for example. And the nanny to alter the radius of that vertex in this box here. This other end of the film, but the vertex we did not select corresponds to this initial fill it magnitude. We can also select this smooth transition option, which smoothly blends these two fillets sizes. Be cautious though on where you use these variable fillets. As these may be very difficult to manufacture. You can do this with multiple edges to, I could select these two edges and choose this end as my selected vertex. The variable fill it progresses from the initial end to the vertex are selected. We can also select all three vertices and change just the magnitude of the middle vertex, such that the Philip varies from one to five to one millimeters in magnitude. 32. Chamfers: In a similar way in which our Philip tool feature worked, we can add chamfers to our parts using this icon and then selecting either edges or faces as entities to chamfer. So I could select this edge and change our magnitude to a sensible size. Thinking from the feature with the green tech, it's as easy as that. Like with some of the features like fillets. We can use the tangent propagation option. Select a face and neighboring edges are also chamfer. Again, this acts as an efficiency feature for us when we are chamfer in numerous features. We have an option with our chamfer feature tool, which we should explore. This drop-down box allows us to choose between equal distance to distances and distance and angle. These are simply different ways in which we can specify a chamfer. Generally, I find that the equal distance option is the chamfer type. You'll use most. Typically, a chamfer which you'll use is to break sharp edges. Selecting the two distances option is that you would be specifying these two distances of a chamfer. When we select the option from a drop-down box, we get two fields to enter a magnitude in. Don't worry about which distance corresponds to which. As we can put our numbers in these boxes in any order. Then toggle this button to alter the distance positions. See how our chamfer toggles between the two alternatives in the 3D model. Selecting the distance and angle option means that we will be specifying this short distance and this angle of a chamfer. And we will get these as input fields when we select this option in on shape, we again have the option to toggle which way the chamfer is created on the 3D model with this toggle button. Best practice for using fillets and chamfers for machining manufacturing is to place fillets in internal corners and chamfers on external corners. Due to the difficulty in creating these features the other way around. 33. Holes: We'll be exploring holes in this video where you will find that this feature requires a fair amount of specification. That bonus you receive though, for putting all of this detail in the 3D model, is easy to mentioning when you come to dimension your component on a 2D technical drawing. In order to show off what on shapes whole feature can do for you. I've taken our 3D model from the chamfer video and create it to further separate paths with this same cross section, I first needed to add two new planes on which to create these sketches, which I could do with this tool here. I could create a plane by offsetting from an existing plane with this option here. Specify a plane to offset here, and then specify an offset distance. Then I can quickly create the sketches with the US tool on the sketch toolbar. And then some simple extrudes with the new options selected, such that new parts would be created. To create a whole, we need a sketch to define where the hole is located. And we do that simply by drawing a point on a surface in a sketch. So I'll select a point on this top surface. And then the dimension, the point in the horizontal direction at 45 millimeters and then in the vertical direction at 10 millimeters and exit the sketch because we have a fully constrained sketch, then you simply need to select the whole feature tool. Then select the sketch from the features and parts list or point in the 3D model. We have three main options for drop-down menus, For hold type, depth type, and thread definition. We then also have a whole direction Togo and hole diameter and hold depth. And we also have merged scope, which defines what parts are affected by the whole feature that you are creating. Currently, I have all three parts in the merged scope. And so all three parts, we'll have a hole going through them. If I click this X and the merge scope for part two, the hole is not created in the middle part. I can add part two back into the merge scope simply by having this box highlighted and then click on part two. With this blind option selected, the whole is simply defined with a diameter and a depth. Starting from your plane of your sketch. If our depth magnitude is not high enough, it may not pass through all the parts. If you always wanted to ensure your whole passes through apart or multiple parts, you could select the through option. And then we just need to specify a hole diameter. We can also specify a blind in last Hall, which is where you have all parts except the last part as a larger whole and the last part as a smaller hole. The application where you'd most often use this is when you have a number of components being fastened with a boat, for example. You need this bottom WHO to be a tapping Joe size. And these holes are required to have clearance to the bolt thread outside diameter. These hole sizes can be altered with the two diameters sciences we get here and here. Note however, that when we include a threat definition on shape is intelligent and has auto populated much of the data entry fields for us. Once we have selected our thread standard thread size and thread pitch. Taking this even further, you can specify these options to change from my simple how to one where we have a counter sink or countable as well. You can see in the 3D model, the effect of selecting a counter sink. It looks like a chamfer, which theoretically you could create with a simple Hall. And the chamfer. However, specifying this counter sink as a counter sink in the whole feature. We'll give you an easier time in the technical drawing. With less chance of making an error. We get to further data entry fields with the whole feature for a counter sink, for counter sink angle and counter sink diameter, accountable is different to a counter sink and that it has this cross section rather than this cross-section. Which of these you choose depends on the fastener head that you are using. You may find that one of these is cheaper than the other two manufacturer. So you may want to consider this in your design. Accountable also has two data entries, including the counterbore depth and countable diameter. And these replicate the counter sink dimensions. Let me toggle from counter sink to accountable. Don't feel as though you can only have accountable or counter sink if you use a blind in last option. And similarly, don't feel like you can only have a thread in this option to, this feature is very flexible. And so it's worth having a practice on these options for yourself. 