Oil Painting for Beginners - Color Temperature (Part 2) | Rachael Broadwell | Skillshare

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Oil Painting for Beginners - Color Temperature (Part 2)

teacher avatar Rachael Broadwell, Fine Arts Teacher

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

21 Lessons (1h 24m)
    • 1. IntroTemp Full HD 1080p

    • 2. Reviewing the Basics of Color Temperature

    • 3. Project Templates

    • 4. How the Masters Used Temperature

    • 5. How to Identify the Temperature of YOUR Paints

    • 6. Limited Palettes Designed with Temperature in Mind

    • 7. Project 1: Color Temperature Swatch Chart (introduction)

    • 8. Project 1, ex. 1: Color Temperature of Primary Colors (mixing)

    • 9. Project 1, ex. 1: Color Temperature of Primary Colors (swatching)

    • 10. Project 1, ex. 2: Advanced Color Temperature of Full Color Palette (mixing)

    • 11. Project 1, ex. 2: Advanced Color Temperature of Full Color Palette (swatching)

    • 12. Project 1, ex. 3: Color Temperature of Full Color Palette - Mixing Neutrals from Primary Colors

    • 13. Project 1, ex. 3: Color Temperature of Full Color Palette - Mixing Neutrals from a Blue + Earthy Col

    • 14. Project 2: Full Color Wheel

    • 15. Mixing a "Warm" Palette from Primary Colors

    • 16. Painting with a "Warm" Palette

    • 17. Mixing a "Cool" Palette from Primary Colors

    • 18. Painting with a "Cool" Palette

    • 19. Comparing "Warm" and "Cool" Paintings

    • 20. Example of a Non-Traditional Limited Palette

    • 21. Final Thoughts

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About This Class

In this course, we will dive further into color theory with Color Temperature. We will build on the previous course in Color Temperature by exploring the full spectrum of color. Learning the fundamentals will help you to paint more intuitively and freely!

***While this course was created using Oil Paint, this is a concept that applies to ALL artistic mediums. So feel free to join us and to post projects with the medium of your choice!***

In this course, you will learn:

  • How the Master Artists used temperature to create masterpieces that evoke emotion
  • How to classify your own colors in terms of temperature.¬†
  • How to mix a full spectrum of colors from a limited palette
  • How to mix neutral colors from a limited palette
  • How to create a painting that feels "warm" and sunny AND how to create a painting that feels "cool" and stormy... all from ONE reference
  • How to unleash the power of color temperature to create a non-traditional (and very unique) limited palette

As we learned in my courses on Poster Studies and Value & Form Studies, value is the backbone of art -- we can do a LOT with it, and it's crucial to study. But of course we want to get into color! You are going to be amazed by how much you can do with just a few colors!

From my teaching experience, color temperature can be a slippery concept. Students often ask "Is this color warm or cool?" and I respond, "Compared to what?" That's because color temperature is always relative. In this course, I will help you to understand color temperature in a way that is easy to understand and will help to unleash your understanding of color. The end goal is to help you learn to paint intuitively, because painting can and should be relaxing and rejuvenating!

Have fun and feel free to share your color temperature studies in the project section!



