Organisational Behaviour: Part II | Robert Barcik | Skillshare

Organisational Behaviour: Part II

Robert Barcik

Organisational Behaviour: Part II

Robert Barcik

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23 Lessons (1h 48m)
    • 1. Introduction to Module 3

    • 2. 1. Defining and Classifying Groups

    • 3. 2. The Five-Stage Model Of Group Development

    • 4. 3. Group Property 1 - Roles

    • 5. 4. Group Property 2 - Norms

    • 6. 5. Group Property 3 - Status

    • 7. 6. Group Property 4 - Size

    • 8. 7. Group Decision Making

    • 9. 8. Groupthink

    • 10. 9. Teams vs Groups

    • 11. 10. Types of Teams

    • 12. Introduction to Module 4

    • 13. 1. Definition of Power

    • 14. 2. Bases of Power

    • 15. 3. Power Tactics

    • 16. 4. How People Respond To Organizational Politics

    • 17. 5. Impression Management

    • 18. 6. Three Views Of Conflict

    • 19. 7. Conflict Process - Stages I and II

    • 20. 8. Conflict Process - Stage III

    • 21. 9. Conflict Process - Stages IV and V

    • 22. 10. Negotiation

    • 23. Thank You!

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About This Class

What motivates employees in an organisation? Why are they having good or bad moods? How can this be improved? To answer these questions we need to combine the fields of Psychology, Sociology and Business Administration - and so Organisational Behavior arises. Researchers and practitioners provide us with an intense amount of beautiful concepts that allow us to understand members of organization much better. We even have specific concepts on how we should motivate these!

Have you ever wondered how it would look like if you studied this subject at the university? We allow you to do so now! This course is designed after the materials as being taught at Swedish universities. Even better, if you are currently a student of such university course anywhere around the world, we will definitely make your studies easier and more fun.

