Oil Painting for Beginners - Poster Studies | Rachael Broadwell | Skillshare

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Oil Painting for Beginners - Poster Studies

teacher avatar Rachael Broadwell, Fine Arts Teacher

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

12 Lessons (43m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Why Do Value Studies?

    • 3. 9-Step Value Scale #1

    • 4. 9-Step Value Scale #2

    • 5. Lemon Poster Study - 3 Values + White

    • 6. Egg Poster Study - 5 Values + White

    • 7. A Quick Tip for Drawing

    • 8. Middle Key Poster Study

    • 9. High Key Poster Study

    • 10. Low Key Poster Study #1

    • 11. Low Key Poster Study #2

    • 12. Final Thoughts

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About This Class

In this course, we will begin to explore value, which is the backbone of great painting. The most effective way to study and simplify value is to develop 'poster studies.' A poster study seeks to simplify the dominant values and shapes in a composition. Rather than rendering and blending, you leave the study in a more graphical, hard-edged form. This enables you to see the large shapes, masses, and dominant values clearly. By simplifying your composition, you are in the best position to judge its effectiveness and to anticipate challenges.

After introducing value and two basic poster studies, we will then take a look at the concept of 'key.' Key refers to the overall values being constrained to one side of the value scale or the other. A composition that is dominant in light values with subordinate dark notes is called "high key." A composition that is dominant in dark values with subordinate light notes is called "low key." And if the values group toward the center of the value scale, we will refer to this as "middle key." Key can help create a tone or mood for your composition, and  you can manipulate key to create the emotional tone you desire.