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Rachael Broadwell

Fine Arts Teacher


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1. IntroTemp Full HD 1080p: Hello and welcome to my studio. My name is Rachel Broadwell and this is my skill share Siris on oil painting for beginners . Throughout this series, I'm going to walk you through all the fundamentals from the ground up to give you a good solid foundation in oil painting. In this course, we will die of further into color theory with color temperature. We will build on the previous course in color temperature, which was part one by exploring the full spectrum of color. In this course, learning the fundamentals will help you to learn to paint more intuitively and freely. And while this course was created using oil paints, this is a concept that applies to all artistic mediums. So feel free to join us in post projects with the medium of your choice. In this course, you will learn how the masters used temperature to create masterpieces that evoke emotion. You will learn how to classify your own colors in terms of temperature, and you will learn how to mix a full spectrum of colors from a very limited palettes. You will also learn how to mix neutral colors from a limited palettes and how to create a painting that feels warm and sunny and a painting that feels cool and stormy. And we'll be using only one reference to create these two very different paintings. Finally, you will learn Teoh unleash the power of color temperature to create a non traditional and very unique limited palettes. This class has several different projects, but don't feel overwhelmed. Do as many as you like, or even just one or two. I wanted to greet projects that would help you to begin thinking about color temperature as it relates to your own colors, rather than a prescribed set of colors that have been arbitrarily designated as either cool or warm. I have included several downloadable templates and charts, and resource is for you to use throughout this course, and those will be found in the project and resource is section by understanding color temperature. You will begin to embrace the fundamentals of color theory, and this means that you'll never feel like you have to copy or match colors from a reference again, paint with intuition and freedom through the powerful fundamentals of color theory. I hope that you're excited and ready to get started painting, so let's go 2. Reviewing the Basics of Color Temperature: in color temperature. Part one. I discussed what color temperature is and broadly, how we can determine the temperature of the colors that were using. In this course, we're going to take a much deeper dive into color temperature. However, I think it's important just to do a quick recap of the basic definition of color. Temperature. Color temperature refers to the perceived warmth or coolness of a color. In general, a color that is closer to the blue violet end of the spectrum is cooler than a color that is closer to the red or yellow end of the spectrum. And furthermore, color temperature is always relative, and it's not an absolute quality or feature of color. To determine the temperature of a color, you must be comparing it to at least one other color. For example, you could be looking at two different blues and determine which is your cooler blue and which is your warmer blue. Here we can see a full color spectrum, and in general we would describe a color closer to the left and of the spectrum where the blues and violets are as being cooler and colors over on the right end of this spectrum closer to the reds and yellows as being warmer. If we take a look at two common colors ultra marine, blue and cadmium red, we can clearly see which is our cooler color and which is our warmer color. But it's not always this obvious or polarized. For example, let's take a look at two other colors. These air both blues. We generally think of blue as being a cool color. So how can we determine whether or not a blue is warm compared to another blue? Well, I like to think of it. In terms of this spectrum, the cerulean blue is just a little bit to the right of the ultra marine blue, making it a little bit closer to that warmer end of the spectrum. And therefore, I describe cerulean blue as a warm blue and ultra marine as a cool blue when I'm comparing them to each other. And now let's take a look at these two yellows that are very common for paint tubes, lemon, yellow and yellow Oakar. You can see that yellow joker is further to the right closer to the reds, making it almost in orange, while the lemon yellow is a little bit to the left, and since the lemon yellow is closer to that cooler end of this color spectrum, I would describe it as being a cooler yellow than the yellow Oakar, which leans a little bit closer to the right. This is an important way to think about color for painters, especially when you are looking at your tubes of paint and trying to decide which is your cool color and which is your warm color, especially when we are talking about our primary colors. A common practice for artists is to have a warm and cool version of each primary color on the palette to create a very full and complete palette to mix from. Of course, we don't all use exactly the same colors, and there's no prescription for the colors that you should use as an artist. And so in the following exercises in this course, I'm going to help you learn to identify your particular colors in terms of whether or not they are cooler or warmer. 3. Project Templates: for this course I have included in the project section several downloadable files for your use. I'm going to give you just a overview of a couple of them. Right now. What you're seeing here is the swatch chart that we will be working on for the first few exercises of this course. What you can dio with this file is instantly download it right here from skill share, and then you can print it. And you can use this either, just as a general reference toe work from as you build your own swatches. Or you can even trace this on to your surface. I like to pay on oil primed paper, and it's very easy to transfer a template onto oil paper. I like to just use carbon paper underneath the template, and with a little bit of pressure, I can transfer the lines onto my oil paper. Don't worry about transferring all the text. That is mostly just for your reference. As you go to work on your own exercises, you'll see that there are some abbreviations, and I think that they'll be pretty intuitive for you to follow along with. But in General B stands for Blue R stands for red. Why stands for yellow G stands for green, and if you see a small see that stands for cool and a small W stands for warm on the section labeled as neutrals from primaries, the first color listed in the combinations should be your dominant color. So if you see the color blue listed first, that should be your dominant color in that mix. The second color listed is going to be your secondary color used to neutralize the first color, so those mixes will be dominated by the first color listed and then neutralized with the second color listed. I've also included templates for two different color wheels, and this is basically just going to depend on your level of comforts. The first color wheel that you see over on the left is going to be an eight color color wheels, so you're basically going to have your primaries and your secondaries and then a couple other mixes. Just because I've included Green here, the second pillar wheel lets you do ah lot more mixing and get a lot more variation out of these same basic colors. You'll just have more opportunities to mix more variations and intermediate colors, so have fun with it, and you may find that you want to do your color wheel a couple of times until you get a color wheel. That really works for you, because this is a really great tool to use for any painting that you're just trying to decide on a concept for. It can really help you to determine an appropriate color scheme, so take your time with it. It's a good, relaxing exercise, and you will learn so much. 4. How the Masters Used Temperature: before we really get into the nitty gritty details of color temperature and helping you to decide what temperature your particular colors have. Let's just take a look at some paintings by some of the Impressionist masters and how they incorporated color temperature into their works. So you can see here that I have a slide of a painting by Joaquin Saraya, and on the right side you can see a full color spectrum with our cools at the top and our warms at the bottom. And this is just for your general reference. It's important to keep in mind that when we're looking at a color spectrum like this and when we do, our color swatch exercises were using fully saturated colors. But it's important to be able to see the color temperature of muted or neutralized colors as well. So as we look at little color swatches from these paintings, I want you just to look at those and determine whether they are closer to the cool end of the spectrum or closer to the warmer end of the spectrum, and also notice how master artists rarely use fully saturated colors of both warms and cools. Usually the dominant color temperature will have more saturation, and then to balance it, the artist will use more neutralized versions of the other end of the spectrum. So by looking at these little color swatch out takes from this painting, we can see that the cools are relatively neutralized and lighter in value and the warmer tones or are more saturated and dominance, making this painting feel overall very warm in temperature. And now let's look at this painting by Claude Monet and determine overall what the temperature of this painting is now. This may surprise you as it did me, because in the foreground and on the road, we see some splashes of what appear to be a bright orange. But take a look at the color swatches that I pulled from this painting. Those bright orange specks of sunlight falling on that road