Online Piano Lessons - From Complete Beginner to Advanced Musician! | Goran Amadeus | Skillshare

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Online Piano Lessons - From Complete Beginner to Advanced Musician!

teacher avatar Goran Amadeus, Unique piano teaching methods :)

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

29 Lessons (3h 6m)
    • 1. What will you learn in this course

      2:30
    • 2. 1 Intervals

      4:19
    • 3. 2 Chromatic scale

      8:16
    • 4. 3 Formulation of major scales

      6:39
    • 5. 4 Formulation of minor scales

      5:52
    • 6. 5 The circle of 5ths and 4ths

      11:02
    • 7. 6 Formulation of major and minor chords

      8:24
    • 8. 7 Formulation of diminished and augmented chords

      4:17
    • 9. 8 Chord inversions

      5:30
    • 10. 9 Scale degrees

      3:42
    • 11. 10 Major and minor 6th chords

      4:33
    • 12. 11 7th chords

      3:48
    • 13. 12 Chord extensions

      7:18
    • 14. 13 Altered, added and suspended chords

      8:11
    • 15. 14 Building chords on scales

      5:24
    • 16. 15 Harmonic functions and roman numerals

      10:01
    • 17. 16 Basics of rhythm in 4 4 and harmonic progressions

      12:18
    • 18. 17 Happy Birthday, your first song!

      9:45
    • 19. 18 How to use diminished and augmented chords

      9:21
    • 20. 19 How to use dominant, major and minor 7th chords

      9:06
    • 21. 20 How to use half diminished chords

      3:47
    • 22. 21 How to use major and minor 6th chords

      5:57
    • 23. 22 How to use suspended chords

      5:10
    • 24. 23 Formulation of melodic and harmonic minor scales

      3:31
    • 25. 24 Formulation of pentatonic and blues scales

      4:21
    • 26. 25 Secondary dominants

      6:48
    • 27. 26 Tritone substitutions

      4:31
    • 28. 27 Functional harmony and cadences

      5:00
    • 29. 28 Modal interchange chords

      6:51
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About This Class

Want to amaze your friends, your family, your work colleagues? Or you want to pursue a professional career as a pianist/keyboardist?

You'll learn everything
- from core basic fundamentals of playing the piano and keyboards, up to the most demanding advanced stuff which use professional players, simply by using formulas along with theoretics which were made to avoid from being boring.

• No experience needed

• These lessons work for pianos and keyboards (synthesizers as well)

• The practice needed is 20-30 minutes per day

Why would you choose this course?

• BASICS:

We've got your covered. You haven't even touched a piano/keyboard ever before? All good. This is explained from the very basics to the really advanced level of playing. Everything is in ONE place - in ONE course.

• SHEETS for THEORY and PRACTICE SHEETS too:

We got you covered here, too. Additional sheets for theory are available, such as finger positions for scales, etc. But after each lesson, you'll do some assignments to see if you understood everything correctly. Once you do these, you can check if your answers are correct with the answers sheet which is provided as well.

• LESSON LIST + SECTIONS:

  1. Intervals

  2. Chromatic scale and finger positions

  3. Formulation of major scales

  4. Formulation of minor scales

  5. The circle of fifths and fourths + parallel scales

  6. Chords: major + minor

  7. Chords: diminished + augmented

  8. Chords: inversions

  9. Scale degrees and extended intervals

  10. Chords: major and minor 6th

  11. Chords: 7th chords

  12. Chords: extended chords (9th, 11th, 13th)

  13. Chords: altered, add and suspended chords

  14. Building chords on scales

  15. Harmonic functions and roman numerals

  16. Basics of rhythm in 4/4 and harmonic progressions

  17. Happy birthday, your first song

  18. How to use diminished and augmented chords

  19. How to use dominant, major and minor 7th chords

  20. How to use half-diminished 7th chords

  21. How to use major and minor 6th chords

  22. How to use suspended chords

  23. Formulation of melodic and harmonic minor scales

  24. Formulation of pentatonic and blues scales

  25. Secondary dominants

  26. Triton substitutions

  27. Functional harmony and cadences

  28. Modes in music

  29. Modal interchange chords

Meet Your Teacher

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Goran Amadeus

Unique piano teaching methods :)

