No-Budget Filmmaking for Beginners | Andre Joseph | Skillshare

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No-Budget Filmmaking for Beginners

teacher avatar Andre Joseph, SI, NY Award-winning filmmaker

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

13 Lessons (1h 38m)
    • 1. Trailer

    • 2. Intro

    • 3. Start with the Page

    • 4. Break it Down

    • 5. Get Your Talent

    • 6. Hire Your Crew

    • 7. Location Scouting

    • 8. What Camera to Use

    • 9. The Shot List

    • 10. Action!

    • 11. Post-Production

    • 12. The Conclusion

    • 13. Bonus Lesson

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About This Class


Hello everyone! My name is AndreĀ“ Joseph, award-winning independent filmmaker from New York City and president of AJ Epyx Productions. I'm happy to share my knowledge and experience with those who are new to the craft of making movies.

  • From Script to Screen: The class is about getting your movie made with the resources you have available and not break the bank.
  • Class Project: Producing a video with a 3-Act structure and conflict at 3-5 minutes max. This will be the foundation for how to present your work to a wide audience.
  • No Experience Required: The class is geared towards beginner film students and people interested in making movies but never picked up a camera before.

Meet Your Teacher

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Andre Joseph

SI, NY Award-winning filmmaker


Award-winning director, producer, screenwriter, and actor Andre´ Joseph had a love for movies from a very early age. He began his career making short films with family and friends on his camcorder in his hometown of Staten Island, NY.

Mr. Joseph attended the New York Film Academy summer program in 2001 where he first gained experience working with 16-millimeter film and later graduated Magna Cum Laude from Emerson College in 2006 where he received a Bachelor’s Degree in Film. During his time at Emerson, Mr. Joseph interned in television production with VH1 Classic in the summer of 2006.

In 2008, Mr. Joseph formed his own New York-based independent film production company, AJ Epyx Productions, LLC. The company’s first feature film, Priceless, which Mr. Jos... See full profile