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1. Introduction to Module 3: in the third part of organizational behavior Course we're going to take a look at the groups within the organization s. This is a little bit bigger building Borgoff the organization. When we move away from the individual now groups are going to have some properties and that's very important to study. So we will take a look at the main properties that groups help and now be very careful. There is a very big difference between groups and themes, So we will try to classify both of these and then we'll try to discover how can we create on effective team within our organization? 2. 1. Defining and Classifying Groups: Let's try to define and classify groups. Why is it so important within the studies of organizational behavior? Well, because groups or cure everywhere and later on, we will talk about themes, and it is necessary to understand, ah, clear definition off groups in order to understand the difference between groups and teams . So what are groups? Group consists off two or more individuals who have come together to achieve hope. Articular goal. So to achieve particle ago now, without going any further, what kind of goal can these cancer group But you? Let's try toe right? Just just, you know now for a sago imagination. So let's say maybe it can be a goal or friendship off friendship. I would like to make friends. So I came to some group and I joined this group. Maybe it can be some job goal, so I would like to have some job go or what else there can be. Let's say, because of articular interest. Let's say that I like to play some cards I'd like to play magic. So I came to a group which is really designed and designated to play these cards or interest so you can see there can be many goals and went toward more people. Come together Well, there is a group now we are going to splitters or, you know, understand groups under two dimensions. One kind of a group is going to be a formal group and then they are going to be informal groups that see the difference. So former group is the one defined by the organisation structure. We've designated work assignments for tasks, so this one is defined by organizations structure. On the other hand, informal group are niche nature affirmation. So we have natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contact. So you either create groups, you know, artificially so that you defined them by the structure or you let them create themselves. So there is some nature off formation and you can see there is a need for social contact. So it's one of these goals that we have highlighted the right over here. Now the question still is, Why do people join groups and we have listed are six reason, six basic or main reasons. Why do people join groups will 1st 1 Security groups can reduce insecurity off standing alone off course, no one likes to stand alone in life or in the work environment. So we joined groups in order to reduce this in security and are certain ity. Secondly, status groups provide recognition for its members so that, for instance, if we join some political party well, we will be recognized as a members off this political party. Then we have a thinly connected with these a self esteem feelings off self war. If we belong to some, what's a prestigious groups, we will feel that we are really war of something. Then we have a affiliation. This is a This is a need that we like to fulfill in groups. Well, because we would like to help some social contacts on interpersonal contact and those are our social needs. Then we have a power well, groups, thanks to groups we can at you something we otherwise would not be ableto so. Fruit groups are becoming possible through group actions. And again, these two are Finley connected. Let me highlighted. These two were thinly connected and then the East War Finley connected so that you can maybe remember it better. Finally, we have the goal achievement so some goals or some tasks are simply impossible to be a chilled alone. They can be only achieved within groups, especially the more complicated ones. So let's now when we have defined ourselves with our formal groups or their informal groups . And generally what are the groups? And we have told ourselves What? Why do people join groups? Well, let's try to least some So, for instance, in organizations, eso it say that out of these we can try to say that within the organizations that are going to be some command groups, so some command groups and these groups simply are. It is a group of people which are under some manager hunger, some manager major. So they are accountable under these manager and there his subordinates. And secondly, we have some task groups, so task groups and these groups are really focusing on some tasks. So they are again organizationally determined and they're going toe complete. Some task, complete a task but task. Then there can be some interest group interest group, so maybe our organization would like to support the creativity and it allows its employees toe create an interest groups of what's I playing the cards. So these are simply we have some characteristics or some interests in common. So in the rest, interests in common and finally there can be also friendship groups. So Frenchy friendship to fulfill a really the social needs of employees so so sure needs off employees and in the upcoming videos, we are going to look deeper within the groups. 3. 2. The Five-Stage Model Of Group Development: in this video, we are going to talk about how do groups developed so about the group development? And let me just change my brush about the group development and we're going toe. Consider a five stage model. This is a worry well known model within the organizational behaviour. So as you can see, we're going toe help. Five. Steady state 12 free for five. Each of these stages has some specific characteristics, and something very specific happens within the group. So what's begin off course before any group starts to exist? There is a pre state, so you have some set of individuals oneto free for whereas these arrows you can understand them that they have different goals, so these can be some goals that differ. So that is a pre stage toe. Every group now stage one forming. As you can see around these, our group off individuals has been created some small circle. These represents a group stayed. One is called forming uncertainty about the group's purpose, structure and leadership, so that the people who have joined the group or or created the group are really uncertain about what are we doing here? What is going to be our structure and who is going to be our leader and members, says the water to see what types of behaviour are acceptable. So to really see what is acceptable within our this group. Second stage is called Storming Members accept the existence off the group but resist constraints it imposes on individuality so that you can see they now understood that there is some group and that they should cooperate somehow together. But as you know, every group is setting some constraints on the individuality or on our personal goals. Any members of the groups are still resisting these. Then there is a swell the conflict over who will control the group so that who will be the leader. And so we are getting to the third stage, which is called normal. Here the group demonstrate cohesiveness, so groups are the group members have already stopped. This resists the resist on the constraints it imposes on individuality, and the group is now Cohasset now created sense off group identity and common set of expectations so that you can see that every group needs some sort of identity and needs toe have some expectations and as you can see from the picture Really, our members off the group has started to understand that there should be some common goal towards which we are going. And then there should be some leader who is goingto leaders and represent these calls. And so we're getting to the four stage. This is some sort of a peak. It's called a performing stage. Now structure is fully functional and accepted. This is important. No, just dysfunctional. But also the members of the group are accepting it. Secondly, Group Energy has moved from getting to know each other, which has bean within all these stages. We our members were getting to know each other, but now they're focusing on performing off the task that they are given. However, every group is going to go through enduring stage Stage five. This is simply a preparation for these banning so that you can see that the connections between our members are getting weaker and weaker and they will diminish. After all, the group is simply wrapping up activities and of course, it has a low task performance, and after this stage the group will stop to exist. So you have seen the five stages for which groups are going when they're developing 4. 3. Group Property 1 - Roles: we are now starting to examine the groups and groups are going toe help several properties , and in this video we're going to talk about the first group property and their these rolls off group members. Now I found a nice quote. Shakespeare once said, All the world is a stage and all the men and the women are merely players now, although these mean well, we all have sort off some sort of a rolls on this stage of the world, and that is quite interesting statement, and it is really true Now imagine this person. Let's say we call him a job, So this is a job, and he's going to be an employee. Joanie is also going to be lets a parent better. Let's say Joan is also studying your language. So John is also a student. Then Joan can be on engineer on gin near Joni's, also a neighbor neighbor. And let's say John is also environmental in the environmental enthusiast and the woozy est , and now all they have written down are all roles. So these are roles, and now you see Joan, he's undertaking quite a many roles at the same time, and all these rules are going toe help some expectations, so a role. Let's talk about role expectations, expectations. Now, if we if we think about any of these roles, we can find some expectations. And those are sort of expectations that people that other people who are going to see Joan that they're expecting from him. So what? Same as an employee. Well, the manager Hallways, who is supervising John, is going toe have some role expectations from him as from an employee. So a manager is going toe. For instance, expect that Joan will be a to his workplace every day at eight in the morning. Now, as a parent, we expect John Tobey really responsible and caring about his child. As a student, we expect John Tobey studying hard as an engineer we consider, or we expect that Joan will be very skillful. What engineering is the neighbour we consider or expect from Joan that he will be silent during the night hours. So you see that all of these roles held some role expectations. Now, also, there are some. There is something that we call kind of role and perceptions perceptions. And these two things are different because expectations were where the where the outside in . So the outside world is expecting something from John. But perceptions are exactly the opposite. Joan is perceiving the roles in certain way. So when when Joan becomes a parent, well, he's going to perceive these roll. Let's say that he should be responsible, caring and so on and so on. So sometimes these two can be the same, but sometimes they can be different. But the most important thing that I would like to highlight in this video is something that we call a role conflict, role conflict. Because that's quite an important thing when it comes to roles. And what is that? Well, let's speak towards these. Joan is on employees and as the same time he's environmental enthusiast. So let's say John is working at the some company. We don't know what kind of company is it, and now he's given a task off deciding about cutting down some forest. So Johnny's supposed to count down threes. Now you imagine that doesn't employees the manager expects well, he will make the decision about cutting down the streets. But as an environmental enthusiast, John has a problem with this because well, he off course likes the forest and all the things connected. So he doesn't want to make that kind of a decision and that he's Karol conflict. So that is thinly connected toe group property One rolls quite often. A group has some expectations from their members and their roles, so they expect them to act in a given way. But their roles the number the least off the roles that these people or the members of the group are holding can sometimes being a conflict with the roles that group is expecting from them. 5. 