Teacher

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Transcripts

1. What will you learn in this course: Hello, my name is good and I'm 30 years old, keyboards in piano in structure from the Balkans region of the Europe. My goal is to teach a complete beginner to play this beautiful instrument in the best possible way in their lives. But what makes me different from all other instructors from this site will be using formulas. This is something that most teachers avoid it because in my case, I found out that by utilizing formulas and the speed of learning drastically increases. All I expect from you as an unstructured, you need to know the basic math calculations from one to 15 hands. You're good to go. Let me show you an example of homeopathy and can be. Okay. We'll talk about theoretically in a way that we stored the unneeded things and we stick to only those that actually matter. For example, I will not teach you all 12 scale too major, but I will show you how you can form a major scale. And then by using the proper formula, you'll be able to play all other scales on your own. You'll learn how to come up with your left hand and how to play the rhythm patterns such as 44. You'll learn the differences between courts and how to properly use it once and forever. But for the rest, you'll find out a lot of other things in discourse. As I guarantee your success will be there if you stick to the exercises hip come after every lesson and also ensure stuck. There are answers provided. Every lesson comes in with a checkup conditions. Probably one of the best things at Instructure can do for their students, and that would be it for this introductory video, guys, I'll see you inside. 2. 1 Intervals: In this lesson, we are going to speak about intervals as a starting point for a complete beginner in playing pianos and keyboards. And we'll be sure that you'll get into this topic extremely easy if you follow the logic behind these newbie friendly explanations. Let's not waste any more time, and let's skip straight ahead to naming the tones on the keyboard. We start off with a middle C, and then we move on to the next key, which is named D. And the rest of the tone names are as following, E, F, G, a. And we came to the same key as we began with, but this time it is another C, but in different optimum will discuss about ourselves later on in the rest of the theory lectures. And after meeting and reading with the white keys, all we've got left are the black keys. The black keys are named as following. So we got our C sharp, D sharp, F sharp, G sharp, and a sharp in the end. If you look closely on the keyboard, you'll notice there are black keys arranged in groups of 2323223, right? So all of the groups are repeated throughout the whole keyboard. So you can imagine this as a pattern which is always constant. Basically, the first group of two black keys are surrounded with a group of three white keys. So the first group, through Bacchus, surrounds themselves by the group of three white keys. And the other group of three black keys is surrounded by a group of four white kids. All right. So black, white. Black for white. And again, it's repeated to black is white keys, three black keys, and white keys, and so on and so on. So this is something you'll utilize at first, be able to memorize the pattern more easily as this is a really generic way to understand the pattern for a successful keys recognition abilities without having much harsh in the beginning, we use patterns in everyday life. So why wouldn't we do it in the music as well? Right? In the end, we'll realize there are five black keys and seven white keys total. So 23 equals 5 and 3 plus 7. There are multiple octaves in a keyboard, varying from mostly 49 keys to a full piano version which is 88 keys. The most common standards are forty nine, sixty one, seventy six, and eighty eight keys. And my keyboard, Roland phantom G7 is a 76 model with semi weighted keys, which I personally find the most satisfying once, as they're not too light or heavy like a real piano. So the names of the tones as intervals are as following, and they might differ in a matter of different contexts. Is a perfect unison. C-sharp is a minor second. This is a major second. D-sharp is a minor third. E is a major third. F is a perfect fourth. F sharp is an augmented fourth or diminished fifth. G is a perfect fifth. G sharp is an augmented fifth, or a minor sixth. A is a major sixth, or a diminished seventh. B-flat is a minor seventh, or a sharp is the same note, right? B is a major seventh. C two is a perfect octave. For now on, you'll need to memorize these stones and their corresponding names in order to be eligible to proceed further into the series. So guys, I'll see you on the next lesson. 3. 2 Chromatic scale: Before we begin, we need to disclose the finger numbers for both hands. And these are as following. Thumb been the right-hand is our first finger. Pointing finger is our second, middle finger is our third. The ringer is our fourth. And the pinky, the smallest one is our fifth. So the same thing applies to the left hand. 12345. Chromatic scale is something you'll hear very often when it comes to playing any kind of instruments. So basically, you can consider this type of skill as a root scale, which has the most keys in it. And each, and every other scale which is invented in the world of music is based on exactly this scale. Chromatic, in layman's terms would mean to play every possible note in the section of one octave. So as we learned from the previous lesson, there are two groups of black and white keys in one octave, and these are as following. A group of black. He is surrounded by a group of white keys, which makes our first part equal to five tones. And then we have a group of three, which is surrounded by four white keys, which makes the total of seven. That means we've had five and our first part, and seven in our second part. And that is a total of 12 keys within one octave. So basically, five plus seven equals 12, right? Octaves are repeated throughout the whole keyboard, which means we basically have only 12 donuts on a piano, but they differ only in the bitch or call it a frequency of the tone. So basically, let's start off with this C right here. This is a C, a, C, a, C, a C. This is a c, and this is a C sharp, C sharp, C sharp, G sharp, C sharp, G sharp. So there we have a c multiple times on the keyboard, and in the same pattern as we already said, we have all other black and white keys spread throughout the keyboard in the exact same way. Now when it comes to a chromatic scale, it's the easiest scale to learn just by making sure we're going to have 12 keys in it. And we're gonna play every possible note from the left to the right, starting off with a key of C. So for example, what are we doing here? As we just said, we need to play every possible node starting with C, regardless of the physical color of the next key. So using common sense and logic, we are going to play a key called C sharp, which we learned from the previous lesson. So after C Sharp, we've got the next possible key, which is a D, right? We've got nothing in between C sharp and D, so we can apply anything else rather than the key of D. Key of D is followed by a key of D sharp. Then comes. So we don't have any Bucky between E and F, So we need to play F. F is followed by F sharp. That's possible is a G. Next possible is G sharp, a, a sharp, and nothing in between the B and C. So we need to play the C. Once again, right? In the end, we're going to finish our chromatic scale with another C, as we just said, which puts an end to it. So the main goals of playing scales is to start off with a specific node and then do something in between, which is, in this case a formulation of a chromatic scale. And then end up on this very same note you began with. But in the next octave to the right, when it comes to finger positions, there are unique rules to the chromatic scale. And this is to start off with your thump. If we're going to play any chromatic scale that starts with a white key. So the formula is DR, started with a thump always and forever. Next thing to know about this is when we played our first node. In this case, it is C chromatic scale. We start off like this, is played with a thump. C sharp is the next note in the scale, and we played with finger number 3. D is played with a thump. Once again. D-sharp is played with finger number three is our thumb again. Now you'll notice we don't have any black keys in between our E and F nodes. So f is played with are pointing finger, number two, F-sharp. You'll make a guess. Again, it's number 3. G, We use our thumb again. G-sharp is our finger number 3. A is our thumb began. A sharp is our finger number 3. B is our thumb. And to end this chromatic scale, we don't have anything in between the nodes of b and c. So we're going to end this scale with our finger number to write. The main rule for a chromatic scale in any key is that all of the white keys are started with the thumb. And all of the black keys are started with a finger number 3 or 2, and so on. And every next note will be a wide key, so we need to put our thumbs under it. So basically, if we start C-sharp chromatic scale, we're going to start off with a finger number 3, or favorite number two. And the next note in this scale is D. We need to play it with a thump because it's a white key, right? The next note would be D-sharp, way to play it with finger numbers as well. We've already said, as we already said. And the next note would be, and so on and so on. So if there's a Black Gate next in the scale, we need to play it with finger number 3, always and forever. This means you can play any chromatic scale today within the next five to ten minutes. Let me show you, for example, let's take an example of G-sharp chromatic scale. This is a G-sharp, right? We start off with finger number 2 or finger number 3, whatever we like. So the next is a white. Next we have a leg. Nothing in between these two white nodes. So we need to use our finger number two as a rule, right? Again, we have a black figure. Number three, again, we have a white key. It's our thumb. Black. Three. White is one. Again, nothing between E and F, So we need to use our finger number two. After that, we have a black key, wife key, and we're going to end on the same note when we started off from, right? So we started from, we need to end on G-sharp, but in a different object, right? So basically, what we would do here is this or with a finger number 3 in reverse. For example, I don't know. Let's say F-sharp. We have 12 notes in one whole scale, right? So that would be it for the lesson of chromatic scales. I hope you liked this lesson and that you learn something new. So I'll see you guys in the next lesson. Bye. 4. 3 Formulation of major scales: So far we've learned how to form a chromatic scale, starting in any key. However, there are many different skill types which can be learned. But our main goal for now is to learn major and minor scales. This lesson, we'll show you exactly how to form any of the major scales in any key easily, just by remembering a simple pattern, which you can now see on the screen. Let's think of this as a generic method of creating a major scale in any case. So the root means the starting tone, and that could be any. But for example, let's take the key of C as an example for now, after the root, we have plus two, which means we need to move two semitones, or something called half-steps towards the right. Now, if we've taken C as our route, moving two semitones to the right would mean to come to semitones from the note C, and that is a note D. So C is a 012. This is our second node in the C major scale. Formula now says plus two again, which means literally the same. We're going to come from the current term, which is d, and will end up on the tone E. So D is 0 plus 1 plus 2. The slash sign is a thing for a proper finger positions, but we'll discuss about that a bit later. Let's get back to business and we're currently on the note E. And now the formula says plus 1. That means we need to move all in one semitone now, which brings us to the F key. So nothing in between E and F, We need to move one semitone plus to the right. And in the key of F, right? Once we're on F, The next move is plus two, again, which is a G. So 0 plus 1 plus 2, right? And again we have a plus two in the formula, which is the node a. So 012. And once again, it says plus two in the formula. And we're right at node B, 0, 1, 2. So we're at B. And in the very end it says plus one, which means we're going to end up on the note C once again. So because there's nothing in between B and C, the next possible note would be plus one semitone, which is the key of C. So far so good, we have learned that if we have a root key and we want to do one octave scale run, we need to go from C to the next possible. See on the right side, by utilizing the formula of semi-tones, the major scales, however, you might have already noticed, have exactly seven keys, and the key number eight is also the first one again, but in the next octave. So 5, 6, 7, 8, or 1, because we began with C and we ended up with C again, but in the next octave, right? So the C major scale looks like this. C, D, E, F, G, a, B, and C. Once again, since we have a formula for all major scales, this means we can do any other key in major scale. So for example, let's say a root note is F sharp, F sharp. And we have the following. We have sharp to G sharp is again a sharp. Plus1 is B, a C sharp, D sharp is F, and in the end, plus one is F sharp. Once again, right? So F-sharp is our beginning. And F sharp to is what the end goal of the scale is. We just use the same formula of semitones and it works. The best thing would be to memorize this pattern. It's a bit easier to memorize this rather than the one we started with at the beginning of the lesson right? Now Let's skip to discuss about a finger positions for the major scales, there are two groups for this, and these are the common group with the following tones, a and B. And the uncommon group which are C sharp, D sharp, F sharp, G sharp, a sharp. First, we'll discuss about common group of major scales as they all have the same finger positions. Common finger positions are declared as 1, 2, 3 slash 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, which means we're going to play with our fingers number one, and then three. And then this slash sign means we need to put our thumb under the fingers, 23, right, and play the fourth note of the scale with our thump. Once again, the formula continuous with the fingers, 1234. And then we end the scale with the finger number five, right? So 1, 2, 3 slash means we put our thumb under the fingers, 2312345. But previously, we need to learn the exact notes in the scale of C major, C, D, E, F, G, a, B, and C, right? Backwards. C major, D major, E major, G major, a major. And the last one, B major. So they all use 12312345 finger positions. Now when it comes to the uncommon group, I will leave you a sheet where you will see the proper finger positions which need to be memorized separately as they differ from scale to scale, which means finger positions are all different for the uncommon group. That would be all for this lesson. I'll see you guys in the next one. 5. 4 Formulation of minor scales: As we learned from the last lesson, now we know the drill and we know how to form any major scale, and we know the finger positions as well. The magic formula for the minor scales would be the one you see on your screen right now. We know that the sludge sign is when we need to place our thumb right after the third finger has done its part. Considering minor scale, we're going to take C minor scale as an example. And mostly we will do stuff related to the key of C whenever we do some new stuff. Because when you use schemes, it's easier to utilize it through all other keys when you have an exact formula, right? Let's see what our minor scale looks like. We start off from C and the formula says plus two, which means we'll go to d, 0, 1, 2. And now we have plus s1, which means we'll go to E-Flat. Right? After that we have a plus two. Once again, 0 plus 1 plus 2. We're in the key of F. Right? Now the formula says plus two, again, 0, 1, 2, we are on G. And the formula says plus 1. Now 0, 1. We're in the key of a flat, write. The formula says plus two once again. So 0 plus one plus two. We are on, on the key of B flat, right? And the last formula says plus 2, 0 plus 1 plus 2. And we're back on the sea. So why are we mentioning flat keys in the minor scales? Well, the answer is pretty simple, and since we already know how to play C major scale, we now know the differences between the keys in these two types of scales. In a major scale, we have the following keys, and B, and the last one is a seat, right? And the formula is r, two to one to two to one, right? In a minor scale, we have the following keys. Flat, F, G, a flat, B flat, and see once again. And the formula is r 2122122. Sort of only differences are in the third, in the sixth and the seventh key of the scale. When it comes to the minor scales, we compare the formulas and we got the exact keys which are formula tells us. But we need to lean to the major scales when it comes to the terms of keys being flattened in minor scales. So our E, which is a third key in a major scale, is now flattened and it's not a note e anymore. It becomes E flat. When we flatten, the e by a half step, or one semitone, becomes one semitone lower. So now it's not easy. Now it's E-Flat, right? The note a in a major scale isn't a anymore. It becomes a flat. So when we flood a by 1.5 step or one semitone, it becomes a flat, right? And the last note, which is changed by major scale, it's a B note. But now it's flattened to be flat, right? So B is not here anymore in a minor scale, it needs to be flattened. And by decreasing its value by 1.5 step, we get B flat, right? You'll understand what skills have sharps and flats once you learn the circle of fifths and circle of fourths in the next lessons. Now when it comes to common and uncommon groups, the finger positions are the same for minor scales as well. The common groups are C minor, D minor, E minor, G minor, a minor, and B minor. They all use 12312345 finger positions. So C minor scale, D minor scale, E minor scale, G minor scale, a minor scale. And the last scale is B minor. The uncommon groups are C-sharp minor, D-sharp minor, F minor, F-sharp minor, G-sharp minor, and B flat minor, right? They all use different finger positions and need to be memorized once and for all. Now we'll uncommon group. I will leave you a sheet where you will see the proper finger positions which need to be memorized separately as they differ from scale to scale, which means finger positions are all different for the uncommon group. That would be it for this lesson. And I'll see you guys in the next one. See you. 6. 