are actually very muted, but they appear very bright in comparison with the even more subdued colors around. However, we can see that overall, the most saturated colors in this painting are the blues and the greens, and that color swatch that second from the top is actually just a very dark blue. But it almost appears black in this painting, so overall, this painting is very cool in temperature, but it's well balanced with those splashes of sub dude nice warm orange in the foreground. Here is another painting by walking Saraya, and at this point you may be able Teoh a little bit more easily. Identify the overall color temperature of this composition simply by looking at the colors that are most saturated, balanced by the colors that are a little bit more muted and neutralized So we can see in this painting that overall is a very warm composition. And when we look at the color swatches taken from key points in this painting, we can see that the most saturated colors are the yellows and the reds. And then we even have some nice warm greens in the foreground. And that's balanced by the neutralised cool colors that lean a little bit more towards the blue end of the spectrum. But they're not overwhelming, and it's important to know that if you use very saturated colors from both ends of the spectrum warming cool, you may end up with a painting that is clashing or is a little bit tire, some on the eyes, and it's really important to remember that even when we want a bright, colorful painting, neutrals are so important because that is where most of our world lives. Here's a great example of that. It's another painting by Claude Monet, and we can see here that it may be a little bit difficult to even identify particular colors in this painting because overwhelmingly, it is a very neutralized and muted painting, helping it to feel very calm and serene. So let's take a look at some of the colors watches. The most saturated colors that we have are just little specks of blue peeking through the clouds in the sky. Everything else is very, very neutral, and yet we can discern subtle tones of warmth and coolness to each of these color swatches . Our warmest colors really would fall somewhere in the middle of our color spectrum. They're not overtly warm, making this overall a very cool composition, which lends to its being very calm and serene. This is also a really good example of how using neutral colors doesn't necessarily make your painting bland or boring. It actually looks like a very colorful painting, and it's just very nice and peaceful toe look at, and this really does a great job of illustrating that depending on the feeling or mood that you want your painting tohave, you'll be guided toward a different end of the temperature spectrum, as well as the balance between your saturated and your muted, neutralized colors. 5. How to Identify the Temperature of YOUR Paints: Often new painters want to ask what specific colors they should buy for their tubes of paint. And this is something where you'll ask, Ah, 100 different artists and you will get 100 different responses. Everyone has their favorite tubes of paint that they swear by. But that does not necessarily mean that there is a one size fits all. And in general, I would say that if you already own some tubes of paint, it's more important to identify where those paints fit on your palate by identifying their color temperature rather than going out and buying a specific set of paints that a particular artist recommends. And therefore in this section, I'm going to help you do just that. I have built this little cheat sheet that I think will help you greatly. I did my best to include some of the most common colors that people tend to want Teoh by, and I've placed them along this color spectrum so that you can more clearly see where they compare to each other in terms of their temperature. This chart is available to you in the projects and resource is section of this course, so you can download this and use this for your reference. You can print it if you want to, but keep in mind that printers do not always print colors accurately. And so you may get the best idea and accuracy of this chart just by looking at it on your screen. Now let's take a couple of close up looks at some of these swatches of paint and see where they fit on the color spectrum. I obtained these swatches by going to the websites of M. Graham as well as Windsor and new in and actually using my color picker to pick the colors from very popular tubes of paint. And then I placed them on this chart, pointing to where they would fit on the color spectrum. Ah, lot of times there isn't going to be an exact match because the color spectrum is the most saturated version of every color. And that's not always the case for your tube of paint. It may vary just a little bit, and it's important to note that different manufacturers of paint will mix thes colors in different ways. Sometimes, So do you. Keep in mind that there may be some variations, but in general, you will find that these colors line up with one another in roughly the same ways across manufacturers. So here we're looking at some of the blues and greens, and we get just a little peek of the yellows and where they fit on this spectrum, a common cool blue. And when the I use primarily as my cool blue is ultra marine blue and you can see that that is clear over to the left on this spectrum in comparison with the other blues, a warm blue that is commonly used is fellow blue. It's just a little bit closer to the green or warmer end of the spectrum. And then we can see where turquoise fits as well as variety in cobalt blue is somewhat in the middle between ultra marine and fellow blue. And then we can see that meridian as a green is much cooler than sap green, which is a little closer to our yellows. Looking over at the other end of the spectrum, where we have more of our reds, oranges and yellows, we can see that are most medium temperature. Reds are going to be that NAFTA all red, our cadmium red. And then these reds get a little bit cooler as they edge closer to the other end of the spectrum. On the right, where we see our magenta and our Eliza in crimson and permanent wrote. Looking over at our yellows and oranges, we can see that Hansa Yellow is probably the coolest yellow that I've mapped here, followed by lemon yellow, and then our cadmium yellow is a little bit warmer than that, and Indian yellow is almost just a straight orange right there in between yellow and red. And then we also have a lot of earthy or neutral colors that we need to be able to determine the temperature of, and this could be a little bit tricky, but I think that you can see by placing them next to each other that it's a little bit easier to identify the overall temperature of these common earthy colors. You might be surprised to see ivory black over on the cool end of this spectrum. How can black have a temperature? Well, every color has a temperature, and when we add white toe ivory, black, it appears a little bit cooler than it does warmer. Next, we have our Payne's gray, which also has a very cool temperature, followed by indigo. Raw Number is a color that I personally use a lot, and it falls a little bit closer to being neutral in terms of its temperature. And then we have our burn number, which is just a little warmer. Our burnt Sienna, Indian red and then Rossi, Anna. And finally, our warmest neutral shown on this chart is going to be our yellow poker. Of course, there are hundreds of tubes of paint color, and every manufacturer is going to be a little bit different. But the purpose of this chart is just to help guide you and identifying your own colors and what you might prefer to use. And by now you should start to see how you can use your tubes of paint and compare them to the color spectrum to identify how warm or cool they are. 6. Limited Palettes Designed with Temperature in Mind: now, here's another resource that I have provided to you and same as the last one. Feel free to download it and refer to it. This is not a comprehensive guide to limited palettes, because, of course, there are so many combinations that you can use. And it's just really important to understand that there is no one right palette in terms of developing your own limited palette of primaries up on the top third, I have a few samples of primary pallets that are a little bit more common. These are colors that I would classify as being more your primary colors and more classical ways of mixing. The next to Rose that, you see are triads of primaries that are a little bit less traditional and a little bit more novel and definitely worth experimenting with. So these are just some ideas to get you started on different limited pellets that you might consider using in terms of their temperature and where they fit in terms of being primary on the upper right hand side of the chart. I've listed a few examples of neutrals classified in terms of whether or not they're cool or warm, but one thing I do want to say about neutral colors, especially if you're buying tubes of them, is that I wouldn't necessarily say that. You need to go out and buy a bunch of neutral colors because a lot of these you can mix on your own. And in this series of oil painting for beginners, I will be spending a lot of time talking about mixing your own neutrals. So generally I would recommend maybe just having one of these, and I recommend either an number or a Sienna. Finally, on the lower right hand side of this charts, I have illustrated some of my preferred ways of mixing black because you don't necessarily need tohave black out of a tube. I like to use a cool blue like ultra marine blue, and then I would mix it with either of these four neutrals. My preferred way is to use raw number, but mixing an ultra marine blue or cool blue with any of these other neutrals will also give you a nice chromatic black. So use this resource. Print it if you would like. Just keep in mind that your printer may not print the colors accurately, and you may just want to refer this on your screen. Most importantly, keep a flexible mind set when you are thinking about colors in terms of what tubes of paint that you should have, you can really work with anything. It's just a matter of identifying where your colors fit in terms of their temperature and how close they are to being primary colors. Feel free to experiment as much as you want with colors, and you will always be surprised at the results that you get. You'll also be pleasantly surprised by the wide variety of color that you can get from a very limited palate. And I really recommend that beginners start with a very, very limited palettes because you'll really get to know the characteristics of those particular colors, and it will help you overall understand color theory much better. 