34. Linear and Circular Pattern: Patterns are a common feature used in CAD modelling software. Even more so are the linear and circular pattern features. Linear patterns will follow an x and y type of arrangement. And circular patterns will have a pot or feature repeated around a circular reference as the name is probably gave away. I've created a simple pot to start the explanations of these features, which was created from a simple revolve with a counter bolt hole through the middle. We can start off our patterns by clicking this icon for the linear feature TO you get a familiar set of options here. And we also have a familiar drop-down box here to select between a part, feature or face. Let's start with having a look at a part pattern. We are prompted to select an entity to pattern, which will be our part, where we simply need to select our part. Then we need to specify a direction. The direction of the pattern will be as an offset from a plane where this distance is the distance between each plane. For example, if I selected the direction to be the right plane, then set an instance count of two and a distance of 100 millimeters. We get this part patterned. An additional time, 100 millimeters offset from the right plane. We could change the direction of this pattern by toggling this button, like with many of our other features. And we could increase the instance count. We could also then select this centered option, which is a way in saying that you want the pattern in both directions. We could then also specify a second direction and enter details into the new cells like before, with the first direction. I often find that I'll be patterning features more so than I'll be putting parts. And this works in a very similar way as demonstrated before with the other features. I'll select the feature pattern option and then change the entity to pattern to be this hole here. I'll then change my distances to 13 millimeters each. So I put 30 millimeters in this box, keep the instance count as to take the second direction and do the same, as well as have a centered tick boxes selected. Let's now have a look at circular patterns. To show off one way in which we can use circular patterns. I'll create a radial feature. I need to add a new plane, then create a sketch on that plane. The plane is 70 millimeters offset from the right plane. And now I can select View normal to this plane, but then select the circle tool and add a circle in this location here. Are they needed to mention it in terms of its diameter at four millimeters and the distance in this direction as 3.5 millimeters. And create a remove pocket. I can select the Remove option, select that sketch, and then have merged coped with all ticked. I can then click on this down arrow and select the circular pattern. I'll then select the feature pattern. Click on this, remove extrude feature, and finally, select an object that will provide a reference for our axis of rotation. An axis line, edge or diameter phase will all suffice. We have set our angle to 360 degrees and incidence count of four and equally spaced texts, which is what is reflected in our model. Remove extrude feature, so clearly patterned around this parts main access with full instances at equal spacing in between each. We could change the angle, which means our features only patterned over a new rotation angle. And we can change the rotation angle. We could also center the pattern such that we get the same number of instances each side. We could also create a circular pattern in a slightly different way. When we have the sketch in a different plane, that what we've just shown, we can create a sketch of a circle, for example, on the front plane. Fully constraint, of course, we align our view normal to the sketch. A circle where the center point is aligned with the horizontal plane, then dimension it to be 20 millimeters. And our sketch is fully constrained as oval lines of term black. And take a chunk out of this large diameter section of the part. We select the sketch and make sure the remove extrude is operating in the correct direction. I can again select the circular pattern TO select the feature pattern. Select a feature and the rotation axis, adjust the angle of incidence count and get another rotational pattern, except use in a slightly different way. 35. Measure: Going back to our previous model, we can demonstrate an important and useful tool, the measure tool. The measure tool automatically appears in the bottom right-hand corner of the interface when an object within the 3D model is selected, whether that is a point, a line, or a face. Why do we select a point? We get the coordinates for that point where we use the origin as our reference and the x, y, and z directions aligned with our starting planes and triad. We can select an edge where we are told what length of that line is. And we can select a phase where we are told what the area is. We can also measure distances between objects by simply selecting two objects. For example, I can select this point and this point to measure the distance between the two corner points diagonally. When we select more than one object, will get an option to expand the measurement next to the measurement itself. When I click this button, you can see that in addition to the resultant minimum distance in the three-dimensions, we also get the minimum distance aligned in just the x-axis, just the y-axis, and the z-axis. This is something that I found very useful in the past. You can also select more than one different type of object. For example, I can select this same corner point and a line. For example, we again get a minimum distance and the component breakdown. This time however, we also get the line length. If I also selected this face, I'll measure a symbol changes, which we can again click on, and we get an area and a length. It's obvious in this example that the area relates to this face and this line relates to this length. But things could get confusing if you have too much selected. If I click on further faces, our area value increases, but I'll length stays the same. This shows that our area measurement is summing all the faces selected. You can de-select objects simply by clicking the highlighted faces with the left mouse button. You can also get angle measurements if you select the right elements. For example, I could select this face and this face. I can also select this whole, for example, which gives me the diameter of the hole and the location of its center. Clicking the neighboring WHO shows that on shape is smart in that it recognizes that the dimension we want is between the two center points and labels it as such. Living doing this measurement, we do lose the whole diameter. But that's the tool is so easy to work with, It's really not an issue. Lastly, we can hover our cursor over these dimensions. Or a dashed line will appear on our geometry, providing a graphical representation of our measurement. For example, with our center distance, I get a black dashed line. If I try this distance between the corner and this corner and hover over the delta X, Y, and Z measurements, I get a green, red, and blue dashed line. These lines are color-coded to the colors on the triad manipulator. For x, y, and z. X is showing up in red. Why shouldn't up in green and z is showing up in blue. 36. Curve Pattern: A curved pattern is another patenting tool we can use with a curved toe is one that allows us to create a pattern along a path and not just in a direction with a certain spacing or around an axis. Almost a cold this to a path pattern tool. If it were me. To demonstrate the use of this tool, I'd like to design a model where we have a number of arrows evenly spaced around a helix. So to start off with, I'll create an arrow shape with the point of an arrow touching the origin. And I'll draw this arrow sketch on the right plane. So we can go about drawing out rarer roughly. And then we can add some dimensions in to make the proportions correct. We can make this dimension four millimeters, zoom in a bit. Then we can make this dimension 12 millimeters. This dimension to be three millimeters, this dimension to be 1.1 millimeters. And then we have a fully constraint sketch, those all term black. I'll then use the revolve tool to create this 3D error. Next, I'll create a cylinder surface from which we can create our helix angle from. And I'll draw this sketch on the top plane. I can select the circle tool and create a circle which is coincident with the horizontal plane and touching the origin, dimension it to be 50 millimeters and then exit the sketch. Then we can use the extrude tool, select the