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teacher avatar Sarah Mckendry, Canadian Realist Painter

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

8 Lessons (1h 14m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Part 1: Building the Base Layer

    • 3. Part Two: Establishing a Focal Point

    • 4. Part Three: Playing with Shadow & Light

    • 5. Part Four: Establishing Highlights

    • 6. Part Five: Exploring Clouds

    • 7. Part Six: Creating the Shoreline

    • 8. Part Seven: Final Detail Work

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About This Class

I am absolutely thrilled to be sharing this brand new Oceanscape Oil Painting Tutorial with each of you!  This class is for artists of absolutely all skill levels, and it covers some of my signature techniques while creating a simple yet stunning ocean scene from start to finish.  Each and every one of these tutorials that I am creating truly play off of one another as we work our way towards even larger, more complex landscape painting. Brushstroke by brushstroke you will find greater creative confidence and a much deeper understanding and appreciation for this wonderful medium.  I can't wait to see your finished piece!

Meet Your Teacher

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Sarah Mckendry

Canadian Realist Painter


My name is Sarah Mckendry and I am an International Artist, a stay at home mom to two wild and wonderful little boys, a published author, oil painting instructor, and creative entrepreneur.  I spend my days trying to keep up to my two adventurous little boys and as soon as they fall asleep for the night, I retreat into my studio and pour my heart and soul onto canvas.


Being a completely self taught artist, I wholeheartedly appreciate how challenging it can be to figure out the rather complex and overwhelming world of oil painting when you are first starting out.  I wish that I had someone that could have walked me through their creative p... See full profile