7. Project 1: Color Temperature Swatch Chart (introduction): for the next few exercise. We are going to be using our two paints to create our own color spectrum in terms of color temperature. So here I am kind of just laying out my swatch chart and just keep in mind that you can download the chart that I've given you in the project, and resource is section of this course, and you can print that and transfer the lions on to your surface. Or you can create a chart that best suits your needs. I decided that I would have my chart be, ah, combination of eight inch squares. And sometimes I divide those into smaller sections so that I can dio more intermediate mixes. And after you get your chart drawn onto your surface, what you want to do is get the tubes of paint that you plan to use and just start thinking about what order those should go in. I like to arrange my temperatures in terms of starting with the cooler colors over on the left hand side and then working my way over to the warmer colors on the right hand side. And then I'm just labelling where these are going to be I'm just labelling where I'll put the pure colors and then in the middle is where they will be mixed to create intermediaries . And then I'm using the same colors essentially onto the next part. But I'm going to be it, creating more intermediate colors as you can see and also adding in some of the tubes of paint that I don't typically use for a more complete look at the spectrum. However, keep in mind that you don't have to have all of these colors. You can actually mix most of these with just the primary colors. Even if you don't have any green tubes of paint, you can easily mix that. All right, so let's gets watching. 8. Project 1, ex. 1: Color Temperature of Primary Colors (mixing): If you've seen my other courses in this series on oil painting for beginners, you'll start. Teoh recognize the way that I like to premix colors, especially when I'm doing swatches when I'm actually doing a painting. I don't always pre mix my colors as I like to paint very intuitively, but I think that pre mixing can actually help you quite a lot, especially if you're a beginner. So just to recap how I premixed colors, I'm basically going Teoh layout each color in order from Coolest at the bottom, working my way to the warmer colors at the top, and I'm leaving a little bit of space in between them. That's where I'm going to mix my intermediate colors. So here you can see I've got my ultra marine blue at the bottom, my fellow green, and then I have my yellow. And then finally, I have my red and I'm just going Teoh. Mix an intermediate between each one of these colors and keep in mind if you don't have a tube of green paint, you can just mix your own ahead of time and then just pretend that that came straight out of a tube and proceed with mixing these intermediate colors so that you get a total of eight. And don't worry too much if you feel like maybe you're not getting an exact combination right in the middle between each of these primary colors, this is just going to be an approximation. The last intermediate color that I need to mix is Violet, and so we're actually going to wrap around and I put a little bit of blue underneath that first blue, and then I'll add just a bit of red, and then this is going to be our violet. So always keep in mind that even though we usually look at the color spectrum as though it is a line with a beginning and an end, it actually is infinite. And the two ends of the color spectrum can wrap around and just kind of keep going. So always keep that in mind. And now that I have everything mixed, I'm gonna go ahead and move down just a little swatch of each mix so that I can add white because for each one of these chart of swatches were going to do the fully saturated version and then we'll also add a little bit of white tint, and that's really important, especially for the colors that are a little bit darker. It's actually very difficult to see their color because they're local. Value is so dark. So I added a little bit of white and then I'll just mix this in, and now you can really see that violet a little bit more clearly. So I will just continue adding a little bit of white, teach one of these mixes, and then most of our work is actually done. After we've got our mixes, we go ahead and we can just apply each of these colors to the charts. 9. Project 1, ex. 1: Color Temperature of Primary Colors (swatching): Now that we have all of our colors mixed and ready to go, it's relatively easy to apply them to our swatch chart. So I'm just going to use a flat brush and a little bit of medium to give the paint a little bit more movement. And I'm going to do my best to apply these Teoh my Swatch chart in a way that there's no white in between the swatches. This is just kind of my personal preference, because I think it helps to create a little bit of that great Asian and helps to mimic the color spectrum. But you can be as careful as you like, or you don't necessarily have to be. It's super careful. So the idea here is just to lay in these colors next to one another in each square, and we will get a nice color spectrum with our own tubes of paint so that we can better understand how our colors fit on the color temperature spectrum. The biggest recommendation that I have when doing any kind of swatch are is that before moving on to the next color, thoroughly clean your brush. I don't necessarily want Teoh completely clean my brush just when I knew from the more saturated mixed to the mix that has a little bit of white tint to it, since it's technically the same color just with more or less white, so you don't necessarily have to fully clean your brush between those 1st 2 steps. You can just wipe off any excess paint with a paper towel or something like that. But then, before you move onto the next separate color, especially yellow, because yellow is very easy to pollute with another color, you just want to make sure that you thoroughly clean your brush so you'll want to wipe it off with a paper towel and then also dip it into your brush cleaner or solvent whatever you happen to be using and make sure that you get all of that previous pigment out of the bristles of your brush so that you get a nice clean mix and in the next Swatch chart will essentially be doing the same thing. But we will have a lot more intermediate colors to work with, and therefore a more complete color spectrum 10. Project 1, ex. 2: Advanced Color Temperature of Full Color Palette (mixing): for this next color swatch exercise, there are going to actually be two different ways that you can complete this. Our goal here is just a have a more wide range of mixes toe work with so that our Grady int or spectrum, is a little bit more even you may not have this many tubes of paint. And so the way that I will be demonstrating this is by lining up these individual tubes of paint in terms of where they would fit on the color spectrum. And that is what we worked on when we talked about the different charts and references that I included in this course to help you identify where your colors fit along that color spectrum chart. However, if you do not have as many colors is this, then what I would recommend doing is just using your limited palettes. Teoh, go ahead and lay out four piles of paint mixed the intermediates Justus we did in the previous exercise, and you're just gonna want to leave yourself a lot more space so that you can then mix 1/3 set of intermediates. So that is one way that you can complete this exercise it's gonna be a little bit trickier to keep it organized. But just be patient. Leave yourself plenty of room. Hopefully, you have a nice big palate. You can see here that I'm not able to lay out all of my colors just in a single row, and so I'm spreading them out throughout my palate and just making a mental know of where they are placed so that I can stay organized as I do this. So I'm laying out every single color from these tubes that I have, and what I'm going to do is mix an intermediate between each of these colors. And here I'm moving a little bit of my magenta up next to the blue, because that's going to be important. Teoh. Make sure that I get that final mix there because remember, the color spectrum is able to wrap around so that we get kind of an infinite loop of colors that are all related to one another, and you may find that some colors are a little bit weaker and some are very, very strong. My magenta looks like it's pretty weak, so I had to actually add a little bit more from my tubes so that I could have a better influence over that red, which was much stronger in comparison. And that's another advantage to working with. A very limited paella is that you're going to really get to know the particular characteristics of your colors. You'll find out which colors on your palate are really strong and so you don't need to use as much and which colors are a little bit weaker. And that will help you Teoh be guided and how you mix particular colors, and you'll waste a lot less paint that way as well. So I will just continue here to mix each of these intermediate colors. Just remember that if you didn't have all these colors, then you'll just have one extra step because you'll mix