surface and create our surface. I type 50 millimeters and this box and then hit the green arrow to generate our surface. From here, I can select this helix tool and select the cylinder face for this box here. I can choose clockwise or anticlockwise. Or clockwise is what I'll leave this as, as this is the correct direction, we want our arrow going in the same direction as this curve. I can then select an option from this drop-down list, which simply allows us to change how we define our helix. When we are working with the cylinder surface, we can use the turns or pitch options, but you'd need to select a circular edge instead. If you're using these bottom three options, I'll leave all settings on 10. Our service decides our height of our helix, but we can determine the number of revelations and starting angle. The revolutions are simply the number of full rotations we have in our helix. Our start angle simply defines where the start of the helix is. At the moment at 0 degrees. Our start is exactly where we want it to be. But I could type 90 degrees and the start is now over here. I'll leave this set to 0 degrees. Next, I'll select the curve pattern tool from this drop-down list. Okay, The part pattern options selected. And I'll slips part one as my end state of pattern and select the helix as the path for my pattern to follow. We can increase our instance count either by typing a number or we can use the up and down arrow keys on our keyboard. Using the keyboard, up and down arrows can be used on other features too. And so we've got what we set out for with these powerful and easy to use features. Note that we do have an option here in the curve pattern tool where we could use the original orientation of the original part. In our case, we don't want this, but it can be useful for some of you models that you might create. The tool defaults to have in the pot normal to the part feature at the point coincident the start of the path line. So the origin in our case. And this is why we set apart to be pointing and touching the origin. 37. Exercise Set 4: Hi everyone. We've now gone through several more feature tools. And so once again, it's a good time to get some practice. So the exercise we have for you to try out our exercise for a, exercise for B, exercise foresee and exercise 4D. These exercises pull together multiple part modeling features together. So don't expect to recreate these components using just one tool. It can be a good idea to correct parts in steps such that the model is easier to work with in the future when you made to make changes. As usual, the technical drawings are in the resources area. Best of luck, and we'll go over the example solutions in the next set of videos. 38. Exercise 2.4A - Solution: Hi everyone. This is the video solution for exercise 2.48. And this is a component that combines a lot of features that we've looked at in this course together. So it looks at revolves holes, radiuses, chamfers, remove, extrudes, and then also patterns. We're going to start with a revolve as this is the main part. This forms the main bulk of this component. So we'll create a sketch on the front plane and then really quickly, roughly outline the components would draw what it looks like. So this has a height of 100 millimeters. And then we have a diameter, so outside diameter of 80, which means that we have a radius of 40. And we have a inner diameter as well, which we can convert to a radius of 25. And we also have this height here, which is 30 millimeters from the drawing. And the three constraints sketch. So we'll continue to do the revolve. We can use our faces or sketch region to revolve as the sketch we just created. And the revolution access can be this edge here. And there we go. Next, we'll look at creating the hole in the bottom of the complainant. We first need to create a sketch on this face and simply put it in a point so that we know with a whole Congo. And that goes on the origin so we know it's fully constrained. Then we select the whole tool, and then we can select this point here. And there's a counter sink. So we select count distinct from this menu. And we've got a counter sink diameter of 22.4 millimeters. I mean, it's 90 degree counter sink as well. So That's what we need to do. And then we can move on to the next feature. The next feature we need to look at is the removed pockets or remove extrudes inside. So you can create a sketch on the right plane. And then it's simply a square, that means crate. And then we can dimension this as being 20 millimeters tall and then also 20 millimeters wide. So that should be 20. It's 20 millimeters wide. And then this is done to a height of 40 millimeters from the bottom face. So that's 40 there. And this will be symmetrical about this plane. So this will be 10. Again, fully constraint sketch. So we can exit the sketch and then go solid, remove. And then we use sketch three. And then we can select through 0. And so we get a hole there. And what we can do as well, It's pretty second position in and select through as well. So we get both of the holes on the sides, but we also need to add it on in this location and this location here too. So what we'll do is we'll use the revolve tool, the circular pattern tool. So we can select circular pattern and then we need to select feature pattern. So that's important step. And then features the pattern is the Extrude will remove extreme if you like. Then the axis of pattern, we can select this circular feature here. Then we need to do an instance count of 290 degrees as our instance or angle of rotation. So there we go. Brilliant. To finish this part of me to add the chamfer and radius in the top of the component. So on the outside, so this circle here, this, this edge, we need to put in a radius and there'll be a five millimeters, so it defaults to five, so that's good enough. And then meet ADA in a chamfer as well on this edge here. And then there's also a chamfer of five millimeters. And it's equal distance because it's a 45 45 degree chamfer. So there we go. That is exercise 2 for a completed 39. Exercise 2.4B - Solution: Hi everyone. This is the video solution for exercise 2.4 B. And this should hopefully be a really interesting example as it's close to a component that we've actually experienced in real life. So this is a ball bearing which you might find in a transmission, for example. And we want to do something slightly different to previous examples. Where the outer race, the race and the ball bearing elements of this bearing should all be different parts as we want to kind of show this to be an actual assembly rather than just one fixed component which can't move. So we'll first start by creating the outer race, will do this on the right plane. So we can do a quick representation of the outer race by drawing this rectangle of 24 millimeters wide and then 12 millimeters to the mid-plane. And then we know this is an outer race. So the OD of the outer race is 120 millimeters, so that's 60 millimetres from the revolution axis as its radius. We can then escape the dimension tool. So we can just bring this line down a bit. Then we can dimension the height of the race, which is 10 millimeters. Okay, so then we need to add in the survey. So semicircle groove, which is done so by putting a 24 millimeter diameter circular section. And we can bring this circular section up just a slight amount. So I don't know what happened there. So just bring it up a little bit. So we've got some constraints which are liking each other. So we can delete some of those constraints for now. So we may have to put some of those back in, but for so, delete some of those for now. So then we can hit the trim tool on these lines. So we want to just keep this afterwards. You can delete that point. We don't want that there. And then we dimension this height. So that's eight millimeters. And then there's something else, no