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1. Introduction: Hey everyone, My name is Sarah Mackenzie and I'm a Canadian realist painter. Welcome to this beautiful ocean scape tutorial. Oil painting is such a fun medium to work with. And I'm so excited that you're joining along for this class. I'm using a 20 inch by 30 inch canvas. Now you do not need to use us as a canvas for your own painting. You can use any size that you have on hand. I do recommend scaling it up or scaling it down so that you get the right dimensions to your piece. For this class, we're going to be using titanium white, Naples Yellow, cerulean blue, indigo, charcoal gray, and Van Dyke brown. Now if you don't have all those colors on hand, That's completely fine. Use whatever you have available. You can also substitute other colors in. So a different version of yellow or a different version of blue, but just play around with it. It's going to be a little different than what I've created, but it's still going to be beautiful. For today's class, I'll be using liquid light yellow as my medium. It really speeds up the drying time for the oil paint. I also suggest using linseed oil or walnut oil. They don't speed up the drying time, but they're all natural and really easy to use. One thing to remember as you work through this painting is that the pressure that we use on our brush is going to leave a lot of bristles behind in your paint. Do not worry about them as you're working through your painting. Once the painting is fully dry, you just have to rub your fingers across the surface of the painting and the bristles will fall off really easily. Do not try and get it while the paint is wet, you will wreck your head. It is a very frustrating process. Just wait till it's dry and they will come off really easily. We are going to be learning so much together in this class. And I'm really happy that you're joining along. 2. Part 1: Building the Base Layer: So this is how I'm laying on my palette for this painting down here, I have my Van Dyke brown that I have my charcoal gray, indigo blue, civilian blue, and my Naples yellow light over here. I like to keep my titanium white and my medium. I'm using Liquid Light gel, as I mentioned earlier. We're going to be following the rule of thirds for this canvas. I've already drawn my horizon line down here. What I've done, I've come up about five inches and this is just going to keep our shoreline just below the bottom thirds line. We're going to draw the eye down using light and clouds and the miss coming in off the shoreline. By doing that, you're going to create a beautiful balance and cohesion to the whole piece and really create a pleasing image for the eye. So pick up one of your blending brushes. It doesn't really matter which one it is as long as it's one year larger brushes and has some suppleness to the bristles. We're going to be using this to block in the various layers of this painting and get our base layer down before we do anything else. By mixing the medium onto your brush before picking up any color. You're just going to allow it to mix a lot easier onto your canvas when we're spreading those colors around. So I'm going to be blocking in this section up here with a nice light, civilian blue and a little bit of Titanium white. So again, pick up some of that medium on your brush, grab some of that titanium white and mix it in. You don't want yours truly and mood to be too dark, but we can always lighten it up after we get it on with our blending. So I've used my titanium white and my civilian blue to make a nice beautiful blue here. What are you gonna do is you're going to come up to your Canvas. And we're actually going to put a really light thin layer over this whole section up here. You want to push your brush into the canvas with a moderate amount of pressure and use circular motions. You do not want a heavy layer of paint. And this section, because it's going to get really tricky to work on our clouds. If you do so, make sure you just have a really light amount of paint. Use the pressure on your brush to spread it around the canvas so don't add more paint to your brush. With those circular motions and pressure. You can push all this paint around the canvas and really spread it out quite thinly, which is what we would like. I'm using circular motions and I'm pushing it across the canvas. Just blocking in this base layer. And starting to give our eye, as we work on this painting, something to start. Working off of. This does not need to be perfect right now we're just going to block in the color where you're going to be using a lot of different blending brushes to really play around with this area here. So just block in the color for now and worry about perfection down the road. Just want to get this base layer down so you can start using your eye to figure out a nice balance to the whole painting. As we move this painting, we're going to be switching brushes a lot. Now, I appreciate that not all of you have as many brushes as I do as you work through this, you're not able to pull up a fresh brush every time we work on a new section. What I suggest is describing a shop towel or an old painters rag and just wipe off all that excess paint onto that rag. It's gonna take enough out that it really won't matter if you can't switch your brush to a fresh one every time. So with this brush that I've just cleaned off using my little shop towel, I'm going to grab a tiny bit of medium and some titanium white on my brush. And what I'm gonna do is I'm just going to soften up this blue a little. I'm going to run that brush along the edge of the blank canvas. And that's cerulean blue that we just put down. With my circular motion. What I wanna do is just come up into this blue and then back down at a medium amount of pressure on my brush. As you can see, the bristles are pushing into the Canvas. It's not going to hurt the Canvas, so don't be shy. And what we're doing is we're just softening that edge for just taking off high contrast between the blue and the white and blank canvas. I'm just going to soften it because we're going to be bringing clouds up into this blue. And we don't want to look really harsh. We want it to look really soft and like they blend together. After you work up and down. Softening that transition line between the two, start pulling that white up, maybe three or four inches and back down. This is going to help really create a realistic looking backdrop in the sky. Because the blue is going to look really balanced and that it fades into the horizon a little bit, which will be our clouds. After you do that, just go all way up to the top and in circular motions, bring it right back down. Is a very subtle movement. You might not be able to see much happening, but what you're doing is you're creating a really realistic base layer for your sky and starts darker at the top and it fades a little as it reaches our Cloud-based down here. A great tip while you're working through an oil painting is to use the paint that's already on your brush for all the sessions that you need a four before you switch colors completely. So we have a beautiful light blue on our brush on one side, which I've been blending with, I have that nice sky blue that I just blended completely. On the other side, I just have a little bit of the white paint that I started with. So you can always just switch over your brush. And it's almost like you have a completely fresh brush to work with. So what you're gonna do is switch over your brush. So since we have a light color on this brush, I'm going to block in this section here, which will be our nice bright and misty area. By doing that whenever we bring in our clouds and we start building up all these different layers, we're going to be able to blend them in a really easily. So with the other side of your brush, you should have a blue side and a lighter side. It doesn't have to be completely white, but white, but often there is blue. Grab some of your titanium white and some medium in an a fresh section of your palette. Just mix that in a little bit so they're together and grab a little bit of your Naples yellow. Now Naples yellow is a pretty strong color. So if you grab a lot, wipe off your brush, and add some more titanium white, you don't want this to be too bright. We can add more yellow and vibrancy after we get the base layer down. But I just want you to go across your horizon line. So I've chosen to put my horizon line about four inches up from the bottom of my canvas. Now the third line rest about here. And this is that area, that sweet spot that would create a really beautiful balanced focal point for the painting. By putting my horizon line for the shore, about four inches up as opposed to right on the third line, which would be right about here. I'm allowing my mountains that I paint on top to be the top of that third line, which will make it perfectly balanced and really nice for the eye. So just take your brush and run it along your horizon line with that nice light color, you might have a little bit of blue showing through creating an aids greenie hint with the yellow. And that's totally fine. We're just putting this in so we can mix some colors into it as we add our clouds. So with really gentle circular motions, so much pressure. Put a little bit of that white paint along the horizon line that we just talked about. Make sure it's not a lot of paint, just a nice, simple, thin layer. One of the reasons I really like using the same brush through it, the base layer is, is going to transfer some of the color into different sections of the painting. It creates a really realistic field because the shore is reflected up in the clouds and vice versa. So using the same brush, we're going to start blocking in some of our clouds. One of the tricks to making sure those colors all got blended together is use the same section of your palette to mix the