5 The circle of 5ths and 4ths: In music theory, the circle of fifths is a way of organizing the 12 chromatic keys within one octave into a sequence of perfect fifths, which means a distance between the two tones is actually seven semitones, always and forever. Musicians and composers often use the circle of fifths to describe the musical relationships between the pitches. It's designed as helpful in composing and harmonizing melodies, building chords and modulating two different keys within a composition. So basically, what circle of fifths is also used for is to determine the amount of sharps some scales might have before we proceed with must acknowledged that when we do the circle of fifths, we're counting in a clockwise rotation. And while we do circle of fourths, will count counterclockwise. The difference between the tones in this circle is seven semitones. So what we see on our screen right now applies to the circle of fifths only. And this should be memorized once and for. All right, so let's begin with our sea. C is our 0, It's our starting point. Let's count seven semitones, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. The next key would be G. It has one sharpen note, it's F sharp. So when we play the scale of C Major, our first, our starting point in the circle of fifths. The scale of C Major doesn't have any sharps. But the first degree is the circle of fifths, is a G. It has one sharp node, and it increases for all of the tones in the circle of fifths. So j is our first degree. It has one sharpen note. Let's count another seven semitones, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. The third part of the second degree would be D. It has to sharpen notes, F-sharp and C-sharp. Let's count another seven semitones, 1234567. It's a right, is our, it's our third degree. It has three sharps, F-sharp, C-sharp, and G-sharp, right? 1234567. This is E. It has four sharpen notes, F-sharp, C-sharp, G-sharp, D-sharp, right? But the pitch here is pretty annoying. So we will transfer this e. For example, let's say, okay, so 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. We are on our fifth degree. It has five sharper notes, F-sharp, C-sharp, G-sharp, D-sharp, and a sharp, right? The all nodes are inherited from the previous scales, right? So B is our fifth. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Our sixth degree is F sharp. It has six sharpened notes, F-sharp, C-sharp, G-sharp, D sharp, a sharp, and E sharp, or a sharp equals when you, when you sharpen II, you'll have F. It becomes F, right? So basically, E sharp is the same as the note F. It's not nothing in between because there's really physically nothing in between nodes E and F. And we are on our F sharp, it's our six-degree. Let's count another seven semitones, 1234567. And we are on our last part of the circle of fifths is our seventh degree. It has seven sharpen notes. F-sharp, C-sharp, G-sharp, D-sharp, A-sharp, E-sharp, and B sharp. So when you play these scales, C has 0 sharps. G has one sharp, D to a has three, E has four, B has five, F sharp has six, and C-sharp has seven sharpened notes. It always increases when you increase the values in the circle of fifths, right? So C major, G major, D major, a major, E major, B major, F-sharp major. C sharp major. In music theory, the circle of fourths is the same way of organizing the 12 chromatic use within one octave into a sequence of perfect fourths, which means a distance between the two dose is actually seven semitones, but in reverse. They are also important in making music, as they are really, really helpful tools which you can always lean on when you're making music or whatever else you're doing with keyboard, right? This time we'll be counting counterclockwise, starting from the key of C again, right? So C is our starting point. Now let's count seven semitones in reverse, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. So f is our first degree. It has one flattened note. It's B flat, right? Let's count another seven semitones in reverse, 1234567. The second degree has do flight and notes, B-flat and E-flat, right? Let's count another seven semitones. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. The third degree, it has three vital notes, B-flat, E-flat, and A-flat. So we stopped on E-flat. Let's transfer this effect, for example, let's say here, because of the low pitch, which is also annoying. Okay, so we're on our third degree, and let's count another seven semitones to do back 1234567. We are on our fourth degree. It has four flatten nodes. It has B flat, E flat, a flat, and D flat, right? 1234567. We are on our fifth degree in has five flattened notes. These are B-flat, E-flat, A-flat, D-flat, G-flat, right? Again, seven semitones to the left. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. And we are on our last part of the circle of fourths. And this is G flat, right? It's sixth degree and has 66, sorry, not 76 flattened notes. And these are B-flat, E-flat, A-flat, D-flat, G-flat, and C flat. The much easier way would be to count the circle of fourths from the key of C. And then going five semi-tones to the right, instead of counting seven semitones to the left, as we will land on the exact same tones as we did it in regular array, right? So let's count five semi-tones to the right, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, right? And if we counted seven semi-tones to the left, we would come to the same node, right? 1234567. So this is the same as this, right? And for example, our first degree is F. Let's count five semi-tones to the right. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. It's a B flat. It is much easier to count to the right rather than counting to the left. Now we learned all sharps and flats the scales have. And the conclusion is that we have one scale without sharps and flats, and we have seven scales with sharps. And we have also seven scales with flats. When it comes to parallel scales, we can memorize this very fast just by taking a simple math task into consideration. And that will be to count plus three or minus three semitones when calculating the parallel scales. For example, if we take a scale of C major and we want to calculate its parallel minor scale. All we'd have to do is to count three semitones lower from the key of C, which is a route, right? And we would come to the node a. So 0123. And the node a, that means the parallel of the C major scale is equal to a minor scale. So in the same time when we play C major scale, in the same time in a parallel universe, let's say we are also playing the a minor scale. These both scales share the exact same keys, right? This works always for any other scale. For example, if we want to calculate parallel minor from F sharp major scale with count minus three semitones from and that would be D sharp. So 0123, this is a D-sharp. So to scale when B D-sharp minor, if we play F sharp major scale, this is the same as playing the D-sharp minor scale. Because they both share the exact same notes. This works in the opposite way as well. So let's say we're in the scale of C minor and we want to find a parallel major scale. All we'd have to do is to count plus three semitones from the note C. And we would end on the note D sharp, right? So 0123, this is a D sharp. So the parallel major scale would be D-sharp major. It also works for all other scales as well. So C minor, D sharp major. That would be it for this lesson. And I hope you'll learn something new and you'll be able to utilize these theoretically in the future as we proceed with this course. See you in the next lesson. 7. 6 Formulation of major and minor chords: When it comes to harmony, all we can think of for an hour, these nice background sounds we hear in different songs or some random music which brings that complete feeling well, listen to it, except the melody part, which is always more obvious than the harmony. But as our wheel into playing an instrument which actually requires both of these things, we will focus on that part and start getting into the deeper core of harmony step-by-step with some basics. And as we advanced through the course, we will learn many more relatable stuff. We begin with courts, as you might have heard for these earlier, regardless of the fact that it didn't play any instruments until now, what our courts and how do we use them in terms of music? Basically to explain it in layman's terms for now, courts are groups of nodes that go together and form a nice sounding harmony. Accord could be anything are varying from two keys being played at the same time up to maximum of what you can play at the same time. And that would be 10 notes at once using all of your ten fingers. But in music theory, accord is any set of harmonic pitches or frequencies consisting of multiple nodes placing autonomously in Western music, for example, the courts are mostly built on as triads, meaning that the courts have rootNode, a third, fifth. All of these three are very important. Route defines exactly what its name says. So that will be the core essential of the court, right? And then we have the third, which defines the type of chord. And then we have the fifth, which can be described as the end of the chord tones. In this lesson, we will cover basic major and minor chords in triads or the Freedom Corps, right? By using simple formulas like we used in the lessons for scales. If you have formulas, we can do a lot more rather than wasting time learning each core separately. So to form a chord, as we already said, we need a basic triad, which means we need three notes, the root, the third, and the fifth. What these actually mean, the root of the chord is literally any key you want to start with. So for your own safe, we will go with good old key of C as our root. We will mark the root as 0 st, where the abbreviation SD means semitone and the 0 is a 0. Actually. The next part of a court is our third, and it defines the type of the court. Will it be a major or a minor port? So we have two options for now to form a major chord, we need to come four semitones from the root node C. So our c is a root, or 01234. And we would end on the key of E. After that, we need our so-called fifth, which is seven semitones from the root node. Once we count, we will end up on the note G. So 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. And in between we had the note E, right? So to summarize the core we ended up with is a C major chord with the following notes. C as a root, as a major third, and we've got our g as a fifth. If you can recall the lesson where we talked about the integrals, you'll notice that the c is called perfect unison is called a major third, and the g is called perfect fifth. But when it comes to making formulas for the major courts, it will look something like this. R plus 4 SD plus 7 SD. And they have a C major chord. Write the letter R would represent the root node, which in our example is a key of C. The next one for SD would represent telling four semitones from the root and that is e, right? Our major third interval. The last one plus seven st, will represent counting seven semitones from the root. And that is G are perfect fifth interval. But easier formula would be Our for ST three SD, where the counting would be like this. Root is our C. Then we count four semitones to our major third, 1234, and that's our nobody. And then we count plus three semitones from our major third instead of the route to make it easier to count, right? And we would end up on the same node as our original formula. So 0, 1, 2, 3, right? My honest advice would be to use the second formula as it's much easier to count because in future we will do extremely complex course. We're counting every integral from its root note would be quite messy and to maintain, now let's do an example on another quarter. Let's say we need to play D major core, for example, our root note would be d. And now let's measure plus four semitones, 1234. So that's our F sharp. And from the F-sharp will come plus three semitones. Two are perfect fifth, 1, 2, 3. And that's our node eight, right? So denotes in D major chord, our D, F sharp and a. How would you play C sharp major chord, for example, stop this video right now and try to do it. We are done with our major course and we will head off for minor course. Minor course would be the very same technique as the major courts. But this time the only thing that changes is one interval and that is our third. This enroll can have two values. It can be a major third or a minor third. A major third would be to count four semitones from the root. And the minor third would be to count plus three semitones from the root. This means that if our C major chord has notes, are minor chord would be constructed as a lower node, E, which becomes E-flat. So when we lower E by one semitone, we have the flat, right? Everything else remains the same, and we come up with a formula for the minor chords. Our root is node C. Out three is our E-flat, and our four is note G. The one thing that matters a lot here is the sound difference between major and minor chords. The major course typically sound brighter and happier, bringing more joy to the harmony. But that's not the thing with minor chords that are very opposite of the joy we've had with major courts. And they sound really sad and depressing. Combining these two types of courts were able to form music no matter how low level if sounds at this point, it is enough, as we will do many stuff related to the harmony in the next lesson, let's repeat. We have a major chord. We have a minor chord. For example, let's play F minor chord. We have our road. We count plus 3, 1, 2, 3, and we count plus 4, 1234. And we have our F minor chord, right? So a good example of doing a quality practice of these types of courts is to play them in a random order. For example, let's play E major route. We have plus 4, we have plus 3 root 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3. Let's play for example, F sharp minor. This time, our root, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 4. I can play any chord that you can think of with this formula. This means, let's say for example, I want to play B minor chord. I want to play G minor chord. I want to play B major chord. I want to play B flat minor chord or four. Now on your homework is due the following course, record your fingers playing it and send it to my email, which you can see on the screen right now. So I can take a look at it and get back to you, See you in the next lesson. 8. 7 Formulation of diminished and augmented chords: Another part of the basic chord family are diminished and augmented courts. They sound very different compared to basic major and minor course who express either joy or sadness. If you ask me, how would I react to a diminished chord? I would probably say they actually do sound like a lack of something, as their name speaks about them, something is missing. It's chopped off, and it's tribes to something else, rather than just saying there on its own. For the beginning, I was showing you the basic formula for creating these diminished chords, but the practice of using them will come in some future lessons once we cover up the necessities for now. So as a previous lesson where we did major and minor chords, the procedure is extremely simple. We will choose our main root key, and let's say this is a key of C. We will mark it as a root node. After that, we will count plus three semitones and we will end up on the note E-flat, right? So 0123, this is E-flat, and this is our minor third. And once again, we will do plus three semitones, which will take us to the key of G flat. So 0123. Our formula would look like this. We have r plus 3 SAT, 3 SAT. This is an example of C diminished chord. It has a root, C, a minor third, E-flat, and another minor third, which is a G flat, right? The sound of the diminished chords are kinda spooky. And as we said in the beginning, they really sound like they need something else beyond them to make the tension go away. This is the nature of diminished chords. Let's see how we will form another diminished chord. For example, G diminished, our root is G. We count plus three semitones, 123, leading us to the B-flat. And then once again, we count plus three semitones, 1, 2, 3, which leads us to D flat. You can practice playing all of the 12 notes with these diminished course. It will be really, really useful practice. For example, C diminished, diminished, diminished, diminished, C sharp diminished, and so on and so on. We're on our second group of courts in this lesson. And these are augmented courts. These, however, sound really haunting if you ask me, and their role in music is to make us think what's happening here. Otherwise, it's really easy to form them as they are for really similar to the major ports. We have our root. We have a root in the example of node C, then we have plus four semitones, 1234 are 0s. And after we count another four semitones, 1234, which makes it to our G-sharp. So the final formula would look like for St. And also, as we said earlier about diminished course, the role is not important for now as it will be discussed later on throughout this course, the main thing now is to play them correctly according to the formula. Let's take an example of how to play C sharp of men report. Our root is C-sharp. We count four semitones, 1234. And we are on the note F. And again plus 4, 1, 2, 3, 4. And that brings us to denote a. Still, this chord sounds really haunting as they all do, no matter the root key. For example, I want to play a augmented root, 12341234. Let's say I want to play F-sharp of magnet. Note 12341234. For now on your homework is to do the following. Courts record your fingers playing it and send it to my email, which you can see on the screen right now. So I can take a look at it and get back to you. See you in the next lesson. 