constraints. So what does it, okay, so side-to-side movement. So we want to constrain this point to the mid plane, and that will be 0. Okay, so we've got a fully constraint sketch now. So we can exit that sketch. And then we're going to do now is create a revolution axis again on the right plane. So we put in a line, they're really quickly to mention it. Don't care about the dimensions. We just want a line. And then we can use the revolve tool on this outer race. Choose the revolution axis as this axis here. Ok, and now I'll just unhide that revolution axis is I'm going to need it in the next week for the interface. So we'll create another sketch it on the right plane. Put it in a really quick rectangle to represent the inner race. Then we can dimension this so 24 millimeters wide. And then we've got 12 millimeters to the mid plane. Okay? And then again it's a 10 millimeter race height. And then we need to put in this interface bore, which is 60 millimeters diameter, which is 30 millimeters for radius. And again, we need to put in this circle for the circular groove in the top of the interface. So this is a 24 millimeter diameter again. And then we can grab this and bring it down. So escape the dimension tool, bring it down. So I don't know if this one didn't go read like the previous one, but It's sometimes it'll be the geometric constraints causing that. So we can then, so we can then trim this top circuit section and this straight section. So this line here now is an extension line. So that's not a construction line or wood or drawing line. And then we can dimension this height to be eight millimeters like the previous race. So we can escape that sketch. And then we can again use the revolve tool. Solid knew because he wants to be a new part. Select that as our cross-section. Now Revolution axis to be sketched to before. Okay, there we go. So now we'll, will start to do the elements. And we can do that by putting a sketch on the front plane. We could do on the right plane, but I'm gonna do on the front plane. That's a little bit more clear what we're, what we're doing. So I'll put in, so if you're normal view animal to sorry. And then we can put in a ball bearing like that. And I'm sorry, a circle. But I'm going to do half of that because of the way I'm going to create this ball bearing. And I'll then trim one side. And then we know this is a 18 millimeter diameter ball bearing. So that's going to be a nine millimeter radius. Okay? And then we need to add in our pitch circle diameter. And I'll make this as construction because I don't want to extrude it. So there we go. And this will be on a 90 millimeter. So this would be 90 millimeters. And that fully constraints our sketch. So we can exit that sketch. Then we can use the revolve tool. Choose sketch 4. And then our revolution axis as this line here. And there we go. We've got a, sorry, I'm navigating solid new. And that gives us our apple bearing element. And you can see that we've got part 1, which is the outer race, Part 2, which is the erase, and then part three, which is the ball bearing element. Now we need to add in more elements and we could do exactly what we've just done. However, we've been learning about how to use the pattern tools. So let's pattern this ball bearing. So we can use the circular pattern tool. And we want to use the part pattern because this is a part, it's not a feature now. So part, and then we'll do new entities to pattern which will be revolved three. So we can select that one. And then access of pattern is this line here. Now if we look at our drawing, we have 12345678 ball bearings. So I need to put an eight around the 360 degrees angle. And as you can see, there is exactly what we have in the drawing. Congratulations if you match, do that in the way that I've shown. 40. Exercise 2.4C - Solution: Hi everyone. This is the video solution for exercise 2.4 C. And in this example we'll be using the curved pattern tool, and that's the key to creating this part. We'll first start by creating the main tube of this part. And we will, we will ignore the knuckles for the moment and we'll do that at the end. To do that, hopefully, you've identified that we need to use the sweep tool. So let's start by creating the last section of the sweep path on the front plane. I mean, it can do that by creating a simple L section and then putting a fill it in between this two, these two lines of 25 millimeters. And then we need to do mention these two lines. So here and here to be 50 millimeters. And again, from here to here as 50 millimeters. Now at this point you might be saying or hang on, this is 50 millimeters here, should be 52.5. But actually, if you look carefully at section A-A where it says 52.5 millimeters. That dimension is from the center line. So from the sweep path, this point here to the end of the knuckle. And then if we look in section, sorry detail view B, you can see that the tube, the main, the thin tube doesn't start until 2.5 millimeters reassessed from this end face. That would be here. So 52.5 millimeters minus 2.5 millimeters is then just 1550 millimeters. Okay, so that's the first section. We can then do this second section of this sweet path on the right plane. So we'll put another else section in here. I'm going to mention that in the same way. So be the same dimensions as before. And then we need to put in another dimension over here, as well as 50 millimeters and then put it in or fill it here of 25 millimeters. And that's all good. So then we need to add in another portion of the curve over here. And we haven't got a plane to bid on yet. So we're gonna have to create one. So we can select the plane tool and then we go plane point. And then we can say we want the top plane to pass through this point here. And as you can see now, that's in the correct plane for us to create more of our sketch. So we can sketch and select Plane 1, select few normal to as before. And then we can start on this point here. So that point there. So, you know, mortuary again. And then we can put it in our else section. Then we can say, we want this to be 50 millimeters high. And again, we want this dimension. So from this line to this point to be 50 millimeters once again. And then we need to put in, I fill it and this location here, 25 millimeters. So that's all good. We can then create our cross section for our sweep. So once again, we find ourselves without a plane to actually draw a cross section on. So we're going to do the same thing again. So plain point, use the right plane this time. And then we say, we want that plane to pass through that point there. Right? So now we can create another sketch on plane to go view normal T. And we want to have our circles with the origin of this point here. So I want two circles concentric. And these circles will have diameter of 12 millimeters for the outside dimension, and then 10 millimeters for the inner one. Okay, Philly constraints. So you can exit that sketch and then we can have a look at creating our sweep. So use the sweep tool. We say we want sketch 4 has our cross section to be swept along. Sketch one, sketch 2, and sketch three. Brilliant. Now let's look at crazy one of the first knuckles, and we'll do that in this location down here near the beginning of our sweet path, will do this on the front plane as that's a cross section of this tube in that location. So creating a sketch on the front plane, select View normal to. Then we put a small rectangle in this location here. And we'll quickly dimension that too. So this will be five millimeters wide. And then we know that this is going to be three millimeters in height. And then we also need to dimension this vertically. Not to do this, we need to know where this part is. So we can use the US tool. And then we can select this line here. But we want that to be a construction elements or change that to construction. And then we can put a point