darker colors over top of ones you're using on your base layer. So as you can see on my palette, I have that beautiful blue that we use to create and block in the top layer of the sky. Now I'm going to grab a little bit of my indigo blue, some charcoal gray, and a tiny bit of my Van Dyke brown. I'm going to grab a little bit more of my blue and a little bit more and my civilian blue. I want a nice deep earthy blue on my brush and mixed in with that base layer. It's going to be creating a really beautiful balance between the cloud and the sky now. So with this color on the brush, a few inches above your horizon line, just bring that color and pull it straight across. It doesn't need to be perfect. We're just going to create something for AI to go off as we build our layers of clouds. I'm going to add a little bit more Van Dyke brown and charcoal gray to my color. Because these clouds down here are going to be really close to the shoreline that we create. And I really want that Brown to be translated up into this cloud layer here. So with that nice earthy blue and gray and brown, I'm just going to start adding it to that layer of paint we put down. Then I'm going to come up a full brush width and create another line right across. This is going to be the base of the next cloud. You do not need a lot of paint. I'm just using what's already on my brush and I'm not pushing too hard on the canvas. I'm just getting an idea as to where I want all these clouds to be built as we go up in our cloud layers, there's going to be less of this earthy color from the shoreline. So I'm going to have a little bit more cerulean blue before I block in this top Cloud because it's further away from the shoreline. Therefore, there's not much earthy tones within. It's going to be a little bit more blue like the sky. So using a little bit more cerulean blue with the color that's already on my brush. It's a very subtle, but I'm just going to add a little bit of it up here. 3. Part Two: Establishing a Focal Point: So I think this is a really nice base layer that's setup for our clouds. We're going to have a lot of fun blending all these different clouds together and adding different colors within it. But for now I really like how it's balancing out on our palette. I'm going to start mixing a totally different color that we're going to start using for all the other clouds in this painting, the shadow is going to be a little bit warmer. So what I want you to do is grab some of your Van Dyke brown. It's a beautiful warm brown. And it creates some really beautiful warm blues to when mixed with the right colors. So with that, I'm adding a little bit of my civilian blue. As you can see, I want the brown to pop a bit. And I'm going to keep adding some brilliant blue till I get a nice warm, a little bit of my charcoal gray, a much warmer brown than what I was using on this side of the canvas. It's very subtle. You don't need too much brown. But this color here is really going to help create a really beautiful shadow on the clouds we build on the right-hand side of the canvas. That is a really nice color. And we're not going to push very hard. In fact, we're going to very gently just put in where we think these clouds are going to sit on the right side of the canvas. So because it's a different color, what I'm gonna do is I'm going to pull a few of these clouds from the right over to the left. Whenever we do our blending on this side of the canvas, we're going to be using a brush that's going to blend in some white and this color together to really make these three-dimensional. Then we're going to take that same brush and use it over here to build these clouds. So some of this color wheel transfer over here. So right now looks very different, but we are going to blend them together so it looks a lot more balanced. Right now we're just going to block in these clouds and get a feel for how we want this painting to look. I'm actually going to add a little bit of titanium white to that just to lighten it up a little bit. But barely any pressure on my brush. What I'm going to do is randomly on this section, create the shapes of where I think these really cool clouds are going to sit. What's awesome about oil paint is this is just an idea. You get to change this so many times as you work through the painting. This is just giving your eyes something to work off of and to work towards and finding a balance within the painting. So don't worry if you're not too thrilled with what you put down in this section right now. This is just for fun. Have some fun with it and figure out what kind of clouds might sit up in this area. We're going to be coming back and really making them pop and we can even change them completely. I'll show you how to do that, but just find some idea as to where you want these clouds to sit with the shadow. Okay, so we've got our base layer down for most of the clouds. Again, this is going to change drastically as we start blending all these together, but this is just blocking in the color so that when we do blend is just going to be a lot easier for us. I really like this color that we have on our brush. It's a nice balance of everything we've been working on it. So nice light color, just like this shadow we put up here. What I wanna do is start creating the skies reflection in the sand. And since we have this nice light color in the middle section down here in the sand. Transfer some of that color off your brush into this area. By doing this, whenever we do build up our beach scene, we have the exact same color from the sky reflected down and it just creates really beautiful balance. Now it's going to change a lot, but just having this color down here is really going to help create a beautiful dynamic between the shoreline and the waves crashing in on the shore. I really want to block in this little mountain range, but I'm gonna do that after we do our sand. So for the sand, grabbed a lot of your Van Dyke brown, some charcoal gray, and substantial amount of your yellow for now, and mix them up on your palette. This is just the base layer, so it doesn't have to be perfect. But coming from the left side here, pull your brush in straight lines. Just past halfway in an angle. As you can see, I'm just coming across. I'm just going to fill in this section with the brown. I don't want to go too far, but I want this whole area to have a beautiful, nice soft brown on it and we're going to be adding to it creating highlights, creating shadows. But I just want to block it in with this color so that we give our eyes something to work off as we build our clouds up top. I'm going to add a little bit more of my charcoal gray. I'm just going to put a line of a little bit darker brown down here. And I'm also going to add some indigo to that now. With the more charcoal gray indigo and brown, you don't want to blue. But You want a nice dark color that we are going to run along the bottom of your sand here. Just out to about here, just a little strip of that blue. This is really going to create a beautiful shadow is going to look like it's more close to us in the foreground. And as we build up all these different layers, it's going to look like this beach extends out into the horizon and it's not all just a block of color sitting right here in front of us. We're going to create a really beautiful depth of field with the sand. And to do that, we just need to put this little dark layer down here that we can build off of as we create depth in the piece. So we have a really beautiful color on our brush right now we've got this nice dark color. What I want you to do is just up above your horizon line here, we're just going to put a block in really jelly, not much paint on your brush where our mountains are going to sit. This is just a rough end and we're not going to actually build a mountain. The shapes just yet. We're going to be working on our clouds and getting this whole skyline in a nice state before we even build up our mountains. But this is just allowing your eye to see that there is a really nice contrast between the sand, the mountains and the skyline that we're going to be building up. One thing I want to say is that as we move this painting, you don't want to add too much more medium or clean your brushes with the solvent. What that's gonna do is it's going to make your paint too runny. It's going to really muddy every color up together and you'd really don't want that. We want really distinct sections of this painting. So if you have too much medium or if you wash your brush with a solvent and don't properly dry it, you're going to really muddy up your entire painting. So try not to clean off your brush using solvent and just use a rag again and just make sure you get that extra paint off. Using this brush that I was using for the clouds. I'm just going to grab a little bit this dark color that we just use down on the sand and the mountains. And I'm going to transfer a little bit of that using a little bit amount of pressure to the base of this very bottom cloud. And I'm going all the way across really gently and all the way back. What I'm doing is I'm just going to start creating the transition that I want an evening out the paints so that when I bring this next layer of paint in this section, it's going to blend really nicely. There's not chunks of paint anywhere. This is just softening up that transition. And it's really important for all of these beautiful wispy clouds that we're going to be creating together. I'm going to do that the top and bottom of all of these clouds we've blocked in. I'm using a medium amount of pressure on my brush. So I'm pushing but not too much. I don't have any extra paint on my brush. It's already what's on there. And I'm just going to soften all of those little edges from where we blocked in these clouds. We're going to be coming through with light paint really soon and really starting to build up some