your first set of intermediate colors and then you're going to have a second set of intermediate colors. Once I have each of these mixes complete, I'll move just a little swatch of it underneath, and that's where I'm going to add white. And now that I have all of those colors mixed, I can go ahead and add a bit of white. My palettes. I don't want to squeeze out too much. I'd rather have to squeeze out a little bit more later than to squeeze out too much white all at once and then not use it all up. But basically, I'm just going to add a little bit of white to each one of these mixes, and you can see that, especially with these darker colors. This really helps us to better see that mix and how it leans, whether it leans a little closer to the cool end of the color spectrum or a little closer to the warm end of the spectrum. And then, of course, once we are finished mixing, our next step is very easy. Just applying each one of these Teoh our color charts. And since these rectangles will be a little bit smaller, we don't need as much paint for each mix, so keep that in mind as well 11. Project 1, ex. 2: Advanced Color Temperature of Full Color Palette (swatching): And now that we have all of these colors mixed, the hard work is done. And now we can just get into the simple act of applying these watches to our charts. And again. My biggest recommendation here is between mixing the most saturated color and then mixing the tint right below it. Just wipe your brush off on a paper towel. There's no need to completely clean your brush, however, before you move onto the next swatch to the right of that color. It's a new color, and you don't want to pollute it. And so that is where I would recommend that maybe you should fully clean your brush. That will again, of course, be most important when you get to yellow, because yellow has such a light local value that any other color that is lingering in the bristles of your brush is going to show up in your yellow and pollute it just a little bit . So that's where you probably want to be the most careful. You can see that we get a much nicer, softer Grady INTs because we have more color mixes. And of course we could get really crazy with this exercise and have even mawr intermediate mixes than this. But I think 16 colors is a pretty good range to get a full sense of the color spectrum and to fully identify every single one of your paint colors. So have fun with this relaxed. Don't be too perfectionistic. This is really just an exercise to help you visualize where your colors fit on the color temperature spectrum. 12. Project 1, ex. 3: Color Temperature of Full Color Palette - Mixing Neutrals from Primary Colors: Now let's get back to our swatch her and finish that up. It's really important, Teoh kind of understand your neutrals and how to mix those. So in this first video, I'm going to show you how to mix neutrals from primary colors. So colors straight out of your paint tubes. So I'm gonna be using my blue, my green, my red and my yellow, and I'll be using these in a way where I mute them to mix neutral colors. And then I'm going to do my best to place them on my chart from the coolest ones to the warmest ones. However, I will say that for this exercise that is going to be, ah, lot more difficult. So don't worry too much about that. We will be able Teoh mix neutrals from cool to warm, a much easier way the way that I prefer to do it in the next video. So stay tuned for that, but it is under is important to understand how to mix neutrals from your primary colors so you can see I mixed my yellow and my red to create an orange, and then I mixed my green and red, and we'll talk a little bit about that later. So don't worry about that for now. And right now I'm mixing some red and blue to get Violet. And then finally, I will mix some of my yellow and my blue to get a nice green. So once we have these done, we can see that we have orange, We have green, and then we have violent, and these are what are referred to as secondary colors. And then right here we have my green mixed with red, and I'm looking at my color wheel that I just mixed and looking at the colors that are complementary to each other because that's how we will get our neutrals. So orange is gonna be a complementary to blue, so I'll put a little bit of orange down there and mix just a bit of blue. Now, if I want this to be a warm neutral than I want it to be more dominant on the orange side than on the blue side, and then we have green and red that our complements to each other. So I'm gonna move down just a little bit of this green and then add just a bit of red to it , and this is going to just naturally be more of a neutral temperature just because of the green. And then finally, yellow and violet are compliments of each other, and so will use those together to create another neutral. And if I wanted this to be a cool neutral that I would want to have more of the violet in there, although it is a little bit difficult to judge these, and you may find that you need to fidget with it just a little bit. And now I'm going to divide each of these piles so that I can add a little bit of white so that we can more clearly see these neutrals, especially the darker ones. And again, don't worry if you're not able to clearly identify which of these are warmer, which ones air cooler. This is just an exercise to help you get started in recognizing that even are neutral and toned down colors are going to have a color temperature to them. So I'm going to apply each of these watches. Teoh, the part of the Swatch tart that is labelled as making neutrals from primaries again, just placing the more saturated version on the top, and then the one that has a little bit of white and his tinted on the bottom. And just being careful, Teoh wash my brush out before I move on to the next color. So while I'm applying thesis watches, let me just tell you why I mixed my red with the green that came straight from my to. If you don't have a tube of paint that is a green that I would say, Just skip this step. But basically because that green is a very cool green and in comparison, the red as much warmer. They're going to mix together very well to create a neutral that will be a little bit different than the other green that I mixed from my blowing yellow, which you can see, is a little bit warmer. So we'll get different outcomes from these two different mixes. And in general, I feel like those two colors in particular, are very strong compliments and create a really interesting range of neutral colors. So if you have a fellow green or of Meridian green, I do recommend experimenting, mixing that with red and seeing what kind of neutrals you get. My goal for the 1st 4 swatches on this chart was to have them be a little bit cooler. So any of those mixes that would have any blue in them I would have added even more blue so that they would tilt to be a little bit cooler or green. In the case of the mix, that only has green and red, and now I'm remixing each one of these to have a little bit more of the warm tones. So I'm adding more either red or yellow. Teach mix to kind of warm them up a little bit, and you'll see that some of these were more successful than others. And as I said before, this is something just to experiment with and just kind of get to know the qualities and characteristics of your colors and how to mix neutrals from your tubes of paint that are your primary colors whatever you happen to be using and then learning that you can shift these neutrals to be warmer or cooler, just in the ratio that you apply each color to the mix. So if you want your neutral to lean a little bit cooler, you of course, will have more blues or greens in it, and if you want your neutral to be warmer, you will have more of your yellows and reds mixed in. 13. Project 1, ex. 3: Color Temperature of Full Color Palette - Mixing Neutrals from a Blue + Earthy Col: but the easiest way and my personally preferred way of mixing neutrals that are either cool or warm is to keep it very simple. So I'm only going to be using two colors here, just my ultra marine blue, and then my raw number and my ultra marine blue is going to be my cool color. And of course, my raw number will be a warmer in comparison. So I'm putting those at opposite ends on my palettes. And then I'm going to proceed, mixing these much the same way that I dio my value mixes starting out, adding just a middle mix that should hopefully be right in the middle of these two pillars and then moving a little swatch in between that middle color and the number adding a little bit more number, adding that middle color closer to my blue and mixing it in with my blue now because I want these colors to all be neutral. I don't really want to have any just pure blue, so I'm gonna go ahead and kind of mix in that pile of pure blue into that mix that has just a bit of number in it, because I want all of these to be relatively neutral. And, of course, leaving a pile of pure ultra marine blue is not going to be a neutral color. So now I'm going to proceed, mixing each intermediary. And once I've done that, I'll move just to swatch down below, where I can add my white tint. And then once we start adding the white, we're going to clearly see that these mixes move from being cooler at the bottom and then working their way up to the top, being warmer. So, as I said, this is a little bit easier way Teoh control the temperature of your neutrals by just picking two colors and kind of sticking with that to mix all of your neutrals. And now I've got my swatch her in place, and again I will just go ahead and play the fully saturated version of each mix to the top . And then down below is where I will put my tinted mix. And even though you can kind of see the movement from cool to warm on my palette, it's going to become even more clear and obvious on my charts. So here you can see that I had added just enough number. Teoh this mix over on the far left so that it's not just a pure blue. It's a little bit neutralized. And as I move from left to right, you should see that my neutrals are gradually becoming less cool and more warm. And with this watch chart complete, you are going to have a thorough reference categorizing each one of your colors in terms of its relative color temperature. And I would recommend keeping this somewhere prominent so that you can easily refer back to it as you need. And now we are ready to move on and put color temperature into practice with some actual paintings, so let's get started. 