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1. Trailer: What's up, guys? My name is Andre Joseph. I'm a film director, producer and screenwriter. I run the film production company A J Epics Productions right here in New York City. Forever. Feature films have been self produced as well as four of our short films. They weren't easy to complete, but they did receive numerous accolades across the world festivals and to her most recent pictures have received quite distribution. So, having done this for a long time, everybody tends to ask me, What's the secret to my success? And to be honest, I started out like everybody else. I picked up a hand Can. I got my friends together. We would produce short projects where was in my home or in a local park, and I just was practicing for the longest time before I started going to films. And I want to apply these techniques in this special class for you guys. But you never picked up the camera before or simply you wanted to make a movie for the longest time, but always been intimidated by budgets and how to get started, what types of cameras to get. I'm going to demystify all of that and show you exactly how you can produce your first film with literally no money. And the resource is that were available to you in this class. I'm going to show you all the basics, beginning with how to put your script together in a three act structure, and that's going to be very vital for the rest of your career because you will be able to apply this to any media. Then from there, are going to show you how to find your actors. Your crew. I had a breakdown, your script so you know exactly what need on the shooting day, how to find locations, how to run your set smoothly so that you could get your projects done on time on budget and on schedule. And then, lastly, I'll show you post production and little techniques. You could do an editing, so that way your vision can be communicated to your audience in a simple manner. And that way you can build and bring Trump your career for the rest of your days. If you choose to do so by the end of this class, you'll be able to take all of these techniques. It create a successful class project one that you will have the confidence to make your movie without any intimidation and to have fun in the process. So let's make it happen. Let's make that dream come true. Apply today. 2. Intro: Hello, everybody. My name is Andre Joseph of A J Epics Productions, a film production company right here in New York City. I want to thank everybody that's applying to this class today on skill share, no budget filmmaking for beginners. So why am I doing this class? It's pretty simple. I have spent the last 12 years is professional filmmaker, producing three feature films and a great deal of short films, all of which have gotten play and film festivals around the world received numerous accolades, and I feel very comfortable with the current direction of my career. But I also feel it's right to give back. And to do that, I want to show people exactly how I began. And how does skills can be applied to making Ah, professional film? It's not simple thing, as many improbably might feel may feel like you've been intimidated by the budgets of filmmaking. Maybe you've never known how to find an actor or how to find a location just in general where to start. But my purpose with this class is to demystify all of your fears and showed it. You can produce a very good film with little to no money and resource is that you have available around, and by the end of this class you'll be able to produce a successful class project within three minutes, and we'll follow a three act structure, which will be the foundation for everything you do. Going forward. It doesn't matter if it's a music, video or commercial, your own short or feature film or even just your own YouTube video thes foundations will allow you to show how you could present a story to an audience and how that will propel your career going forward. So I thank you again for taking this class and let's get started. 3. Start with the Page: welcome to our first lesson. Start with the page. As the legendary Steven Spielberg once said, If it's not on the page, it's not on the stage. Any time that I start out a new story, I usually have it in my head, and it comes from any type of inspiration that's ever around me. It could be a family situation, and it could be moments with my friends. Sometimes it's been the odd hot flashes I call it where you just have different ideas coming about that are inspired by different movies or a video game that you might have played, or TV show that you saw. That may have given you some kind of perspective. You never thought about inspirations all over the place. You just got to find it in your life, and that's where your stories are going to begin. Starts in the mind before it goes onto the page. But once you start that, you gotta follow some basics that are going to help you to formulate your story. And then that story becomes a screenplay, and that's room play will eventually become visuals that produce a full film. Normally, when I start, I do a treatment. The treatment is the basic outline off what your story is going to be. Once you have the script together, it could be a page, sometimes two pages. But it's just basic paragraphs off your story from start to finish your establishing your characters, your telling the audience what scenes are going to be taken place and, ultimately, how the resolution is going to come about. The key to this to make a successful treatment before you go into the screenplay is that you have to understand that you're not writing the great American novel, so you can't start writing about what's going through characters had or getting the deep into extraneous backstories. It has to be visual. You have to write visual. You have to write exactly what the audience is going to see on that screen. One. They have the movie were in front of them, so keep that in mind that everything is visual when it comes to the writing of a motion picture. It's also through your treatment that you discover your three act structure. The three act structure, as I believe, is where you have your set up. Then you're conflict, and then your resolution and we're not talking necessarily about Two guys walk in a bar, getting into a fight and the fight's over. Maybe you could do that, but conflict can come from any place. When I was in New York Film Academy, I did a short film about a guy trying to find a drink of water. So we already have our set up. You have a guy who wants something. In this case, he wants a drink of water. Now the conflict is. Where is he going to get it? He doesn't have money to buy it from a vendor. The water