deputies Cloud so you don't need much pressure here. We're just going to soften it up to make it easier. Whenever we do bring in that lay paint and really make these clouds pop and look like they're fading into their eyes in and coming out towards you. If you have a fresh brush on hand, pick that one up. If you don't clean off your other one as best as you can without using any your solvent or your medium. And we're going to be using titanium white and a tiny bit of our Naples yellow. It's very muted. Yellow don't add too much as you can see, I just added too much, so I just keep adding titanium white until it really softens up the yellow a bit. And what I'm gonna do is I'm going to start working in this area and creating that beautiful misty look. Now this is not by any means the final detail work, so we're just roughing it in. We're gonna make these colors really pop in the final stages of this painting. Right now we're just going to get these colors a lot softer and a little bit more cohesive. So with that light, I'm going to start on the horizon line with a fair amount of pressure on my brush and working towards the side of the painting here, all the way along. So what we're gonna do is we're going to start blending these layers together and creating a really moody cloud up here. By going along the transition between the light and the dark with a gentle amount of pressure on my brush. What I'm doing is I'm pulling some of that cloud down into the lighter paint that we just put on. And pushing some of that lighter paint up into the Cloud, it creates a softness in the transition that starts making it look like an actual cloud in the sky. Using the same brush, I'm going to transfer some of that light paint using a minimum amount of pressure along the top of this cloud. This is going to separate it from the cloud above it and start to start creating a little bit more depth of field here. I have a little bit of pressure on my brush, not too much. And I'm just gonna keep going back and forth and working this little transition area. So this is not the final detail work. What we're doing is we're just creating the shape of the cloud and creating a little bit of three-dimensional aspect to it. As we work on our blending, you're going to see sometimes that your paint goes further down or further up than you really wanted it to go. So what we're gonna do is we're just going to create a little bit more skyline definition through here by picking up some of that color that we were using for this shadow area on our Clouds. So I still have some in the back of my palette here. I'm just going to rub the same brush I was using already for my blending on it right above where I want this mountain to be. Just going to create some contrast between the skyline and this cloud. Now I'm going to come through and I'm going to blend some darker cloud down into this. But this just gives my eye a little better understanding of exactly what I'm trying to achieve here. So now I've separated the skyline from the cloud line, which is what I want. So pick up some of that darker color on your brush that you're using for this mountain line and down here on the beach, as well as a little bit of your shadow work on the clouds. And what we're gonna do is we're just going to pull it along the base of our Cloud. What this does is just adding that shadow layer at the base that we're going to blend up into this area I appear. Now we're just going to blend it in with real gentle circular motions up into what we've already established with our blending to sop up a fiber we're doing is you're creating a contrast. We're creating a little bit more depth of field here. By adding this darker color to the bottom of our clouds right along the base, you're just making them look more realistic. If you go out and stand outside and look at any clouds up in the sky, you'll see that they're darker at the base where they're closer to the Earth. So that's exactly what we're trying to achieve right here. 4. Part Three: Playing with Shadow & Light: I really like our base layers coming together so far, I'm going to keep working up with this brush that has the lighter color paint on it. So with our titanium white on your brush, you do not need much. What I want you to do is just go between your cloud layers with a medium amount of pressure. And just kind of blend your brush up and down and push it up and down. And what that's doing is it's just really softening up those transmission lines. But it's also going to start creating a beautiful dimension to these clouds that we're putting in up top here, you're going to add a little bit more titanium white than you already have. And really work that transition line really gently. By softening up this cloud, we're gonna make it really blend into our beautiful backdrop that we've already created. So with that titanium white, I'm just really softly pushing it up and pulling it down along this cloud line that we're creating. Again, this is just the base layer, so it doesn't have to look exactly like the reference photo. What we're doing is we're just giving ourselves some reference points for our blending. Coming down here, I'm going to grab a little bit more titanium white. And underneath I'm going to create a bigger contrast between this cloud and the top of this one. So with a medium amount of pressure on my brush, I'm just going to walk this brush into this area and then walk it back out and just kind of fill in that space with this nice light color that I have on my brush. You can play around with this for hours because what you're doing is you're creating your cloud shapes. They don't even have to look like those that I've already created. You can create your own beautiful scene here using these techniques. And I actually encourage you to do that. It's fun to learn these techniques by following everything I do, but I really want you to also play around with it a bit and get comfortable with allowing your eye to choose what looks good and what doesn't look good. It looks balanced or doesn't look balanced and really have some fun with it because you can always go back and change it. Oil painting is so much fun that way because this is not an, it's fixed date until you decided as you have so much time in between when you begin painting and when it dries, then you can change it a 100 times over if you like. So with this brush that I've been using for my lighter blending work, I'm going to flip it over and I have a little bit of that residual color on here, but not too much. I'm going to grab some titanium white, a little bit of Naples yellow, and a little bit of Van Dyke brown. What I'm doing is I'm kind of recreating this shadow color that I've put up here. Just a little bit lighter version of it. And by doing this, I can start using it to blend in to some of these layers that I've already put down. What I'm doing is just that light layer just put in. Now I'm going to add a little bit of this lighter color to it. Doesn't have to be too much. But what we're doing is we're just creating that beautiful cohesion between the painting by bringing colors that we're using in different sections over into different areas to create balance. And that really realistic look because everything on the surface of the Earth reflects back up into the sky. And so in order to achieve a realistic painting, you really need to pay attention to making sure that the colors down here are reflected in some small or big way up into our Skyline. And it's going to create a really beautiful painting. When we're done, I've picked up a fresh brush. Again, just pick up whatever one you have the lightest color of paint on and make sure that you clean it off really well using titanium white. I'm just going to fill in this little section down here that is still a blank canvas with white. Because I really don't want a lot of color over here until I pull it into this section with my blending brushes. I just want a nice little base in there so that's easy to blend and move all these different colors into one another to create a really beautiful shoreline over here. So on your brush, grab your titanium white and some Naples yellow. It doesn't matter if a little bit of other colors mixed into this, but right now you just really want a beautiful yellow and pull that yellow across your horizon line just at the base. You don't want it too bright, but you do want to be able to see the actual yellow. I'll make it a little brighter so you can see exactly what I'm doing. So just pull that beautiful yellow color right across your horizon line towards our little mountain range over here. If you happen to get some of this darker color on your brush and that's completely okay. Come back down to your palette and mix it into yellow and white again. And it just blends in. It doesn't really matter. Now that I put a little bit of that nice light color here on this horizon line, I'm going to pick up some titanium white with the same brush. And right above that line where that yellow meets this blank area that we have yet to fill in really, I'm going to soften that transition with a circular motion. I'm going to pull my brush from this side of the canvas right through. One cool trick about oil painting is if you have a lot of pressure on your brush as you work towards a darker section. The pressure on the brush is going to push the lighter paint over top of the darker section. So this is a real great trick for Miss building. And as we're at this point, we're about to reach his dark section. But I want this miss to transfer over into this area. So with a lot of pressure on your brush, don't stop pushing. Circular motion. Keep pushing your brush right across the Canvas. And as you can see, it's softened up that transition really nicely. Now we have no detail work over here yet, but this is gonna give us a really beautiful base layer to be able to build up our mountains and our