4. Group Property 2 - Norms: Now we continue with our group properties and in this video we're going to talk about the second group property, which is norms. All groups have norms, acceptable standards of behaviour shared by their members that express, would they ought and old no toe do under certain circumstances. Now comes the important point. Norms, influence members, behavior. This is important for us. If we are a manager, we really have to understand what kinds off norms our subordinates held, developed. And now I would like to get toe to studies to experiments which has been carried about some time ago that they are really nicely expressing the idea off norms within groups. And how do they express or how do they influence the members behavior? So in the first scenario, let's imagine we would like to test or what has been tested was how employees behave when they are treated as individuals. So in these gains were going toe help. Some the vigils and in these kings were going toe put them into the group. So here they are going to be a group. In both cases, let's say, did they are manufacturers so that they are creating Let's a chairs, they are making chairs, and for every chair they produce, they are going to get one dolar so that you can see there is a variable benefits on variable reward. So for every chair you produce, you're going to get $1 then now these employees every Jim Polk Iwas creating a let's say, was grating, Let's say, then chairs per day. So then chairs. This one was also creating 10 chairs on average per day than chairs. And finally, this one was also creating 10 chairs per day chairs. Now, when we move to the group, we also keep the same reward system. So for every chair you do you create, you are going to get $1. But now we tell these employees that they're going to be tested a new way off. Working a new way off organizational structure is being tested, so we put them as a group and we're going to reward them as a group. So the rewards are for a group, so a group rewards reward. Now let's say that we already know that the teams are groups of people are performing higher so that we would expect that their outcome on every to every day should be, let's say, 30 chairs at least, or even more. However, as a whole, hotel studies shown well, these are going to perform lower. Their output is goingto be maybe 20 chairs per day, 20 chairs. Now the managers and the researchers were really wondering what is going on? Why, when there is individuals they're producing for T chairs per day for tea chairs, while when they're in a group and they should be performing better, they're producing only 20 chairs. Well, the thing waas he done in the norms. So these group of workers, the hill developed something that we call norms, and they were afraid it well, we can off course perform better, and they knew that they can produce, for instance, 50 chairs per day, 50 chairs per day. But they were afraid If we produce a 50 chairs per day, maybe we will no longer be given a $1 per chair. Maybe this is going to decrease toe all. It's a $10.5 per day or the company will decide well. We do know need 50 chairs per day so that one employees will be laid off. And now we can see they have talked together and develop these norms. So they have decided themselves that they're gonna restrict their output. So now we can really see that the norms are influencing members behavior and it can be quite dangerous within the company Sometimes. Now let's get to the second example. I'm again going toe. Bring on my mind throwing Let's say we put there 12 free. How? It's a four on the fifth person. Okay, so we have one more. So it's just more him. We have a six people now. These six people are Let's see, sitting together on a bench and their within the same room. They are asked. Here you have two cards, so we have some tool. We have some tool cards on one card on this one On the left side you have a line line X. As you can see on the other card, you have free lines, thrown line a line B and line. See, now your task guys, which you are sitting right over here, he still determine which off these free A B or C is the same length s line X. And as you can see, the task was given in a very similar way. Disquiet Toby is that the Line X is the same length as the line beat. Now what has happened is that these people were really giving the right answers so that the first person said Okay, the line the line be he's the pregnancy Then the second person said b then B and B B and B So that was the normal road logic. However, what has happened is that what say we take these guys, we take these guys and we try the test again. Of course, we are different people who have no bean doing this before, but is the first person we will now put some hidden agent. So this is going to be our agent and he's going to say that the correct answer is A is going to say that the correct answer is a now because of the enormes, these other people who are within the group, I would like to conform within the group, so something that we call conformity is going toe evolve, conformity, corn for midi. They would like to have the same opinions as the rest off the group, so the next one is going to say a then a. Then maybe someone will say the correct answer being well, these guys are wondering again, So he will say a and the last one will say be These has really happened This is a real study and the results were simply amazing. In the first case scenario, the correct answers were approximately 99% so 99% of people really answered correctly. However, in the second scenario, when the first person did the mistake by purpose, then on Lee, approximately 25% off people gave correct answers, so you can see norms are developing and are pursuing some conformity. And then the group members would like to conform within the group, so that was the group property to norms. 6. 5. Group Property 3 - Status: we continue on our adventure of this covering group properties, and in this video we're going to talk about the third group property, which is a status probably You have already heard about some sort of a social status. Let's say you can have a social status. What is that? Well, statues is a socially defined position or rank. Let's say let's have these words a rank given to groups or group members by others. So we can really imagine, Let's say, at first case, we have some sort of a group and now one of the group members. Let's say this one right over here is going toe help higher studies. So this one is having higher statues now as well we can. We can imagine the same with our several groups at the same time. So if we have what say these right over here is our organization organization, which is consisting off in this case. Four groups, one off them. Allah highlight this 11 of them can have ah, higher status than the others. So again we have some higher studies Now what does that mean? That means that I either the person or the group that has higher higher status has is perceived by the society or by other people. We have some sort of a higher rank Now. How is this sort of higher studies that terminar would the Hermes The city's well, there are free basic things that have been highlighted by the researchers. First, the power person wheeled over others. Now you can, for instance, imagine the's guy right over here is in charge of deciding about who is going to receive how much kids within the group. So what say you did a pretty good drop this month and you're going to receive a $100 benefit? You have no done that well, and you are not going to have any benefit you as well, and you did a good job. So we will help benefit. No si. This person holds some sort of a power or or wield thes or others. It can be cash, or it can be any other kinds of resource. Is that this person or or these group controls? And that is the first decisive factor about the social status within either group or within the organization. Now, secondly, a person's ability to contribute toe group's goal. Now we can imagine, let's say the's guys are supposed to will build the house so we're building a house on. That's going to be our great house. Now let's imagine that the first guy isn't electrician the second guy he's in. Charge off, Let's say furniture design 3rd 1 in charge of kitchen supply, NC's and 4th 1 is, let's say, designing bedrooms. Now there is these guy right over here who is actually building the walls. So this one is building walls. Now he's the one who is really contributing toward groups. Go because he's the one who is going to do that. The main part off the job, which is building the walls around the house so you can see when there is a person or a group again, who is really contributing to the goal. Dead person or dead group is going toe help a higher status. When we think about organization wide perspective, those can be, For instance, I guys are the guys who are designing Let's a webpage for which companies selling their product well there can be seen as the one who are contributing to the group's goals the most now Finally, it is quite simple that an individual's personal characteristics are going toe contribute towards social studies. Well, if if this guy is nice outgoing person who is always smiling and other people like him, well, he or she is going to have a higher social status. That one was quite simple. So that was 1/3 group property, which we call a steadies, and it's quite important to consider it when we are examining some group or some organization. 7. 6. Group Property 4 - Size: off course when we are studying groups. One property that is really important for us is thes size off a group, and that is exactly going to be the topic off this video. And we have imaginary panna factory. So we are producing pence now. We are trying to find out how big should out Big shoot or what should be the size off our group that is producing depends. So let's say we will begin with groups, so groups and then I will slightly touch a new topic which esteems because it is quite important to understand the difference between these two when it comes to the size. So let's say we have we have one employee and these employees going to produce ah, 30 pens per day by day. Now that is the situation when these what these employees is alone now what happens if we put if we put let's saying one too furry on, Let's say for now free. We put free of these our employees in the same room in the same room, and we say that this is going to be a group. Be careful with what I'm saying is going to be the group, which is going to produce pants. Now, as a research addressed, what do you think is going to be their outcome? Well, as I mentioned, as the research suggests, their outcome is no goingto be 90 pence, as we would expect there. So three times pretty, which would be 90. It's going to be less so. These guys going to produce, let's say, 25 pens and these guys going to produce Onley 20 pens are all together. We're going to help on output off. Let's see 55 75 75 pence. Well, why is that? There are several reasons for these. For instance, you can imagine that they're now going to communicate between each other, and that is going to take some time. So they're communicating, and that is taking the time away from producing pence. If you would create even bigger group off employees. So what say you would help one do furry? Let's say 45 and six. So if you would let them work as an individuals, they will be producing each for two pence per day. But it's a such large group. Maybe they're going toe, just communicate and there is going to procure something that we call a social lo think social loafing. That is quite interesting term, and this is a phenomenon that occurs when people are working within groups and they are going to perform lower because they they feel like, Well, if these guys going to produce only 20 pens, well, it's not going to be seen because, you know, these guys will be producing all of them 30 pans and I'm just 20 and no one will kind of see that. So I'm going to perform over, have more breaks and and so on and so on. That's the social loafing or the basic idea of it. Now that is going to happen in all of the cases. So we're going to help 2020 when the 20 and 20 right over here. So as you see usually as you are increasing the size off the group, then theme performance, often individual, is going to decrease even though, of course, well, hey do produced overall a 30 pence he do produce overly £75 he produced overly 120 depends so overly you produced more pens, but the marginal import off every individual is going down because he ran. Every individual produced for tea here ended. Every individual produced 25 on average and here just 20. So even though the total so 30 7520 is going up, the individual's performance is going to go down. And that is because some social often go cures, and then group members are spending time with other activities rather than just the production. Now, don't confuse these with teams. Deem is something different. If you would have a team, you would have, let's say some sort of an assembly line so he won't be one guy another and 1/3 1 on the 3rd 1 And now, let's say 1st 1 off them. He's producing all this northern eyes color. So 1st 1 of them is producing, let's say thes part of a pen, this part right over here, and then when he produces these, he's going toe. Give it to another guy who is producing, Let's say, this main part of a pen and then he's going to move these parts in tow. The first guy who is putting these two parts together, This is a team. They are cooperating together. They are cooperating and this is a totally different story. When when people are cooperating and some sort of a synergy or cures see energy, then their rules about the size of A teams are going to be different. But generally speaking about groups, you should try to keep a group off people as small as possible because then it would become ineffective. 