fountains here by him. They don't work, especially if you live in New York and you're in Central Park half the time. They don't ever work, and he's also hoping it's raining. It is drizzling a little bit, but that's not enough to satisfy his thirst. So you already have your conflict where he already knows what he wants but can't get it. You have to go for all that trouble. We have a resolution, but I make a big twist out of it. He sees a guy on a park bench with a bottle of water and he decides he's going to try to steal it. And then when he tries to, the guy turned to the bottle away and he gets disappointed but then turns around. The guy's got a badge. He's a cop. That's the end of the story. Something that simple, as cheesy as that might sound, is three act structure, and you have to notice it. Not just in movies, but you'll see it in commercials to look at every great movie that's ever come about a movie like Rocky, where you haven't down on his luck fighter, who finds love but then gets this opportunity to fight the champion of the world. And what he wants is to not be another bum in the neighbourhood. And will you get to the final fight in the third act. He doesn't want to fight, but that's not the point. The point was, he want to show he could stand toe to toe the champ and not get knocked down and lose. So ultimately, in the end, he finds himself realizing his own confidence. If I stand a chance of beating Champ, that I could do anything or you look at a film like Star Wars, where Luke Skywalker is a farm boy who wants to be something greater in his life. He makes some discoveries, decides he wants become a job by night, goes on the journey to go on that path. But there's a lot of conflict around the empire Dar Vader. His own confidence to get to where he needs to be. And by the third act, he becomes the hero of the day. And of course, there's a trilogy that goes along with it. But that's another story for another day. The point is, the three act structure is so vital to telling your story no matter what it ISS. So now you've written your treatment, the next thing you got to do is you gotta put it together into a screenplay. Sometimes you might even decide to do your own outline before you start the screenplay, where you just break down each individual seen what's gonna happen in it and then go to the next line and go from there. And I have a template for that which you can get right here on the site. The screenplay in itself. Now I'm not gonna get too deep into it. because there's so many mechanics. But I'll just show you the basics of what you need to know. Every script has toe have interior exterior. The audience has to know exactly where they are. So exterior in office dash, day or night, because we need to know what time and date this scene is taking place. Your next line is your action line. So you're describing what the audience is seen right on the screen, and it could be anything it can be establishing character, and that character's name has to appear in capital letters when he's first introduced. After that, it's lower case. Until you start getting into the dialogue, you write your action off what's on the screen. Once you get to the point where you're ready to bring in dialogue, you go to the middle section of the page and you write down the character's name in capital letters. After that line, you start to write your dialogue. It's very important with dialogue, as people tend to get carried away with so much wordiness that you don't extend beyond six lines. You want to make sure that your story is moving. You could have your moments for monologues, which would be the long pieces of a character explaining something. But just make sure it's not to the extent that it drags your story down. Now when it comes to screen writing, I can't get as knee deep, as most green screen writers can do in these classes. And not everybody has certain programs to write in the proper format. Therefore, I am putting out a template for how to put together a screenplay. And again, the key is to write as visual as you can, to show what the audience is going to see on screen what they're going to hear from the characters. So I provided that in this particular class, and if you want to read more about the process of screen writing, I highly recommend the book, The Complete Guide to the Standard script formats by Jude of each Hog. That's where you're gonna learn everything you need to know about how to structure screenplay properly. I also highly recommend ordering the final draft program that allows you to properly format your scripts in screenplay format and for the purpose of this class, especially if you're starting out, you have to write with what you have available. One of my jobs here with this class is for you to write with. The resource is that you have available. It's not so easy when you try to write the type of script that requires big action sums, helicopter shots, exotic locations, those type of things or dream to write. And I don't discourage that. But if you're going to write a screenplay that's going to be made immediately soon and you don't have the money for it, I wouldn't even attempt or else you go bankrupt. So all I ask is, when you do write your first script, write what you know and that's where the best ideas come from. Don't try to be the average citizen who can write about doctors when you've never been in the medical field. Try to eat what you know right about yourself. Make it semi autobiographical, right about a friend of yours going from or struggle right what's relatable and what you think contracts late to an audience. And then from there you'll know what's accessible to you as you right. So you keep in mind what locations you have available to you. Who could potentially play these parts. What kind of props you're gonna need that you don't have to break the bank on that. You could easily get in a dollar store or your local Costco. All those things have to be factored and kept in mind if you're going to make your movie right away. So always be mindful of what you're going to do as you're writing your script because it's going to save you a lot of money down the line in our next class, we're gonna break it down. 4. Break it Down: welcome to the next class. Break it down. So now you have your completed script. You ready to go? You want to start shooting right away? But wait a minute. You got to know you need and that still starts with the page. So when you do a script, write down your breaking down all the little intricate elements off what was in your page and what's going to be needed for the film. You might have to look at it scene by scene to know exactly what you're going to need. So each of these sections have broken down by