shoreline. And it's going to look realistic. Whatever we paint over top is going to look really beautiful, like a beautiful flow of mist coming across the entire horizon here on your brush. Now you have a lot of this darker color that we just did, the transition width, right? So come down to your palette and just mix it in that area where you are working on that yellow and titanium white together. Unless just blend if your brush into that and what that's gonna do is just going to create a really even color on your brush. There's going to be no pockets of dark color anymore. See just a nice, beautiful neutral color. What I'm gonna do is I'm going to just start using that nice color. It's got a little bit of everything that we've been using so far and pulling it over into our shoreline like this. Now, if your brush picks up some of this brown as we move across, That's fantastic. You wanted to see how it transferred over here. But by transferring over here, you're making it look like the water and the Shore have a little bit more of a unity. Just pulling it over, bringing your brush back and starting it again. Now if you get a lot of dark come over, That's totally fine. We are going to be using a lot more colors to this section. What I want you to just do right now is just create the idea of what you want to have happen over here. So we really want the shore to greet the ocean here. So where that Brown meets the light color that we just put on, you can really gently go back and forth like this and just blended in a little bit and what this is doing, it's just going to add the illusion of the water is going to come back from the shore. So you know, How's that nice glossy finish on the sand, on the waves retreat. We are going to achieve that too as we work in the detail work. But this is just putting the base down for that. This is just allowing us to know that when we come back in and we do our detail work in this section, we can play with different brush work to really make it look like it has that illusion of the ways retreating back into the ocean and the sand holding traces of that water still on it. With my darker blending brush, I'm going to add some charcoal gray and a little bit of Van Dyke brown. And what I wanna do is I want to play around with these different cloud heights in this area. I think I wanted to sit a little lower and closer to the horizon. So I'm going to play around with that by using this darker color and just gently transferring some of that darker paint into these sections. And we'll blend it all in. So don't worry if it's really dark. But I just really want there to be a little bit more connection between the skyline and this misty area. So I'm just going to use that color to do that. And I like that. I like how this cloud is hanging lower, closer their eyes and it's just really going to rest on that third line and draw the eye into our focal point. With that same color. I'm just going to build this cloud up a little bit so that when we do our blending of a lighter color, it will still be pronounced. And I'm just gonna pull that color all the way over top towards our mountains. I just really want that unity in the clouds. And then we'll add some more darker colors up here using a little bit more indigo on our brush. Put too much in a little bit more cerulean blue. Think I want a little cloud coming in on this side. So I'm just going to put that shadow definition in there and we could build that up with our blending brushes after. And then I'm going to just take that color across and create a little bit more definition on this cloud. And then come up a little bit really gently transfer bit of color into our top cloud here. So that when we come back with our blending brushes, There's just more paint to work with, more shadows that we can play with. 5. Part Four: Establishing Highlights: I'm going to start using some of my smaller brushes to create some more definition within our Cloud. So I have my one-inch brush here. I'm actually just going to pick up a little bit of titanium white and a little bit of that nice light blue that we created when we were doing some of our base layer. I'm gonna come over here to my clouds. And where I want that cloud to come up into the likeness, I'm using very little pressure That's just resting along the canvas. And this is where you get to create softness within your Cloud and create some really unique and fun shapes. I'm just going along the transmission line where I wiped off some of that paint. And using this brush just to really gently blend in all the paint that's already on the canvas and create some different shapes within that cloud. By pulling your brush in different directions, play around with it because it really creates some really cool illusions. If you allow yourself to get a little creative and step outside your comfort zone and just actually play around with it. Adding a little bit of Titanium white on my brush. I'm going to highlight those areas that we wiped down. And then I'm going to blend those in. Ever so slightly. Flip my brush over. And just working that lightness and various directions is going to create the illusion that these clouds are not all one little line of color, but various clouds form together. We're going to add some highlights to this section and I'm just taking my brush and creating almost straight lines just across the canvas like this. I'm also going to go over top of one of our shadows here. And I'm going to add some of that light paint up top. Then I'm going to gently blend the bottom down. And I'm going to start building up these clouds in this section with a little bit of titanium white and just creating a bit of a highlight on the top of them. By adding just the lighter paint on top. You're creating a beautiful effect of shadow underneath this cloud. So just walk along all these little fun shadows that we blocked in. And again, we can change these really quickly. We can take some blue on our brush and actually wipe this whole sky out if you want. You do not need to be worried about this being your final tried, your one and only shot. This is the fun part. You get to play around and explore what your brushes do when you add light or shadow to a certain area. I'm just using a little bit of titanium white and I'm going over the top, I have a medium amount of pressure on my brush. I'm allowing my brush to kinda dance over the shadow areas. There's not much rhyme or reason to what I'm doing with my brush. I'm just intuitively working my brush in the direction I think that light is hitting. And also it's also creating that a movement within these clouds. By going back and moving your brush along the top of that light color that you just put an ever so gently. You're softening the transition and you're making them look a little bit more realistic. Clouds are not perfect shapes, and so you cannot create a single shape in your painting that wouldn't exist in the natural world. So do not worry about making it look exactly like I am making mine look. Because whatever you come up with is just as realistic as what I am coming up with. So play around with it. And don't stress about what they look like. Just have some fun practicing your shadows and your light. Placement on your clouds. And blending them in with your circular motions and playing around with what feels right for your eye. What's pleasing to my, I might not suit yours. So this is where you get to step in and have a little bit of fun in use these techniques to create your own version of this painting. And just moving across all these different transition areas. Playing with my brush, the amount of pressure. And in doing this, I'm creating depth. And some exciting things for the eye to focus on as we move into more detailed work of this fainting, pick up one of your brushes that has a lighter paint on it. What we're gonna do is we're just going to soften this section up. And we're going to start playing around with different cloud forms. As we move through the rest of this class. I'm going to show you the basics of what I'm doing with my brush. And then I want you to take some time and sit and get comfortable with these techniques on your own Canvas. Play around with them. Don't do exactly what I'm doing. But what I'm doing right now is I'm just softening up this section. I don't really want such a harsh contrast between these dark clouds that are rolling in and these lighter clouds up here on the right corner. So I'm using my blending brush to really soften what we've done and push it into the background a bit. I'm going to come back leader and I'm going to make these clouds pop a little bit more, but I really want there to be a better flow. So by using this lighter color, I'm actually going to have a little bit of surrealism blue with it. I'm just going to create a different feel up in this section of the Canvas. Now if soften up this area and I'm going to be playing with a lot of contrast and highlight to make these clouds pop. But what I really want to do is make this a little bit more interesting through here. And I think I want to add a little bit more. That's cerulean blue or lighter blue. And really just create a bit more contrast throughout this area. So with my light brush, a little bit of titanium white, I'm going to grab just a really in blue on my brush. Up in this top corner, I'm going to blend it in a bad. Move my brush around in a circular pattern and pull that color down. Into this section. I'm going, I'm a little bit more civilian blue. It's such a beautiful blue and I think we should have some more of it popping through. Just move your brush through the sections and create some pockets of this beautiful blue. I'm going to add a little bit over here as well. Peeking through these areas. Yeah, I really like how this is just changing the feel of this section a bit, just by adding this cerulean blue and changing the shape of the clouds. I