8. 7. Group Decision Making: So we have talked a lot about groups. Group broke your everywhere. Within the organizations that can be groups, off managers, groups of employees, they can be four more informal. And in this video we're going to take a look at a group decision making. Or, more precisely, we're going to compare decision making off on individual in the video Verceles the decision making off a group because thes two are very similar and have a lot of differences. And as you will see, the group decision making has certain strengths or advantages over individual decision making and as well, certain weaknesses compared to the individual decision making. So it's a good well, we have a first strength off group decision making groups generate more complete information and knowledge, so more complete information and knowledge. So you can imagine that we've seen a group that are going to be more people, maybe from different backgrounds. One is going to be a business person than there is going to be marketing person, accountant and so on and so on. So the decision that is made within a group is going to possess or is going toe a knowledge more complete information then Finley connected to This is the second point they offer increased diversity off views. So due to the effect that we help people with different backgrounds within our group that is making a decision, the views that this group has is much more divers than if just the individual is making a decision well. And finally, groups lead to increased acceptance off solution. So if you imagine an organization with 100 employees and the group that is making decisions has standing boys, well, then these 100 employees are going to accept a solution much more easily because they see that, well, 10 people made the decision, so it should be correct. Instead off if one individual mega decision they'll be like now, well, one person has made these has created the solution, has made it his decision. But you know, it just the one guy, and we might not accept it. So when groups are making decisions, it leads to increased acceptance of the social. Now, on the other hand, we have some weaknesses of group decision making. They are time consuming because groups typically take more time to reach a solution. So really can imagine that We've been a group. When you're making a decision, you are going to communicate with each other, which takes a lot of time. And if the more members the group has the longer time it is going to take a while. All of you are going to communicate to reach the solution, so these decisions are time consuming. Secondly, there are conformity pressures within the group, so you can imagine if you have a group of five people out of which four hell, some sort of a mainstream opinion and agree with each other. That is this one guy who doesn't agree with these others. But the conformity pressures are going to be laid upon the's diversified opinion, and he's got no going to be hurt. So it's sometimes dangerous to create group that is making decisions. Then group decisions can be dominated by one or few members. So if you have a group and you are expecting all of these strengths off group decision making, it may not be true because there can be one dominating member who is really deciding about the Wall Group Now. Finally, group decisions suffer from ambiguous responsibility. Well, what is that? Imagine that group has made some decision and now it was a wrong decision and the solution was not good. Well, always going to be blamed for this bad decision. Well, it's quite hard because it was a group decision and no one can be. No single individual can be blamed for these bed decision. So, as you can see when we're comparing individual decision making versus group decision making , there are certain strengths and weaknesses as well. 9. 8. Groupthink: in this video. I would like to talk about one very important concept, especially when you are many. Drilled would say. Your task is to organize groups of people, and it's called the groupthink. And as you will see, it's quite a dangerous when it comes to the group decision making. So what's your definitions? This is a byproduct. Off group decision making. It has the potential to affect group's ability to arrive at the high quality, so oceans. So of course, we want the group toe arrive at High Court E Solutions. However, the group thing has a potential toe affected. Let me just fix my drawing. So the group thing has a potential toe affected and you will see that it can happen. The's potential is in a negative sense, because groupthink describes situations in which group pressures for conformity the 30 group from critically appraising unusual minority or unpopular views. So you can imagine it, I think, very simple. Let's say that these are a views were talking about view, So if we imagine a group that say this is a group of people and off course to off them are going toe, have some different views So this is our group off people with their use abuse. And, as you can see to group members have some unusual minority or unpopular views. Well, what will happen under the group? Think that the group pressures for conformity will simply the 30 group from critically appraising these. So what should grow, though, is that they should listen to these guys. They should let these two guys speak about their opinion. However, the group thing will cause that these opinions will simply disappear so that this one will be off the same opinion as is the group and also this one. After all, that is the basic idea of the group. Think now we have probably all seen these symptoms off the groupthink phenomenon. First, no matter how strongly the evidence contradict members basic assumptions, members behave so westerain forced them. So that is quite a simple idea. When such a group is facing some perfect some effect. Well, they will not care about them. To some extent, if it is contradicting their basic views, they will simply as a group, they call themselves, We are fine. We are all right. Our assumptions are the correct ones. That is the groupthink. Secondly, members apply. Direct pressures on those home momentarily express doubts about any off the group's shared views. So who expressed some doubts about any of the groups? Shared views you have seen these two guys originally had different views, but what happened afterwards was the D groups are expressed. Some direct pressure's off them. So this is direct pressure is the direct pressure that we have it here and over here. Finally, there is an illusion off unanimity. So unanimity, if someone doesn't speak, it is assumed he or she is on four Accord. So even though, let's say another guy said Thies, Guy right over here can have a different opinion. If he doesn't speak well, it is assumed that he agrees, and he has the same opinion as the rest off the group. Now the question is, does groupthink attack all groups? No, it does not happen in all of the groups, the three basic tools or free our ways. How can managers avoid group thing is that they should control these size off the group's size off groups off course. The larger the group is, the higher the probability off groupthink toe a cure Secondly, they should try toe more managers or CEOs of companies should try toe really encourage group leaders to play some impartial role in partial, impartial role so that the managers should really listen. Toe the all of the group members. And now, finally, you can use a specific door such as a Devil's Advocate. So Davis located. This is a very nice concept. Basically a devil's that. Okay, It is a person within within a group that is constantly challenging the majority views so that there is some general view of the group and this is our devils. Okay? Any kind off a majority off a majority view he will challenge. He will ask the questions. What is going on? Why should we have this kind of you? So, as you can see, these are the three basic tools how we can avoid the groupthink. 10. 9. Teams vs Groups: in this chapter, we are going to take a look at themes. So in this video, I would like to give you some introduction toe teams. And my first thought would be, Why at all do we have something that we call a team or or organizing a group of people that we will call team? Well, because it's history revealed. Teams are effective means for management to democratize organization and increase employee motivation. This is what you will find in the upcoming chapter. And now, at least from my perspective, to begin with, it is necessary to understand the difference between groups and teams. So it's a go get it. We will have some groups and then we will help themes about groups. We have talked in previous video, and we have concluded that groups are two or more individuals interacting and independent who came together to achieve particle objectives. Soto achieve hope, articular objectives, particulary objectives, and now their performance within the group is merely a summation off each group member's individual effort. So if you would imagine if we have, if we have free workers such as in this case and each of them is able to produce individually 20 units per day. So 2020 and 20 when they will be working together as a group, they will produce Onley 66 units. And we have also had examples that sometimes it can be even less when they're working in a group because off some norms and the result can be actually maybe let's a 45 45. So groups are actually not a tool for better organization off work. But now we are moving to teams. These are groups that generate positive synergy. So we have positives energy through coordinated effort so coordinated, afford and positives energy, these two terms, you are going to meet a lot in the upcoming videos. So positive energy and coordinated therefore, and the individual efforts result in a level of performance greater than greater than the sum off those individual import. So again, if we would have if we would have, like in this case 2020 and 20 units per day, we would have the same So 20 20 and let me write it differently. So 20 on 20 and now we decided we are going toe organize them as a team. So this is going to be our theme, our team and things to some positive synergy and coordinated effort. There may be going to produce 80 units when they're working as a team. So let's think about an example. Let's say that here we have some, let's say it's our assembly line. So the order, assembly line, assembly line and we decide that we're going to test how groups can perform and how many units they can produce and then teams. So what will a group toe? Well, let's say that those are the free individuals and they have a particle objectives off producing units. So they will simply say, I'm gonna come to the first table. So what's say we need a free activity? So this is our first activity, second activity. And for so what the group will do is that they won't tell themselves. Okay, I'm gonna come to Activity one, and then I'm gonna work on the 2nd 1 and on the 3rd 1 So I'm gonna work, actually as an individual for maybe eight hours, and then the other one is going to work for eight hours, and then the 3rd 1 is going to work for eight hours again so they essentially work as individuals and their performance is merely a summation off each individual effort. However, when a team comes here, they will work differently. So one of these will goto activity one, so he will be first D member. Then he will be the second team member, and then he will be the 30 member. So they have coordinated their effort and there is a positive energy. And thanks to that, the performance is going to be greater than the sum of those individual imports. So that was the introduction to teams. 11. 