at the midpoint so you can see that square appear just there. So I'll put a point there. And that also needs to be construction. So then we can put it in a dimension from this top edge to this point here. And that will be 80 millimeters divided by two, so nine millimeters as the radius. Now we also need to position this horizontally so you can see it moves side-by-side. Now we want half of this dimension to touch this N face. So we can say this edge to this edge to this point here. I'll just put it in a solid lines are integrated for that. So I'll just remove that construction line accidentally, but we'll put in but that back-end again, so put in this line, change that to construction. And then that point needs to be redone. So it loops. So that point, we need to put in that point again. There we go. And construction. Let me put this dimension and again as nine. So this, this, this sort of thing happens normally. You just have to get used to it and you make mistakes. And just knowing how to get out of those mistakes is a really good thing to get practice on. So this dimension to this point here needs to be 2.5. And then now we've got a fully constraint sketch. So we can exit the sketch. We can do a meta put in one final thing which is our revolution axis. So Grinnell sketch on this plane. So on the front plane. And then we need to put in just a simple line. And again, we don't care what the dimensions are. So I'll just dimension it to this plane and then this position as well. So it's a fairly constraints sketch, but I need to make sure. So this should be 50, as this is 50 millimeters high. So these two dimensions don't really matter, but this one is important. It needs to be in the center. Then I can use the revolve tool. Select this section and the revolve axis as the axis should we just created. Okay? And finally, we can use the curved pattern. And we use the feature pattern this time, features to pattern, revolve one. And path to pattern along will be Sketch 1, Sketch 2, and sketch three. So we'll unhide those. And it will select all of those. We need to select Apply Per instance. And we have on the note of the drawing, it says for knuckles equally spaced along the tube. So put four instances in this box here. So let me hide Sketch 1, 2, and 3. And we can hide the planes if we want to make it a bit neater. But there you go. That is the solution to exercise 2.4 C. 41. Exercise 2.4D - Solution: Hi everyone. This is the video solution for exercise 2.40. And once again, we're going to use the pattern tool, but in this time we're going to use the linear pattern tool. So let's get started and we'll first create the main block of this exercise. So we'll create a sketch placed on the front plane. Select View Normal To, and then dimension our rough block to start off with. So we have an overall dimension in width of 150 millimeters. And then we can Dimension that to the mid-plane to be 75 millimeters. Then we have a height of 80 millimeters. And then we can to mention that to this mid plane, so the top plane. And that will be 40 millimeters. And then as usual, we got black dimensions in lines. So we can exit the sketch. We can then create a quick extrude. So we'll do that to a depth of 25 millimeters. And I won't do it symmetrically about the front plane. I'll just leave that for the moment. And then I can start to put in some other holes that we say in this exercise. I'll start by putting a hole in the edge here on this face. First of all, I need to create a sketch so a, and place a point to locate the first hole. But I'm going to use the pattern to create the second, third holes. So only bleed place 1 dam on a two dimension that the distance the soul is from the edge though. So I'll do that now. So we put an edge distance which is going to be 20 millimeters, which we can see in the section view at the bottom. And then it's in the mid plane. So that's going to be 12.5 millimeters because this is a, sorry, 12.5 millimeters because this is 25 millimeters wide. So this is half 25. So now we can place our hole down and we place it on this point. And this hole is a five millimeter diameter through how? So? It's not going to count. The zinc is just a simple hole of five millimeters. Okay, so that's all we need to do here. And we got through selected. So we need to do. And you can see it goes all the way through the part. Now, we need to pattern this so you can click on the how slight linear pattern, feature pattern and select this hole in this box here. A direction we can just click on this right plane. So it goes in the direction normal to this plane. And then we simply need to put in the distance that is between these holes. So that will be 55 millimeters, which once again, we can see in the section AA view, we have three instances. So in this box, I'll put three. And there we go. Nice and easy. Now, what we need to do is place the rest of the holes on this face here. So on this face we've got 10 holes with a counter sink and then two holes with a countable. And you can see that in the whole callout. So first of all, I'll put in this one of these counter sink holes in the top corner. So once again, just a single point and dimension that point. So this will be 20 millimeters from this edge, and this will be 15 millimeters, this dimension here. So we can exit that sketch and then we can place a hole on this point. And now this one is a counter cinco of a normal dimension of 55 millimeters. There's a 90-degree can sink angle and an 11.211.2 kind of sink diameter. So there we go. What we can now do is pattern is for the other nine times. So once again, we select the linear pattern tool. We select feature pattern once again. And then we select the whole two as our feature to pattern I direction. Once again is this right plane. And what we need to do is reverse the direction. There we go. Click this, apply per instance button. Then we need to put it in the distance between each hole, which will be 27.5. But you can see in the main view on the right and this, it says four positions, so we'll put in. So he did have this dimension four times, which actually means we have five holes, because you've got this 27 and a half. Here. So 1, 2, 3, and 4. We then got a second direction to worry about. So we can click this second direction button. And this direction will be on this top plane here. So we've got an incidence count of two in this direction. And then we have a distance of so 80 minus 30. So that's 80 minus 15, minus 15. So that will be 50 millimeters. So we just needed to change this direction button to show because these were hoping these holes are being made over in this whitespace. Okay, so now we can put it in the last two holes in the center here. And we'll repeat the way in which we did that for these holes here. So replace this with a sketch on this face by subpoint somewhere around there. So we'll just click the View normal tarragon. And then we can dimension this whole position. So this spin aligned to this mid-plane already has a geometric constraint there. So I just need to put it in this dimension, which is 150 minus 60. So 75 minus 60, which will be 15 millimeters, because this whole part is a 150 millimeters. Therefore, this height is 75 and we come down 60. So I could do it like this. Or if you wanted that, the aspirin, the drawing. You can do this dimension here which matches the drawing. So you could do like that instead. That's 60 millimeters. Go for the constraints sketch. So I'll place the hole down there now. And this time we've got a countable. So that's signified by the dimension. So the little symbol underneath the the nominal diameter of the hole. So I can put it in a countable through hall. And the normal dimension is 5.5 again. And the counter bore diameter is 9.75. And the countable depth is five millimeters. So you can see it's subtly different. So countable versus a counter sink. Now it's places down one more time and I once again use the linear pattern. Is the feature pattern. Pick all three, click the direction. So once again be this right plane and that's gone in the wrong direction. So I can click this toggle arrow. And we have the distance as this distance was 15. So this distance here will be another 15. So that's 30 entitle. Talking about fatty in there. And there you go. Here is the solution to exercise 2.40. 