Orientalism in European Art History - Exotic Imagery in French Painting | Karima Knickmeyer M.A. | Skillshare

Orientalism in European Art History - Exotic Imagery in French Painting

Karima Knickmeyer M.A., the stories of art

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7 Lessons (1h 3m)
    • 1. I.1 About this Course

      1:32
    • 2. I.2 About Me

      0:39
    • 3. II. Introduction

      7:06
    • 4. III.1 Oriental Scenes: Eugène Delacroix

      10:00
    • 5. III.2 Oriental Scenes: Jean-Léon Gérôme

      16:40
    • 6. IV. Oriental Dreams

      16:35
    • 7. V. Conclusion

      10:18

About This Class

Ingres, Gérôme, Delacroix - the most renowned artists of European art history - and especially French ones - were highly concerned with the myth, charm and the supposed otherness of the Orient.

In this course you will get to know their artworks and which cultural perspectives are connected with the imagery of the Oriental. Thereby the individual and political contexts of orientalist art come to light.

  • What did French artists admire about the Oriental world?

  • What role did politics and colonialism play?
  • How much veracity lies within the depictions shown to the European public?

  • Who had actually been to the Orient and why?
  • How do we nowadays perceive cultural spheres that differ from our own?

Here you find the SOURCES that I used to create this course.