9. 8 Chord inversions: Inversions are basically an arrangement of how you play an array of nodes. In this particular case, we are talking about courts, which we have learned from previous lessons. And now we're able to play basic chords like major, minor, diminished, or augmented in any key. There are two types, of course, inversions when it comes to triads. If we take, for example, a C major chord, which has no, We call that a root position or a Quinta cord. And this is our first way of playing the chord. Next, we have a first inversion which is called sex the cord. And it is formed in a way where our root moves through its Perfect Octave interval and the array of nodes is not seeing anymore. So we take this C and we transfer it to the first possible Octave interval right? Now, which becomes E, G and C. E G and C. But it's still a C major chord, just inverted to its first inversion, or a sex the cord, as we said earlier. So this is root. C goes here, and we have G and C left, right? The sound of this inversion should not confuse you think it's something else for now. The second inversion, however, it comes when you invert the first inversion in the same way we did at the beginning. So we take our E, G, and C are first inversion and we will invert the lowest note in this position and transfer its two, its perfect unison. And we will get G, C, and E in debt, right? This is called a second inversion or a quart sex. The court, to be honest, second inversion is somehow my favorite type, of course, as they have a unique sounding to it, you might not agree with me at this point, but time will tell, right? So let's summarize this C, E. And This is a root position or a Quinta court, where word quint literally means number five in Roman language, the first inversion, or a sex the court is when we take C, E, and G and play it in the following array, EEG and C, E, G, and C. Always the lowest note goes up the highest. So see, the lowest note is C. It goes up highest. So we'd have C, right? The second inversion, or a quart sex to court. It is when we take EEG and see our first inversion and played in the following array. Also, the lowest note went up to the top so easily. See, the lowest note is E, It goes to the top and we have G, c, and e remain write the word quart means number for the inversions are often translated toward turn, where we actually use an existing position of the chord and turn it to another inversion. So whenever you hear a word turn, you'll know that these have something to do with inversions. Now let's practice how to play any of these core types in their inversions. For example, let's take our D major chord and inverted until we get to the beginning. Once again, our D, F sharp and a first become F sharp, a and D, as in our first inversion. And then our F sharp and D will become a D and F sharp, as in our second inversion. Same thing applies for the minor course. For example, a B minor chord is B, D, and F sharp. And to invert it, our B goes one octave higher. So we have D, F sharp, and B for the first inversion and second inversion, we will place D to the next octave, so we have F sharp, B and d. Let's do the same for diminished course, say C diminished, C, E flat, and G flat. Now let's invert too, flat, G flat and C. And for the second inversion, this will become G flat, C and E flat, right? So augmented courts are treated the same way. So for example, F of man and would be F and C-Sharp. And to invert it, we would go a, C sharp and F. The second inversion would be C sharp, F and a. Basically, the unique thing for augmented chords is when you do any inversion, they automatically become another root keys. For example, if you take C of G sharp and you invert it once, you'll get a G sharp and C, which is basically E augmented as well based on the formula for augmented course, which is our four semitones, four semitones from the previous lessons. So that would be it for this lesson, and I'll see you in the next one. Bye. 10. 9 Scale degrees: No Fahrenheit or Celsius measurements will be included in this lesson. Don't worry, as there are only seven degrees in basic scale types we have learned so far, which considers major and minor scales. When it comes to the formulation of these skills, we've learned how to form them. We've practiced a bit and we can move on to learning the degree names. Both of these skills types have the same degree names when it comes to integrals. A bit more definite than the scale degrees. But however, we can use intervals in anytime we need to be more specific. And when we don't have these needs, we can use scale degrees in example of C major scale, considering the fact we already learned that donuts in this skill, their names are as follows. C is a tonic. It is our first degree in the scale, is our supertonic. Our second degree in the skill is our median, and our third degree in the scale is our subdominant. Our fourth degree in the scale, G is a dominant. It's our fifth degree in the scale. A is our submediant, our sixth degree in the scale, and b is our leading tone. It's our seventh degree in the scale. Now in C minor scale, for example, the degree names are always the same, but what changes are the notes. C is our tonic, D is our supertonic. E flat is our median. Now, F is our subdominant, J is our dominant. A flat is our submediant. Now, B flat is our leading TO. Now. To conclude these facts, the differences between major and minor scales are in their mediant, submediant, and all leading tones, no matter the key of the scale you're playing. This will always work like this. Say for example, let's practice another major scale degrees. For example, E-flat major, the root or tonic would be E-flat. And then counting was two semitones in a matter of counting intervals from the tonic 12 leads us to the supertonic, which is a node F. Now Carolyn, again, plus two semitones from here takes us to the mediant of the scale. As a note, G, 0, 1, 2, It's a G, right? After G, we will count one semitone, and it will take us to a flat as our sub-dominant to grade. After that we have plus two semitones, again, taking us to the dominant degree, which is B flat, 12. After B, if that will count plus two semitones, again, taking us to the sixth degree, which is called submediant. And the note is C 12. After node C, we count another plus two semitones, taking us to denote D, 12, which is a leading tone degree. And in the end, the world's leading don't mean it leads back to something we began with. And that is a note E-flat, where we will put an end to this practice. So tonic, supertonic, mediant, subdominant, dominant, submediant, leading tone, and back to the root or atonic. I will see you guys in the next lesson. 11. 10 Major and minor 6th chords: There are many types of courts which can be used to build any kind of harmonic progressions to be played. But for the beginning, we will start off with something a bit more complex than just basic triads or Quinta courts, as we learned from previous lessons, the sixth courts will be the first possible extension above the Quinta course. But for a second, Let's just get back to defining winter courts. Once again, the word Quinta in the world, Quinta cord literally means number 5. So in terms of playing C major chord, as an example, we are using the following scale. Degrees. C is our unison in terms of intervals are number one. He is our major third in the terms of intervals are number 3 and g is our perfect fifth in the terms of integrals are number 5. So a C major chord is built on the first, the third, and the fifth scale degree. But with skill, are we talking about, if we say C major chord, we will count on a major scale degrees. But if we set C minor chord, we would go with degrees of the microscale. Ok. Now when it comes to the major and minor sixth courts, these would appear as something that needs to be played with four fingers at once. As the word six means, we need to add the sixth scale degree to the existing winter cord. The main rule for these types of courts is that the sixth degree will be always the interval of the major sixth, which is plus nine semitones from the road. For example, let's start off with a C major sixth chord, which is written as CS6 in the music theory, this court would be made of the following intervals. C is our unison, is our major third, our perfect fifth, and a is our major sixth. Few moments earlier we spoke about a major sixth, which is plus nine semitones from the root. So let's do the counting and see if we write counting from C to a is equal to 90 semitones in distance 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. So our formula works well. So the same thing would apply for minor sixth chords. And let's take an example of C minor sixth chord, written as C minor six. Cs are unison. B-flat is a minor third. G is our perfect fifth, and a major sixth. This is a major. And this is a minor. If you can stop just for a second. And if you can think of the difference in the sound frequencies of the major and minor chords. This is a major sixth chord. And this is a minor sixth chord. This is something that needs to be memorized once and for all as the formula for the major and minor sixth course is always like this. We always add that plus nine semitones from the room. Or if it's easier for you to remember, that's just plus two semitones from the perfect fifth. For example, C major. This is our perfect fifth, and we count plus two semitones from the fifth. So 012, and we get the major sixth, whatever works the best and easiest for you, just use it. It's a little trick to think outside of the box. Let's practice few more of these. For example, a G-sharp minor chord would look like this. G sharp is our unison. B is our minor third. D sharp is our perfect fifth, and F is our major sixth. So, and another one, for example, B major sixth. B is our unison. D-sharp is our major third, F sharp is our perfect fifth, and G-sharp is our major six. So for example, E minor sixth chord, D is our unison, G is our minor third, b is our perfect fifth, and C sharp is our major sixth, right? I hope you'll learn something new today and don't worry, we will be using these in the future. And for now, you just keep practicing all of these courts as much as possible. So get a good grip on them. Cia. 12. 11 7th chords: The previous lesson was an introduction to the chord extensions above the Quinta cord. So we learned that everything that goes beyond that perfect fifth needs an additional finger to be played. This means we will need four fingers to be able to play the seventh chords, or often called septa courts, where the word septa means number seven. Your logic is probably working right now and you're figuring out that in the previous lesson, when we spoke about the sixth chords, we used the sixth scale degree to form that chord extension. And you're probably guessing it right this time, we're going to use the seventh scale degree, but with some adjustments with this one. But before we begin, let's first travel back to the lesson number 1, where we talked about the intervals and denotations. So right now on your screen, you can remind yourself with these. Once again, C is a perfect unison. C-sharp is a minor second. D is a major second. D-sharp is a minor third is a major third. F is a perfect fourth. F sharp is an augmented fourth or diminished fifth. G is a perfect fifth. G sharp is an augmented fifth or minor sixth. A is a major sixth, or a diminished seventh. B-flat is a minor seventh is a major seventh, and C two is a perfect octave. There are four basic types of septa courts, and these are as following. We have major seventh chords, for example, C major 7. This chord is made of the following integrals, 135 and seven, which means the keys are C and B. The formula would look like this. Our 434, when it comes to counting semitones. The next one is a dominant seventh chord, for example, C7. This chord is made of the following integrals, 1, 3, 5, and minor seventh, right? Which means the keys R, C, B flat. The formula would look like this are for Three, Three, when it comes to counting semitones. Minor seventh chords, for example, C minor 7. This chord is made of the following intervals, one, minor third and minor seventh, which means the keys are C, E-flat, G, and B flat. The formula would look like this. Our 343, when it comes to counting semitones. Minor major seventh chords, for example, C minor major 7. This chord is made of the following intervals. One minor third, fifth, seventh, which means the keys are flat and B. The formula would look like this. Our 344, when it comes to counting semitones. All of these courts are widely used in any type of modern music, but we will speak about using these course in the future. As for now on, we're still on learning path for these things and we can't do much before we reach a specific point in this course where we will actually start playing something until then, see you in the next lesson. 13. 12 Chord extensions: Welcome to the first video where we will actually use both of our hands at the same time. I hope your left hand, it wasn't that bore so far because it completely stood idle on the keyboard doing absolutely nothing. We will skip straight to the point right now and introduce you to three more chord extensions which can go hand to hand with the previous lesson where we did scepter courts or seventh chords. And these are the following. We have ninth chords. They are known as non records, where nano means number nine. The 11th courts known as on Decca Records where under kmeans number 11, 13th courts, they are known as three deca courts, where three deca means number 13. To clear some things out, when you count the scale degrees above one octave, the degrees are as following. C is a perfect octave. C sharp is a minor ninth. These are major ninth. D-sharp is a minor 10th. E is a major, 10th is a perfect 11th. F sharp is an augmented 11th, or diminished 12. G is a perfect 12th. G sharp is an augmented 12th, or a minor 13th. A is a major 13th, or a diminished 14th. Minor 14th. B is a major 14th, and c2 is a perfect double octave. Or before we continue, we need to add the following statement for these extensions. Each extension above the seventh chord, such as the ninth, 11th, orange, or maybe 13th, they will leave to contain all of the previous odd number extensions as well in that court, there are four types of these extensions for each of them. Let's start off with the nine courts and let's explain their formulas. The first one is a dominant ninth. One is a, C, 35 is a G minor seventh is a B flat, and D is a nine, right? So 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, c, E, G, B-flat, and D. All right, The next one is a major ninth, 13579, C, a, and G, B, D, right? It sounds like this. Next we have a minor ninth, one minor third, five, minor seventh, and an I, C, E, G, B-flat, and D, It sounds like this. And the last one is a minor major ninth. It's lot minor third, 57. And a not C, E flat, G, B, and D. If you can't play these courts with your right hand only for now, it's okay. You're handling stretch over time and you can play first three toes of the chord with your left hand, and you can divide the rest for the right-hand. For example, a dominant ninth would be like this. C, E, G, B flat, and the D, or even better. Next, we have a major 9, would be C, E, G, B, and D. The next one is a minor ninth. It's one minor third, minor seventh and denied. And the last one is a minor, major ninth, one, minor third, 5 seventh, ninth. So now we will continue with the 11th courts. And this is where we will actually need both of our hands. Our courts which have six notes. The first one, the first one would be a dominant 11th. And this would be played with the following notes. C, D, G, B flat, D, and an F, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11, right? If we count with the scale of C major, 123456789, this is dynein. This is a tent and this is the 11th, right? So or the next one is a major 11th. The major 11th has the following dose, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. The next one is a minor 11th, one minor third, minor seventh, 9, 11. And then we have the last one. It's some minor, major 11th, one minor third, 57 by 11. The last one for this lesson is 13th chord, and we will use seven fingers for this one. The dominant 13th, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13. Sounds a bit strange, right? The next one is a major 13th. So 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13. The next one is a minor 13. One minor third, minor 7, 9, and 11, and 13. And the last one would be minor, major 13th. One major, sorry, minor third, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13. That would be it for this lesson. And I'll see you in the next one. 14. 