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Rachael Broadwell

Fine Arts Teacher


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1. Introduction: Hello and welcome to my studio. My name is Rachel Bridwell, and this is my skill share Siris on oil painting for beginners. Throughout this series, I'm going to walk you through all the fundamentals from the ground up to give you a good, solid foundation in oil painting. In this course, we will begin exploring the concept of value, which refers to the lightness or darkness of the different areas within your painting through developing poster studies. Value is the backbone of good art. It's extremely critical and yet is often one of those things that really trips us up, especially if we dive into painting with color because color can actually distort our perception of value. So it's very useful just to take a few minutes to really do a good evaluation of the values of the composition that you want to Paint and poster studies are meant to be a very quick way to assess the basic values as well as the basic shapes within your composition. Doing a poster study will help you quickly determine if there are any issues or challenges with the composition, and it will also help to guide you through the process of developing a very strong composition. After we develop a basic value step scale, I will walk you through the most basic ways to complete value studies with just a few values. And then finally, I'm going to show you a few examples of doing a single composition in different keys with the use of poster studies where we use constrained value ranges. Teoh, help us determine the mood that we'd like to set for our composition. Simple poster studies are often overlooked in the art making process, however. Investing just a few minutes into a couple of poster studies, conduce do wonders for your final painting, and it's an important first step, especially if you are are relatively new to paints. And while this is an oil painting class, this is a concept that applies to all mediums. So feel free to join this course, even if you plan to use other mediums besides oil. All right, well, let's go ahead and get started painting, shall we 2. Why Do Value Studies?: the 1st 2 exercises in this course are just going to be it. Some basic value scales. We're going to start out with basically nine values in between our darkest value, which is going to be black in our lightest value, which is going to be white. However, you'll see here that I'm going to actually draw out more than one value scale, and that's because in subsequent courses will be using value with color and temperature added in. So just for the sake of doing future demonstrations, I'm going to go ahead and draw out as many scales as well fit on this piece of oil paper. So I welcome you to do that as well. Creating value scales is something that might feel a little bit elementary, especially if you're not completely new to painting. However, I find it so useful to go back and revisit this exercise every once in a while because it just helps to recalibrate your value judgments. And it's really nice to see to how you can advance even in this basic exercise. As you gain more experience. Painting and doing an exercise like this is also very helpful for you, whether you're a beginner or you have some experience because it gives you a way. Teoh Get to know colors and pigments. Ah, lot of times people will assume that if you want to get a nice middle gray, for example, all you do is mix an equal amount of white and an equal amount of black, and that gives you a middle gray. But that's not so. Every pigment has a different characteristic and a different strength, and so you might actually find that one pigment overpowers the other quite a lot, and so made it. To get a middle value, you're using a huge quantity of one pigment and very little of the other, and so this is a great way just to get to know your pigments. And if you're using a limited palette, as I recommend that you dio, this is relatively easy to do with each one of your pigments, mixing them together to create swatches and really seeing how they interact with each other . But for this first exercise or two, we're just going to be focusing on black and whites, and I'm going to show you two different ways to create black and white value scales. So all I've done is created these nine inch scales, which I think that this piece of paper is technically 11 inches. So there's two inches at the top where I'm just going to use that space to label my different scales with the colors that I'm actually using to mix thumb. And then I'm just going toe. Have each swatch be one inch in height, and then I believe these air two inches across, although you could just limit them. Teoh one inch squares if you wanted Teoh and I'm keeping a little bit of space in between each scale just to avoid any cross contamination that might occur when the scales air still wet. All right, now we are ready to go ahead and get started on our value scales. 3. 