10. Types of Teams: in the previous video We have introduced ourselves. What does it mean to say a team? And in this video, I would like to talk about various types off themes. As you will see, we help basically the four types off teams when it comes to some organizations. So we're going to help problem solving teams. Self managed teams cross functional things, which are really interesting and then virtual teams. So let's begin with the problem solving teams. Well, as you see from the picture are people or the employees meet to solve some specific problem , which is this question mark. So these problem solving teams, the key members, usually meet for a few hours each week. So these five guys, which are over here, have their regular jobs within the organization. But for instance, for free hours per week, they're assigned to this problem solving team. So they meet up and they discuss ways off improving quality or efficiency. And I think it's quite intuited when there are some more complex problems. It is better to organize your employees this way and off course. These members share some ideas, suggest work processes for improvement, but this is very important is that these teams usually have no authority for implementations off solution. So they just basically discussed these ways. They share the ideas and they suggest, till they may be right, some our report. And then there are other people outside this problem solving team who will be implementing the solution. Let's get to the second time self managed work teams. So these usually at least in my mind, I remember it by construction companies, So construction. It's quite often the construction companies operate with the way of self managed work teams , so these take responsibilities off their former supervisors. As you can see from the picture, there are there are five team members, but usually there is no real supervisors, so they take the responsibilities themselves, and the main point is that they don't Onley solve the problems. But they also implement these solutions. So they basically the construction company, comes to build some house. They solve the problem so they find out the way how toe, let's say, repair the house and then the exactly same group of people exactly saying Team also is going toe implement the solution so they go through everything from planning, scheduling, work and finally taking action. However, these have some disadvantages. So here we have some, uh, these the veggies, these quantities And basically, those are bad conflict management. When you have no real supervisor, well, the conflict will cure, and there is no one really to resolve these. And also there is a higher absent teen than under under different types off themes. Now let's go to the more interesting one, which is the cross functional teams. So employees from several departments come together and create the team so you can see the over here we have 12345 departments. So, for instance, this can be production department. This could be purchasing. This can be marketing, sales, research and development, and they simply come together and form one team. Quite often. This is feeling connected with product teams, so quite often there are product teams. So when there is a new product Toby designed, you would like to help opinions from all of your departments when it comes to these new products, and these are the employees from seeing same hierarchical level by the different work areas . They come together, they exchange information and they develop some new ideas. And these kind of teams are usually used to solve very complex problems, such as a new product development. Now, finally, we come to the virtual teams. These are, as you can see, and I would like to add to the picture that there is usually that there is usually some technology, so some technology would you can really imagine is in the middle, so the technology would be somewhere here and you can see the year. These are using the technology to unite physically dispersed members and four for these technologies. You can use some white area networks, videoconferencing or email, and you can really imagine it that these deems or the members off. The teams are really dispersed throughout the continent, and thanks to videoconferencing, they can operate as a team. However, there is also a disadvantage. Would you can see right over here? These suffer because off less social report and less direct interaction among members. So quite often it happens that these members off the team, they never really meet physically and and they cannot develop the social interaction and the social relationship. So also, the thing will not be operating that effect daily. So those were the four types of a team's when it comes to the organizations 12. Introduction to Module 4: in the last section of organizational behavior course we are moving to the tobel Evelyn. We're going to think about the behaviour within the organization from the organization wide perspective and what is naturally a curing at the top level is off course the power. So we will define ourselves. What does it mean to say a power? Then what are the basis off power within the organization and as well with tactics people are using when exerting their power over others? And of course, when power cures, then the conflict may arise as well. So we will talk a little bit about the conflict is well. We will adopt the very important conflict process model that will lead us through the war conflict as it cures. And that's gonna be all from the organizational behaviour. 13. 1. Definition of Power: we now enter new chapter, where we will talk about power so there is no better way to start in defining for ourselves . What does it mean when we say up power? So I brought up the definition. Then I will try to make some example, and I know how terrible I met growing. So I'm sorry about that. And then we will compare. Leadership wears those power, so let's go for it. The definition of a power says power refers to a capacity that a some person hey, has toe influence the behavior off be so then we have some B so that be acts in accordance with a Swiss cheese. So to make it nicer, let's say that a will be replaced with the name. So what's say we're going to help Mark? So these right over here is Mark. And then let's say being would be Ah, let's call him Peter. So, Peter and this is going to be Peter. Now let's imagine a situation that Mark is a teacher is a teacher, and of course, being a teacher means that you may be are also on examiner. So you are making and evaluating the exams so you are, Examiner. And now Peter off course is a student. He's a student. And, um, let's say that Peter off course has a wish. Toe pass the course. This is the wish Off Peter Toe pass the course. The course that mark is teaching. So pause the course. Now let's continue with the definition so that a mark should help some capacity toe influence beater so that Peter will act in accordance with AIDS wishes so that let's say Mark has a wish so that ah, students, students are coming or come or come to lectures toe lectures. So that is the wish. So we have a wish over here that these marks wish students count electors. Now we get to the power. So what we can say is that Peter East dependent on Mark So Peter is dependent the dependent on mark. Why is it so? Because Peter is a student off on off Mark. And now Marc has some power over beater. So Mark has power power over Peter. Well, why is it so? Because Mark has something that Peter desires markets holding the decision. If Peter will pass the course. So Mark holds something, holds something something they, the Peter that Peter desires desires. And now, because of these, because of these dependency that Peter would like to help something that mark processes. That means that Mark has power over Peter to influence his behavior. And now, when Marks which is that students come to lecture, then Mark and influence Peter so that he will be coming to the lectures. Now, what comes here as well is the sense off alternatives. We have to keep them in mind out there, not deals called there nothing. So that if there will be 100 other teachers except off Mark, then Peter would have some alternatives. And we that would mean that Mark wouldn't have such a big power over Peter. But when Peter needs to pass exactly these one course that is being teached by Mark, he has no other out there. Nothing's. So this is just increasing the marks power over Peter. So this was the definition of power. Now let's think about a similar concept, which is the leadership. What happens when we compare leadership and power So we have a power. Power does not require gold compatibility, merrily dependence. So you see, there were here. Dependence is the corner stone off the power, so dependence and we have seen it in our example. Peter is dependent on Mark, so a power is being created, which has Mark. However, leadership, on the other hand, requires some congruence between goals over the leader and those being let. So we are talking about some and let me just change the color. So we have some goals on goals and that is very different so that when you are leading someone, you should show some goals. For instance, you have a goal. Toby, Well educated, well educated. And now that is a goal that is a gold. Now, if you are a leader and you will be trying to lead other people, some students So those being let they must have also the same goals as you have in order that they will allow you to be their leader. So do not do not really confuse these two concepts. They're quite different leadership and our 14. 2. Bases of Power: So we already got introduced in tow power. We know what power sort of isn't in this video, I would like to talk about the basis off power. So I would like to talk about where does the power when it comes to some individual come from and you're going to see 12345 specific sources or bases of power. But I think the most important is to remember the categorization of these into two main sources. So one source is a formal power and the another source is personal power. I think these diversification is the most important one to keep in mind, so etc, the former power is based on an individual's position in an organization. What does this mean? So individuals position in an organization essentially the hiree war. In the Iraqi often organization you are deciding about more. Resource is so this is Finley connected with the same resource is So let's say if you are a top manager, you are really deciding about load of organizations resource. So you're going to decide who is going toe help. How high celery, Then in what kind of projects are we going to in West basically the former power as it is based on the individual's position. It is sort of referring to the resource is that this individual has by hand. And now, when it comes to these, resource is there are three specific kinds of a power that their eyes here so first toe are exact. Opposite career seal and reward power. So these two are opposite. I think the easier want to understand is the reward power. Well, when you are a manager, you can reward your employees So you're holding these reward power so they will try to conform with you because you can reward them and that they simply of power so you can. You can say what they only toward them, and you can decide what your employees are subordinates will be doing because you can give or take from them the rewards. And they have already touched the second part of this choir superpower. You know, Onley. Can the reward the employees, but you can do exact opposite. You can sort off harm them. You can either take away some some nice assignments that they were supposed to do from them . You can take from them the benefits so you can see these two war exact opposite. Now legitimate power is sort off summarizing the stool. So if you if you poses both of these, then you are starting to have a legitimate power, which is sort of an ultimate power or ultimate control. Off the resource is while they were controlling the organization's resources, then you have power and you can exercise thes over your employees. Now we're getting to the second source, which is the personal power, and these is based on individual's unique characteristics. So we have some unique characteristics, and specifically we are going to help two kinds of a power with our evening characteristics . First is expert power if you imagine that you are the only person in the wall organization that can do op articular job, which is very important for the organization. So let's say your organization is working a lot with some databases. So database let's say you have a large database of customers and then the wall organization 1000 people are working with this one database, and that is just one guy who is in who is in charge and in control of this database. Who is fixing it than on programming it and so on and so on. These guy is going to have a very high expert power because you know he's admired and everyone knows that the organization wouldn't be able to run without him. Then we have referent power. This is a bit tricky to understand, but what I always imagine is thes movie stars in commercials. So movie stars in commercials. That's that's how I remember it. Well, why are movie stars going into commercials? Or why are these marketing agency is willing to invest so much in tow having a movie starring their commercial for I don't know, some fragrance or some cosmetic products Well, because they have a referent power over people, these movie stars. So if people admire some movie star or any kind of individuals, they would like to comply and conform with them. And so then they will trust these individuals much more so, As you see when it comes to the basis of power that are two main streams, the formal and the personal power 15. 