13 Altered, added and suspended chords: Altered courts are courts where specific intervals are modified in such a way that the fifth, seventh, ninth, 11th, 13th, are either flattened or sharpen by one semitone. We need to memorize the following statements which you can see on your screen right now in an example of extensions of the root node C. C is our root, and the fifth is a gene. It can be either a diminished fifth, which is a G-flat, or it can be an augmented fifth, which is a G-sharp. The next one is a root, and the seventh is B. It can be either a diminished seventh, which is now a, or it can be a dominant seventh, which is B flat. The next one, C, is our root, and the ninth is a tone, D. It can be either a minor ninth, which is a D flat, or it can be an Augmented 9, which is the sharp. The next one, C is our root, and 11th is F. It can be altered to automatic 11 tonally, which is F sharp. The next one, C, is our root, and the 13th is a. It can be either and diminished 13th, which is a flat. Or it can be an Augmented 13th, which is a sharp, the same as B flat, right? So based on the facts above, we have an example of altered courts with the root of the key, see C7 flat 5. This means we have our dominant seventh chord, but the fifth degree is flattened by one semitone, and the key of G will go to G flat. The next one, C7 sharp 5. This means we have our dominant seventh chord. But the fifth degree sharpened by one semitone and the key of G will go to G sharp. Next one, C7 flat nine. This means we have our dominant seventh chord, but the ninth degree is flattened by one semitone. So the nine is d, and the key of D will go to D flat. C7 sharp nine. This means we have our dominant seventh chord, but the ninth degree is shortened by one semitone. And the key of D, we'll go to D sharp, C sharp, 11th. This means we have our dominant seventh chord, but the 11th degree is sharpened by one semitones, so the key of F will go to F sharp. We had our nine, right? So the F goes to F sharp. C7 flat 13. This means we have our dominant seven chord. We have nine, we have our enliven. But the 13th degree is flattened by one semitone and the key of a will go to a flat. And the last one is a C7 with a sharp 13th. This means we have our dominant seventh chord, but the 13th degree is sharpened by one semitone and the key of a will go to a sharp. After this, there are various combinations of these courts such as C7 sharp five, sharp 9, where we could play a classic dominant seventh chord. And we would alter the fifth and the ninth. So C dominant seventh are five, is a G. We sharpen it by one semitone, we get a G-sharp and our nine is a dy. We sharpen it with one semitone. We get the sharper. Or for example, Arno, a minor seven with a sharp 11, where we have our classic minor seventh chord. This is, this is a minor seventh, 11th, which is a D, is sharpened by one semitone going to D sharp. But we need our nine to add course or something else in this journey as they are exactly what they are named. Speak about them. If we have, for example, C add four chord, we will play a basic Quinta chord, C, E, and G. And we would just add the fourth scale degree interval, which is a tone F. And we would end up with a court that has four tones, C, D, E, F, and G. The same thing goes for other intervals such as add to, for example, in the key of C, we will have the second scale degree added to an existing C major triad, C, D, E, and G, right there. Existing C major triad is C, E and G. And when we add the second integral, which is a technique, we have. This same thing goes for extensions. So let's say we want to play C, add 11th chord. We will play basic C major chord, C, E, G. And then we would add the 11th, which is a node F. But in the next structure, right? This is a very easy task to do, but sometimes it will require. Hence, if the span is higher than the ninth, unless you have really big hands which you can stretch far away up the keyword sus chords are short from the word suspended, where we actually need to suspend the third degree and play either a second or fourth instead. For example, let's say we have a core called CS2. This would mean we need to play the following denotes C, D, and G as the SUS 2 means to suspend the third, which is an e, with a second, which is a D, right? So we eliminate the third and we replace it with the second. In both major and minor scales, the second is always a note D. The example of C-scale, right? Or a CSS2 cord. Let's say we want to play East US 2. We would have the first, the second, and the fifth scale degree with the tones E, F sharp, and B, right? Instead of E, G-sharp and B. Same thing applies for the sus4 chords. Instead of the third, we will play a fourth, as in both major and minor scales, the fourth is always the same note. For example, c sus4 would be C, F, and G because C is our first, F is our fourth, and G is our fifth. So instead of the third, we will replace the third with the fourth. So no, e becomes F, right? Another example, let's say a sus4 would be a, D and E, where a is our first, D is our fourth, and E is our fifth. So 145. Instead of 135 or 105, if you count minor scale. That would be it for this lesson. I hope you guys learned something new and I'll see you in the next lesson. Bye. 15. 14 Building chords on scales: I'll show you an example of a C major scale where the notes are C, D, E, F, G, a, B, and C. Since every basic skill has eight notes, there's a specific theory matter called core building. This means that you can extract eight different cores from a single skill you're playing in. So let's jump to the C major scale. The formula for finding the courts in any scale is the following one, which you can see on your screen right now. The abbreviation inker is a short form increment or an increase of something. But in this specific case, it would be an increase of values of the scale degrees. So say for example, in the key of C major, R1 would be the root or the C note, the three would be a major third, which is a node E. And the last number five, would be a note G. What comes next is the increased part. This instructs us to increase the number by one degree each time we want to change the quarter next court by using only the degrees of the scale. So the first three notes played together in a C major scale are C and G. They are represented as first, third, and the fifth note played together, yielding a C major chord as our core number one in the progression. Right? After that, that one increases to the number two. The three increases to the number four, and the five increases to the number 6. But increasing or moving only through the scale we want. If it's a C major scale, this means we need to play second, fourth, sixth degree now, which are nodes. And, and presents our D minor chord as our court number two. You may already see the logic behind this, where our C major was 1, 3, 5, using notes C, E, and G. And our next ones, we're 2, 4, and 6. Music notes D, F, and a. So our next would be like this TO 46. Increases by 1 would be 3, 5, and 7, which means the third degree in a major scale is a note. The fifth degree is a g, and the seventh degree is a b, which leads us to an E minor chord as our core number 30, you get the point right? So now let's get back to summarizing things. 15 is our first chord in C major scale with node C, C, which equals to the C major chord. So 46 is our second chord in the C major scale with the notes a, which equals to the D minor chord. 357 is our third chord in C major scale with nodes E and G and B, which equals to E minor chord 461. This is not an eight. This is one again, right? So c is one. This is our fourth quarter in the C major scale with notes F, a, and C, which equals to F major chord. 572 is our fifth chord in C major scale with notes G, b, and d, which equals to the G-Major chord. 613 is our sixth chord in C major scale with nodes a, C, and E, which equals to a minor chord. 724 is our seventh chord in C major scale with nodes B, D, and F, which equals to the B diminished chord, right? What are we doing here is only moving through the keys of the specific skill we are referring to. So no exceptions are made here. This works the same with minor chords as we would only go through minor scale loans. Example, C minor 15 is our first chord in C minor scale with notes. Hey, if I, N G, which equals to C minor chord, right? Dot 4 and 6 is our second chord in C minor scale with notes D, F and a flat, which equals to D diminished chord. 357 is our third chord in C minor scale with notes, but G and B, A-flat, which equals to E flat major chord, right? For six as one is our fourth chord in C minor scale with notes F, a flat, and C, which equals to F minor chord. 572 is our fifth chord in C minor scale with notes G and d, which equals to a G minor chord. 613 is our sixth chord in the C minor scale with notes a flat, C, E flat, which equals to a flat major chord. 724 is our seventh chord in C minor scale with notes B-flat, D, F, which equals to B flat major chord. And we're back to home, right? These formulas work always for all major and minor scales. So advisor to give it a, try it with a scale like C sharp minor for example. You have achieved a great progression through this course so far, and I'll see you again in the next lesson. 16. 15 Harmonic functions and roman numerals: Roman numerals are, in most cases, the nearest possible things to degrees in theory of the music. But the numbers written in Roman would simply mean less space being used for written. Or you can imagine these as a more popular way of doing schemes. These numerals also denoted course built on scales which we learned in the previous lesson. Typically, uppercase Roman numerals are used to represent major courts, while lowercase Roman numerals are used to represent minor chords in a specific unit, specific skill. So for example, a scale of D minor would have the following Roman numerals. D minor, E diminished, F major, G minor, a minor, B flat major, C major. And back to where we started from D minor chord. You'll notice whenever there is a lowercase letter, it's a minor chord. And whenever there's an uppercase letter, it's a major chord. Anyways, there's a sign which looks like a cell just sign or a degree sign. And this means that the court is diminished as well as the letters are in the lowercase. Remember this as you'll need it in the future, as there will be few more of these signs. But for now, we're good to go as we will catch up more of them in the next lessons. So far, we're good and we will jump straight ahead to the harmonic functions part of today's lesson. So what makes a harmony, or what makes the multiple sounds being played together sound nice, warming, and actually being able to feel good when we were playing something. This lesson will be based on what your ears are gearing and the way you feel it when you play something for you. We will discuss about these feelings and we will give them a proper name so we can handle them easier in future. Okay, let's take an example of the course in a C major scale considering the fact we already know them from previous lesson. And let's begin. I will probably use chord inversions somewhere to make sounding more fluent and discrete. C major is our first chord. It's so root chord, our whole, our starting point. We can also mark it with a Roman numeral one and uppercase letter. I simply ignore the fact that I'm using the left-hand rule because my left hand place the root of the chord only and I add octave of the routes to my right hand as well to increase the color of the courts. So it sounds nicer. Can imagine how you feel about this exact core. Now. Does the sound of it make you happy or maybe sad? Ignore the fact that the major, of course are happy and minor course archetypical sad. Even though that actually is a unique way to distinguish them or to separate them from each other. But anyways, for now, you'll probably agree with me that this sounds happy, right? The next chord we have here is our second court in the progression, and that is a D minor chord. I want you to take a closer here to what it sounds like on itself. And then we will compare it to the root chord, which is a teenager. You'll notice that the Tuesday session from C major chord sounds really sad. And we can both agree that this actually is a progression from happy to sad. Okay? We can't say it's depressingly sad about. It has its own color of sad that makes us to wonder and ask questions about, about why is it being that way. Let's move to the next score, which is a third in a row, our E minor chord. Listen to it separately from previous courts first. And you'll notice that the sound of it being a minor chord is also some, another level of sad. But when comparing it to the C major chord, or by playing it right after the C major. It somehow seems like in the statute court, which means we feel that emotion of being sad because we're now a bit far away from home, which is a root quart, our C major chord, right? Kinda agree with me that this transgression sounds nostalgic. The fourth chord in this array is our F-major chord. And due to the nature of major chords, we can also assume that the situation will change here after having two minor chords in a row, we're finally getting something that's not sad anymore, but it's happy instead. Agree with me that when having a situation like this, we can denote this chord as a hope cord. Am I right? Can you agree? Listen to the sound of how a C major chord sounds. And then I'll play F-major right away after it. This is really an intriguing fact that most of the people I worked with, and when I was telling them these things, they actually agreed 100% with my opinions that the names of the transgressions I gave to these progressions actually do fit really nice. So going from a C Major, F major gives us hope, okay. The fifth chord is a G major chord, which is once again a happy chord because it's a major, right? But the thing with this court is it actually gives us some tension while being played right after C major chord. As it's solid, is a happy sound, but also it strives for something else to happen, like a built-up tension which needs to be resolved in order to get that release feeling right. So centimeter G-major. Can you agree with me on this one? If we played C major, played major, something within us tells us, hey, this isn't finished. Can you please do something here? It scratches my ears. It doesn't feel complete yet. So we are now on a chord of a minor sixth chord in the C major scale. This court, once again, seems very unfortunate as it's a minor chord. We know it's a sad type of court, but the color of it sounds really depressing to me. It's like women, happy place. And then we found a sad place. And somehow we ended up in there for no reason. For example, in C major and a minor. Once again, it tells us to change the feeling of our harmony that we're building. And you can all agree on this one, right? There's different levels of sad, but this one is really specific. The last chord progression is a diminished seventh chord. It's our B diminished. If you can play this chord right after the C major, you'll notice the spookiness of it. It's somehow sounds weird and like a haunted ghost trying to reach something it can't physically touch, for example, C major. And that be diminished as well. Then we can call this a neutral feeling in exchange for the ghost part or let's say it's unbalanced cord, which actually sounds like that. It's not a major, it's not a minor, but it's something mixed. It's something in between. And you'll probably agree with me on this one. Once again. Now comes the hard part, as we already explained how they sound individually and compared to each other. Each of these cores can be played separately, but always somehow leading to the root chord or home cord, or the cord we began with, no matter the things happening in the middle, which is called a harmonic progression. A harmonic progression is when we start with something. We play something in between. And in this case, these are the course we improvise with. And then in the end, we come back to the same spot we started from. It's a root. For example, let's play some random courts and you tried to name the way you feel it when I do some core changes and see what happens inside of you. With this being said, it's an ENT or lesson, and I'll see you guys in the next one. 17. 