14. Project 2: Full Color Wheel: Originally, I wasn't going to include a color wheel since we did a color wheel in the very first course in the Siris on oil painting for beginners. However, I had a lot of extra paint left on my palette, especially after I did the full color spectrum with the 16 mixes. So I decided, Hey, you know, I've talked a lot about how the color spectrum is really kind of an infinite loop of colors that are all related to each other. They're not linear. They don't start with blue and end with red. That's just how we typically look at that spectrum. So I thought maybe actually, a color wheel would be a very useful exercise. And I've included two templates that you can just trace onto your own painting surface so you can dio a color wheel that has either eight or 16 steps. Whatever is your preference or you can do them both. I chose to do 16 because I had so much extra paint left on my palate after I did my 16 color swatches, and basically what I'm going to do. It's going to have roughly the same principle as doing the color swatches So I am applying my most saturated mixes to the very outer edge, and then I'm gonna go ahead and apply that tint down right below that, and then I'll continue adding just a little bit more white and in the center will be my lightest tint, So I will do that step for each color and again. The biggest thing here is that you don't need to necessarily clean off your brush thoroughly when you're just applying that next tent with more white in it. But when you move onto the next color, it's a good idea. Teoh thoroughly wash out your brush so that you don't pollute that next color, and then you get a really nice clear delineation between each color step. Another reason that it's a good idea to have a nice, good looking color wheel is because it's going to be a really important tool as you begin to actually do it. Full color paintings Because if you recall to when we were looking at the paintings done by the Impressionist masters, we can clearly see that they didn't just go in t each painting, using the full power of every single color on their palates, they almost always will limit their palate in one way or another. And so we will be talking a little bit more in the Siri's about color schemes. And that is where our color wheel is going to come in very handy, because it's going to help us identify tertiary schemes, analogous schemes, complementary scheme and so on. So I do recommend actually having a really nice color wheel and not having too much white space in between each swatch. So put your colors as close together as you possibly can, and I think that having more colors on your color wheel the better. So eight is a good starting point. If you can do 16 and you have the patience for that, I really highly recommend it. And this is something to that. I like to just have hanging in my studio constantly so that I can refer up to it, or I can use it to kind of pull it down and just really think about the direction that I want to take my painting in terms of its mood and temperature and color scheme. And heck, you already have all of these colors mixed from doing your swatch exercises, so why not go ahead and just apply them to a color wheel right 15. Mixing a "Warm" Palette from Primary Colors: over the next four video sections. I am going to begin to show you how you can think of temperature in terms of executing an actual painting, and we're going to keep this very simple. And so I'm going to use my set of M. Graham primaries for both paintings. But I'm going to be pre mixing all of these colors in different ways. Teoh shift the temperature toward either being a little warmer or a little cooler. So I'm starting out here with just my ultra Marine blue, my fellow green, my yellow, my national red and then some titanium white. And for this painting, I want to keep it a little bit on the warmer side. So what I'm doing initially is I'm going to mix a nice intermediate here between my blue and my fellow green, and this painting is really going. Teoh have a lot of emphasis, particularly on this color, because this is going to be a nice warm blue. Next, I'm going to mix a more traditional green with my ultra marine blue and a little bit of my yellow and between each mix. Of course, I'm just wiping off my palette knife on a paper towel so that I don't pollute these mixes too much, especially when I create a mix that has a bit more of the yellow. And it I want to be very careful and have a nice clean palette for that. So far, I have a lot of my warm blues mixed, and I also want to incorporate a little bit of violets, and I will also use some of these colors across the top of my palette to develop some of my more neutral colors. So I have a violet that leans a little bit more toward blue, and then I'll have another violet that leans toward the red, and you may find that when you premix for a painting, you won't necessarily use every single mix that you creates. And when I create these mixes, I'm not necessarily looking at my photo reference and picking out specific colors. In fact, you'll see later that the photo reference that I'm using is completely black and whites, and you made me remember from my values study courses that I always say, Hey, even though this is a value study and you're doing this in a monochromatic way, don't de saturate your photos because you want to learn to see the values in the colors of your reference. However, for this exercise, it's a little bit different because we are applying color in a subjective way in order to evoke a mood. So I do not want you to be distracted by trying to match specific colors. From the photo reference, I want you to see how you can use color temperature subjectively in order to create a different feeling or mood in your painting. And for this first painting, I wanted to feel very warm and sunny and maybe even a little bit tropical. And when I think of tropical waters, I always think of that nice turquoise that you see in the ocean in the Caribbean and places like that. So that's why I'm emphasizing these mixes of kind of the blue green and a mixing lots of varieties of those. And then I'm gonna set this red over to the side just so it doesn't get in the way as I paint, because it's not going to be something I use a lot of outside of these mixes for the particular composition that I'm working on and Then again, I'm going to continue on mixing. You can see here that the screen is going to be a little bit more yellow dominant, And if you run out of a color, of course, you can always add more to your palates. If you find that while you're painting, you're using up one mix particularly fast, then you'll just want to keep that in mind. And remember the proportions that you used to mix that just in case you need to mix a little bit more and what I also want to do here. You can see I use some of my violets across the top to start creating some neutrals. But I can also create a nice neutral green here by taking some of this mix and adding just a bit of red to it. Not much, because I still want it to be predominantly green. But I'm just gonna neutralize it a little bit by adding bits of red to it, and I can add a little bit of red to it and then kind of judge it. And then if I feel I need to add a bit more red to neutralize it, that's what I'll do because otherwise I may add too much red all at once and take it a little bit too far. Because again, I want this to read is predominantly green. And then we'll really see this color. Once I add the white to it and you can see that that is just a really nice kind of seafoam neutralized green. And I don't worry about having a full range of values for this. You will add white to your mixes as you go. So right now, basically, I'm just adding a little bit of white to each one of these mixes just to give me a good sense of where these colors really are because a lot of them are a little too dark, too easily a judge. So now we can get started painting. 16. Painting with a "Warm" Palette: and now, with my palate mixed full of nice, warm and vibrant colors, I can go ahead and get started on this painting, and you can see the reference that I'm going from here in the lower left hand side of the screen, and this will be available to you also in the references of this class, so you'll be able to do this as a project if you choose to do so. It's, I think, a very fun way to really get a sense of how much temperature impacts, a painting and a composition. And I specifically chose an ocean scene because it's a little bit easier to think of an ocean in both terms of warm and cool, because again, I'm painting this one to kind of be a little bit warmer Sonnier, maybe a little bit tropical. But we can just as easily think of an ocean as being kind of a dark and cold and even an ominous place. And so my next painting will kind of have that feeling to it. So I'm starting out here with my nice blue sky, and for this I don't want to just go in with my ultra Marine blue. So I warm that up with just a little bit of yellow and then added white so I could get the correct value toward the horizon of the ocean. That is going to be my most distant area in this painting. And if you have taken my course on atmospheric perspective, you'll know that as objects move toward the distance, they get a little bit cooler. And that has a lot to do with our perception of light and also the wavelength of different colors of light. And then, as I move a little bit more into the mid ground and foreground of this painting, that's where I'm beginning to really