3. Power Tactics: we have already introduced ourselves the concept off power, that power. It's basically a function off dependency. But still, even though we know what power means, we still need to understand. How can we use this power? What can we do if it and what are the specific actions? And these are cold power tactics and we're going to learn about nine power tactics, and all of them should be used in slightly different situations. So it's a we have them listed over here with a simple expansion. So the 1st 1 is called Legitimacy. This is relying on your authority position or saying requests, accords, organizational policies. So in these kids were really relying on some organizational policies so that, for instance, we would like to have off, Let's say, no clean environment for work. And that said, in our organizational policies that I, as an employee, should have always a clean environment. There are myself, so I can rely on these and according to the legitimacy, ask for some improvement. Maybe as second we have a relational persuasion. This is simply presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate a request is reasonable. We do this maybe most often when we're persuading our friends, colleagues or maybe our managers, we believe that our request has really a logic behind and that it is a reasonable. So we simply presented reason. The logic, and we hope that we will, in a rational way, persuade the listener as Firth, we have inspirational appeals. We would like to inspire someone so that we are developing emotional commitment by appealing tow targets, values, needs and hopes. So we all of us have some values, needs and homes so that ISA speaker, we'll try to appeal to these values and needs. So, for instance, let's say that our colleague is a co feel our and I'm voting for improvement off our environment off our offices. And now I'm now trying to persuade is my colleague that he should try the world with me, and so I will inspire him with the possibilities that the new coffee machine would help for his coffee passions. Let's go further. We have a consultation. This is simply increasing the target support by involving him or her in decision making. So again, let's by involving him or hurt. Let's imagine the situation that I am not satisfied with the state off my office and I would like to persuade my managers. So I will simply come to my colleague and I will try to involve him or her. I will ask him, Hey, what do you think I should do? What do you think? How should I persuade the managers? These is the consultation. Then we have exchange rewarding de tarted with benefits or favours in exchange for following request. It's simple. You come to someone and exchange the following request and say, Well, I would need from you this little favor but of course I will do something for you. These is simply an exchange. Then we have personal appeals asking for complete compliance based on friendship or loyalty . So we have some friendship or loyalty, and maybe this can be surprising. But off course it's one. It's part off the power. It's one off power tactics, and it's important to keep them in mind because that's used quite often. Then we have ingratiation. This is using flattery, praise or friendly behavior, pre or toe making a request, so that lets I would like to ask my manager for in your coffee machine, but before I do So I'm going to be super nice to him, nicer than ever before, So that at the moment when I asked for the new coffee machine, he will be in a nice mood and hey will more likely and all each of these my request. Then we helped pressure using warnings, repeated demands and threats. The problem with pressure is off course that it can backfire and I will make these notes. It quite often backfires. Bake fires. If we use the pressure on someone else, it is quite likely that it will know the hell positive consequences or not only positive consequences. And finally we help coalitions. This is enlisting the aid or support off others to persuade the target toe agree so that it will not be on Lee us, but also others, maybe our colleagues who will try to make some change and we create the coalition out off these our supporters. Now let's think about something interesting when we imagine some simple organization. Let's say it has all its It has three year article levels so that here are the employees here is the manager and here is the CEO when they will just quickly make the connections because this is quite important. Eso we have a were here and let's think about the direction it's think about the direction , off power or the direction of communication. Off course there can be three. It can be upward so it can go this way on then this way so it can be upward then it can be also downwards communication, so it will go from CEO to some manager and maybe from manager to some employees. And finally, there can be lateral lot. There are communication or lateral persuasion used off tactics. Now let's think about what which off These tactics can be used in which of these situations well, let's begin with the 1st 1 which is the upward communication or the upward use off power when we are trying to persuade our manager about someone and I have already said the word we are trying to persuade, and that's over here when we would like toa use a power over our manager. The only choice we really have is the use of rational persuasion. So let's make a small mark over here that these is successful in upward communication, and that's actually the Onley one that can be used in this case. Now let's think about the downward. So from a CEO to manager or from a manager told employees, Well, of course we can use legitimacy. So here we have down Lord, we can use rational persuasion. Then we can try to inspire that This would be part of our job consultation. Off course. We can try to encourage or or involve our manager to take part in decision making so downward over here as well. Then we have exchanged it, of course. Well, personnel appeals that doesn't feed here. We don't have toe ask for compliance based on friendship or loyalty. It simply stemmed in the heroic. So this one doesn't go in. Then we have in graduation. Then we have, of course, pressure and coalitions. Well, thes doesn't again feet here. Now let's think about the lateral, the horizontal. We again can begin by legitimacy. Then we can go for operational persuasion. Well, the book says, or these colors agreed that inspirational appeals are not really useful for ah lateral influence. So this one is not usable. Then we have a consultation. Then we have exchanged personal appeals, ingratiation off course pressure these one should not be used in a lot that our sense. So we are only left with coalitions. So now you can see which of these kinds of power techniques can be used in upward, downward and lot that our communication 16. 4. How People Respond To Organizational Politics: If you plan to develop your career, especially within incorporates within large organizations, you most likely are going to meet some organizational politics. And in this video, I would like to talk about some ways how people respond when some organizational politics or cured. And I think at least from my perspective, especially the defensive behaviors, is a pretty interesting topic is as you will really find it quite often. So if you think of it, employees or lower level managers off course may not be happy from organizational politics . Only when you really understand all the if you really understand, it's called House. If you really understand all the house and wise, then you might be comfortable. If you really understand how things happen and why do they happen, then you can be okay with organizational politics. But if you do not really have the overview off these, then most likely you are goingto have some negative reactions. So as we have said, organizational politics may threaten employees and there are four basic reactions to it. First decreased job satisfaction, so that off course it will be less satisfied because you have no expected that the organizational politics is going toe influence your job these much. Secondly, there can be increased anxiety and stress because simply organizational politics. That's one more thing you have to care about and that create the stress. Then you have increased turnover off employees so that the ones that are not happy with organizational politics will simply leave. And finally, and that is the worst case scenario. You have reduced performance when the organizational politics is influencing people jobs and so that they will not have, ah as high performance as they would if the organisational point X did not a cure. But most interestingly, let's think about some defensive behaviors that people can help, and I have made quite a long least because I find it very interesting so we can read through it how it just so the defensive behaviors off people. When it comes to organizational politics, they can try to avoid the action. That's what we have the first. Then they try to avoid the blame, especially if something bad happens. And finally we can try tow, avoid change. That's the for case. Now avoiding action. The first reaction can be over conforming, which would be strictly interpreting your responsibility by saying things like the rules clearly state. So you are really interpreting your responsibility very, very strictly. And this way you are trying to avoid the action so that someone asks you, Hey, can you please make me a coffee? No, I cannot. There's no my job. The rules clearly state that I should not be making a coffee for you. Secondly, we have back passing. This is transferring responsibility for the execution off a task to someone else so that let's say your manager asks you toe, make coffee for him or her, and you will pass it to your personal assistant. That would be the back pacing. Then you have playing dumb. It's really interesting, Warren. I personally have sometimes made these avoiding unwanted task by falsely pleading ignorance or inability. So you simply do not want to do something. Also, you are asked to write a report, and you say, Well, I cannot do that. No one teached me, so I'm unable to do that. And so you are playing them. Then you have stretching. This is prolonging a task so that one person appears to be occupied so appears to be occupied. This is especially danger incorporates when it is not always possible to control. How long does it take for an employee to complete a task? And so sometimes they can really stretch the task that should be done in two weeks into four months? Then we have stalling. This is appearing to be more or less supportive publicly while doing little or nothing privately so showing being supported publicly. But in reality, when it comes toe the privacy, you really do nothing. Then we have avoiding blame. The first reaction is buffing. This is a nice way to refer. Toa covering your ear are sorry or rear. It describes the practice of rigorously documenting activities so that you are doing some what's a project rigorously documenting a project and in a case that something bad happens . You are really documenting the project all the activities rigorously so that you can then avoid the blame. If something happens, then you have playing safe. This is probably the most serious ones. As it happens the most often. This is an waiting situations that may reflect unfavorably so that you will go on Lee for some low risk projects. Low risk project and General, you try to avoid the risk taking. Then we have justifying developing explanations that lesson one's responsibility for a negative outcomes so that you will not. If you are given some project, you will not be working on the project itself. You will be working on the explanations and justifications in case something happens, and it's it's quite interesting, at least from my perspective. Then we have scapegoating That's a weird there. But it's placing the blame for a negative outcome on external factors that are not entirely blame warfare. So what say you are working for a construction company and things do not work out very well for you? And so you will try to avoid the blame by saying that well, the weather was very bad in recent months, so we couldn't finish the job. However, it does not really. You cannot entirely blame on Lee the weather conditions as Firth and let me just move my screen. We help prevention that is the part off avoiding change and that is quite typical tryingto prevent are trying toe prevent ah threatening change from a curing so that, for instance, you can use you were asked to contribute to some change and you should perform some action , but you are trying to avoid the change, so we will also try to avoid your part direction so you will be stretching it and trying to prevent the change from happening. Finally, there is a self protection, acting in ways to protect one's self interest by guarding information or other resources, so that, for instance, you were asked to consult for some organizational change that is going to happen and you have some very valuable information, but you will guard them and you will not be willing to share them in order to avoid the change. 