Transcripts

1. I.1 About this Course: Orientalism found its way into European culture a long time ago. For many 100 years, the Far East and North African regions have been fascinating European artists and writers. Napoleon Bonaparte was eager to conquer North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. He was nearly obsessed with it and initiated the broad research and artistic processing off these regions. Since then, political missions were accompanied by so called sub balls artists, among other who should record every impression meticulously. Besides official representations, some artists had the very own vision and dreams of the mystical Orient, some, including Harlem's and hasher smoking. In this course, you see particular examples off how artists traveled to and perceived the Orient. We will also get to know the critical perspective on Orientalism and will be looking from today's perspective, especially at what side scholar who laid foundation to the field off postcolonial studies criticized their European definition of the Orient harshly odd in this perspective, seen as a mean to represent power political interests. Is that true? You will find out 2. I.2 About Me: Hello, everyone. And welcome to this course. My name is Karima and I'm from Germany. I'm holding a master degree in European art history, and I want to explore with you questions off culture and society by the medium off art. Now, during my experiences as a guide and as a freelancing author, very soon recognized that that would people, including myself, are really interested in are the stories beyond the artwork itself and the ideas being conveyed by it. And that is exactly why I very much enjoyed making this course. And I hope that you will enjoy it as well. So don't forget to give me your feedback. 3. II. Introduction: looking at the end of the 18th and at the 19th century, we are asking, why was Orientalist art so popular at that time? And you have to see that there had been no time before when the trading with Oriental Good said such a boom. So all this beautiful artistic Kraft works and spices and textiles were to be found in nearly every biggest city stores. And that went with the military and colonial expansion off the European powers like France or the British Empire, for example. And in addition to that, there were newly founded tourism agencies like Thomas Cook, for example, that provided safer routes to the Orient. And all this is why the Orientalist imagery was so present in European out at that time. The term Orientalism as such, describes the stream in visual arts and literature in Europe. We will be focusing on French painting. This is especially interesting as French painters often had the opportunity to accompany military and diplomatic missions. So we will be looking especially at North African countries like Morocco, Algeria or Egypt, the starting point of the European expansion towards North Africa. Whether French expeditions the so called campaigns in Egypt and Syria by Napoleon Bonaparte . In 17 98 he started the first expedition to Egypt at that time, a province of the Ottoman Empire, which had been a huge and influential political power for many centuries. You see here a map off the Ottoman Empire in 16 83 when it was at its largest extension. From the beginning, Napoleon ordered diplomatic missions for the purpose off, exploring the little known North African countries. The's missions were accompanied by so called servants, professionals like artists, engineers, geographers, archaeologists and writers. We're supposed to document the field trip in detail for the first expedition in 17 98 167 off these subtitles accompanied the military forces. But it wasn't just about the documentation and scientific interest. Of course. It was in the first place a military mission which was intended to ensure the trade routes from India to Europe and competition with Britain. If you want to get a more comprehensive overview off the historic dates and events, I recommend you taking a look at the PdF attached to this section. I will now shortly outlined those events that are interesting for the artistic production in France at the time. In 17 98 Napoleon found the institute Egypt in Cairo for coordination off and research for preservation off Egyptian matters. All findings off the missions are meticulously documented and presented to the public. In January 17 99 France sealed the conquest of Egypt in the battle off the pyramids and begins to further invade Syria, Gaza and Jefa the modern Tel Aviv. Only two years later, in 18 01 the British Empire occupies lower Egypt, and after that, the whole country, the French have to retreat from Egypt. Napoleon's mission failed. Artists like Cough glorify Napoleon so called campaigns in the paintings, even though they weren't that successful in military terms. As for the forced withdrawal after only three years, Napoleon had to go into exile, and his villa from these times was decorated in Egyptian style, which tells you that he was still kind of obsessed with Egypt. It was not until 18 30 Napoleon wasn't even emperor anymore. When France begins its official colonial ization off North Africa by occupying Algeria, which lasted as long as until 1962 in the following years, Algeria becomes the most popular destination for French painters, often accompanying the military. Also, more and more Europeans settled here so that the capital, Algeria, became one of the colonies with most European residents and was during these times that French painters were drawn to the Orientalist subjects. After the final defeat off the Napoleonic Wars in 18 15 the ambitions of the French Revolution were nearly reversed, and the old Monica power structures were restored. In these times, the social climate that France was harsh and conservative, which led artists and writers to imaginings of the Orient as an alternative world space, off travel adventure, cultural expansion, romantic aesthetics, seductive women and fanciful fairy tales. These notions and images served as vehicles for escaping the every day. For as long as the first decades of the 20th century. Orientalist Odd was very popular and add works achieved high prices on the market, literature and the visual arts. Cross fertilised writers like Chateaubriand, Lord Byron or Ghouta wrote about that traveled to the eastern Mediterranean and North African countries. If you want to get a more comprehensive overview off Orientalist writers, I recommend you taking look at the PdF attached to this section. As for the visual arts. The term Orientalism thereby does not refer to a particular style, but this content related movement, as you will get to know there are certain stylistic translations. Just keep in mind that the Oriental world was visible in European public. You had, for example, the archaeological artefacts exhibited in public and on the international exhibitions here . You could witness an actual competition between countries like the United Kingdom and France, which wanted to display their political power and reach by employing Oriental artifacts and artworks. So let us take a look at these. 