16 Basics of rhythm in 4 4 and harmonic progressions: When it comes to harmony, we learned some basic new things in the previous lessons, we explained the basics of Roman numerals and how to use them. We also explain how to fill the transgression in harmonic progressions from different positions. For example, how it atonic goes from the fourth to the fifth, et cetera. And we'll learn how to name our feelings when we hear such progressions. In today's lessons, we're going to learn some basic progressions in major combined with minor chords, along with getting used to play in a rhythm to create something beautiful. As from now on, you'll actually be playing the keyboard after 15 theory lessons, which were progressing from the very basics to the harder ones. This is also our first time we will, we will be talking about the rhythm no matter which type of it. So what exactly is it? A rhythm in music is the placement of sounds in time, as many other types of art are. And depending on time, music actually is very dependable from the matter of time. So that being said, we need to form two core elements which comprise the fundamentals of musical rhythm. And these are a temple or a BPM and time signatures, a temple or a BPM, which is short from bids for beats per minute, sorry, is a unit of pulses throughout a period of one minute. To explain this easier for you, let's say 10 minute has 60 seconds. Take your finger and smash it on your keyboard as an, as an example, for example, like this. If you're a keyboard is hard enough, be careful, do not break anything, right? If your BPM was 60, you would have to smash your finger on the keyboard each second for 60 seconds. For example. But if you're B appear on what is, for example, 120, you'd have to double your smashes. So that will be something like you'd have to w or smashes sued, have to do two kicks every second, right? It's a simple math. Or let's say your bpm is 30. This means you need to hit your keyboard once every two seconds. So if we had 60 BPM, that would be a 30 would be something like or for example, your bpm is 50. This means you'd have to hit your keyboard 50 times in 60 seconds no matter how hard an unparalleled or uncommon that sounds. So you would need to do the math. And once you divide 60 with 15, you'd get exactly 1.2, which means you'd need to hit your keyboard every 1.2 seconds for the timespan of 60 seconds. Don't worry, there are things called metronomes who do the kicking and smashing for you. And everything you need to do here is to play a core into that. Let me show you how a metronome works as most of the electronic keyboards have these things. Or if you don't have one, you can try searching for a metronome application or on Google Play Store or iOS Store or whatever you might be using. What is the time signature? A musical time signature indicates the number of beats per measure. Let's say you have the most common rhythm pattern called for four. If we set our BPM to 60, which had already did, we will have one full measure of four quarter notes in it. For example, we want to play a chord on every beat in the existing four beats in a measure. So to summarize, we need to play the bead on 14, on 24 and 34 and, and 44. To complete one full measure, we would play, for example, C major chord four times. We would play C major chord four times in one measure. But to be more precise, let's first use the pre count method, which is something most musicians do as the pre count is a preparation time before we actually do any plane. So it's basically just empty space or one whole round of 44. But we don't play anything yet. Let's count the first four hits and then let's play one full measure afterwards. This means we just played a basic four for rhythm, which had four beats in a quarter note durations in one full measure. We can also do this faster by increasing our BPM values, which is 60. Right now let's say we wanted to do 80. We set our metronome to 80 and we use our pre count and then play again. If we want to play two measures of 44, that means we would do 2 times 4, which equals to eight quarter notes in two measures. Time signatures can be very different. Not always we used for for only there are specific time signatures that we can also use the odd time signatures like 7898, et cetera. But we will discuss about these things in the future for now on, we will stick to this one. Another a practice would be, for example, let's play to courts in two full measures of 44 in a tempo of 75. The course would be C major. And the minor. First, we set our BPM to 75 on our metronome, as I already did. We do to pre count, and we play one measure of C major and one measure of D-minor. Now let's include our left hand, which will play the bass notes here. The very basic variation would be like this. Your right hand will play only the courts on each quarter note beat. Your left hand will play only three notes in one measure in the following pattern. Listen up. So this is a pattern for C major and we would do the exact same thing, but for D minor. I do realize that it's probably extremely difficult for you now to divide your brain. First of all, to be able to play two different things at once. Our right-hand plays a common parallel pattern and our left-hand plays something else. The first hard part is to get used to these things and not to give up when it becomes harder and harder to keep up your motivation. Just don't give up as things will only get harder. And this is just the beginning. And I know this might sound a bit discouraging, but believe me, these are basics and that will be easy compared to some other stuff which we will do in the future. So for example, that we set our BPM to 75. We do our pre count thing, and we do wonderful measure of C major and one full measure of D minor, 1, 2, 3, 4. Let's begin with simple stuff to train your ears to have better hearing, and to be able to distinguish major and minor chords by hearing. Also, what comes in handy will be the theoretical part where we learned how to form courts based on different scales we are using. So for example, we are able to form nice harmonic progressions using only the chords from Des specific scale. This time, we will do to exercise using our C-scale both in major and minor. What we learned previously is the exact same thing we will use once again, but in a different pattern with the left hand as we want to avoid mimicking a bass guitar, like we did few moments earlier when we talked about bass notes, as that was just getting acquainted with some core fundamentals of the left-hand. We will spice it up a little right now, for example, we have the falling intonation, a C minor scale. This means that we will be using courts from C minor scale only, but based on our previous lessons, let's just remind ourselves that the courts in minor scales have the following formula. It's a minor, it's a diminished. Its major, It's a minor. It's a minor. A major. It's a major. And a minor. Once again, sort of courts would be C minor, D diminished, B-flat Major, F minor, G minor, A-flat major, B-flat major, and back to square one. It's a C minor. Once again, the progression is like this. We have a wire. It's a C minor, a three, It's an E-flat major. We have a five, which is a minor. It's a G minor, and in the end, we have a seventh, which is a major. It's a B-flat major, right? We will play this progression in the following left-hand pattern. Our pinky on the left hand will play the lower note C. And in the same time we will play a C minor chord. So after that, we released the chord and play the octaves of our pinky in our left-hand all by itself. After that, repeat the same procedure, but your pinky remains on the lower C note for the whole duration, right? You'll be playing the chord in your right-hand on each beat in the 404 rhythm. So there will be four repetitions of the first score in this progression, which is a C minor, four times, we will do the exact same thing for all other courts, where each chord root key will be played with our binky in our left hand, and the octave of that root will be played by our thumb. Let's do this. In case you didn't realize I used a chord inversions in order to get easier. So this is a C minor in second inversion, and this is E-flat major in first inversion. After that, I went to G minor, which is a root position. And after that, I'm on a B flat major chord, which is a second inversion. So C minor major, minor, B flat major. And what I did with my left hand was this, four times each. Now let's get straight to the E flat major, G minor, and B flat major. Let's do this in a bit faster tempo. For example, let's say 9123. And once again, you can combine many of these things on your own. For example, take another scale, calculate which course it has amply different numerals array and see what sounds nice to you. That would be the end of this lesson. I hope you learned something new and believe me, you are in a good path of being an advanced beginner. See you in the next one. 18. 17 Happy Birthday, your first song!: We are now officially introduced to the matter of rhythmic. And we know what a 44 sounds like. We know about beats, about measures, and the speed of plane or a tempo. We covered a lot of core fundamentals and we can proceed to play one basic easy sound in 44, which has courts that are known to us. This is our first attempt in playing a melody with our right hand, where our left hand will do the CT comping part. We will start off with a very known song called Happy Birthday. First of all, I will teach you the melody of this song, and the melody will be played with our right hand. So watch out for the finger positions as we are in the key of C major here. And the main rule in playing melodies is to put only thumb underneath all other fingers when needed. When it comes to the same note being played more than once, we use a technique called repetitions. Repetitions can be done in the following way. We start off with a key of C without thump. And we repeat the same node with the following array of fingers. 154321, again, 5432154321, and so on and so on. But what happens here next is that you can actually shorten this formula. For example, if you start off with a thumb or our finger number one on the key of C. You can go like this, 14321 for you to do while. It's a lot easier rather than doing 154321 and so on and so on. You can do this on any other key that you want. For example, let's say f. But also it can be a little bit more careful if you do this on the black keys, for example, let's do this on the key of C Sharp. Just make sure it's clean that you're not sabotaging any nodes which need to be played, that you're avoiding them or I don't know that you actually don't play them if you get what I mean. Okay, we can help our right away and start playing the melody for this song. And right after that, I'll show you the courts and went to play them. That section number one, in the melody of the right hand is like this. Watch carefully. So we start off with a repetition on the key of G two times. Okay, we start off with our finger number two. This is the first part of the melody. Okay, once again, the section number 2. It's very similar to the section number one, but we end up with other nodes. Okay, let's see. Once again, the section number 3, it goes like this. It's a bit harder than the previous two ones, but never mind. Okay. So we just placed our thumb underneath any other fingers that we had in our progression, which was the note B on the thumb and the node a with our pointing finger. Once again, the section number three, right? And the section number 4. We start off with a key named f. Repetition. When it comes to the courts in this song, the courts are really, really easy, even for complete beginners. So for example, our first score would be C major played with our left hand right in the root position. The section number one in the melody is like this. On the note. Be in the section one of the melody. We're going to play the G major chord with our left hand. Once again. The G major chord, it's, it's being played in its second inversion, right? Because it's faster to come fear rather than from here to here. And the sound is pretty annoying because it's so low. Or for example, from a sea route. Our geode would be like here. This is a lot of jumping, a physical jumping, and we want to avoid that at all costs. So C major in its root position and G major, it's the second inversion, right? Once again, the section number 2. And we're back on C major, right? On the last note of the section to the melody part, right? The third part, however, it's like this. On the last note in the Part 3 of the melody. We're going to play an F major chord with our left hand in the second inversion as well, right? And the fourth part is a little bit more complicated, but nothing that hard. C major, G7, or denote D. And on the notes C, We're going to play a C major. C major is now in its second inversion because G7 was the root, and C Major is a bit more near. Rather than jumping from here to the right. Once again, the whole song. That would be it for this song. And now I will show the more complex way of building courts and the song. For example, instead of the C major chord, you can play the C major seventh. And instead of the G major chord, incomplete G 7th, right? Instead of the F major chord, you can play F major seventh. But we're going to avoid the part where we will play this here. Because fear itself really muddy and not solely on back here. F major seventh. And that's it. We have three chords and this song, let's do this with these four sections in the solo part. That's it, guys. Today's lesson. I hope you really enjoyed this lesson because this was our first time that we actually played a song. And it feels really, really nice knowing that we actually did learn something here, that we can utilize it from now on. That's it guys. I'll see you in the next lesson. Bye. 19. 18 How to use diminished and augmented chords: The musical terms of men, it means the same as stretched out while diminished can be thought of as squeezed. Diminished chords are a favorite of horror movie score writers. Thanks today are somewhat spooky sound and very effective for use in transitions, as well as for creating anticipation or a feeling of tension. They also often turn up when songwriters want to shift from one key to another. When it comes to the diminished course, we know that the formula is our 33, but how can we implement them into playing? The first generic sample would be, let's say you want to do a classic 1, 4, 5 progression in C major, which is C major, F major, and G major, resolving back to the root of C major, right? One unique way of resolving that G, which is a fifth degree back to C major, would be to play the diminished chord on the seventh degree in scale in between the fifth and the first chord. So 1234567. The seventh degree in the scale of C major is a note, be, right, as we previously said in the lesson of harmonic functions, the fifth degree usually has that tension which leads to a resolve. But we can prolong or extent that tangent a little bit with a diminished chord. Our new progression would look like this. C Major, F major, G major, diminished, and back to C. But if we want to insert the diminished chord in between the fifth and the first degree, let's say we are playing this in a rhythm of 44. So 123423412341234. Do see what we just did here. The first part is our G major, and the second part is our B diminished chord. So 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 4. Once again, even easier formula would be to play a diminished triad, one semitone lower than the one we want to reach. Let's say we have an example of three courts. The first chord is C major, the second coordinate is a D major, and the third chord is a G mine. The first chord, C major. The second chord is a D major, and the third chord is G major. Before we're gonna do the implementation of diminished chord, we need to see where the result point in this progression is. We take our C major chord, is our first chord. Then we take our D major second part. And finally we end on, which in our ears sounds like a really perfect resolved. As we just figured that out, it's time to do the math one semitone lower than the result point, which in this case is a G-major. So g is our root. One semitone lower is a note G flat on that specific node, we're going to build our diminished triad, which is a root of gene than two minor thirds in a row. So 123123, so G-flat a and C. Finally resolving to a G-Major triad. So the G flat diminished would be G flat. And see. And this results in watching nature. So our new progression would sound like this. See D-major, G-flat, relational, G-Major. You can do these types of progressions in any key also by using 44 rhythm, which we talked about in previous lessons. Let's say, for example, I don't know. For example, D. So D major, a flat diminished, and a major. And augmented chord comprises notes that are spaced apart at wider intervals than those of our regular triad. While a diminished chord is so-called because it features narrower intervals than the standard version, making it more compact because they don't contain a perfect fifth of men. And courts have an unsettled feeling and are normally used sparingly. And augmented chord is built from two major thirds, which adds up to an augmented fifth. But out of everything, how do we actually use these? Let's get straight to the point example of a harmonic progression in, let's say, E minor scale. So our E minor scale. Our first chord is E minor. Second chord, let's say it's a minor. And then the third chord is a B major, which leads back to the whole chord, which is E minor. We can play this with a rhythm to. But in terms of numerals, this progression would be written like this lowercase letter I, because it's a minor chord and a first degree. Then a minor is our fourth degree, also lowercase letters. And the third one is a B major, written as uppercase letter V, even though we don't have a major chord on a fifth degree in a minor scale. This is an exception which is widely used in terms of attention being resolved back to the root. So where do we finally put this augmented chord in this progression, this data of our fifth degree, which is a B major. In this case, we can actually use be augmented chord by raising the fifth and the court of B major by one semitones, or our F sharp is an F-sharp anymore, as it is sharpen to the key of G, that we can find the result back to the root of E minor. So the first chord is E minor. Second chord is a minor. Man. The third one is. So going back to minor. Once again without me saying anything, the sound of it is really intriguing and as you can hear, it fits really nice with it, right? Let's do the same thing for another progression. For example, B minor, E minor, a major, and D major. Let's see our point of tangent here, B minor. This is our starting cord. We go to the fourth degree, which is an E minor chord in the scale of B minus, right? And then to the seventh degree. So the seventh degree, which is a major, 1234567. So far everything is according to the courts, in a natural minor scale, and we're going to end up on D major. D major, a result point, because we didn't end up on the B minor. We ended up on the relative major of the key of B minor, and that is a D major. So the miner, its relative major is D-major, right? This makes our tangent point to the chord of a major. Which means that instead of a major, we can play a augmented by raising the fifth. So this is the fifth node. E is the fifth to 1.5 step, making it to the note F. Let's hear how this sounds using the rhythm in 44. So the first score, B minor minor. A major, a major. Just keep practicing the same harmonic progressions in these similar rotations like 1472. And you're good to go see you in the next lesson. 20. 