9-Step Value Scale #1: In this first exercise, I'm going to show you how to paint a nine step value scale. And for this exercise, I am going to use titanium whites, as you see here and then lamp black. So this is a black straight out of the tube. Now, in the next exercise, I'm going to show you, actually my preferred way to mix blacks, which is to use raw number and ultra marine blue. But if you do have a black straight out of the tube, you might consider doing both. Or if you want to keep things simple, you can just use black and whites. So I'm just gonna label these here. The 1st 1 is with Lamp Black, as I said, and then in this next scale, which I'll show in the next video. In this course it will be the ultra marine, blue and raw number mixed to make a nice, neutral black and gray. So what we want to do first is swatch, both the pure white and the pure black. So I'm switching the white up at the top, and I'm using one brush to do this. But I will switch brushes so that I don't pollute my pure black, so I'm going to use a clean brush, and I am using three separate brushes for this exercise. I'll be using one brush for my blacks in darker values, one brush for my whites and lightest values, and then another brush for the medium values. So now that I have these Swatch, I can go ahead and I'm going to create my medium grey. And the best way to do this exercise is not to try to mix from one end to the other. We want to get nice, even steps between our values. So what we're going to do is a series of mixing our middle values. So right now I'm trying to find a nice middle gray in between the white in the black, and one thing that you'll quickly learn if you're very new to painting and mixing is that it's not necessarily a matter of using an equal amount of white and black to get a middle value With painting and pigments, you will often find that one pigment is a lot stronger than the other, and so you'll have to use a larger quantity of the weaker pigment in order to move the value to the place that you want it. So after I've mixed that medium grey, I went ahead and I applied that to my scale. And now you can see that there's three steps between my black and my middle gray, and I'm going to now mix the step that is directly in between the black in the middle gray . And then from there I'll use that new middle gray. So it's a dark middle gray and all mix between my pure black in the dark middle gray. And then I will mix another step in between the dark middle gray and the medium grey. And then I will have those three even steps, and again you'll find that you just have to adjust it and slowly mix your paints together so that you don't take it too far in one direction. That isn't desirable. So I always mix very incrementally, and now I'm using my dark paint brush to apply these darker tones here, and then I switch over to my medium paintbrush to do that last value. I'm going to do the same thing for these lighter values. I'm mixing a value that's right in between the middle gray and the white. And then, from there I will mix two more values between that light, middle gray and the whites and then the light, middle gray and the medium grey. And then I will have those three steps that will be fairly evenly incremental, although I do find that it's difficult for it to feel very even between the lightest gray and the white. There will be quite a jump there, and we would really need a lot more value steps in order to really make this feel even the honestly for the purpose of painting nine values is quite enough to get you started. And it's a really great value range, and you'll find that you often won't even need this many values. All right, so we finished up this first value scale, and now I'm going to show you a value scale using raw number and ultra Marine 4. 9-Step Value Scale #2: for this exercise, I'm really going to be repeating the same steps that they used for the 1st 9 step value scale, except this time, instead of using black out of the two. But I'm going to mix my own black using raw number and ultra marine blue, and this is actually my preferred way to mixed arcs. In fact, I only have tubes of black paint because they've come in different sets that I've bought over the years. So I actually have a lot of tubes of black paint just laying around, and I should really look for more opportunities to use them. But here I'm going for a very nice medium black. So I want to make sure that the balance, the visual balance between the raw number, which is a more warm color, and the ultra marine blue, which is of course a very cool color, is very even. So I don't want this black toe lean, too cool or too warm, and you can see that when I'm mixing the raw number and ultra Marine together, it's almost too dark to really judge it. And so that's why I added just a little bit of white as I adjusted that mix so that I could see the true temperature balance in there. And I do that a lot as well. Like if I'm mixing a violet because a blue and then a red when you mix them together without any white, it's almost too dark to really judge if that violet is leaning more toward red or toward blue. So I like to just swatch those just to judge them and make sure that I have a nice, neutral grey middle tone going on here. So I'm again repeating that same process that I went through to paint the 1st 9 step value scale. I'm mixing my darkest value and my white in order to get a nice middle gray, and now I'm going to begin by painting the extreme ends of the value scale. So I'm applying the white to the top of the scale again, and then I will use another brush. Teoh, apply the darkest value here. So this is my black. And then I'll have 1/3 brush to deal with the more middle values. And by the way, between colors, all I do is wipe of my brushes off on paper towels. I don't need Teoh clean the brush in between values and quite honestly, when I paint. I don't even typically like to USA's many brushes, as I'm using for these value scale exercises, because typically we don't really need to keep the differentiation between colors or even between values as clean as you might for a value study. The first middle grade that I applied very thought was just a little too dark, so I actually scraped it off, and now I'm applying it again. It has a little bit more white in it this time. Sometimes you'll have to just adjust things. But I wanted it to be pretty close to the middle value on the first value scale. So now I'm using the middle gray and the black to mix a middle dark gray, and from there I will mix the middle dark gray with the black, as you can see here and then for that