42. Boolean: The Boolean feature tool as a powerful and simple one and is one which we may recognize as we have in a way being using this throughout this section of the course. Simply put the Boolean TO, allows us to do something with two or more parts, like add them together or subtract, make them into one part. Remember, we can see individual parts in our model by looking in the parts list. Recall the extrude, revolve loft sweep and several other feature tools. But we have these four options for new, add, remove, and intersect. These last three options perform the same sort of function as the Boolean union, Boolean subtract, and Boolean intersect. We use the Boolean feature when we do not want to generate a new feature or part, but want to combine two or more existing features or parts. Let's have a look at the Boolean tool in action. I've created a model with this cuboid and cylinder volume as two individual parts, and I've labeled these as such. I can click the Boolean feature tool. So this icon here, then select the union option. I then simply select the parts I want to join together. Then click on the green tick. Once we've done this, you can see that we're left with just one part. You can see here in the parts list that we are left with the part labeled cuboid. And when I select that part, Bertha cuboid and the cylinder are highlighted. If you look in the brilliant feature by double-clicking it in the features list, we can see that the cuboid was the first tool selected in this box. If I click on these errors, I can then reorder these tools by selecting these lines and dragging the lower tool to the upper position. Notice how the part in the parts list changes name as I do this, once I'm done reordering, I can click the Done text, then hit the green tech. The subtract option in the Boolean tool works in a similar way. Though there are a few more options. I'd like to keep the cuboid and cut it with a cylinder. Tool, is then the cylinder. As we want to use our cylinder tool to cut material out of our target part, the cuboid. So we select our tool as being a cylinder and our target as being the cuboid, hit the green tick and they you go. We also could have selected the key tools option in the Boolean feature, which then keeps the toe so the cylinder, but still removes material from the target, our cuboid. We still have two parts. When we do this operation. We can set offsets in the subtract option. We specify an offset face, for example, this face of the cylinder, and an offset distance. What we can say is the extra material is removed from the cuboid equal to the cylinder surface offset by one millimeter. Though, if we toggle the direction with this button, we have a cylinder cut out of the cuboid at a surface one millimeter offset in the opposite direction, creating a smaller shape than the cylinder. We can also specify the offset o option, which means that all services of the PTO have this offset applied, not just the face, we selected the diameter face in our example. And finally, let's have a look at using the Boolean Intersect option. I've created a simple model with two parts in. I can select the Boolean option, select the Intersect option, then select this first part, the second part, and then click the green tech. What remains is only the volume of those two parts that overlap. These Boolean tools can be used in creative ways to make complex geometry very quickly and easily. 43. Assigning Materials and Mass Properties: One of the many benefits we have with 3D modelling is the ability to assign material properties to 3D models. We can use this for engineering analysis with packages like finite element analysis. But what most people will use this feature for is to calculate the mass of components and then assemblies. We can right-click here on the part and select, assign material. For the most part. You'll only need the standard material library, which has an extensive range of materials, all the usual or their steel, stainless steel, aluminum, as well as various words, plastics and ceramics. We can choose our material. Then select the green tick to confirm our material choice. Then we can select the part. Then select this button in the bottom right-hand corner to measure the components mass properties. We then easily get the mass of our what could be very complex component here, as well as the volume, surface area, center of mass, and moments of inertia. We have the x, y, and z coordinates for the center of mass and inertia, which aligned to the x, y, and z coordinates from the triad manipulator. We also have a button called show calculation variants, which shows us the calculation error for all our mass calculations. And as you can see, they are all pretty accurate. I've generally found that you can trust cat measurement calculations as long as you've modeled to a component correctly. I always use this feature within CAD packages and ensure that I have the mass of the component on the drawing. And I also do the same for assembly drawings. 44. 3D Modelling Project Introduction: Hi everyone, and welcome to the introduction lecture to the first project we'll be working on in on shapes. This is once again, creating a 3D CAD model for my technical drawing. The technical drawing that we were working on is detailing this component here. So this is a 3D printed component representation of the aluminum component. This attaches effectively the wheel over and open. We'll racecar to the suspension. So we would attach through these bolt holes here. And then we have space to mount a bright desk in on these, on this flange. And then we'd also have bearings mounted here and here. So that's the component you'll be working on. So have a go look in the resources section of this lecture to fund the technical drawing and see how he gets on. As always, there'll be a video solution in the next video. Best of luck. 45. 3D Modelling Project Solution: Hi everyone. I hope you had a good, you could go this project, projects to 0.1. And hopefully you actually manage to get through to the end. But if not, don't worry, have a look through this video and see perhaps where you may have been caught up. So let's get started. And first of all, we're going to create the main section of the Revolve as shown in this section view. And we'll do this on the front plane. So I can select from plane and view normal too. And as with the exercises we've done before, I'm going to quickly outline what the shape looks like. So we've got a constant both thickness. Then we've got the mountain flange, which comes back down to this smaller diameter. And we got the break mountain flange, which is a bit thinner in thickness. And then we go we're going to step down here. Small portion and other step-down, small portion, and then right on to the end. So I get the geometric constraint, I guess again. And there we go. And we want to stop it in some dimensions into this right now. So this distance will be 49 divided by 2. And we go this time to here is one which we can calculate. So it's not actually a given dimension. However, if you look on the left view, we've got the wheelbarrow mounting holes dimensioning and the holes that I mentioned on a 100 millimeter PCT. And then the top radius is 12.5. And we can have the AMA top and the bottom. So in total, we're going to have a 125 millimeter PCD, which he also need to divide by two because we're looking at a radius here. So as you can see that it looks, it looks to be about the rough