19 How to use dominant, major and minor 7th chords: The seventh courts are what connects the other courts in a progression. In most situations, we learn how to form dominant major and minor seventh chords simply by utilizing formulas and knowing how to count the semitones from root to the seventh. So for example, in a dominant seventh chord, our c is the root. We count one major third, and then three minor thirds in a row. So we get C, E, G, and B flat, right? Or to be more precise, we use a C major printer cord, and we add a minor third to the perfect fifth, which is 123. And this makes this even easier, right? The major seventh is just a little bit different. So we have our C major Quinta cord and we add a major third to our Perfect fifth, 1234. And the minor seventh is formed by a liner Quinta cord, which has a minor third and a perfect fifth. So 1, 2, 3. Once we combine all of these, we get three basic types of seventh chords. So a dominant seventh, a major seventh, and the minor seven. Right? Now we need some generic ways to use them in our plate, we're going to start off with a dominant seven chord and are perfect example would be the song name, Jingle Bells, a famous Christmas song. And let's play it in the key of C major. And the courts are as following. We have a C major, we have an F major. Once again, I see major. Then, um, the major, G and G dominant seventh. Let's play this slowly. This is a perfect example of how a dominant seventh chord results back to the home court, which in our case is a C major chord. This is the most common and unique way of how to use the dominant seventh chords as they are built mostly on the fifth scale degree. Another example of using dominant seventh chord would be to use it as a chord in-between two courts. 12 for progression, Let's say replace something in a key of C major. And we want to jump to the fourth chord, which would be an F-major, right? We can do the following. We can do the first chord, C major. We can do C dominant seventh resolving to the F. F major, right? Once again. How does this make you feel when you hear such progression? So as the major C7 resolving to the fourth degree. So 1, 2, 3, 4, the first degree is a C major and a fourth degree with an F major. So this works always no matter what. But keep in mind that the best job you can do with using these courts is to be able to know the exact dosage of them. Because oversaturated use of the seventh chords may result in a complete mess if you keep using them whenever you see that 12 for progression, the next type of seventh chords is a major seventh. It's mostly easy to use these courts as they're sound is really heavily and they always fit as a perfect exchange for the regular major Quinta courts. Let's say we have an example of jazz standard, which is a typical 251 progression in C major. This would be the following courts do is our D minor, because we're in the key of C major, that 12 is our D minor and the right, our five is G-Major. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, G major, and R1 is our C major, right? So the progression is D minor, G major, C major. We can change the D minor to a D minor seventh. As this type of court also has all of its nodes in a scale of C major. So the keys df and C are all keys of the C major scale, right? The second chord, a G-major, can be exchanged for a dominant seventh chord as it builds tangent. And we can empower that tangent with a dominant seventh interval, which makes this a G7. Finally, reserved to a C major seventh chord instead of a regular C major Quinta cord. So once again, D major seventh hour to G7 Power five, and C Major seven, R1, right? Let's play this in a 404 better. Or the D minor in root position. The result of a dominant seventh to a major seventh is a typical standard in jazz music. And you will see a lot of these if you're a fan of jazz music, see how it results nicely to the C major seventh chord right after that, G dominant seventh. So G dominant seventh. C major seventh chord. Minor seventh chords are common thinking replacing the irregular minor Quinta course with these, also an important thing to mention here, to know when to stop and how to use them so it doesn't become too hard to listen. The strongest use of the minor seventh course would be to use them on a result. So let's take an example of the following progression. G minor, E-flat major, E-flat major, B-flat major, and back to the square of one. So we have our progression of four courts and the fifth chord is the last one. When we back to where we came from, let's play this to see how well the miners seven-fifths within. You can even add extensions here to make it sound even better. For example, a C minor ninth, there's a unique way of playing the ninth in the following array. Second, minor, third, minor seventh, and denied. Also, if you have a sustained pedal, it will sound much nicer if you played it one by one like this. So let's play this progression once again. Or for example. Now let's combine a little bit of everything we learned in this lesson. Let's start with a G minor chord. And let's see where it takes us. Or example, G minor, F major, D minor seventh. Let's transpose this higher octave. So G minor, F major, D minor seven, a flat major seventh. Once again. And back to square one. For example, we resolved to a G minor addtwo cord, which really fits nicely within. That's it for today's lesson. And I'll see you guys in the next one. Cia. 21. 20 How to use half diminished chords: Before you start worrying that this is something ultra alien technology and rocket science level of hard, I would really advise you to stop worrying as we will get straight to the facts immediately. And I'll show that this is just an extension to something that you already know, but with a little twist. So we can have multiple choices when playing something that you already know how to play. Let's say we haven't fallen in courts. For example, the first chord, C minor. That second chord is a B-flat major. That third chord with a G minor going back to the C minor road, right? This is a harmonic progression in C minor with the following numerals you can see on your screen right now. So this is a 1751 progression. This is a very common progression for the ballot styles of music where people usually seeing about the dramatic love life and other things which are mostly sad. As you can see, the five resolves to one. It's a minor chord on the fifth degree, right? And it's a G minor. And it can also be a minor seventh chord as well. But to spice things up a little bit, whenever we have a progression that goes from one to seven, in our case from C minor, B flat major, we can build a half-diminished chord, which is what, seven TO lower than our destination court, which is a B flat major this case. So if we do C minor, we want to go to the B-flat Major. We need to add a half diminished chord in-between because this is one semitone lower than the destination port, which is a B flat major. So the forum that for the half diminished chords is the one that you see on your screens right now. It's our 334. So this means we have a minor seventh chord, but with the VFD lowered by one semitone. So this is the minor seventh. When we lowered the fifth by 1.5 step, we get this. We get the flat five. Right? After that, we can immediately switch to the regular cord into progression, which is B flat major. So C minor, a half-diminished forward to the B-flat major. And next chord is a G minor chord, which can be replaced with minor 7 to give it a bit more warmth, so it spreads itself nicely. And then we result back to the C minor. Or for example, for a stronger type of resolve, we can use C minor nine chord. But what I wanted to say is that between G minor and C minor chords, you can also insert a half-diminished chord once again by the formula that would be one semitone lower than the destination of which in our case is a C minor chord with a root g of c. So c minus1 semi-dome is an oak be. We're going to build a B half diminished chord. So root 3, 3, 4. So our newest progression would sound like this. This is the most generic and unique way of a regular usage of these types of courts. You can place them in between a dominant seventh chord, which results to atonic. Keep that in mind and you're good to go and also practice how to use them to not bore you and your listeners to that much. See you in the next lesson. 22. 21 How to use major and minor 6th chords: We learned that the sixth chords are always using an interval of the major sixth, which is 9 semi dose from the root. So an example of c, the sixth would be the note a, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. In both major, minor sixth courts. In this lesson, I will teach you the basic usage of the major sixth chords for the first part, and then we will switch to the minor type of t-scores. So let's get straight ahead to the core of it. And one of the most common usage types would be a classic 6, 7, one progression, which results back to the root in whatever T1. Let's say, for example, that we have our C minor as our root key. So our six would be a flat major chord. Our seven would be B flat major chord. And our one wouldn't be that C minor chord, right? When doing these types of progressions, you can alter the sixth to be a major seventh chord. So a flat major goes to them. They affect major seven. And then you can alter the B flat major to be our B flat sixth chord. Resolving back to the C minor, our one. Once again. Why does this sound so good? If we dig in a little bit deeper into the core of the progression, you'll notice that a flat major 7 has the note G at the highest note played followed by B flat, major 6, which also has no, It's G as its highest note. And the last chord, C minor, has G as the highest, right? So all the three courts share the same highest note, and they are all on the road positions, so no inversions are included. This is what makes it sound so special. Another typical usage is in minor chord progressions. We're a root, for example, let's say is E minor. So this is our one. And we played a court number seven, which is a D major chord, so wonderful. Seven. On the seventh we have a major chord, natural minor scale. And instead of playing a regular D major, we can play D major 6, which once again results back to the root E minor chord. Once again, they both share denote be as their highest note. So let's see. E minor, D major six. So minor sixth chords are somewhat more typical and can be used more often when compared to the major sixth chords. Let's assume you have a progression where attention needs to be resolved on a dominant seventh chord in the key of G-Major. The dominant chord in the scale of G-Major would be a D major chord. And we make a dominant seventh, we would get December resulting vector to G-major root chord. But what does that have in common with our minor sixth courts? For example? The G-Major, a, D major, D dominant seventh, resolving to D-major. Well basically we can add C minor six chord before the dominant seventh chord. So in our progression where we had G major, D7 resolving back to the G-Major, this would mean that the generic usage of this court is minus two semitones lower than the dominant chord, which in our case is D7. And when we count two semitones lower than the root node D into quarter of the major, minus1, minus2. We get to denote C and we form our minor sixth chord on that integral sword. The progression becomes C minor six, D7. And the gene, or for example. This works always and forever on the fourth scale degree of a major scale, for example, our scale is F major. We wouldn't resolve to the F-Major from our C dominant seventh, right? For example, the C7 resolving to the F-major right? Before to C7 chord, we would go to semitones lower than c. We would build a minor sixth, which is a B flat minor sixth, right? This gate. And then we would play C7, resolving back to the F-Major chord once again. So F major, B-flat minor 6, C7, F major, or in their positions have major, B flat minor, C7, F. But it really sounds nicer with the inversions. Include it, so happy it's short position. This is the second inversion of B-flat minor 6. That's second inversion of C, dominant seventh, back to the position of F-major, right? Order first inversion of F-major. Keep practicing these types of progressions and use all 12 keys for this. See you in the next lesson. 23. 22 How to use suspended chords: A suspended chord or SAT score, is a musical chord in which the major or minor third is omitted and replaced with a perfect fourth or a major second. We learned this when we learned about these types of courts in the first place, it's time to give them a proper meaning. The SAT scores, as we already said, they suspend the third and for the beginning, Alice show you a typical use of the sus4 chord, which comes in handy. Example once again, a progression in C Major, our root is C, are four, is F-major, are five, is G major, and we're back to C major. We already know that the G serves as a dominant chord and we can play a dominant seventh on it. But instead of being lazy and playing only the dominant seventh, we can exchange this court for a suspended forth. So our progression becomes C Major, F major triad sus4. Going back to the center. Once again, without me saying anything. It's even more beautiful if you play it like this as an arpeggio, which literally means play each note of any chord from the lowest to the highest node up and down, any amount of repetitions you might need, for example, like this. So I'm only using 1451451541541, going up and down, up and down. Once again. And then G7, if we want resolving back to C major seven, for example, let's be the same procedures we did in the previous lessons. Now comes the part where I'll be showing you how to use the suspended to courts. There's a really good example of a creation so named Medina, or translated into English language. It's a name of the woman called Mary, which is something I'm used to as curation, is my native language. It's a really beautiful song which uses both of these types of suspended chords in the intro. Let me play this for you. So we have our CSS2. Here it is. This is a CSS2, even though it looks like a G sus4, right? But it's a CSS2. But in the second inversion, because our root is in the bass, so C is our base and CSS too. But in the second inversion, the first position would be like this, a root position. First inversion is this, and the second version is this. Right? So and that c sus4 in one moment. See in the second inversion, C major. C says to the second inversion again, and then just GMC. So once again. Then the same thing in the a minor chord. A minor second inversion, a SAS 2 in the second inversion. Going back to the D minor chord. And then we have the entrance of same procedure all over again. But the real baseline will be like this. I'll see you guys in the next lessons and until then, you keep practicing this astute and sus4 chords for all 12 keys. Cia. 24. 23 Formulation of melodic and harmonic minor scales: Melodic minor is another type of skill, along with the regular major and minor scales we learned in the very beginning of our course. We know how to count intervals between the notes in the scales. And so far, we're practicing the skills on a daily base with both of our hands as we are using the sheets of proper finger positions for each scale there is, which is provided in this course too. Let's make a proper formulation for these types of skills. Right away. See, is our unison or the root note is our second with the sign of plus two semitones, is our minor third with the side of plus one semitone is our perfect forth with the sign of plus two semitones. G is our perfect fifth with the sign of plus two semitones. A is our major. With the sign of plus two semitones, is our major seventh with the sign of plus two semitones. Add in the NMC is our octave with the sign of plus two semitones. Long story short, the formula you see on your screen right now is the easiest to learn. Our 2122222, or even an easier way of formulating the melodic minor would be to play the first five nodes in a natural minor scale. For example, C minor, C, E flat, G. And then pretend like you're playing a regular major scale. Continuing from that node G. You stopped on, right? So it's a G, then a, B, and your baton seat once again. Harmonic minor is the last type of scales, along with major minor and melodic skills when it comes to the typical US, therefore, like a regular natural minor scales, but the seventh degree is actually a major seventh instead of the minor seventh. And that's what makes it unique. See is our unison or the root node is our second with the site of plus two semitones. E-flat is a minor third with the sign of plus one semitones. F is our perfect forth with the sign of plus two semitones is our perfect fit sign of clusters semitones. A flat is our minor sixth with the sign of plus one semitone. B is our major seventh with the side of plus three semitones. And C is our octave with the site of plus one semitone. Long story short. The formula you see on your screen right now is the easiest to learn. R 2, 1, 2, 2, 1, 3, 1. The way this type of scale sounds is probably something closest to the Turkish, Persian, and Arabic types of music. And it's used widely in oriental music altogether when played, it really reminds them that, right? Let me play you an example of that. When it comes to the western music, it's not used that often. That would be it for this lesson. And I'll see you in the next one. 25. 