4. III.1 Oriental Scenes: Eugène Delacroix: the Oriental adventure was like a fantastic a dream. To most artists that evoked visions off promising alternative realities. An artist who fell for the charms of this new cultural world was the French painter in the official annual Salam exhibitions at the Academie de Boozer in Paris, the biggest part event in Europe at that time, he already had exhibited to Oriental themed paintings. They were named Massacre Off Heroes, exhibited in 18 24 and The Death of Sad Annapolis, exhibited in 1927. The 1st 1 is a comment on the latest political situation in Greece at that time, where people struggled for freedom against the ruler ship off the Ottoman Empire. The second illustrates a telling off literature, the story off sad Anapa and a Syrian king who had his entire court killed when he realized that he couldn't stand against the enemy. It visualize is the widespread notion, often opulently rich Oriental ruler who has the lives of servants and women at his command . But at that point, Dellacqua hadn't been to any country in the eastern Mediterranean or North Africa. So you see that thes artworks are involved with fantastical and imaginary elements scenes put together by requisites like clothing, weapons and foreign models, often using newspaper articles and literature as templates. This is what we call studio Orientalism image production, with foreign motives put together in the artist's studio. But more and more artists were actually taking the trip to the Orient, searching for rule lifestyle without the constraints off modern European society. Attached to a French mission in 18 32 Gen. Dellacqua finally traveled to Morocco and got the chance to complement and rectify his earlier ideas off the Oriental elegance. Off the Moroccan to such stroke, scenes of cavalry and lion hunts were spectacles that he documented and produced with a view to the European beholders appeal. The style in which he'll acquire painted inspired by his voyage, constituted a departure in French painting, putting the Expressionist power of color off the classicist line off the official academic style. The vivid brush strokes and the vibrant light of the Orient embody the temperament and passion. Dellacqua felt here anxiously. He tried to fixate his vast quantities off impressions on paper, he wrote. I feel as though I would need 20 arms and 48 hours a day to do a reasonable job and capture it all. I'm like a man in a dream who sees things he fears he will lose. He was charmed by the physiognomy of people and objects he rides into his journal. They are much closer to nature in many respects, their clothing and the form of the shoes. But beauty comes with everything they do. We other ones with our core sets, tight shoes. Our ridiculous suspender bells arouse nothing but pity. In that way, Grace revenges itself on science. Now we want to take a closer look at a very famous painting by agenda, the women off Algeria. It was 18 32 the ship off the mission that Dellacqua joined, saved from Morocco to the city off Algeria, the capital of French Algeria. At that time and here he got an opportunity that was considered very special for Christian European. Mediated by a port officer working for the French, he was allowed to visit a traditional Algerian household. What doesn't sound exciting at first turns out to be quite special, as Dellacqua was able to sketch the woman off the household, usually protected from the eyes off external men back in the studio in Paris. He then transformed his observations into a huge life sized oil painting, which he titled Strikingly Women Off Algeria. It is reported that Dellacqua was wild with excitement due to the beautiful and strong physiognomy off the women. Haydn by the delicate fabrics off velvet and silk. And looking at it, you immediately feel the painters admiration both for the elegantly dressed, fair skinned women and the tasteful interior. You see, Four women, three of them, are seated on richly ornamented drugs and pillows on the floor. The fourth woman, for her darker skin, identifies as a servant and seems to be leaving the room. They are all shown in individual positions and perspectives, as if Dellacqua wanted to catch them from every angle. What is remarkable here is the study off the traditional Algerian clothing, which becomes evident looking at this photograph, for example, depicting an Algerian women at the end of the 19th century. So they are all wearing the Kirch chief or turban the headdress. The three sitting women are also wearing the several pants, which are the baggy pants worn by Algerian men and women. Also typical other so called babushka, the typical Oriental slippers with narrowed tips, and the glia, the traditional vest worn here over a blouse off light, almost transparent fabric. Dellacqua here wanted to enrich the depiction by varying the patterns and accessories worn by the women. This accurate researching via artistic means played a huge role for the impressions people in Europe got from the life in Algeria. The same holds for the tiles on the walls and the floor, the precise reproduction of the water pipe and the required utensils. The decorative engravings in the background mirror frame are the glasses on the serving cabinet. What needs to be mentioned at this point is the fact that Dellacqua recreated and enriched the scene with the equipment off objects that he had collected in his Parisian studio, which he did not specifically find in the house that is shown here in this painting. But that gives kind of visual summary off the Oriental lifestyle In this regard, Dataquest method can almost be called archaeological as he collected the parts off which he then afterwards puzzled the complete picture, an interesting role. Us well placed, the servant, which you see from behind. Looking behind her shoulder, she is presenting her profile to the beholder here, Dellacqua wanted to paint a clear picture off her physiognomy. Also, the skin color got hierarchical implications, as many Algerians had servants off other African countries, like Sudan or Ethiopia. The skin color is also providing an aesthetic Elif Ect, as the difference seems to emphasize the specific role off the three women sitting. Moreover, and that is also important here has the role of the dark skin servant been passed on in European art history. So what you get to see here is actually a motive that provides familiarity in respect of the aesthetic, a taste of the targeted European art connoisseurs and could therefore also constitute a market strategic method. Especially interesting is that will acquire painted this scene in 18 34 the very year that France declared Algeria possession, having prepared this for nearly four years. So what could the beholder, in thes times have received? One. Looking at the woman in this Oriental interior, the exotic scene is visually stimulating, as Dellacqua himself was fascinated by the beauty of the women. Moreover, it seems as though their lifestyle is shaped by indolence and lack off activity. They thereby give a sense off seduction but also the need for formation and education. As Dellacqua generalizes the faces of the women and the interior, not indicating a specific place or personnel, this scene could be received as symptomatic for the live off the Oriental woman and maybe even off Oriental people. As such, the question regarding that is, if it is possible to imagine that for some European Spectators, military intervention and economical involvement in such aesthetically stimulating and lazy environment must have felt legitimated. We're looking at such paintings. 