think it's going to look really beautiful once we start doing some more detail work. So using one of your smaller brushes, this is the one-inch brush I want you to go through and really play with these clouds, play with the lightness and shadows and see if you can create a three-dimensional look with your clouds. Remember how we do this? You take your titanium white and you run along the top of your Cloud. Transition between the blue and your darker color. Allow your brush to dance along the shape. Just no straight lines, no perfect circles. Just allow your brushed almost roll and jump around. Because this is what clouds are like in real life. They're not perfect shapes. So after you add something to highlight, one I like to do is just flip my brush over to that nice empty side and doesn't have any paint on it. And just push some of that darker color up into the cloud. Now, I think I want a little bit more shadow there. So just pick up some of the darker color off your palate and push it up into those highlights. Again, there's no rhyme or reason to what you're doing. Just have fun with the shapes. And just keep moving your brush back and forth in different directions to create those highlights and shadows in this area. As you keep going through this section. And playing around with this brush and adding highlights and adding shadows and blending them together. You're going to start creating a really beautiful feel with your clouds. What I like to do is add just a really small amount of Titanium white to my brush, not very much at all. And then I like to go and areas where I want the top of a cloud to form and with extra gentle pressure, just barely allowing that brush to touch the canvas, I transfer some of that white to the top of the cloud shape. And that instantly creates the top of a cloud. And in turn, the look of a three-dimensional cloud scape. So just keep going down, adding a really small amount of Titanium white to this blending brush and walking it along the top of where you want that definition to hit. If you have little sections that are more bright or a little bit more in shadow, that's where the magic starts to happen with in your cloud scape. Because that's where the light is really hitting a certain section of the Cloud. And it really makes it look like it's about to float right off your Canvas. So don't blend in those bright little lines of white that you get on there right away until you stand back and take a look at them. Because in those moments and those little brushstrokes that maybe look a little random. That's where the greatest realism happens within a painting often. So I'm going to leave this until I can stand back and take a look but see how much more bright it is than the other areas. I think that's really going to play well whenever I stand back, I'll see, hey, that really made it pop. So I'm going to leave it too often we overwork an area because we think too light or too dark, but make sure you stand back and take a good look at your Canvas because those moments when you actually put a little too much white in one area or a little too much shadow and the other actually become, in my instance, my favorite part of the canvas. So when you're sitting up here nice and close to that canvas, play around with it and take a break every five minutes or so and stand back. And I think you'll be amazed at what these little subtle nuances create within your fainting. As you're working your brush across the canvas. One nice way to create a really fluffy cloud is to take that white paint that's already on your brush. Don't add more. In a circular motion. Transfer some of that white into one section of your Cloud that you want to build up. With the same amount of pressure. Keep walking that brush across your canvas. And then come back underneath that layer with on that transition line between the white you just put down on the darker shadow and really gently blend it in. When you stand back after you do this, you're going to see a really beautiful cloud has formed. And from there you can add some more highlights or shadows as needed. But it creates a beautiful rounded shape within your clouds. So that's a fun thing to play around with. I can let you keep playing around with that. And I'm going to bring my clouds up to a state that I'm happy with. And I'll show you what I've done. 6. Part Five: Exploring Clouds: It's really important as you work through your painting to re-establish your horizon line. I've lost a lot of my horizon line over here because of this blending of the nice yellow section. So what I'm gonna do is again, take my trusty old ruler. I've measured down on either side to where my horizon line is. And I'm just going to fill up that space once again by taking a brush, transferring some of my lighter color into this area back and forth just a few times. And what that's gonna do is going to re-establish where my horizon line is so that I can build up everything else in a nice, balanced and easy manner. One of my favorite things about these oil classes is showing you how to fix things that come up in a painting. So right now I have too much oil paint in this section and I'm not thrilled with the color I have over here. I think I want this color to be a little bit more warm and rhinos looking a little dark and gray. So using a rag or shop towel, make sure you use something that has no lint on it. So these shop towels are fabulous because they don't transfer any lint into your paint. Just wipe some of that paint right off your Canvas, folded over and you can wipe it off. So any section that you have where you'd not too thrilled with what's happening or you have too much paint, you don't like the color. You can easily fix that by just wiping it right off your Canvas. Nobody told me that this was a normal thing to do. So I'm always excited just to let you know that you're not stuck with whatever you put on your Canvas. There's solutions to those problems. We don't have to start all over again. So I've taken that paint off the canvas in this section. Now I can rebuild it the way I want to. So I'm going to bring some of this nice lighter color up into this area. Because now that I've re-established my horizon line, I want there just to be a little bit more softness in this area. So I'm going to use a fresh brush, but again, you can use any brush you have cleaned off and just add some of your later paint out a little bit of my titanium white, a little bit of my Naples yellow. And 0 from this side across the canvas with a circular motion. I'm just going to push my brush along this area. And I'm going to blend using a lot of pressure actually. That nice light color up into the area I just wiped off. There will be a hint of this color's still coming through your brush, which is kind of what you want because it's creating a really neat layering effect as you move across your horizon here. But instantly, I'm happier with how this is looking because now I can build up these cloud layers with the color I really want. So do this throughout your painting. If you don't like a certain section, take a shop towel, take a rag, wipe off that section. Wipe off your brush, grab the color that you want and solely start building up the way that's really pleasing for your own eye. You are not stuck with the first thing you put down on Canvas ever. So with a clean brush or your brush that has a lighter color paint on it. What I'm gonna do is I'm going to grab some indigo blue, some cerulean blue, and a little bit of my Van Dyke brown to warm those colors up. I'm going to add some titanium white and a little bit of medium just to make that mix around easier on my palette. I'm going to grab a little bit more charcoal, little bit more indigo area. It's a nice warm blue. And I think it's going to look really sharp. Kind of mixing a little bit of every color until I get just a little bit darker. What I'm gonna do is I'm going to bring this blue down over top of that nice light section that we just did. I'm not transferring too much paint onto my canvas just a little bit. And then I'm going to just soften the transition ever so slightly all the way across with the same brush we just use. I want you to wipe off all the excess paint and not adding any paint to it all, what we're gonna do is use that real subtle amount of pain that's on there. Super gently with circular motions. Work that transition line underneath that line that we just put on with the new color. Okay. We're just gonna transfer just a little bit of that paint underneath. And what this is going to do is just going to help create that misty feel underneath the clouds that we're hoping for. It's very subtle. Then I want you to pick up your light blending brush again, grab some more titanium white, a little bit of your Naples yellow and go underneath and blend some more of that lightness up into those little areas we just worked with our transmission line. This gives the illusion almost others a little bit of a missed falling from the clouds. After we get the definition in, it's going to look really cool. It's super subtle. It's kinda hard to see what you're doing. If this is your first time working with this kind of technique. But when you stand back, you're going to see that it actually looks really realistic in terms of a rain falling or missed or just something really cool happening within this area over here. Now on this side of the painting, I really want this guy to be darker, a little bit more ominous. I really want this mountain to really draw the eye in. And to do that, we're going to darken up this section of the sky a little bit. Using the dark color on your palette that we're using for the mountain and the clouds. Pick up a little bit on the brush. And a circular motion. Transfer some of that color into that lighter area. Just go back and forth and your circular motion, if it picks up this color from the mountain and the clouds you