rough size. We've also got this breakdown flange as well. So that's also on a 100 millimeter PCD. However, we do get a dimension for this, for this diameter in the right view, which is 50, 49.9. So it's actually going to be 49.9520 by two. As we model to nominal dimensions. Say, Oh sorry, that should be 49.95 because in the drawing it's looking at a radius. Diameter. So that's, that's the mistake I just made. So there we go. Then we also have this parameter here, which is going to be 36, which is 60. And then we also have this diameter here, which is 55 divided by 2. And you're going to tidy up some of these dimensions. So the larger dimensions, further away. There we go. It looks a bit cleaner. Don't want to spend too much time doing that, but it can help just have a bit of a clean drawing. We can then also saw continue with all the diameters. So this diameter here is actually one of the bearing damages, and that is 60. So that's a 13 micron tolerance band, the section view. So I can to 60.015 minus 0.0065. And then, then I need to divide that by two. So at the end, like in pert divided by 2. Perfect. And this is the start of the hair was worried, already geometrically constrained to this line. And so we've got both of these terminologies at the dimension that we just put. So that's good. I mean, we wanted that as well. So I can then put, so also this term to actually needs to be different so I can take that one off. There we go. So obviously taken away. So we want to remove that. So maybe it fiddly, sometimes. There we go. So we can make that become a horizontal constraint because this needs to be a step here. So I can put in this diameter as well, jewel fish over here. And that diameter will be 32 because that's 64 divided by two. And then I can say that mean that needs to be vertical. So I can select that line. It's like vertical. There we go. So I'll go all my diameter's there. Dimensions, I think it is. So I can start to put in some overall dimensions. So on the top view, in the middle is a really good view with a lot of dimensions in. So I can put some of these and this 16, and then this one is going to be 10. And then this one will be 5.05. And we go and we've got, say the next one will be from here to this line, and that will be 47.5 millimeters. And then we've got, so we can put it in an overall dimension naturally that will help align some of these, these are the dimensions in place, so we're about 40 millimeters, millimeters out there. So if I put in this number, then we go and I'm going to align this symmetrically about this plane. So I'll do this dimension, whoops, which is going to be 1.539 divided by two. Brilliant. So of alter the last few dimensions here. So this one here too, this one here. So there will be 62. And then we've got this one to here, which will be 75. And the last one will be from here to here. And that will be 93. And as you can see, we've got a fully constrained sketch and we haven't politically any chamfers are radiuses in just yet. We'll do that in the future, future features. So I can exit that sketch. Then I can click on the Revolve tool. Click on the revolve section. Sorry. So, whoops, we need to add in a revolve axis. So we can just quickly put that in. So from here to here, put it dimensioning Just quickly dimension there. We don't actually mind what the dimensions are. K. And then we can hit the Revolve tool. Select Solid new faces to revolve sketch we just created. While this, the first sketch and the revolt was revolve axis is sketch too. So this one here. So we can confirm that. And there's bulk of our first component. And we'll be taking some remove extrudes in the next few features. Okay, so now let's add in some of the scholars on, on this, we'll bolt hole flange. So we first need to create a circle pitch circle down into at which the scholars set. So we'll make this a construction line. So these scopes are the dimension that are referred to in the left-hand view in the bottom hand corner, which has radius 45.5 slash 43. So well, so that was the Mirror tool. So if you use the construction tool, there we go. Then we can put in a radius, which will represent the part in which we are cutting from this front hub. So we can put some dimensions in. So this is the pitch circle diameter, which is 160 millimeters. And we've got this scholar radius, which is 44.5 millimeters in diameter. So this actually should be times two. We can do times two. And we go. And then we also need to angularly position this. So we can put a no construction line. So put a line in like this, make a construction line, and then create a constraint between this plane and this line. And that would be 45 degrees because we got four lines and each of these positions as a bolt hole. So halfway between this angle and this angle is just half of 90 degrees because 90 degrees is a right-angle. So we can also then add in the top portion of the wellbore radius so that by that is the 12.5 mile radius section. So that's 25 millimeters. And this dimension will be 100 millimeters, sorry, 50 millimeters because that's 100 divided by two. And just to show that two bit more, That's this time TO just pitch circle diameter, which is a construction line again. So it didn't need to put that in, but just just for show just a helps you understand why we're doing it. And then we also have another cycle here, which will be once again 25 millimeters. And then we would remove this section, this section, section, this section. Because we just want this section here removed. Now we also got, if we zoom in some small sections in here. So sometimes you get discontinuous lines when you go strange curves, but sometimes these will be connected. We may have to look at this in a bit more detail. We'll come back to that section here. And again, we'll work out which section of these lines we actually need because they kind of overlap. So we don't know which one just yet that we need. Okay? So the next thing we need to do is enclose this surface and we only want to take a quarter and then making a pattern it around for the further three times. So we can add a line in here. And we'll just do a really quick box. And we will dimension that, but we won't take too long in doing so. So we'll just put in some rough dimensions. Okay? So what that allows us to now do is we can trim this section. And this section. Now we're going to have to delete some of these lines that was going to happen. But now is when we can do that. So if we emerge, say this line or this line, There we go. So it's just a bit of trial and error sometimes unless you want to really work out why it's happening, sometimes it's just easier to do to lead to one I'm unsure or the lines interventions are still black. Okay. So what we can do is we can exit the sketch and see whether the sketches colored in gray. And we can try we can try to remove extrude to see whether this is okay. It's just the graphical representation is a bit off. And then if not, we can come back in and modify this this detail to see try and work out what was wrong. So I'll confirm that sketch and I'll try remove, extrude Using this section and merge with ALL. So it's looking as though there's a bit of an issue. We'll just try the other direction. 