third value, I'll use the middle dark gray and then the medium grey to get my last step here on the darker side of the scale. And for the 1st 2 swatches on the dark side, I will use the same paintbrush that I used to paint that darkest blacks watch. And then for the one step in between the middle gray right here, I'm just using my medium grey brush. Same thing for the lighter side of the value scale. You can see that even though I used raw number and ultra marine blue, it's quite close to the actual black paint that I used. And this is why I really prefer to use the ultra Marine and raw number for a lot of my neutrals because I can even make this lean a little bit more cool if I need to or a little bit warmer. And we are going to be talking more about color temperature in this series, so we won't really address it too much in this course. My goal here is really to keep things pretty neutral. And then once I have all of my lighter values mixed up, I'll go ahead and apply them to the scale just to finish up this exercise, And that's really all there is to it. Doing this exercise might feel a little bit elementary, but it's really going to help you begin to judge values in your painting and also start to get a sense for how powerful different pigments convey and how, when you mix them, you may have to use them in different proportions to get the result you want. 5. Lemon Poster Study - 3 Values + White: a poster study is essentially just a very simplified sketch that allows you Teoh judge your composition in terms of values, form and overall design. If you've seen my other skill share courses, you'll often notice that before I start painting, I will do what I typically call a little scribble sketch, where in my sketchbook I will just use ink or even a Sharpie or something very crude to scribble in very quickly. My values and I typically do not draw things out. Before I do this, I just go in and start scribbling, and I'm really just focused on form, value and the overall composition. Working like this enables you Teoh judge your composition by its overall design by simplifying it in distilling it down to its most essential components. And this is a really crucial step in painting because if you're going Teoh, create a finished painting, you don't necessarily want to spend hours and hours noodling away at your painting on Lee to realize later that there were major design flaws that you just couldn't see right away. So doing a poster study or even if you typically just preferred to do a quick little sketch where you just are looking at value in form. This is a really worthwhile way to prepare for a more finished painting and for the poster studies I'm going to show you. In this course, we're going to use very limited numbers of values for this first value study. I'm only going to be using three values, plus just a little bit of white for the highlights Now. Typically, I do not count pure white as a value. First of all, it's very rare in painting that you're ever going to be using ah, lot of pure white if I use it at all. It's on Lee for a very small highlight, and often I find that even my highlights don't necessarily need to be a pure white. And so it's best, I think, to count all of your values as being everything that's even slightly darker than whites and also using a lot of pure white. If you're not doing that just strictly for design purposes that you have intended can often make your painting look washed out for this first poster study. I am painting this lemon, and the photo that you see here in the video is very small, of course, but I am including this photograph in the project files for this course. So feel free to use that if you like. All I did was set this up as kind of a still life with a single light source. So I just set up a lamp to shine on it. And I turned off all the other whites in the room so that I would have a really clear value arrangements. I'm going to start out with my darkest value here, which is going to be my pure black. And I'm going to block that in and you'll hear me use the term blocking in ah lot as I paint. And blocking in basically means adding very general strokes of a single value and focusing on the big shapes in your composition and in painting. It's very useful to begin training yourself to see larger shapes and train yourself. Teoh, start ignoring detail. One of the biggest pitfalls in painting, no matter what medium you're using, is to get too bogged down with details too early in the process. And the more you paint, the more you'll realize that Ah, lot of details are not necessary to put in at all. So I did a quick little pencil sketch of the general shape of this lemon. And then I also sketched out some of the broader value distinguish mints in the lemon. And I'm really trying to distill this lemon down into again, just the three values. And then I can use just a little bit of white to capture the highlight. And not only does reserving your rights just for very small highlights help you're painting to not look washed out. But I also find that adds, just a little something special to your painting. It will take your painting from something that looks kind of strange and flat Teoh. Suddenly you add just that one little swash of highlight, and it really brings it all together. So it's important to learn to be disciplined with your highlights and especially if you are going to be using pure white at all not to overuse it, because just that minimal amount really will do a lot. So now I'm just going back in and kind of refining some of these edges. Another important aspect of poster studies is not to do any blending, so let your values remain in kind of stark contrast to one another. Let there be hard edges because this is not a full value study. Again, this is just a poster study. And when we talk about a poster in terms of art, basically what we mean is that we're looking at flat shapes, very graphic in nature rather than being rendered again. This helps you to just really identify the overall design. 