5. III.2 Oriental Scenes: Jean-Léon Gérôme: Dellacqua, off course, was not the only one who was generally interested in oriental culture and people. He highly decorated French painters only on your home, the next generation after Dell'Acqua let unimportant artist expedition to Egypt, Palestine and Turkey in 18 68 Joe Home had been there before and continued being fascinated by these countries. He was traveling in the company of photographers like the famous Auguste Bartoli, well known for designing the Statue of Liberty. By that, Jerome not only had his own sketches from the travels but also a comprehensive collection of photographs serving him as templates for the detailed paintings he was creating. Jerome used them to give Unauthentic impression off the settings he created in his art, as you will see. But not only was he Festen ated by the multiplicity off architectural discoveries, he was also concerned with capturing the everyday scenes he got to see, for example, in Egypt. In this painting off 18 87 he shows us a scene at a local carpet market with vendors, clients and assistance off different ethnicities, indicating an ethnic mixture that is typical for Orientalist scenes. You see here, how's your home? As a master of his art echoes the rich on a mental style and mass off fabric genius Lee fitting the fall off the folds with the ornamental patterns. The huge dimensions of the pieces of craftsmanship here are constituting an immense opposite to the more and more industrialized pieces in Europe at that time. The grand deaths of tradition is furthermore, reflected in the huge architectural setting and the delicate artistry off clothing, which she home describes us in every detail. The scene can also be read as a European projection off Egypt and the Orient, in general, being a pre industrialized society, which is not entirely true. Egypt, as well as other North African countries were clearly marked by the modern age in the cities. What? Your room also might have witnessed the holding off slaves. But what is not proved is that there were outdoor slave markets in Cairo at that time. For example, Viktor show you a known political journalist in Francois travel to Egypt, did not mention such places, and as he was a fighter for the abolition off slavery, we can conclude that this painting that Jerome created in 18 66 s foremost offensive see naked women in the streets were certainly not tolerated. Looking from that perspective, the display of the female slave here being inspected and touched inside her mouth seems almost even porno graphical as the scene is set in the Orient. The same public that was furious about Money's Olympia a few years earlier seemed to accept this image, which your home was suggesting as an Oriental scene. Reason for the acceptance might also have been the class it cystic, linear, slightly polished, style off picture. Overall, it seems like a reinterpretation off classic antique models he painted before just in a more brutal, more animalistic setting, which is three Orient here. That fits the usage of this painting by the far right German party alternative for Germany . They used it as campaign poster for the election off the European Parliament in 2019 so off a 150 years after its invention, the title says in free translation. In order to prevent Europe from becoming Arabia, it's used to depict the brutality off what is here falsely associated with Arabia. We know that this scene is not set in Saudi Arabia, and we know that the simple mechanisms off this painting is to create attention by female nudity. We know that the scene depicted here is not authentic, and we know that this reception off brutalities wanted to tell visually compelling story. This is a fantastical generalization off the Orient that issues to create an exciting dualism between everyday European life and the life in foreign countries. By this example, you see how deeply these images can be rooted in the public mind that they survive through hundreds of years. And your home was a very influential creator off images as he was tightly connected with state and its institutional art production. As one of three professors off the equality Bouza, for example, hundreds or even thousands of students were influenced by Jerome, and his art was presented in all the important museums and public places. You also see here by the ignorant use off this painting by the alternative for Germany, how these images have a strictly as skeptical respect to them, transmitting meanings that have nothing to do with the background of the image creation. And you see that simply by looking at a picture we can get influenced if we don't know more about it and This, of course, holds place for the audience and Jerome's times as well. For a long time, Christians and Muslims were opposed in the public eye, beginning with the Crusades in the Middle Ages to the Moorish occupation of Spain and further conflicts with the Ottoman Empire until the modern era. Now, during their travels up from the 19th century, artists began to feel drawn to the religious life off Islamic culture, especially mystified and characters. This painting, by John Leon, drove home with the title Prey on the house tops. The scene is located amidst the magnificent backdrop off Oriental Mosque towers, the so called minarets and domes you see Muslim men absorbed in prayer, standing on rooftops, nine close to the beholder and nine more allocated in the architectural landscape. Two more are standing on minarets that flank the image area. In the background. They presumably are must cryer, so called muezzin's we're calling to prayer. This call represents the underlying semantic off the religious worship and the duty that thes men attend to. The scenery is streaked with missed masterly, elaborated by Jerome, who provides it with effects of coloristic