0. So I've put the wrong face in, so put sketch three. There we go. Yeah. So it's actually okay. So I think it was just a graphical representation. That was a bit of an issue. So bear that in mind that sometimes I will care packages have these small graphical representations which aren't always clear. But just go and philosophy of if you think you might be okay, Have a go, if not, the money to try and problem-solve what's actually connecting lines. Okay, so we can confirm that sketch. And you can see we've got the first scholar. So we can then click on the extrude and then we can select the circular pattern tool. So once do a feature pattern, so select Extrude one. Select an axis of pattern, which is this ONE down to here, really slightly apply. For instance, we've got, for instance, count of four already populated. And there you go. It's starting to take some, some good shape here. So then what we can do whilst we're here with the wheel boat pattern, we'll put in the holes in these locations too. So I can put the sketch on this face except View normal to. And what we'll do is we'll use the whole feature for this. And this is located at the center point of this radius. So that's already a dimension because I had geometric constraints there. So you can see this concentrates the geometric constraints, so I don't need to put any numbers on. So what I can then do is select the whole tool. Select this point here. And we definitely don't want it to do this. So it's put a hole through a number of parts. What we want to do is have a simple WHO. And we want to be a blind hole because we don't want it to go all the way through all the other components. And we want the whole diameter to be. So it's a whole dams were 14.1 slash 3.913. So the nominal is going to be 14. And the depth, well, we just wanted to go all the way through. So we know this section is 10 millimeters, so we can do it to 12 millimeters just so that goes all the way through. Okay. And then once again, we can pass in that hole around so it propagates on these other flanges, spokes to select the circular pattern. Again, it's going to be a feature pattern. And then we can select which features. So one axis of pattern, again, I'm just going to use the ball for instances angular 360 degrees. And I'll also click Apply. For instance, I usually select this option. And there you go. Okay, so now let's look at putting in some of these scholar features on this back face of the break mounting disk. It's actually like view normal too. So let's just arranged like that. Okay? So I can select this face here. And then I can put similarly to the will bolt mounting holes. I can put a BCD on here so you can cut a scholar belt again. So make the PCD a construction line. And then I can put a normal line on, on that line. So on that PCD, make sure it's not construction. And then we'll put in these dimensions. So this dimension here will once again be so bad, she will be 125 millimeters. And this one here will be slightly different. So this will be 24.4 times two. So we've got the radius of 25 point for over 23.4. So the nominal is 24.4 and that's a radius, whereas we're dimensioning a diameter. Then we need to angularly position the circle so we can put a line in here. We can make this a construction element. And then we can put a dimension between an estimation will be 36 degrees because the distance, so 360 divided by five will be 72. And we're going to have to scallops either side of this main hall. And so half of that 72 will be 36. So for the constraints sketch. So we can now use the remove extrude. So extrude solid remove. And I'll remember to select the sketch, not the face. And then we can do to a depth of say, six millimeters because we know this is five millimeters thick. Sorry, that's should be six millimeters. There we go. Okay. And then we can use the circular pattern to pattern this extrude, we just did. So feature pattern. Features the pattern Extrude 2 axis of pattern. Once again use the ball. And we see we've got four here for scholarships. Matching won't have five. So put it in five in that box and select the applied by instance, for instance. And now what we need to do is put the little holes for the break Poppins and these locations. So it will once again to the normal two. And it's sometimes easier to do things in more than one and few more steps, but fewer features created in those steps. So on. So again, we've got a BCD. So we'll create construction element. And then we'll put a circle, which is the bright pop in on that BCD. So the PCD is 100 millimeters and the brake bobby pin diameter is 13, 84. There's a pretty exact number. So we can use the remove extrude once again and remove. So you can see that when I select this area, it just selects part of it, not the whole sketch, so it's just sketch six. And then again, why we do it to about six millimeters. And then we can once again use a circular pattern. So the common theme, to use the feature pattern, features the pattern is going to extrude 3, so what we just extruded or removed, again, the axis of rotation is you can use the ball. So we could use this location here or this occasion. There's many places you could use. And you can see that it's not, it's not patterning in the right places. And that's because our incidence count was incorrect. Apply for instance, once again. And there you go. So it's really taking shape. This is a few more things we need to do. The first of which is create a groove. So a, a slot in this end of the part. So we'll create a sketch. I will place on this end selected. And we can see in the both in the section view. And in the right view on the drawing, how we can dimension this. So it really is just a slot so we can create a square or rectangle. And we can dimension its height from the mid plane. And we can see that in the right view. So that's 27.5. And then again in the same view on the drawing, we can see its width of 8.125. Sorry. Yes, sorry, my math is correct, so that's 8.125. And then we need to mention this about the mid plane. So that will be this dimension to this dimension which is 8.125 divided by two. There we go. And all we need to do is it's only going to come out a small portion. So it just needs to be above this diameter and this was about 60 millimeters. So I'm just going to make this deliberately taller. So I can select this plane. I'm just going to leave it at say 33. It doesn't really matter how tall it is. For the constraint sketch. You can exit that sketch. You can use the remove, extrude so solid remove, select not the face but the sketch. And you can see it's current in that slot. So we need to make sure we go the correct depth. And that depth can be seen in a section view at 16.5 millimeters. Brilliant. So the last few touch up things we need to do are at the radiuses and chamfers in. So first of all, we've got three radiuses in here, here, and here. And there are five millimeters, which we've already got. So that's what we need to do. Then we also have a one millimeter radius in this location. So radius and there are millimeters. And there we go. So the last of the radii is in this location here, which is really small because a bearing needs to butt up against it. So it's no 0.3. And then we also have a chamfer in this location of one millimeter. Finally, we can put it in chamfers in these locations such that when a bearing gets slid across, it doesn't catch on this sharp edge. But because I don't know exactly know how tall this chamfer is. I'm actually going to go and edit the revolve that we originally did. And I'm put the chamfer in there. So select View Normal To. And then I can put it in a line like this and a line like that. And I'm gonna make those 45 degree angles. So 45. And again in here. Then simply need to just remove the sections and three-dimension as appropriate. So we're going to get rid of that point. And then either just put in those dimensions again that we have. So we lost a couple of dimensions. So from here, I'm going to do to this point here. And that was 75. So that hasn't changed. And again to this point there, which was 93 and losses 45-degree dimensions where we can add those back in. Just there and there. Okay? So let's just check why this isn't moving our case so it needs a depth as well. So it lost that the diameter. So we can add that back in. And that diameter is simply one millimeter less than 59 divided by two. So it's a very shallow depth. So there we go. It's all updated and propagated through the model. And that is a video solution for completing project to 0.1.