want that this is going to look like rain falling from the cloud into the mountain. And it's also going to look like the mountain is fading behind the rain, even though we haven't built it up yet. It's just going to create a really beautiful depth of field in this section, once we start the detail work, don't go all the way over. I'd bring it just before half and then come back. Super gentle. I barely have any pressure on my brush. But what this is doing is really creating a beautiful illusion. In this section, it's darker than this, so it's bringing the eye in this area and it's really starting to come together with all of our light and shadows with the same brush. Pull it along the horizon line just a couple of times to transfer some of this color down into our sand. It's very important to keep transferring colors to different areas to create that balance as you move through the painting. The reason I use incredibly thin layers of paint is because it allows me to really play with different techniques while I'm building up an ocean scape. One of those techniques is actually from moving some of the paint from the canvas to create a highlight. This technique I'm going to show you is really helpful. It takes a lot of excess paint off the canvas, but also makes your highlights pop a little bit, which is really helpful when you're doing cloud work. So using a rag or a shop towel, put it over your finger and come onto your canvas with little bit of pressure. And start building shapes with your Cloud. By rubbing your finger along the canvas with this rag or shop towel, you're pulling up some of the excess paint, but you're also exposing some of the under colors that we put down. What this does. It really allows you to keep trucking along through your painting without having to wait for it to dry to add some highlights. I really like painting wet on wet and that means I do it all in one sitting. All the paint is constantly what I don't wait for it to dry, to work on different layers. And I find just by using a shop teller rag and working along different sections where I want some highlights to start popping through on my clouds. It allows me to create definition and highlights were otherwise that have to wait for the painting to fully dry. So this is a little trick that I use that I think you'll find very beneficial as we worked through this piece. What I'm doing, I'm just working along the top of this top cloud here, taking off some of that excess color right along the transmission lines just to create the illusion of some lighter clouds. I'm gonna do this all the way down and just create some definition within my clouds up top here. So as you can see, I'm just working along where I want my cloud top to be and just taking some of that excess paint off. You can do real gentle blending work with this as well. But the harder you push, the more lightness you're going to expose within your Canvas. I'm actually going to pull a bit more of the paint off the canvas in this section, I really wanted to be a little bit brighter over here. So the circular motion, I'm just going to rub this rag along the Canvas and pull up some of that darker color. And what this is going to enable me to do. Let's add some lighter painted this section. It's really going to pop and it's really going to start drawing the eye towards our darker section, which is our focal point. So again, I'm just working over all these sections. I'm creating a little bit of a contrast to the top of all my clouds. All within rag or a paper towel. You don't always need to use a brush and oil painting, but this is just a fun way to create some highlights. And it's a great trick to have in your tool belt. Whenever you're working through a painting on your own. 7. Part Six: Creating the Shoreline: So as you can see, as you add these highlights and play with the shadows, these clouds really start to take shape and pop off the canvas. It's really exciting to see as you get comfortable with these techniques, I can start working on some of the shadows and highlights in this area over here and creating a really nice union between our dark cloud bank and these nice ones that are drifting up here. So for this section I want a little bit more of my Van Dyke brown in the sky. So understanding a little bit to my brush. And what I'm gonna do is I'm just going to start building up some shadows in this area and not too much. I want these clouds to be pretty light. I really want these clouds don't feel like they have some movement to them. So when I'm pulling in my shadow work and pulling it all in one direction. So I'm going to actually pull them down in the direction of the focal point. It's really going to help draw the eye down in this area. If I want, I put the shadows going in this direction. All of this work that we've done is going to push the eye into that section of Canvas, which is what we don't want. We really want that viewer's eye to settle in to this focal point on the canvas. So adding the shadows up here, we'll put our highlights. We're just in a really subtle way, draw the eye down towards our focal point. Just like with the Cloud work we did over here. You really need to play around with the different shapes and the different amounts of highlights you add to each cloud. Make sure you stand back from your Canvas every five minutes or so and really get a good feel for the overall piece walkaway, stop looking at it and come back to it. Just that little break. We'll give you a fresh set of eyes. When you're sitting in front of your canvas, it's so easy to lose perspective. He gets so caught up in a certain area that you fail to remember that there's a bigger picture at play by standing back, giving your eyes a break. You're going to allow yourself to find all the little things that need to be changed in order to achieve really nice balance between the shadows and the light within your Clouds, as well as where you want your clouds to sit. Your class do not need to look like mine at all, but just have some fun playing around with the shapes and see what works for your eye. To add the highlights to this section, adding a little bit of Naples yellow to my white. It's not very much, but it's just enough to warm up that white. And what I'm doing, I'm just really gently rubbing that brush along the top of these clouds that I'm creating. I don't want to add too much yellow to the white up here. I really want it to get gradually more yellow as we reached down into this area because this is where the yellow is going to pop on our canvas in this beautiful misty skyline that's coming from our horizons. So make sure you don't have too much yellow to your piece. But in this area, it's really nice to have that complimentary color. After you get the yellow one with one side of your brush just really gently, the same way you just built up the clouds on this section. Rub your brush along the transmission lines, pulling some of that yellow down with a darker, pushing some of that darker up into the yellow. And watch Cloud start to take shape. Feel free to add more shadow color in here if you feel like there's not enough contrast in your clouds. Really allow your brush to dance along the canvas and have some fun with this. This is a great time in your painting to really explore what these techniques can do. So I'm going to keep working on all these shadows and highlights. And I'll show you what I've done in a few minutes. So I'm just adding the final highlights to this section. As you can see, I really played with shadow and light and really softening all the transition so that these clouds kind of push themselves into the distance a little bit, but still draw the eye down towards our focal point, which would be down here in these mountains that we are about to start working on. I could play for hours up here in the clouds playing around with the different shapes and the different light. But I'm going to leave it here for now. Allow you to keep playing with that at your own pace. What we're going to focus on now is working on this mountain scene down here as well as the beach. Then we're going to be creating this beautiful shoreline. That's really going to make your painting pop. All right, so we're going to start building up the beach scene down here. And the first thing I wanna do is just show you how easy it is to create a beautiful contrast within your sand. Pick up your trusty old shop towel or your rag. Run your finger along about an inch down from your horizon line. What we're gonna do is we're just gonna get rid of the excess paint, but it's also going to make the under color pop. And by doing this, you're going to create a beautiful light section of sand. We're going to be darkening up the other areas, but this is just really going to help make your scene really believable to the eye in terms of depth of field. And also in drawing the eye to this beautiful section over here, which is our beautiful focal point. So just go back and forth a few times, pull that paint up off the canvas and really expose the nice bright color underneath. And then we're going to be picking up a brush. So clean off one of your brushes or grab a fresh one with the Van Dyke brown and charcoal gray, a little bit of indigo. Mix those together on your palate. You want there to be a heavy brown presence. So just make sure there's a nice dark brown on that palette of yours. And what we're gonna do is we're going to start building up some of these shadowy sections of the beach, the ones that are really close to us in the foreground. So you really want to make sure there's some brown on that brush. And what we wanna do is create the illusion of the water coming and going along the beach. So to do that, there's gonna be some darker sections of sand where the water has come up onto the beach and then withdrawn back into the ocean. So with this color, we're actually going to bring it out just about that