6. Egg Poster Study - 5 Values + White: for this next poster study. I'm going to be using a few more values, and I'm also going to be painting an egg instead of the lemon. Now you'll notice that even though I'm using more values in this poster study, I'm still not using the full nine values that I created in my value studies. And it's important, I think, to explain why that is just because I can makes nine separate values. And in fact we can technically mix an infinite number of values doesn't mean that that is the best way to paint as artists. Our job is not Teoh exactly reproduce or mimic nature. What we're trying to dio is representing nature through our own vision, and often that is going to actually requires to simplify things. Rather than trying Teoh explicitly describe everything that our eyes can perceive and so working with limited values will force you to kind of constrain what you see and boil it down. Teoh its essence. And that's really what we are often very attracted to in the artwork that we see. So here you can see that I have everything in between pure white and my darkest black and again. I'm going to preserve my lightest values, which will be the pure white in this example, Onley, for a very small amount of highlight. And so everything that I'm actually counting as a value that I will apply. Teoh a shape in this poster study is going to be from my lightest gray. So not my white, down to my darkest value, which is going to be my black. So now I've got all of my values mixed, and I'm going to go ahead and sketch my egg into place. And again, the photo reference for this is going to be available for you in the project files of this course, so you can feel free to use that. Otherwise, if you would like to use your own life reference, which I think is really the best way to paint when you can pay from life, you might just want to use a very simple object. For example, an egg is fairly simple because it is typically just one color and it is light. It's local. Color is a very light value or color, so it's a little bit simpler to identify the different values being cast around the form of the egg and then use a single light source. And if you are setting up your own still life to paint from, I just recommend keeping. It's a very simple form, keeping it something that's relatively free of designs. So, um, you know, I wouldn't necessarily use like a mug that has a design on it, because that might distract from being able to see the values. And I probably if I was a beginner, I wouldn't want to use something that's transparent, necessarily. That's a little bit more intermediate and will definitely get into that. So I think when you're focusing on value and doing a poster study and just trying to get into the motions of painting, it's best just to keep it as simple as possible. And then also, if you are using a photo reference, it might be tempting to convert it to gray scale. But I really encourage you not to do that. Try to see the values of the colors. And, of course, if you were painting from life, you couldn't convert that into gray scale and just copy the values from there. So I really encourage you to avoid that temptation that we definitely all have, because we probably all have some photo editing programs or APS on our phones. So here I am just putting in the darkest values. And even though you can see in my photo reference that maybe all of these areas that I'm interpreting with my darkest black, they may not all be exactly the same value in reality. What I'm doing is I'm distilling and simplifying and trying to find the most essential forms, the most essential values. And here you can see I'm doing something that is called a lost edge. So when I have to values that are juxtaposed together and they're similar enough, I'm going to go ahead and paint that entire area with a single value. This is called a lost edge, and it is one of my personal favorite things to do in painting, and especially when painting still lifes. It's just fun to find opportunities to incorporate lost edges because it's very visually interesting and stimulating toe look at. And even though there's no edge there, it becomes an implied edge just because our brains interpret it that way. So again, I'm just working from my darker values and gradually working up to my lighter values, and I typically find in painting, even though the egg is of course white in its local value, I tend to use a surprising amount of my darker values to create this. So I think that this is also an important lesson because new painters tend to overuse whites, which tends to make paintings look a little bit washed out where chalky. So now I've got everything blocked in here. I found all my biggest shapes, my biggest values. Now I can add just that little bit of highlights, and you can see how much of a difference just that small swatch of white makes. It really helps to bring the form together. 