depth, the dawning light and the first quarter off the moon suggests that we either see a morning are an evening prayer shortly before sunrise or after sunset. This in define ability Comitatus, a time transcending aesthetic and practice. In this calm meditation, the rooftops seem to constitute a separated holy sphere that is an intense contrast to everyday life. Every man has his eyes shut, and the individual spiritual experience is mediated by the distinct prayer positions of the believers. The head spout with dignity, absorbed in the spiritual and dressed in timeless garments, These men seem to transcend this world for a moment. In what way does your home father pay tribute to the Islamic practice of faith? You see, Joe Home shows three highly elaborated character off the prayer ritual. According to strict Muslim practice, you pray five times a day in the direction off Mecca, the birthplace off the Prophet Mohammed, the man in front, presumably the imam, is leading the devotions. Furthermore, it is traditional to be standing barefoot on a small but delicately ornamented pray rock. Each prayer vs well goes with a distinct body position. All thes aspect are conveyed in the image by your home. By the time transcending seen the clearly elaborated pray, rocks and the individual prayer positions. Moreover, he describes sophisticated and detailed architectural backdrop, reflecting the subtle character off the Islamic world, which is being symbolically condensed by the crescent moon hanging discreetly off the scene . This backdrop, with its fantastical art of construction arrangement, promotes the mystical character off this religious vision, which was admired and searched for by many European artistic movements at the time. Moreover, it was in the public's mind that the east, and especially Jerusalem, is the cradle, the birthplace off all three big world religions, including Christianity. Therefore, the admiration off the seemingly out of time religious practices was wildly inspired by this notion off originality in the truest sense of the world. But it is important to look at your rooms. Orientalist works from another perspective. Everything is depicted in a naturalistic manner with such detail that you might have the impression that thes are accurate one on one depictions off sceneries that Jerome had witnessed. That is the case for the architectural details as well as Thean ven shin off figures, the physiognomy, clothing and behaviour. Now let us look at one painting for which the artists innovative mind as well played a major role you see here a painting that is titled Public Prayer in a Mosque Off Amir Build in the seventh Century. It is considered the oldest mosque in Egypt and even in all of Africa, and was therefore an interesting touristic destination. At the time she home visited it, it might have looked like this. Today you can still visit it, and this is how it looks today. After several restorations. In this setting, you see praying people in the interior off a hippo style whole, including columns fitted with recycled antique capitals. J Home here depicted the variety off Egyptian society at this time. In the foreground, you see a dignitary off the Ottoman Empire. He's wearing a gilded robe and a weapon belled, which is artistically decorated behind him. You find two men, probably his vessels. Further in the image area, we see rows off Egyptians and 1/2 naked beggar with this bowl hanging from his shoulders. In the overall image area, you can spot a rich visual variety as she room dressed every figure individually and paid attention to even the slightest details. But besides this photographic realism off Jerome's painting style. There is a lot of fantasy and play. Now. Is there anything in that picture you find obscure? Considering U. S supposed to be looking at a scene off strict religious worship, I will give you a moment to take a closer look. Did you spot anything? Well? First, the overall composition off the praying scene. Usually Islamic costume entails thes synchronized postures off all worshipers. He and contrast. You see many different positions to mutinous Lee Ju. Home is showing us emerge off different postures to increase visual interest and given overall impression off the prayer rituals in Cairo. Second, the weaponry worn by the Ottoman officers would be quite hindering when kneeling in the prescribed prayer positions. It is simply positioned to characterize them directly and at first side as members of the Ottomans striking force. Then surely you already wondered about the nudity off the beggar in the central image area . Of course, his presence in the mosque during a prayer would have been forbidden as well. Last but not least, there is the question off the setting itself. Can you imagine your home coming into this holy interior amidst these Muslims, practising their belief it is very unlikely that the artist got the chance to study this scene during an actual prayer session. And not only that, moreover, this mosque was no longer place of active worship in the years your home visited it. So by now we can conclude that only on your home took several liberties when painting his versions off the Orientalist imagery, harsh costumes, harsh landscape and nevertheless beauteous faras three I can see from the artist's point of view, it is about finding the middle way between personal aesthetic allow, admiration and documentation off a foreign world on behalf of the fellow countrymen at home , a special case with so called Bathsheba Zouk, regular members of the Ottoman Army off all ethnic groups. What do you sense when looking at this painting by Joe Home? What speaks to the eye is the richness in ornament and sensual description. She home here wants to generate your interest by appealing to your visual sense being played so well that you might think you know how the skin are. The rope off. The young man feel the beauty and the grays off. The Bathsheba zouk here is supposed to bind beholders glance. Overall, Jerome uses a market perspective, few facilitated by the positioning off him and 3/4 profile and the turn office upper body. We clearly see a portray that wants to mediate the grace of the depicted, the ornamental refinement, the confident gays and body posture Carrying the weight of several different weapons. The huge turban crowns, um, and tassels hang down to playfully frame his face, emphasizing his full lips and gleaming skin. This sensual depiction is quite interesting when you take into consideration that the Bashi , because look where feared group of troops for the Ottoman Empire that did not receive payment and therefore violently plundered the term Bathsheba Zuck thereby derives from Ottoman Turkish meaning as much as crazy head banded or disordered, similar with the so called our notes, which were especially off Albanian, descend sometimes the term splashy bazooka and are not even used anonymously. 