17. 5. Impression Management: Have you ever been thinking what what others think about you and how others perceive you? Well, there is a science based around it, and it's called the Impression Management, and that's exactly going to be the topic of this video. The impression management is the Perros ISS, by which individuals at them toe control impression. Others form off them. So you can imagine that we are really performing depression management every day, and and we are doing it in different kinds of situations when we're talking to our boast where we're colleagues. Maybe if we would like to have a relationship with someone else, well, we would do the impression management. And so let's think about some techniques as this is quite an important part off organizational behavior study. So about some techniques, off impression management. So I have listed only some off them the most interesting ones. So let's see, the 1st 1 is called The Conformity. This is a green with someone else's opinion toe. Get his or her approval. So simply, there is a let's say that on your workplace there is a dispute over something, and well, in these cases, you will agree with someone else. And then next week, when there will be another dispute, Well, maybe this person will agree with you as a favor. Now we're getting toe favors as a second technique, doing something nice for someone to gain that person's approval. So, for instance, imagine you just bring a coffee to someone else and you did something nights. And now we will ask Hey, so Rick and I, let's say ask you for an opinion regarding this dispute that is going on recently. Then we have excuses. So we have one through, and now it's the 3rd 1 Excuses, explanation off predicament, creating, even aimed at minimizing its severity. So imagine your task. Waas Ah, let's say toe, get the newspaper. So eso get the advertising for their company. Get advertising toe newspaper did newspaper. That was your task. However you failed. Now we come to your manager and say, Hey, it's sorry we didn't get this to the newspaper, but no one is reading them anyway. No one is really responding them so it doesn't really matter. Dead is excuse. You are making an excuse for your failure, and you were trying to minimize the severity of these. Let's go 44. Here we help Apologies, admitting responsibility for an undesirable even and similar tunnels. Lee seeking pardon. So at the same time, when you are admitting that you have done something wrong or that you failed at the same time similar time else. Lee, you are seeking the party. Fifth, we have a self promotion. This is highlighting ones qualities and downplaying ones definite. So you are showing off simply you are showing off your qualities and you're hiding your deficits or inequalities in order to create a great impression. And now the last one. We have a flattery. You are complimenting others so complimenting others about their virtues in an afford to appear perceptive and likable so that others will feel OK. You are really perceptive. You are really likeable because we are making compliments and listeningto us all the time. So I have a great impression about you. So these were the six examples off techniques within the impression management. But the most important is to keep in mind the definition. Why should we care about the impression management when it comes to organizational behaviour? 18. 6. Three Views Of Conflict: as we have already defined ourselves. What does it mean to say conflict? Now we are getting toe three different abuse off conflict. How how have they evolved throughout the time? If I remember it correctly, The first view and the first researchers have been starting to research the topic off conflict somewhere around 19 thirties, and that's where the traditional view starts. Then we moved to the interaction is due and finally the resolution focused view. So let's give you the head start. The traditional view said that all conflict is bad and should be avoided then, so that conflict is this functional outcome off poor communication. Or that it is what happens when the managers fail to be responsive so that managers fail to be responsible either to the situations on the workplace or to employees themselves. Well, as you have probably Greste already, this cannot be really applied toe now the world because it is considered here. Just later, researchers and managers realized that some level off conflict is inevitable in the workplace, and that's where we are getting toe. The interaction is to you and interaction is view sense that harmonious and cooperating group becomes static and unresponsive to the innovation. So imagine a group on workplace in some organization, and this group is perfectly harmonious and cooperating. So what interaction is view assumes is that this group of people will become static and they will not be properly responding to situations and innovations as they shoot. Now. Minimal level off conflict can keep the ground viable and creative so that there is some recognition off functional and dysfunctional conflict. If I can let me just try to draw one the graph where I think I can nicely summarize it. So imagine that on the horizontal axis we have, ah, level off conflict level off conflict. And then on the vertical axis, we help productivity productivity. So as the interaction is, view says, the minimal level of conflict can keep the ground bible and creative. So now imagine the level off conflict is increasing, so the level off conflict is increasing. So should the productivity be increasing, But after some some level of conflict, the productivity will start to decrease again. So we go down again. So as you can see this point at some point, the conflict is actually productive, so conflict conflict is productive pro doctor on the workplace. The same situation can be applied. Art was stress, but that's a different topic. Let's get so the resolution focused real. This is a little bit tricky. They recognize problems with encouraging conflict so that a zit imagined this graph. What it presumes is that managers should try our toe, keep the level off conflict up so managers can actually try to encourage the conflict so encouraging, encouraging conflict. Call nimbly so that thanks to the the level of conflict will increase, our productivity will increase as well. However, the original resolution focused view says, well, there are problems with encouraging the conflict. It is not good because conflict is beneficial. Onley in a very specifications is so they said that these war graph that these were autograph is not always true. So that here is our interaction is view. And what resolution Focus view says that this is through Onley. Sometimes the rule Onley sometimes and not always sometimes, and we continue. Workplace conflict are not productive. They distract and create stress, and we should try to of course, avoid stress. And we should try to keep our employees focused and these results in focused view it generally we can conclude that it focuses on productive conflict resolution so that the conflict off course a cure on the workplace. But the resolution focused view says, Well, we should focus on how to, in a productive manner resolve these conflicts, so those were defeat free views of conflict. 19. 7. Conflict Process - Stages I and II: Now we're getting to the conflict Perros ISS and as you see, there is a nice model describing the conflict process, and it's consisting from five stages. So first stage, 2nd 3rd 4th and 5th 1 So in this video we are going to talk about the 1st 2 stages. So the stage one is the potential opposition or incompatibility, and 2nd 1 is cognition and personalization. So let's get to it. Stage one potential position, our incompatibility. So the thing is that the conflict always arises off something and there are free, free, possible sources of the conflict where it cannot cure. It is communication structure and personal variables sold it. The communication says there can be some semantic difficulties between two parties engaged . So we were semantic. We mean the true for meaning so that the parties do not really understand what the other person means, and so this can lead to the conflict. And of course there are some misunderstandings and noise. So be careful when you were communicating so that the other party really understands what the hell meant so that you avoid the conflict. Secondly, we have a structure, the larger the group more specialized the larger is the potential for conflict a cure? Well, why is it so? When the groups are larger and when they're more specialized? What is the difference between people? Well, goals, goals. The more people there are, the more diverse the goals are going to be. And the more specialized people are, well, the more diversity goals are going to be again. So in larger and specialized groups, the conflict or cure more often finally, we have a personal variables and we know this very well. Some people just tend to get to conflict a lot. Why is it so? Because off three points personality, emotions and values. If we are communicating with someone and we have a very different values, it is something similar as goals are, we simply tend to get to the conflict because of these values. Emotions are some short term and fast reactions to some evens. And if we are in a bad mood, the conflict and simply a cure because of the emotions. And of course, if the other party other parties, personality doesn't feed us very well again, we can get to the conflict so you can see that every conflict begins with something, and it is stemmed in one of these three points when it comes to the organizational behaviour, the communication structure or personal variables. Now, when Stage one, if conditions from stage one negatively affect something that one party cares about, second stage arises. So what's highlighted? So if it negatively affect something that one party cares about, the second stage arises, and the second state is called cognition and personalization. So the question is, if we are going to take it personally so we can go either one of the two ways we can either take it personally or we can go through something that we call the perceived conflict and perceive conflict is even when two parties are in this agreement, Niederer off the party takes it personally. And it's nice, isn't it? So that you should keep in mind that it just one conflict and so that you can resolve it and you should bring no emotion. So in this case, that I really know emotions, or the worst scenario is when it is a felt conflict when individuals become emotionally involved. So those were the 1st 2 stages in the conflict process. It is always stemmed in one off the free sources that we have discussed. And then it goes for one of these two ways. It is under a perceived conflict, even even when the two parties are in disagreement, neither takes it personally, or in the worst scenario, it is a felt conflict when they become emotionally involved. 20. 