different departments. You have your scenes interior exterior, the description of your scene, what are not. It's day or night. And how many script pages there are the script page numbers are also going to be important , because that also allows for whoever is going to be in charge of putting together your schedule to know exactly how long the scenes are gonna be, Wonder Shot and also how many pages they're gonna be able to shoot in that particular shooting day. The next section you have is your cast, so you list all the main characters that are going to be speaking in those scenes. Next section is extras. So if you have people in the background to fill out a scene to make it look more alive and more riel have people in the background just hanging out. Just so there's more life, and not just necessarily two or three characters talking to each other. That's where you list that and you don't list the exact number of people that you have is extras. You mainly list the type of people that are going to be in the background so safe you're in a coffee shop. You could write down simply coffee patrons. You'll figure out the numbers later. Once you start working on your casting, next section is special effects. So you're listing here exactly what are not. Your scene is going to have some kind of wild thing that's gonna happen. It could be an explosion. It could be a laser gun fight. It could be something that you know you can't do physically that has to be produced what it's on a set. Or if you're gonna do special effects in post production, you would list that here. Then there's the props section, so you go back for your script and you list all the objects that are being used in your scene, anything that the actors air touching anything that they're seeing that has to be listed right here. And that's gonna be important because then you'll know exactly what items you're going to need for your set. Your next section is vehicles, So if you're shooting a scene outside and you have cars involved, you would list who has the car, what type of car it might be. It's also the same section where you could list other types of vehicles. It could be a boat. It could be a bicycle, ate ants, moving that's on a motor or wheels. You would lose vehicles right here. Then there's the wardrobe section. The wardrobe section is where you list what your characters are going to be wearing. Some scripts don't always specify what they have, but depending on who's directing, if they have an idea in mind for what a character were on the scene, they would list and describe what they picture that character to be wearing. Next section is makeup in hair. So if you have ah, character that has a specific type of hair style, or they have scars or tattoos. List out all of those items in this particular section. Then there's the sound effects music section. Here you list any kind of specific sounds that are described in your script. That's going to be important when you go into post production and you have to find those sound effects to add it to your scenes. When it comes to music, sometimes it's good to know if the music is going to be played within the scene itself. So there is that separation between what the composer is going to play. That's supposed to give the dramatic cook of your scene like John Williams music with Star Wars, or if it's going to be a particular kind of song that the characters can hear in that scene . You see that in any movie made by Quentin Tarantino, who loves the use of music in his films, he usually goes and has a character playing some classic 19 seventies song and day here, just like the audience does and they react to the next section is special equipment, so it is the section where you might not necessarily list all the gear you're gonna have, but you might want to specify if you have particular shots in mind what kind of gear you're going to need. So if you want tohave a dolly toe, have your camera on a track and move throughout the scene. List that right here, if you have special lighting equipment like strove, laid, swore siren lengths that also gets listed, lastly, have production notes. Production notes could be virtually just miscellaneous items that the production staff would need to know or whatever is in mind off the director. So once the structure is done, it goes all the different departments in the film production. So now the casting agencies know how many characters need to be cast. The prop department knows what kind of props they gotta find. The wardrobe department will know what kind of wardrobe they have to put together and so forth in the next class. I'm gonna talk about how you find your town 5. Get Your Talent: to the latest glass. Get your talent so you have your script together. You've broken it down. You're starting to get your production going. You gotta find your actors on a no budget situation. You're not going to get Brad Pitt or Will Smith or Denzel Washington. We don't have the money for that, but you want to find good actors that could tell your story and portray your characters is exactly visioned. So what you have to do in this particular case, if you have no money, you gotta find actors that you can make arrangements with. Most actors are always looking to boost their portfolio and show that they can play a wide range of roles. And there's so many options of where you could go to find him. You could go on different websites that have casting calls, put down a flyer, break down exactly all the characters you need based on their personalities, their age range. There's very specific physical descriptions of what it is you're looking for and make sure you have your contact info in handy so that they're able to send their head shots and resumes to you. You could also go to your local college theater group or even these independent theater companies that have actors that are always looking for work. Everybody's always eager to get into films and to be seen in film festivals, so it's always just trying to find the right talent that's willing and eager. It's for the opportunity to be part of your project in terms of whether or not to pay your actors. I always highly recommend trying to paid on what you have, because it makes their time feel that much valuable and not a waste. And everybody's struggling for an opportunity to get work. But if you're on a no budget situation, trying to make the arrangements where their work can be put together in footage that they can use for the actors reels and the resumes this way they can show casting agencies the kind of performances that they can give. It goes a long way, but the most important thing is we got in common your actors as much as possible. Once you do your search, you're gonna want to