use my turquoise colors. And even though this isn't exactly a tutorial of how to paint more, just an illustration of how to use an overall color temperature to get a certain feeling out of your painting, I do just want to remind you that when painting in oils, it's a good idea to try Teoh work from your darker values up to your lighter values. Because, of course, it is much easier to add white to your paint toe. Lighten things up than it would be to add darks Teoh dark in certain areas of your painting that already have a lot of white because when you're pain is what you're going to get a lot of intermingling between your colors and so you want to go ahead and make sure that all of your darks are in place before you go in with the whites and then here in the clouds. I'm also keeping in mind this color temperature as being much warmer. So especially around the light edges of the clouds. I have just a little bit of yellow mixed in to that white paint and even within the darker areas of the clouds, although it looks very violet, that's where he used those neutral violets up at the top of my palette and added just a little bit of yellow to those two. Tone them down a little bit and also to warm them up. And now I'm going to finish this painting by adding more of my mid tones and highlights with a palette knife to add lots of texture and energy to this painting. So here I am kind of adding more white to that lightest, brightest turquoise that I have and very sparingly. I'm starting to build the values up, especially on that wave that is coming toward us. The last thing that I work on is the foam that is happening toward the very bottom of the composition, because again, I like toe work from my dark values up to my lighter values. So I want to make sure that I have everything in place before I start adding in those white foamy waves and then toward the foreground, where the water is a little bit more shallow. It's coming up onto the shore. That's where I'm going to start using a lot of that more neutralized blue and that neutralized green as well. And one good thing to keep in mind, especially if you're painting something transparent. And if we think about that part of the ocean where it's really shallow and we can kind of see the sand underneath, it warms up that temperature. And so we will want to add just a little bit of warmth in there because that's going to help create an illusion of transparency, of being able to see that warm sand underneath the relatively cool water and going back to the whole idea of having our overall temperature be very warm and wanting to really emphasize the warmth I wanted that wave that's coming up to be really the focal point of this painting. And so, of course, that's where I have put all of my warmest blues. But I also have my most saturated colors right there. So I kept all of the other colors in this composition relatively muted so that that area could really stand out. And now I get to go ahead and start building up these waves. I'm not going in with any kind of stark white. I'm just going to gradually add more and more white until I get up to the value that I want without completely obliterating things and making it feel washed out, adding just a few highlights to that wave and we're almost done here. But hopefully you can really see that using just a premixed palette and really focusing on keeping my blues very warm, I was able to create an ocean Seascape that feels very nice and sunny and tropical, and now we're going to move on, and I'm going to show you how to use these same colors to mix a cool palette, and we're going to use the same composition to create a painting with a very different feel . 17. Mixing a "Cool" Palette from Primary Colors: all right. So back to the mixing palette. And I'm going to show you how to use the same colors essentially minus the green to create a cool color palette. And we're going to paint that same composition, But we're going to make it feel much more cold and dark and even a bit stormy and ominous. So I'm using my ultra Marine blue, of course, but I'm going to skip that fellow green because I was primarily using that just to warm up my blue. And because this is going to be a cooler composition, we just don't need that color. So it's basically the same colors just minus one. And then, of course, my yellow, which I already had some leftover on another pallets. I'm just gonna transfer that over here and because this is going to be a very cool composition, I don't really anticipate needing a lot of yellow. I went ahead and divided up that yellow, and I will create a nice orange right here because we're going to use a lot of orange in this painting, not outright by itself. But we're going to use that to help neutralize the blue, and then the last color that I need, of course, is just white so that we can get good value ranges. And then I'm gonna go ahead and start pre mixing this palette in much the same way that I did the last one. Basically, just creating some intermediate colors and some neutrals that will help me get started on the painting. And again, always keep in mind that just because you mix a pile of paint doesn't necessarily mean that you're going to use it or you may change it further. Pre mixing a palate isn't something that is like picking a crayon out of a crayon box because you can always make alterations to the mix is this is basically just to give you a nice starting point, and you can start thinking about the range of colors and temperatures that you think that you want to use in your composition, But that doesn't necessarily obligate you to using them. So now I want to mix up a couple of violets, one that has more blue in it, and then one that has a little bit more red in it. And of course, right now, these air very dark, so it's difficult to really judge the color. And so that's why I usually kind of just add a little bit of white to part of that mix so that I can visually have a better idea of how that color is leaning. I'm gonna mix up another orange up here. This is going to be where I mix up a really nice, dominant neutral color. So I'm gonna add just a little bit of blue to that for now. And what kind of see how that looks? Because this composition is going to be so cool. Overall, I'm going. Teoh put a little bit more emphasis on the sand that we see in the foreground. And so that's where I'm going to use a lot of these colors. You can see that I have a neutral up there that's predominantly orange with just a little bit of blue and then another neutral that is predominantly blue with just a little bit of orange, and this is really enough to get us started. So the last thing I'm going to dio on my palate before I start painting is just to add a little bit of white just to kind of give me a better visual sense of some of the colors, especially the ones that have a darker local value. So I'm gonna take just a little tiny sample of each and move it underneath the primary mix and add a little bit of white to it, because that's gonna help me really better judge that color and how I can use it in my painting. So now you can really see the difference between these two neutrals. The one on the left has a lot more blue in it, and so it's very obviously my cool, neutral and then my warm neutral has a lot more orange in it. I do have one pile of paint that has remained just blew up there at the top, so that's going to be my most saturated color in this painting. And then I don't need to add white any of these other colors because I can very clearly see the color of them because they have a much lighter local value. All right, so let's get started painting a stormy ocean 18. Painting with a "Cool" Palette: So now I have my palette of my cool mix is right next to my painting surface, which I'm just using arches oil, paper because thes air just little studies. And I like to use this paper to do studies because it helps me just to really loosen up. Now. I know he didn't explain this in the previous example, and you may have not seen my other skill share courses, so I'll just quickly explain what I'm doing here with the red. Even though this is a cool painting, I do almost always like to start my paintings out by toning the surface. And basically what that means is I like to not work straight from a white surface. So I like to pre tone any surface that I use, and I personally prefer just to use a straight red. Now a lot of people will prefer to use like a sienna or a number or something a little bit more neutral, but I really like to work off of red. The main thing is that you want to choose a color that has kind of a medium value to it, so not a color that super dark like a blue or super light like a yellow, typically. So now that I have that surfaced toned, I'm going to go ahead and, of course, start in with my darks in the sky. Now I mentioned that I wanted this seen to be a little bit colder and even a little bit stormy. But you can really see, even though the photo references in black and white, that it's really not a stormy scene. So what I did was I kind of just did a little bit of research and looked up storm clouds and noticed that usually, if it's a storm cloud than that area underneath the clouds is going to be a little bit darker. So that's a big difference where I vary from the photo reference just to kind of help emphasize the point that this is kind of a dark and stormy scene. But I go in with my ultra marine blue that has been neutralized a little bit in the distance, and then I'm using my warmer neutrals here in the foreground to help create a sense of that sand. And as I said when I was mixing this, I knew that because I wanted this to be overall very cool and temperature and very dark, that I would need to balance that out with just a little bit more warmth in that sand. Because otherwise it would appear to be a painting that was really just painted with a lot of blues and even a little bit of red. So I wanted this definitely to be a full color painting, so it was important to find a very subtle way to kind of balance