7. A Quick Tip for Drawing: for the next couple of exercises. I'm going to be using a coffee mug with a little bit of coffee in it to show you how to address value with key in mind. Now, since I am going to be painting the same coffee mug over and over again, I don't necessarily want to have to go through the pains of drawing it all the time. Although if I did, I would definitely become a very good drawer very quickly. However, I think that the easiest way to avoid frustration and to be able to paint the same thing over and over again without becoming discouraged is Teoh have a template. And that's what I'm gonna show you how to do right now just as kind of a bonus. So I just have a piece of copy paper here from my printer, and I'm going to go ahead and do my sketch of the mug here and I'm going Teoh do my best to get the proportions really nice. And so I'm taking quite a bit of time to actually do this sketch, even though I've sped up the video, of course, quite a lot. So I can really take my time with the forms here and really identify the different value shapes in here. And I wont have to start from scratch each time I want to paint this mug. And then once I have the template drawn on my copy paper, Aiken, just use some transfer paper to transfer the drawing over onto my painting substrates. And I will include both the photo reference for this as well as the template that I've drawn out. So if you want to use that feel free, all you have to do is print it out, and then as long as you have either some transfer paper or maybe you have a light box, you can just transfer these lines onto your, um, painting substrate. And then you don't have to worry about redrawing this every time. So this red sheet that I have between the copy paper and then my oil paper is just called transfer paper. You can also find it by searching for graphite paper or carbon paper. It's very inexpensive, and it last a really long time, and it's just a really great way to replicate lines and shapes. So now you can see I've got that in place, and I'm ready to start painting. And when I do more of these, I can just quickly move between these studies and not have to try to redraw this over and over again. So it's worthwhile to do this, especially if you know that you're wanting to experiment a little bit with your study, and then it kind of simplifies that process makes it a little less tedious. 8. Middle Key Poster Study: Another important concept in terms of value is a concept called key and key. You've probably heard often as being described as low key and high key. And then what we're doing here is going to be more of a medium key, and I'm going to show you examples of each. Now I've said before that it's very important to simplify your values. You don't have to use an infinite number of values to exquisitely describe every detail of what your eyes can perceive. But you can take this a step further. You not only can constrain the number of values that you use, you can also constrain the range of values that you use, and that's what I'm going to show you in these next three videos. So I'm doing this coffee cup. It's the same coffee cup, the same photo reference, and I am just going to be painting these in different keys for this 1st 1 I'm really going to put a lot of emphasis on the medium values, so this composition will be very heavy on the medium values, and then I will use other values just as highlights. So I'm using a very dark value just for the black coffee that's inside the mug and the darkest part of the shadow. I'm also going to do a lot of playing with lost edges in these key studies, but these air still poster studies. I'm keeping the number of values very limited, and I'm doing a lot of pre mixing to make sure that these studies were going to go in the direction that I intend them to go. And when I find values that are very close together and also edging or bordering on one another, that's where I'm going to start playing with lost edges and I'm going toe. Let that form the edge be implied by the viewer's eye rather than spelling that out for the viewer. So you can see here, even though I have a very significant lost edge around the right edge of the coffee mug in the background. It still reads as a coffee mug, and it just makes the overall composition a little bit more interesting toe look at. So this is an example of using medium values to create a constrained value poster study 9. High Key Poster Study: and now I'm going to demonstrate a high key value composition. So I'm using a constrained range of values again. But this time, rather than focusing on middle values, I am focusing my values on the lighter half of the value scale so you can see that my darkest value on the value scale is black and that's Onley toe. Add a little bit of emphasis to very few areas. So the black coffee and then the most occluded shadow right underneath the coffee mug. But then the value really jumps up, and the next darkest value is actually right in the middle of the value scale. And I'm going to be using this for all of my next darkest shapes. And then I'm just going to be gradually working my way up Teoh, the lightest gray that I have. And again, I'm not going to be using pure white for the lightest value of this composition. I will use just a little bit of white at the end for the few highlights that I really want to emphasize. But this overall composition should be very light in value, with just a few dark accents and even fewer bright white accents. And again, I'm going to look for opportunities to employ some lost edges. So just right here on the edge of the mud, and you'll find that when you're doing these poster studies with value keys in mind, that you will kind of arrange your shadows in your shapes a little bit differently just to kind of conform. Teoh the range of values that you plan to use for that composition so it might vary just a little bit each time. And I really like doing these key studies because it's a great way to experiment with the design and really find what is going. Teoh strike you and interest you the most in the composition, and you just don't always have to use a full range of values. And often it's very useful not to in order to get a more intriguing design out of your composition. So this was the high key poster study 10. Low Key Poster Study #1: we have done a medium key poster study and a high key poster study of this mug. So off course now we're going to do a low key poster study. So again it's the same coffee mug, the same composition, the same reference. I have