6. IV. Oriental Dreams: in the previous sections. We looked at Oriental scenes, and he noticed that they weren't always 100% authentic. So there were details and sometimes even hold sceneries invented by the artist. Nevertheless, the motives characterized them as scenes off the every day, and that is going to differ in the next section. Oriental Dreams As here, the implications off myth, illusion and erotic fantasy are becoming clearer. So let us take a look at these fantastical images. Stories of the Orient have been ever present within European culture, especially the literature gave an idea off life in these foreign countries that painted a fantastical and romanticize dreamworld. Countless beautiful women, gathered and available in have ums, hashish and opium, unfolding the senses with dreams and magical rituals with unsuspected effects. In 17 04 and 20 gallon translated the famous 1000 and One Nights Into French, also known from the English translation Arabian Nights. This translation of tales from the Middle East and North Africa also contained stories like that off Paladins, Wonderful lamp, Alibaba and the 40 Thieves and the Seven voyages of Sinbad, the sailor. That popularity lasting until today into this framework, the visual arts reflected and constructed several stereotypes, the most striking being that off the heaven In this painting by John Lee Andrea Home again you see a very unlikely scene. Why is that? You see, the women off a Harpham were mostly indoors where the bombing took place. In secure did rooms like the Hammam, for example not outdoors, and especially not for an artist to depict it. A painter who was especially far from authenticity in that regard is the French painter John Gusteau. Mini Conquer. His Sean's off. So called Turkish baths are traditional component off European art history. Without having visited the Orient, he produced a multiplicity off artworks in his studio, which is why they belong to the category off Studio Orientalism. Here you see a figure that you often come across an art history. The order Lisk. Originally the term order Lisk simply meant chambermaid. But as you already see, it was interpreted with erotic aspect. The Orientalist artists imagined a concubine, a sawed off erotic servant for Sultan, and although an obelisk could become a concubine, those two terms should not be equalized technically but practically, they were so over time the order Lisk became a figure lying naked with Oriental staff, ege and accessories on and around her like you see year in uncle's painting, dating back to 18 14 this type has already been popular in centuries before. It was a playful game with exotic images and stereotypes in French Orientalism off the 19th century, however, this type of motive had developed into a more stylized version as the academic, Boza had particular standards regarding the classical manner in which a painting had to be conducted with a more classic and a noble appearance. In this example, the lying nude occupying the whole image space she is supposed to peer tenderly clothes and seductive as the beholder has shown a bit off her breast on the soles off her feet, the crossing off Alexe place to the scheme off her touching herself, which is being joined by the feather fen appealing to this sensual notion as well. The richness of the textiles and the jewellery lying decoratively around give the impression of luxury wealthy, surrounding suggesting wealthy men would have him which is supposed to have accommodated multiple Orel risks. So the luxury, at the same time identifies the women a sexually available Now let's consider the outward appearance off the model, visually striking role play. The Elon gated forms off her physic, which give her body verve and dynamic, making it easy to imagine him moving by. That she becomes a living counterpart instead of a flesh is model the Western standard off Ideal beauty. Remaining this us well as other paintings, is completely arranged in the Parisian studio off uncle. You can expect the models as well, not to be really odorless. Six. You can also conclude that from the way all the Oriental accessories are almost demonstratively positioned in the image area. Moreover, the women's pale skin and their availability as nude models as such tell you that these are highly fantastical scenes intended to seduce the beholder through the idea off exotic women . This sexual relation between the supposed male beholder and the Oriental woman can be perceived as a metaphor for the relation between the European imperial izing forces gaining access to countries like Algeria or Egypt in an economical and political way, the inviting Oriental women thereby becomes a gateway to this notion. Off availability, especially the literature, provided Europeans with fantasies and influenced the Western perspectives off the harem. A painting in which sexuality is combined with the realms of Fransi is Theo, you know extreme by Compton. It is based on a story written about a eunuch named Shall School who dreams of marrying the servants elite. As you can imagine, no woman was particularly drawn to getting closer to a eunuch. That is why the dream of shots who stayed a dream and this dramatic longing is depicted in Louise picture. You see, the lead is coming out of the steam of shows hose pipe accompanied by a small army like figure within Orientalist hairstyle. He's distinguished by the Oriental Outlook and the bloody blade he's holding. This could be considered as a grim hint at show schools mutilation, which is the reason for his unfulfilled longing in the first place. This story is written by a man named Montas que his ideas about sexual encounter in the Orient. I will come to in a minute. Shall School, however, is a figure in Mont Excuse so called Persian letters 161 fictional letters by, among others, a Persian nobleman visiting Paris. Here, you find the authors idea off life in the middle East. So what makes this piece of art, especially Oriental in the perspectives of the time, immediately binding seems the creation of a dreamy atmosphere by the high contrast chroma, the setting at night, with sparkling Starlight and the tone of moonlight shining on the sleeping eunuch, everyday, irrational state of mind seems to be as far as the tiny little lights gleaming in the windows of the distance. It escape this leap off. The intellect give space to the fantastic emotional world of the longing lover. It should be reminiscent of the fairy tales off 1000 and one nights with Oriental architecture, brutality, lust and magic. An important motive here is the pipe, a standard accessory off Oriental stick art. It comitatus streams and used by hashish, which was a kind of fashion in the middle of the 19th century. There were, for example, hashish clubs where one would go to smoke hush and talk