24 Formulation of pentatonic and blues scales: The pentatonic scale is a specific type of scale which uses only five notes through one octave. The word penta actually means five, so it's pretty much self-explanatory here. Let's get straight to the formulation of the major pentatonic scale. C is our unison, or the root node. D is our second, with the sign of plus two semitones. E is our major third with the sign of plus two semitones. G is our perfect fifth with the sign-up plus three semitones. A is our major sixth, with the sign of plus two semitones and the sea octave with the sign of plus three semitones, long story short, the formula you see on your screen right now is the easiest to learn are two to three to three. The pentatonic scales are often used in Western type of music, mostly in blues and jazz, but also in pop improvisations and a new type of ministry music, which is very often nowadays, are another type of pentatonic scales is a minor pentatonic scale, which has the following formulation. Is our unison or the root note. E-flat is a minor third with the sign of plus three semitones. F is our perfect forth with the sign of plus two semitones is our perfect fifth with the sine of three semitones. B-flat is a minor seventh with the sign of plus two semitones. And C is our active with the sign of plus three semitones. So long story short, the formula you see on your screen right now is the easiest to learn. R, three to, three to three. Also something which is used even more frequently than the regular major pentatonic scale in most of the pop songs and mainstream music, as well as improvisations in the melody lines. You can practice going through a C minor pentatonic scale, for example. And to move only through the key on that scale. We're going to continue with the blues scales. And the first loose type will be the major blues scale with the following formula. C is our unison, or the root node. D is our second with the sign of plus two semi dose. E-flat is a minor third with the sine of a plus one semitone is our major third with the son of plus one semitone. G is our perfect fifth with the sign of plus three semitones. A is our major sixth with the sign of plus two semitones, and C is our octave with the sign of plus three semitones. Long story short, the formula you see on your screen right now is the easiest to learn. R 2, 1, 1, 3, 2, 3. And our final part of today's lesson is the Minor Blues scale with the following formula. Unison or the root note. E-flat is a minor third with the sign of plus three semitones. F is our perfect forth with the sign of plus two semitones. F sharp is an augmented fourth with the sign of plus one semitones. G is our perfect fifth with the sign of plus one semitone. B-flat is a minor seventh with the sign-up plus 3 semi dose. And C is our octave with the sign of plus two semitones. I hope you guys learned something new today and came practicing these skills in all 12 keys SEO in the next lesson. 26. 25 Secondary dominants: Secondary dominance are one of the most famous methods for re, harmonization, where we don't actually use nothing more than classical theory of degrees and intervals along with classic dominant separate courts. But before we begin, we need to mention that the dominant scepter course are formed with the following intervals. Unison, major third, perfect fifth, and dominant seventh, right? We're going to jump straight back to the core of the today's lesson and that is how to use these. Let's see, we have a basic harmonic progression starting with the key of C major. And of course we don't have to remind ourselves it is necessary to know the basic degrees and intervals of the scale are harmonic progression are the following courts. C major, we have a major, we have a G major. And once again, I'll C major. If we play these chords using a method of nearest finger positions, we need to use different turns, not related to this lesson at all. So if you start off with a C Major in a root position, a good way of using an emergence would be to jumped to the F-Major chord in its second inversion like this. And then we have the G major chord played in the second inversion. Also. I. Also, let's remind ourselves on the lesson of the harmonic functions where we talked about the courts in a major scale and how we feel when we play each chord related to that root chord. This is a standard 1, 4, 5 progression as our C major is one, our F-major is four, and our G-major is our five. When it comes to standards of Western style. The main thing that a secondary dominance is to do some calculations before you actually play something. In this case, we need to calculate the degrees and inner loss of their relative dominant seventh chord, which resolves to the court we need to come to, which means atonic. Now, what also we need to keep in mind is to ignore the main intonation, which is a C major scale in our case. And we're going to treat each chord in this progression as its own scale. The first two courses in this progression are manger and F-major. After we played the C major chord, we need to play the F major chord, but with a method of secondary dominance. We can connect C Major, F major by using the fifth degree in the court we want to arrive on. In this case, this is the F-major, right? And then to play a dominant seventh on debt degree, to make things easier, c goes to f. The fifth degree in the F-major scale is node C. Let's see, 12345, It's a C, right? On that exact note, we're going to play a dominant seventh chord. So our new progression is now see 67 and then F-major, right? The secondary dominance is actually just a way of playing a dominant seventh chord on the fifth degree in the scale of a chord, we want to arrive to the next group of courts is going to G major. So the fifth degree in G-Major, The core that we want to arrive to write is a key of D, right? 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, according to the G major scale. So this means we're going to play F-major. And then the salmon, which finally goes to G-major. F-major. Secondary dominant of the upcoming chord, which is a G-major, is a D note. And on that denote we built a seventh chord, which is a dominant seventh chord. And finally, reaching our destination point, which in this case it's a G major chord. Once again, F major seven. And the last group is a G-major, going back to C major. So the fifth degree in the C major key, or the key we want to arrive to is a key of G, 12345. The fifth degree is the note G, right? So we're going to build a dominant seventh chord on the key of G. And R progression will be G-Major, then G7, and finally, resolving to C major. And the whole progression will look like this. So C major, secondary dominant, F major major, secondary dominant, G major, C major. And we have secondary dominant, which is what? A G-major once again, and it's a seventh For finally to the C major or a C major scale by the matter of saying, okay, let's see how well does this perform on another harmonic progression, for example, E minor. This is our first chord calculating the fifth from upcoming D major, 12345, and that's node a. So we have a seven chord in-between. So minor, seven, D major. This is our second chord. And now calculating the fifth term, the upcoming C major Module 4, 5. It's G. So we have a G7 chord in-between. So D major, She's seven going to the C major, which is our third chord. And now calculating the fifth from the upcoming E minor, 12345, that is a node B. So we have a B7 chord in between. So these seven, finally resolving to E minor. Sometimes, uh, some expectations between this transgressions from court to court might not sound as expected, but you need to keep in mind that researching these things is a crucial thing for practicing your level of hearing along with your fingers to theoretically, you're doing everything right, but it's up to you how often you will use the method, secondary dominance, as you don't need to use it all the time. He was it sometimes when you feel like it, just user hearing and see what works best for you, as there are no limits here rather than using theory correctly, right? So I'll see you in the next lesson. 27. 26 Tritone substitutions: Before we start this lesson, we need to get back through this course and remind ourselves on the matter of tritones as they are very important intervals. The tritone is actually an interspace between six semitones forward or backwards from the relative tone we're currently referring to. So if our starting tone is a node C on Triton would be F sharp 123456. Regardless if we counted backwards. So starting 0.123456, the word Triton comes from two words where we actually use three whole-steps. A whole step is arrange of two semitones. So going from C to D is one whole step, one to two semitones, right? From D to E is the second whole-steps on 12. And from a to F sharp is the third whole step, so 0, 1, 2. Another important thing in this lesson we will be denoting of dominant seventh chords. We already discussed about this several times through this course. So there's really no need to make formulations for them. Once again, the tritone substitution is actually when we exchange the dominant seventh chord with the trident within its own scale. So for example, let's use a jazz standard to 51 in a key of C major, the courts are as following. We have a D minor 7, we have a G7, and we have a C major seven. So a D minor seven is our, a G7 is our five, and C Major seven is our one. The only dominant seventh chord in this progression is G7, right? We will treat this as if it was a basic G major scale. So 12345678, right? So the tritone of the root key, G 123456 is a D flat. So instead of playing the G7 dominant chord as a five, right? We're going to play a D flat seven dominant chord. And that's how we properly use the tritone substitutions. Let's play this new progression in a 404 rhythm to see how well it fits. So our first chord is D minor seventh. Power. Second chord would be a G7, but we used a tritone substitution on this part. And instead of the G seven, In the second inversion, we're going to play D flat seventh, right? Because it's a tritone away from the root node G. So these are extremely easy math calculations and one of my favorites when it comes to the harmony part, Let's try to solve this progression for a little bit of practice. We have a G minor 7, we have a C7, and we have F major seven. The only dominant chord in this progression is C7. What is the trident of C then? So a road 123456. That's six semitones forward or backwards. And that is our node, F sharp, right? So 0123456. So F-sharp will be our dominant seventh. Now, instead of the C7, our new progression will look like this. So we have a G minor seven as sharp seven. And in the end we have an F major seven. Once again. Thank you for your time and efforts for getting so far with these theory lessons. You can now be sure you learned a really, a lot of academic stuff. See you in the next lesson. 28. 27 Functional harmony and cadences: Before we begin, let's just quickly remind ourselves on the topic of chords within different scales. They are formed easily by playing the following, this combination of degrees in that particular skill. For example, C major scale, we have 1352463574615613724 and back to the root 13 and 5, right? So considering the major scale, we need to explain that theory of scale families. We have three main types marked with Roman numerals, and these are as following. The first one is Donald courts with degrees. And the second one, our subdominant courts with degrees 24. And the last one is a third group which is called dominant courts with degrees 57. Each of these code families are indirectly dependent from each other and their function is to follow each other. Let's take tonal chords for example. Everything starts from them and everything resolves back to them. After that, we have a group of sub-dominant course which provide some mean to the phrases and contexts we're playing in. And in the end, we have dm and courts, where from previous lessons we learned that the dominant chord has the tangent which needs to be resolved. But why is the title of this lesson called functional harmony? The answer is pretty easy. We use only core to families within the boundaries of theoretically we just explained, there are logical and sound sequences are expected just because we have a start, we have a plot, and in the end we have denouement. Another important thing in functional harmony are the cadences and what are these? Actually, they represent the endings of some musical phrases perceived as arithmetical or a melodic articulation of final phrases. There are four basic types of cadences and these are as following. The first one is called authentic five to one. For example, in a scale of C major, five is a G, resolves back to the C major. So this is a classic case where on the fifth degree CTE, we usually add a minor seven, so that's our 51 cadence. The second type of cadences are half cadences with the letter V. So these are any cadences where we end up on the fifth degree as a final phrase because it has a really unfinished sound domain, a half cadence really fits. It's not that common when it comes to the practical use. For example, we have the progression 145 in the C major key, which would be the courts, as we just saw, C, F, and G, right? And once again, it really does sound like an unsolved tension. The third type is a deceptive cadence, which has the signs 5, 6. This cadence has the unexpected type of ending phrase with the actual change in the way into harmony fields. So the transition from the dominant chord, we actually end up on a submediant chord, for example, Major, F major, which usually would resolve to see major once again. And we're going to play a minor chord. Completely changed the field and sounding as something really unexpected, right? Once again. The fourth type of cadences are plagal. Cadence says, this is for one, right? This cadence is a transition from the fourth scale, degree 2, the first one, as we just said, an example of going from, for example, F major, C major. And these types of cadences are mostly used in church music, where there are a lot of similar repetitions like this one. So C Major, F major, C major, once again, write, it really sounds like something heavy, right? That would be it for this lesson. And I hope you guys learned something new and I'll see you in the next lesson. Bye. 29. 28 Modal interchange chords: The parallel intonations are actually scales that have the same root tone. For example, the C major scale is parallel. The C minor harmonic scale, because they have the same root tones see, regardless of the fact that the difference is in the inner walls of these two scales actually exist right? Through this, we come to modal, interchangeable courts that actually played a role of borrowed chords from parallel scales or parallel intonations. The first scheme would be the second degree minor seven flat five scheme. So for example, if we use the harmonic progression of the common jazz standard to phi one into C major intonation, we will have the following courts. The first is a D minor, the second is a G major, and the third chord would be a C major. Or if we wanted to play the septa course, they become the following course. The minor seven, G7, and a C Major seven, right? The biggest problem in using modal interchangeable courts is that we have too much freedom. So the best solution is to use some of our own established standards so which we can stick to write. One good example of using substitute course in this case would be on the first chord into 251 progression. Instead of that chord, we can replace it with a harmonic minor on the second degree, which means that instead of D minor 7, we will play D minor seven flat five. Because in that second degree of the harmonic minor, looking at the seventh chords, we get exactly that chord. So let's finally play this progression that we just talked about. So the first chord would be either selling the front five. And the second chord is a standard G7, resolving back to the C major seven. That's played in a 404 rhythm. Another example would be the following progression. For example, we have a C major 7, and we have a minor 7. We have an F major seven, would have a G7 and back to C major seven. Or for example, our position. We can use this technique on the subdominant chord family, which in our case are the second and the fourth courts in the scale of C Major. But we will only do the change on the fourth degree and change it with a second degree, since they are in the same family. On that second degree, we're going to play a harmonic minor seventh chord, which again D minor seven flat five. C major seven. A minor seven. D minor seven flat five to seven. Back to the C major 7. Once again, without me saying anything. The next scheme would be for minor 64, minor seventh. In this method, we're going to swap the subdominant chord family with minor six and minor seventh chords. So in an example of 251 progression in C major, which is a D minor seven, G7, C major 7. We're going to do the following exchanges, again using the method of harmonic minor. So the first solution, the one that you see on your screen right now, is like this. Last minor six, G7, and C Major seven, right? The second solution, however, is the one that you see on your screen right now. F minor 7, seven. C major seven. The third scheme would be the flat seven dominant seventh scheme. In this scheme, we will use the family of dominance, so the fifth and the seventh degrees, and we will make the parallels with the natural minor scale so that the fifth degree will be replaced with the remaining only possible degree in that family, which is the dominant. But that dominant will be flattened by one semitone, right? And after deck, we're going to build a dominant seventh chord in a progression of 25, one in the scale of C major. This again, relying on this scheme, the progression would look like this. D minor 7. Flat seven. Finally arrive into a certain age or seven. Once again. Another example of a progression, for example, C major seven. A minor seven, F major seven to seven. C major 7. Once again. In this moment, we can change the G7 once again with B flat dominant seven chord, also relying on the previous examples of previous schemes, we can change the fourth as well to a second, but in harmonic minor examples, so the progression would look like this. C major seventh. The minor seven, F minus 6, flat 7. And finally, arriving on the scene centered once again. Without me saying anything else. That's it for the end of this lesson. I hope you guys enjoyed this and I'll see you next time.