much in this section. Then we're going to pull it back up towards the shoreline. And along this section right in the middle, we're just going to transfer a bit of this darker color. Not too much, but just enough to start giving the illusion that there is some darker sand in the middle here. We're going to be playing with this color a lot as we blend this final section, so it doesn't have to be perfect right now. But we're just establishing where that waterline is on our beach. And it's really important that we don't have the waterline just rest along the middle. It's really not going to look too exciting to the eye just to have a straight or a diagonal line of water. You really want there to be a beautiful ebb and flow to the paint so that it looks like the ocean is in movement along with our clouds drawing the eye to this focal point, picking up some of your Naples yellow, mix it into your Van Dyke brown and grab a little bit of your charcoal gray. It doesn't matter if it makes us in with other colors on your palette. Again, we want all these colors to kind of blend in any way. Use that color to blend in your little transition between your dark and the light section on your beach ever so gently, just transfer a bit of that color. Start at the left side and slowly pull that color all the way across really gently. We're just creating the look of continuity between the sand and the water so that we can make them all come together in a really uniform way in the middle here, up along the top, you're going to want a really dark layer of paint because it's going to be where our mountains meet the sand. If we establish that on the horizon right now, we're going to start building the base for a beautiful mountain scene that's going to blend into the mist and also into our beach. So with the brush we've been using to put our darker color, just make sure you go back and forth a few times along the top area here. And then bring that color up and make sure it's just a really soft transition between this area here. So you don't want to really contrast a dark section and then goes right to let you just really want to blend it up and down so that it has a really nice transition is just going to make the, I feel as though it can travel into the distance towards the horizon, which will be our mountains. Now we're going to block in our mountains and just play around with those for a little while until we're happy with how they feel within the scene. So with your charcoal gray, your indigo blue, and your Van Dyke brown, mix those together so you get a really nice dark color. You want your mountain, depending on the size of the gap between your horizon and your clouds. You want your mountain tips to be just in the middle. So no matter what size that is, just adjust your mountain to fit in there, just going to look more uniform. And what I do is I literally just do a zigzag down towards my misty area. And then I come back and I'm going to fill that in. I really want this to be dark, so because I have a lighter color underneath, some of it might be popping out and that's okay. You just got to add a little bit more paint to your brush. You really want a dark because this is what's going to really make the I come over to this area and see what's going on. If we have really liked the ij is going to kind of float and no man's land out there. But if you make it nice and pronounced and dark, it's really going to be captivating. And it's really going to pull this whole scene together. Play around with the different shapes of your mountain does not have to be uniform or perfect. It can even just be one straight little hill going down towards the horizon there. So once you get your mountain blocked in, it doesn't have to be perfect right now. You can come back and add darker colors later. Once you get it blocked damage, you stand back and take a good look at it and make sure that fits within the piece. Make sure you bring your mountain out probably about to mid Canvas. What we're gonna do is we're going to bring a blending brush and pull that missed over top of it again. So don't stop your mountain here because we're going to miss coming through, pull it all the way through. It's going to make it look a lot more realistically polar blending brush back across. 8. Part Seven: Final Detail Work: I'm just going to leave the shoreline like this right now because what I really want to do is just really work on creating a balance between the sand and the water to really complement all these dark colors up here in the sky and the mountains were going to actually add some down here to our shoreline as well. This is going to close the eye in on our focal point because we have some beautiful bright patches of sand that will be poking through. And if we eliminate the lower section being bright, the eye is automatically going to come and rest on a focal point with this dark color as just Van Dyke brown and my charcoal gray. I'm going to walk it along the bottom of the sand and also transfer a bit of it along that edge of sand that is supposed to appear wet, that as if the waves have just receded. We're going to add some highlights to this. So it's not so contrasted. But what we wanna do is just have it there so it looks like darker sand and it's really going to help finish off this painting when we get to the detail work. And I'm also going to drag this brush right along the line of my mountain range and my Shoreline. I just really want to soften up those colors and marry the two together a little bit. Just like that. With one of your lighter blending brushes, the smaller ones I have my three quarter inch brush here. What you're going to do is start pulling that light color along your horizon line towards the sand. Okay, so keep doing that. So add a little bit more white each time you do it. And what we're doing is we're just pulling these colors into the beach that are already in the water. With this brush, you just going to go back and forth along the water and soften out any of those lines that came whenever we're pulling the sand out into the sea. Going to soften it up, make sure everything's flowing in the same direction. So you want a nice steady line going back and forth all the way across here. With the tip of your brush and some titanium white. We're going to create the illusion of a little bit of wave action here. And by doing this is going to be very subtle. We don't want a lot. And we're going to be blending a lot of this back in. So it does have to be perfect. But by going in the direction of what we've already established with the water reaching the shore. You're going to create a really realistic looking shorelines. I'm just going back and forth with this lighter color, pulling it up into the dark little bit, pulling it back into the shore bit, and then softening it up, add a little bit of white if you get too much of this short color on it. By pulling this light color from this side of the canvas towards our shoreline. You're creating a really beautiful, soft and seamless shoreline. Transferring just a little bit of that white paint into these sections are going back and forth. You're really making the shoreline that realistic. It's a very subtle process. You don't want any sharp contrasts with lines. You want it really soft and subtle to go back and forth a few times. So with that brush that has the lighter paint on it, play around with the shoreline. It's really neat to be able to create such a different fields with various brushstrokes. So this is a really exciting time just to adventure off on your own and play around with the short reading the sand. The final step of our painting is to create a final layer of myths that's going to push some of these mountains into the background. For this, you're going to need a fresh brush, or as mentioned earlier, just make sure you clean off one year later brushes really well, don't use any medium or solvent, just use a rag or shop towel. For this last section, you're gonna want some titanium white and a little bit of your Naples yellow. It's okay if you have a little bit more yellow than we used before, because this is going to be a really nice finishing brushstroke for the piece. I'm wiping the excess paint off into a rag because I don't want a heavy amount of paint on this layer. I'm going to be using a heavy amount of pressure on my brush. So you don't need a lot of paint for that. Working from this side of the Canvas, you're going to be following your horizon line all the way across. You're going to be keeping a lot of pressure on your canvas and your brush there. In a little jiggling motion. You're going to push that paint all the way across over top of about half of your mountain. And when you get to about halfway across, use less pressure until your brush is fully off the canvas. Now, I'm going to come back through in this area and just soften up that mountain one more time because it didn't quite get pushed back exactly where I wanted it to, but I like how it's starting to come together now. I'm going to grab a little bit more titanium white and a little bit more yellow. And I'm going to come across one more time and just pull it across. I'm going to just soften up this little edge by going back and forth a few times along the horizon. And it's going to be pulling that missed across the mountains really nicely. Play around with this misty layer. Make sure you pull it from this side across because you want to pull the eye towards these mountains. So these are the final stages of the painting. And I could play around here for hours. And I hope you do. But I'm going to leave you here to explore all these new techniques that you learned and try all the different kinds of brushstrokes in various ways so that you can build your skill set and apply these to other landscapes that she wanted to. Thank you so much for joining along in this class. And I really hope you enjoyed the process.