about its effects. The Orient Waas directly commentated to this notion of smoking, as you can see in this humorous map off Europe from 18 70 where Turkey is laid back smoking a pipe. Therefore, the Oriental imagery is fueled with this kind of altering your consciousness do not only illustrate a different place, but also a different state of mind. His foreign physiognomy thereby is part of the Oriental decoration. The explicit location is not indicated as the artist does not differentiated further. The setting mix ist is that takes off several cultural regions of Asia. Another painting by Lou Compton. We It's wide slave. Here again, you see the merging off the motive, smoke and harem. The smoke hereby served the sin aesthetic effect. Not only should you see the seated woman, he should also be engaged in her lascivious and joyful smoking. The way she is holding her fingers and the view of the naked soft sole of her foot accentuate the notion off touch and surface feel. This is further complemented by newest imitation off a fine soft hair structure and firm tactile fabrics all around her. Fruits, grains and wine are arranged decoratively besides her as to her disposability. And did you recognize her jewelry? The rings She's wearing, the brooch in her hair. It all seems refined and valuable. The white slave here is being distinguished from the dark skin service personnel in the background. She impersonates a valuable type of slave featured by her white skin. She presumably had a special role in this Oriental setting. She could have been a concubine off a rich man, as it is highly unlikely that a concubine is relaxing at the same water that other attendants are washing laundry. In the comparison off, women with different skin colors and the social roles implied by this difference are intentionally juxtaposed this strategy. It's so subtle that it could have been received without further notice, facilitated by the creation off a realistic scenery with realistic appear, the Compton every fabricates a factuality that is displaying a cultural hierarchy that is so convincing because it seems so natural. A further fantastical construction is the merging off consumption goods products from different regions of origin that should give the holistic appeal off the so called Oriental fare breaks are mixed off Middle Eastern and African traditions. Embroidered cloth and the spoon leaning on a plate appear to be Romanian. The motives on the bowel, in turn, seem Hindu Far East. Inspired. As you see, the fantastical aspect of the Oriental dream is to be detected both on the large and the small scale So is there anything left to say about the European Orientalist depiction of the Harlem? What is interesting is that you almost always see nude women that appear to the Western European ideal of beauty. The Oriental setting seems to serve only as an exotic and erotic surrounding on a chance to tell a fantastic story about foreign countries. Often it is the kind of cultural comparison that takes place clearly or partially obscured . The Orient seems to provide a perfect canvas to paint these notions off leisure, eroticism, brutality and ethnic hierarchies. You have them thereby fascinated, especially the male artists, as they have no access to it. As it is closely guarded literature and the visual arts are there by citing each other and manifesting the view on the Orient. In opposition to the Occident, men like Mont Askew also pronounced their views concerning the Oriental Harlem in written form. Important to say that his writings were part of history lessons as he, among others, supported the idea of the separation of powers that is constituted in democratic states. In his theory off the state publication Gillespie Dilawar, published in 17 48 he described that the state functions as a keeper for women. It should be guaranteed that women are working in the private area off the house and the family not going after the pleasures. Otherwise, a despotic formal state system would have to be expected, which of course, did not hold place for the gentleman's adventures in the so called Oriental countries. According to him, he have him. It's necessary to guarantee the official order. As the 19th century Europe movements off emancipation picked up pace. Thes images could also be seen as confirmation off anti emancipatory positions that emerged parallel e. When you look at Louise White slave, for example, doesn't it, from the artist's perspective, appear like the perfect situation to be in as a woman? Leisure, pleasure, beauty and supply of finest goods from around the world guaranteed a contrast constitutes the painting have them women in a courtyard feeding pigeons by a dribble. Here, the artist shows us it's seen that is closer to reality. You see six women and three servants to a barely noticeable in the background. One is standing prominently closest to the beholder in red robe and a distinctive white hat . This headrests identifies him as eunuch as partially awfully castrated. Eunuchs served s keepers for having women as they were presumed to have no sexual interest in the harems dwellers surrounded by gatekeepers and by the architecture off a palace covered in robes. The ensemble of the women constitute a stark contrast to the pigeons, which you're gone painted in artistic variety. The detailed description off so many different pigeons each in a unique position shows how important this contrast waas for Jerome. When creating this scene as they can move freely, the artist here suddenly involves the question off personal freedom in relation to tradition and culture, represented by the architectural setting and the decorative robes of the figures. As there is no foreground, the women seem far and unreachable. 7. V. Conclusion: If we talk about the term Orientalism, there is one man that can be left out. Edward Side, who had been a professor at several universities like Harvard and Stanford, and the scene as the founder of the academic field Off Postcolonial Studies. His book, Orientalism, was first published in 1978 and it can be seen as his lifelong work as he wrote the pre Face Off The Last edition in 2000 and three, the year he died. This book was strongly criticized, but also essential for cultural studies. Now what does say, he'd say here? Firstly, Orientalism according to Side, is a style of thought based upon the distinction between Orient and Occident. Here eyes further statements, he says that there is no such thing as Theo Orient. It is more merge off very diverse regions and that European systems of knowledge, politics and economics gain identity by setting themselves off against the Orient. And he says that this profiling solved economic and political purposes further, the institutional penetration off the odds results in representational and not truthful imagery off the Oriental. He says that there