just premixed my values so that I'm really emphasizing the darker half of the steps . Scale, the value step scale. And I'm really going to exaggerate the darks in this composition, and I usually find that this is the most challenging kind of composition to do and also ultimately, very often the most rewarding to do. I think that these really look very interesting and intriguing and a lot of my still lifes that I do tend to be a little bit more low key, so it might just be a personal preference for me as well. So I'm going to start by identifying my darkest values. And a lot of the lost edges here are Actually there's one between the black coffee and then the shadow that's being cast on the inside wall of the mug, and I knew right away in doing this key poster study that wasn't going to get quite a Zeman . He lost edges, as I would typically hope to find. So I actually will end up going back to my still life and rearranging it and photographing it in a different lighting situation, but still, ultimately using this same drawing templates and getting a little bit more of an interesting composition. So this is not going to be my final, low key value study. But I did want to show you this value study in the low key with the same reference that I used for the other studies. And basically, I think that this one ended up because of the way that I lit it to begin with in the still life. It just didn't really lend itself very well to a low key study because I used a lamp to shine on one side of the mug, creating a situation that was just a little bit overall to light. So this low key study ended up looking just a little bit Teoh medium grey for me. But that's just something that these types of studies are going to help you to identify as issues so that you can actually resolve them in ways that makes sense and So this is a good way. Just Teoh spend a couple of minutes. And honestly, these poster studies, especially for a very simple composition, shouldn't take you much more than maybe just 10 minutes to do. Because you really don't want to find yourself kind of picking away at thes studies. There really meant to be a very quick way for you to judge the overall design and composition of a potential painting. So I'm gonna go ahead and do this one again a little bit differently. 11. Low Key Poster Study #2: all right, spoiler alert here, this is going to end up being my favorite poster study that I've done out of the Siri's. I went back to my still life, and I tried to arrange the mug in the same position as it was before, but instead of using a lamp to shine a light on it, what I did was I said it next to a window with light coming through. And I just partially opened up the curtains so just a little bit of light would come in and the rest of the room was very dark. And so this really helped lend itself to doing a low key poster study with darker values. And it's going to help me a lot in developing some lost edges in this composition, which, of course, is my favorite thing. So again, I'm using a very constrained range of values. But I'm keeping all of those values near the darker half of the value scale, and in fact, I was able just to reuse all of the mixes that I had created for the original low key poster study that I did and didn't really like. So its not necessarily about the actual values that I'm using. But the way that they are arranged in the composition and just changing the position of your light or the source of your light can make a huge difference in your overall design, even though I'm using the mug in the same position as I did before, really just so I wouldn't have to re dry it so you can see that there's a really nice lost edge that I'm developing over on the right side of the mug with that kind of medium dark value. And I'm going to play with that just a little bit more because even though it's a lost edge and there's no difference between the values, the direction of the stroke itself can actually make a really big difference. So because I like to apply my paint in a more imposter or thick technique, you can see very clearly the texture of the brushstrokes that I put down. So, ah, lot of times when I have lost edges, I really need to think about the actual brushstroke that I'm laying down and not merely just that lost edge itself. So if you're going to use visible brushstrokes or um, or in pasta technique. That is something that you can start to explore when you're doing these poster studies and will help you kind of determine even your preferred way of laying down paint. You might be someone who doesn't like toe lay down really thick strokes. A lot of people like Teoh have their strokes very thin and almost hidden. So here I'm starting to just kind of play with that lost edge and determine what kind of brush stroke I want to use to define that. And then here I'm using highlights. And actually I decided for this low key poster study that I really wanted Teoh very, very minimally used, pure white. So I'm barely using any at all, and not every highlight is created equally. Some of them are not going to be that pure white, but will just be a very light value. And ultimately I decided to make this lost. EJ really played up with this kind of swishy swerved stroke 12. Final Thoughts: Thank you so much for joining me on this course. I hope that you enjoyed it. And I really look forward to seeing your project posted in the project section of this course. If you have any questions at all Of course Feel free to ask me anything in the discussion section of this course and I will make sure to answer you. And if you like to be notified when I upload new courses here to still share feel free. Teoh, follow me here on still share. And then it will be notified every time I upload a horse again. Thank you so much. I really hope you enjoyed it. And happy painting.