that out. And as I said before, these premix is that I've created are just kind of a starting point, and I make lots of alterations to them as I go along. And so you shouldn't feel like you're limited to just what you premixed. It just helps to guide your process a little bit. And of course, you're always going to be adding a little bit more white. Teoh increase the range of values that you have, and I'm using my palette knife again just to create lots of texture and energy in this painting, I think especially for a painting that you want to be cool but maybe a little bit ominous and stormy. It's important to find ways to add just a bit of energy because otherwise a painting that is overall very cool can feel very serene. And that might be what you're going for. But for me, I wanted kind of that ominous feeling of an approaching storm. So I felt like the added texture with the palette knife application would be really effective. And if you're curious about palette knife techniques, I do have a course here on skill share that is completely devoted to palette knife painting . So I encourage you to check that out as well, if you're interested. So now I have basically got the distant area of this painting done, and I'm going Teoh again, make this approaching wave kind of the focal point of this painting. But I don't want to take it up to warm so you can see here that I am using my blue and my yellow. However, it does have just a little bit of red in it to tone it down. And after this video, when I compare this painting with the warmer ocean painting, you're going to see that this is more of a muted turquoise overall than what I used in my other painting. So even though it feels very warm in comparison to the rest of this composition, it's actually a very toned down and muted turquoise so that overall I really have that nice cold temperature. And again, I want to make sure that I'm not going to completely obliterate these warms down at the foreground of this painting, especially when I start applying the paint for the foamy waves on the shoreline. So I'm going to apply my whites, of course, as sparingly as I can, letting a little bit of that texture show show through and building up my values gradually not just going in with my lightest, starkest white. And I definitely encourage you to never use a pure white unless you're painting something that is shiny and has just a little bit of highlights on it. In almost every other case, and especially with landscapes, you'll never want to use a pure white, I guess the only situation I could think of in landscape painting where you would use white , is maybe just a little speck right where the sun is. So I'm adding just a little bit of highlight to these waves. Of course, keeping in mind that this is a darker seen with the storm approaching. So I don't want to go overboard with any kind of highlights, and I don't want this area just be just a big block of a very light value. I want some of that texture to show through. So I need to be able Teoh apply my lightest values in a way that allows some of those darker values to just peek through a little bit to create a little bit of that texture and energy. All right, so I have got this painting done, and let's take a look at these side by side so that we can see how the overall temperature really impacts the mood and feel of a composition. 19. Comparing "Warm" and "Cool" Paintings: When we compare these two paintings side by side, we can see a clear difference in the overall feel of the two compositions. And that is all thanks to our difference color temperature pallets that we premixed. Of course, in the warmer composition, I really emphasized those warm blues and cool greens. And yes, I did use some fellow green in this composition, whereas this one I left that out and you can see that even in the brightest parts of this composition, the colors are a little bit more muted and my blues are much deeper, giving it an overall cooler and stormy feel so you can really see the power of color temperature and how it can impact your overall composition. And it's important to think about temperature in terms of the message that you want to send or the mood that you want to convey through your painting. 20. Example of a Non-Traditional Limited Palette: I want to demonstrate for you one last project just to help illustrate the power of color temperature. Now, this project is totally optional. But I do think that you will really be interested in it and have a lot of fun doing it if you choose to do so. What you're seeing here is and exercise that I have developed, and I call it a swatch color study, and this one is specifically designed for a three color palette. So let me tell you just a little bit about what is going on here across the top and down the left hand side of this chart, you'll see that I've made room for a blue, a yellow, a red, and then in between, each of those would be an intermediary mix between two primaries. Now, as you work your way down the chart, you're going Teoh mix the colors where they intersect. For example, if you trace the blue row across to where it meets with the red column, that is where you would have a mix of blue and red, and you would just follow that for all of these possible combinations, including the intermediary mixes. So there will be times where you are mixing, for example, red with your blue plus yellow. To get a neutral in the top diagonal part of this chart, you'll see that the boxes are marked with a darker gray. This is where your color mixes are going to have full saturation, also known as chroma, so you won't mix any white. These will just be your pure colors straight out of the tube, where you see the medium gray boxes on the lower diagonal of this chart, you will use kind of a medium tint, so you'll have between 40 to 60% of your mixes as white and then where you have the white boxes going through the center diagonal, you will use a high degree of white, so these will be your lightest tints, and I recommend about an 80% tint. The most important feature of this exercise is to help encourage you to experiment with different limited palettes, and that is what I'm going to do for you now. You may remember from earlier in this course this chart of potential limited palettes using color temperature, and I want to demonstrate one of these that may feel the most counterintuitive to most new painters. So let's take a look here. We can see a mix of ivory, black, yellow, Oakar and cadmium red, and this might seem like a really strange combination. But if we think about temperature and how these would all fit, our ivory black is very cool, especially in relation to the yellow joker and the cadmium red. So we're going to use Ivory Black just the same way that we would use a blue. And this is something that I think that we should all experiment a little bit with because we may not realize that the art stores that we walk into today, where we see hundreds of tubes of every imaginable color was not always the reality for artists. In fact, historically blue pigments were very rare and expensive, and many artists did use ivory black as a blue. Yes, they painted their blue skies with ivory black. This particular palate is often called the Zorn palette, named for Anders Zorn, an Impressionist painter from Sweden who was known for using such a limited palate. However, this was a palette that was commonly in use before the development of synthetic blue pigments. So let's give this a try and put it into practice. I have made my chart just a little bit more complicated. Instead of six across in six down, I have 10 across and 10 down, and my goal here is for every square that I'm mixing. I want the mix to be just a little bit different now. Of course, the first boxes across the top and down the side are just going to be pure pigment across the top. I haven't added any white. These are going to be my full chroma mixes and then down on the lower diagonal of this chart. That's where I'm going to use my medium tents and so across the bottom. I've left those colors pure, but I have added about I'd say 50% white. And as I'm working on this, I am gonna flip it around just so I don't risk putting my hand into any of these little boxes that I've mixed. And I'm starting out with just the basic six across and six down so you can kind of see the full spectrum here that you could expect to be able to mix, just doing a very simple version of this chart, but I'll take it just a little bit further, just for fun. So I hope that you enjoy this and already I'm sure that you can see that this very interesting palate is yielding some results. That might be surprising. So in comparison with the reds and the yellows, you can see that the mixes that have black do appear a little bit cooler. In fact, where I've mixed the black with the yellow Oakar, these air almost beginning to look a little bit green, especially when we put them into context of the warmer colors that are adjacent to those very muted greens. And we can even see that when we mix the ivory black in with the cadmium red, we begin to get what appear to be violets, very muted violets, But still we get a surprising range of color. And because we understand color temperature at this point, we can use these in an appropriate way to actually create the impression of almost a complete palette. And I hope that this encourages you to do a little bit of experimenting of your own. Have fun with it 21. Final Thoughts: Thank you so much for joining me on this course. I hope that you enjoyed it. And I really look forward to seeing your project posted in the project section of this course. If you have any questions at all Of course Feel free to ask me anything in the discussion section of this course and I will make sure to answer you. And if you like to be notified when I upload new courses here to still share feel free. Teoh, follow me here on still share. And then it will be notified every time I upload a horse again. Thank you so much. I really hope you enjoyed it. And happy painting.