is a process off manifestation off mere assumptions by ongoing re citation in science and Arts, and that there is the structuring off knowledge by the Western countries by which they gain power over the Defiant so that there's a Western style for dominating, restructuring and having authority over the Orient in academics as well. For him, Orientalism prepares the face of massive territorial occupation. According to Save, 85% of the world is colonized by Europe by the end of the First World War. Critics offside say that his thesis are very generalized and that every artist has to be examined individually, taking that into account. What can you find? Looking at the examples in this course, if we take a look at agenda LaQuan, for example, we see that before his voyages to North Africa, he indeed painted with political impetus. Later he was more focused on immediate expression in his vivid brushstrokes and colors. This subjective approach that didn't try to meet official standards was revolutionary in art, and it gives the artist the self concept of a mediator off impressions and experiences. Dellacqua was aware off this unofficial perspective, and he explicitly criticizes Thea ambitions off European empire to destroy structures and Oriental countries which proved themselves over centuries. But of course, his sensual depictions of the foreign are also a projection off personal ideal, which then, of course, begins to be political. A swell when he says, This is the woman. How I understand her. His illustrations have implications that are relevant to the ideological climate in Europe as well, especially as his works were being publicly exhibited. Bajan Homes example. We see how Oriental scenes that make the impression off being truthful scenes are actually pictorial. Details puzzle together like found pieces off Oriental scenery as he had a huge collection of set pieces in his studio in Paris. The artist thereby appears like a mean to access the Orient and its customs to create a visual palmed onto all the scientific writings. These images create reality on their own side here would probably argue that this possibility to explore and then define or redefine the Oriental is only given because of the military and political penetration and suppression off the respective regions. S Your Home was a professor at the State of School of Fine Arts in France. His works, in particular, had to meet the criteria off politics. The Orientalist imagery constitutes a blending off observations, citations and research as well as fantasy. In general, you can witness an approaching off these scenes by Western ideas about the Orient characteristics and themes like mystification, Violence and eroticism can be found in most off French Orientalist paintings. The depictions thereby become Syria typical, and you see a mix off several cultural regions of Asia as a result, off permanent re citation off visual artists among each other. The focus often lies on products like food, textiles and women s available valuable objects. The remaining question here is. How does this reflect the women's role in society? In Europe, you can see that the women in Orientalist imagery often have a sub ordinate role. This was the case in front as well, which resulted in emancipatory and anti emancipatory movements. So there was a lot of discussion about the women's role in society. Women were legally under the tutelage of men until the 20th century, which means that they officially could not make a single life decision like going toe work or renting an apartment without the man's consent. The images kind of contribute to that discussion by painting a picture off the ideal woman using Oriental setting as a pretense. Another sensitive issue here is the study off race that flourished in 19th century publications like the Origin off Species by Child Star Been let some to the conclusion that there was a genetic a hierarchy among your own kind. This hierarchical structure served the colonial rhetorics, and that sends that the more developed races were obliged to transform the less developed by their example. Now, in these times, artists that accompanied the diplomatic and scientific missions were encouraged to conduct optical studies, falling particular criteria. This would be, for example, like you see here the multi perspective angle showing foreigners as empirical as possible. A bit of this empirical staging is also to be seen in nonscientific outworks like, for example, that of Uncle or Dell'Acqua. This artist ical and optical assessment was complimenting theoretical writings, one infamous and dangerous Waas. The Essay on the Inequality Off Human Races, published in 18 53. The French writer at toward the Gobi New argues that there are immense differences between human races, which are wide, yellow and black. Mixing those according to him leads to the destruction off civilizations. Only the wide superior race is able to elaborate humankind. The German translation everybody, unlike had dimensional cousin, was published in 18 97 and is considered to be one of the most important influences on the development. Off racism in Imperial and Weimar Germany. Social biology is a dangerous and mostly unscientific, politically motivated ground off course. Today we know that there are no genetic a markers that would suggest such thing as Racists among humankind. By now, scientists know that genetic heredity is far more unpredictable when it comes to genes that define more than just the skin color. The variance between individuals off one ethnic group can be much more pronounced than the variance between two individuals off different ethnic groups, especially intelligence, underlies many developmental psychological factors and cannot be predicted by ethnicity. But you see, the climate an imperial Europe was shaped by the self conception off superiority, which does not mean that everyone went with this conception. Of course, important to see is that the abolishment of slavery, for example, gained momentum in just thes times as well. The question that remains is in what way artists could have both influence and be influenced by political common sense. Here it is important to differentiate between artists like Julian Jerome, who held several offices, and Dellacqua who valued that. And, I quote painter is able to provide a dream and undefined feeling. This romanticism approach constitutes an opposite to the more functional ized art in official interest. And last but not least, the tendency off modern art claimed a wholly new era with the artist subjective approach a central issue. So some aspect of sites Orientalism critique can be comprehended by looking at artworks. But the critics that say that thes thesis cannot be generalized may as well be valid. I hope in this course I give you some information that you could use to form your own opinion about that.