8. Conflict Process - Stage III: we continue with our conflict process. We already went through stage one and stage two, and in this video we're going to talk about Stage free, which is called the Intentions. Why intentions? Well, because the conflict or the robes and it is out there. And now we're going to see what kind of intentions are individuals having one handling the conflict? Are they going toe? Ah, let's try to compete, to collaborate and so on and so on. So we will look at all of these and we're going to take a look upon two dimensions. The first dimension that is interesting for us is the cooperative in its. So what are the intentions when it comes to the corporate Penis? And secondly, what are the intentions when it comes to the assertiveness? So these are the two what we call a dimensions dimension. So what's the glue? Give them cooperative Nous is the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other parties. Concern? Well, that's quite a quite the interesting thing. If you are on individual or a group and you are trying to really satisfy other people, other individuals, then you're considered to be cooperative But if you are not cooperative, then you care more about yourself on Lee. Then we have assertiveness, the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concerns. So what? So you have some desires or some goals? And now the assertiveness is asking, How much are you trying to satisfy these? Your own goals or desires? But what is so nice about this model and I really like it is that both of these dimensions are talking about the degree so we can write simple graph where we can display all of these different intentions. So it's a graph. So right over here we have low corporate Ignace. Here we have high cooperative nous. Right over here we have low assertiveness and high assertiveness. And now what we can do is that we can literally just take all of these. It's 12345 off these behavior or intentions that cannot cure and blaze them into these ground. So 1st 1 that comes to my mind is the simplest one. Avoiding well winning are avoiding a conflict you are trying to withdraw toe go away from Well, in that scenario, you are no really cooperative and no really asserted were not really trying to satisfy other parties. Colson. And you're a swell not trying to satisfy your own concerts. You are just avoiding the conflict so you can place avoiding boy, Think ride over here. Now let's think off. Let's say competing. That should be. That should be quite simple. You are trying to really satisfy your own goals, but you don't care about other parties. So we have whoa cooperative nous and at the same time, high assertiveness. So somewhere here we would have competing. Competing. Now let's see. What about what about accommodating? Accommodating? You are trying to accommodate to other people's concerns and their opinions. So you don't really did much care about yourself. So we're going to be on low, assertive ity and high cooperative miss. So accommodating can be right over here more, they think accommodating. So you are really taking care about the other parties Now the ideal situation is collaborating. That is the dream off many organizations. In that scenario, you have a high corporate Penis, but at the same time high assertiveness so we can help collaborating right over here call a poor rating and finally there is compromising. I think all of us know what a compromise is. It is somewhere in between. You are at the same time trying to satisfy your own concern. But do you care about the other parties concerned? So it's going to be somewhere in the middle, so compromising, compromising its somewhere here. So, as you see in this video, we have talked about the intentions that parties, individuals or groups may have when it comes to some conflict. 21. 9. Conflict Process - Stages IV and V: we now continue with our conflict. Ross's model We have went through the stage one stage tool stage free. And now we're getting to Stage four, which says behavior and Stage five, which cares about the outcomes off the conflict. So let's see under the behavior it is an overt conflict so that there is some parties, behavior and others reaction. So you see that we are going to talk about some interaction between these two. How do they behave? How do they treat each other? So let's come here stage for this is a This is a stage about which we know the most because here the conflicts become visible. You can see the two people are in the conflict and it is characterized as the process off interaction so that the two parties are really interacting. And how are they interacting? Well, there will be some statements. They're going toe talk verbally. Then they're going to be some actions and off course for reactions. So really, to remember what happens in stage for you just can't imagine the two parties being involved . So party A and party being. And now they are interacting party. A dust sound fingered say some action and then Party B is going to react so that that is the war idea offstage. For now, these conflict in a stage four there is a sort of a continuum so we can call it intensity, continue intensity, continue. Continue because it is about the intensity. On one hand, there can be basically no intensity and no conflict. And on the other extreme it can be on the hill, a Tory conflict. And now you can see what kindof reactions or actions we can have. So actions we have some listed over here. In the worst case scenario, there are efforts to destroy the other party. When we go down with the intensity off the conflict, then there are still very aggressive physical attacks, threats and ultimatums. And when we're getting getting really down to a low intensity, there is only a questioning and challenging and at the very end, Onley minor these agreements. Now, of course, every conflict is going toe help some outcomes, and that is going to be stage five. So this action reaction game results in some consequences, and there are two kinds off the outcomes. The conflict either has functional outcomes or dysfunctional outcomes. Of course, we would like a conflict toe, have some functional outcomes, especially when it comes to the organizations, because these improved equality, off decisions, they stimulate creativity and innovation. And they act as Antidote Group Inc and I will highlight this one. If you remember from the previous videos, what is a group week? Well, generally, when there are groups and let's say what's draw group? So this is one person, another another and one more. And then there is one person that disagrees. What happens because of the group thing is that the there will be a sense for a conformity so the other members will be pressing on. These members hold These agrees, so that even after the member who originally disagreed will be now in an agreement. That's what we call the groupthink, and now the function outcome off the conflict. It is that it acts as an antidote to grouping, so it can be a really functional and beneficial for us off course. There are some dysfunctional outcomes. It, sometimes on both me, highlighted. It sometimes is concluded by researchers so sometimes can lead to a the solution of common ties and destruction off the group. However, what is more important that researchers have concluded that it always that it always lead to a reduced trust and satisfaction off the two parties that helping involved in the conflict and produced willingness or reduced information sharing. So, as you can see, the conflict can be seen within these nice model for which we have went, and it ends up in these two stages the behavior and the outcomes stage. 22. 10. Negotiation: in this video, we are going to talk about the pretty interesting topic that we meet in everyday life, and it's going to be negotiation or weaken straightaway, say the the signal in which would be the better gaining. So we're gaining. And at first I would like to define What does it say when we mean negotiation? And then we will see two different ways. How negotiation or the bear gaining cannot cure the distribute you and integrated. So what city definition negotiation is? The perros is the procures went two or more parties decide toe allocate scares. Resource is so scares the resources are the ones which are not unlimited. So, for instance, money usually are a scarce resource so that we have to carefully decide how we are going toe our Cady's. Then every negotiation affect the relationship between negotiators between negotiators and their feelings off themselves, so that when the negotiation takes place between two people afterwards, after it's taken place, the relationship is going to be in some way influenced by what has happened. Now let's think before we get toe two different kinds of bird gaining. Let's think about when two persons, meat and they're going toe talk about, Let's call it, Let's go in the by. Let's call it by. Sometimes it is called also economic by so economic by. So let's say we draw it. What say we draw it this way? And now there are two people so that there is Let's say there is mark and very speeder. There is Peter, and now both of these would like to help their share off A By now, ofcourse, there is going to be some split of this pie. So what? Say one part 1/3 will go to Mark and 2/3 will goto. Peter, this is the result off the negotiation activity. And how did it take place? So basically both off them when it comes, if I don't just throw it a little bit differently. So both of them came and this is the economic by. So we have the same finger over here and now both of them had some limitations. So Mark told himself so mark new that he's not going to accept less than 1/3. So this is the extreme. This is the limit where Mark is willing to go. Also, Peter came with a limit. Peter told himself that he's also not going to leave with less than 1/3. So these was Peter's limit. So limit off. Be there. So for sure, the negotiation was successful. Then Peter took this part which was 1/3 and mark toe this part. And now the negotiation took place over this part over here so that both parties are trying toe push against each other to get Mawr off the pie. And as you can see, Peter took to first. So between spaeder is a better negotiator. These would I have just described is that these three beauty Bourgain. So it's right over here and we will in a second talk about it. Now let's think about the different situation if we imagine the by again so this would be our economic pie. And again Mark and Peter comes so mark on Peter and they're going toe Bourgain differently . They will think, Well, how can we help each other so that we get both as much as possible? Well, of course, that would mean that they are going toe expand the by. So the new pie after the negotiation would look something like something like this So what have they done is that they have bean productive with their negotiation, that it was a win win situation. And thanks to the negotiation, both of them has more have mawr off the pie, This is called the Integrative are gaining, which is right over here. So let's take a look at the definitions and bargaining characteristics, so the go off the distributive bargaining is to get as much as possible. You have seen it here. Both parties have been pushing against each other so that they can get as much as possible . However, in the integrative bargaining they would like to expand the by expanded by. So both get satisfied. You have seen it over here. They have been productive, and they have expanded the by now. The motivation Under this tree beauty bargaining is off course win laws because the more marked gains, the less it's Peter going toe help. So it's win lose. However, an integrative bargaining is a win win situation. The better the negotiation is, the more they're both going to take. Now the focus off the bar gaining on in distributive bargaining. It's about positions. I cannot go beyond this point, so Mark had a limit over here, and he's trying to position himself even further away. And Peter is trying to position himself also even further away. So it's about positions, however, an integrative bargaining. It's little bit more three kids about interests. So can you explain why this issue is so important to you so that both parties are trying to discover? Why should they cooperate and how? How can they be beneficial to each other? Now, of course, the interests in distributed bargaining, they're opposed. So they're going opposite each other and under integrate you, they are being congruent, cooperating. Now the information sharing is an interesting point. Under distributive bargaining. Off course is goingto be low because every information that you process is considered an advantage in negotiation. However, in integrated bargain and you are really willing to share the information because the more information you share, the more productive you're going to be. Then we have the duration off relationship off course under distributed bar gaining or outside vice versa. This tribute to bargaining procures under a short term, relationships and integrated bargaining procures under a long term relationships. So that was the negotiation 23. Thank You!: So that was all from the organizational behaviour. We hope that you enjoy this course and learned more about the behavior of individuals, groups, teams, everything that happens within the organisation. So we hope to see you in the upcoming lectures in the upcoming courses that you can find from our production, so hopefully see you there.