audition them, so there's a number of places that you could rent out or even get, like a local bar or hotel or someplace where you know you're gonna have the available space toe. Have your actors come in and read for you. They have a thing called sides. You have a particular page of the script with a number of pieces of dialogue off the character that the actors going toe addition for you send them the sides. I had a time so they could study. It could also have them read it cold. In other words, come to the audition with the script in front of them and just read it as long as they can sound like they're given the performance as opposed to reading from a book. Once they come in and you schedule them, have them come in one at a time, feel them out, feel out their style, their personality and then have them read some of the tips you want to look for when you have actors read for you are not just the way that they say the words, but what do you feel from them When you were those words, you also want to see there were emotions. What can they express in their eyes that connects to people when they watch them on screen . All these things are gonna be so important because you want these characters to be, really you want them to pop out of the screen. So you got to make sure that what you have envisioned on the page can be translated by that actor, and they have to also be accommodating and willing and eager to be part of your project. You'll know the difference when you see certain actors that are just there because they just are being pushed by the agents and the ones who are really engaged. Love your idea, and they want to be a big part of it. You'll see those separations, and ultimately it's up to use a director to decide what it's best for your project's purpose. That's how you find very good actors. And another question that might get brought up is well if you can't get professional actors when I get your friends or your family members, and that is an option, because you can also find that an actual talent right next door. But once again, you would have to go to for that process of showing them how to act. Show them how they should portray that character, even if it means having them see a big name actor in a movie and have them study their mannerisms and expressions. In order to get the performance you need. You might have to do it that way. But as a low budget film maker, if you're starting out, just try to find the best people who can communicate that vision. We could play that character, and ultimately, if they turn out the right way, you have yourself a very good film. If they're not so great, you will see that on camera. In the next class, I'm gonna show you guys how to find your crew. 6. Hire Your Crew: welcome to the latest class. Higher your crew. You've probably seen the most superhero movies, that long list of credits at the end of every film. Usually it's hundreds or thousands of people who work in the camera department, the lighting department, the visual effects department, putting in hundreds to thousands of hours. Non stop to get a film released on time. And that's Hollywood. Now, if you're doing it on an independent film or on a low budget, there's only so many moving parts that you could do. And I certainly do not recommend making a project just by yourself. Although I will answer the question about what or not you can be a one man band on your project. I go back to the basics of when I used to go to New York Film Academy, and even when I was in Emerson, I would work with, at the very least during the four people in my crew, because it also is not only cheaper to do you prevent you from having to feed too many mouths on your set. So what are the type of crew members that you need on a film? While there's these four in particular. First, we need your director of photography, a k a. The DP or cinematographer the deep. He is the person that's going to be running your camera and helping you craft your shots. As a director, you do have the license to go and film on your own camera. But what if you need to be in a situation where you have to do that and direct your actors and concentrate on the number of other departments on your film? This is where a cinematographer comes in to make sure that your vision is best communicated . They will understand how to use a lens. What type of lights are gonna be needed for a shot? They will work with you as the director to figure out what type of shots you need based on the script that you've put together because they understand the visual language of how your story is going to be presented in every single scene. And they also understand how to block actors to now that usually goes in co junction with the director, but they also understand where the camera is going to be getting the best performance out of an actor. So In other words, you don't want to have your actor in a situation where if they can't see the camera that the camera can't see them. The DP is that second I in getting that vision communicated to the screen. Then they also understand how much coverage is going to need in terms of the number of shots in your seen to provide to the editor tohave it put to get a leader on in post production. I don't know how much you need and how much you could just kind of cut down and still get your story to come across just fine. Next you have your assistant camera, a k your First a C. The first a C works in conjunction with the cinematographer. That person usually understands where to get the lenses. Where to get the lights. Where to get the tripod had all set it up together so they work as a partner and sometimes they'll also operate the camera by himself under the instructions off the DP or cinematographer. Sometimes they also work under the cinematographer to be directed with the camera, and if you're using things like a dolly to move the camera around or some kind of rigging like a jib, which is like a little crane that you have the camera on to do aerial shots. Usually they'll work with the cinematographer to keep the camera steady and balanced and to keep the shot smooth as the gym moves. Then there's the gaffer, or sometimes called the group. They are in charge of the lighting. So let's say your cinematographer is on the set, and they need very specific lights to get a scene made that gaffer will come in. Usually it'll have a truck full of lights, and they will help to position the lights where two deep. He needs them to get the visuals that they want. Lastly, you need sound. Sound is 50% of every movie, and obviously you could have a microphone attached to a camera. But that could be a little bit too much sometimes. And you have to have the audio isolated from the actual recording off the camera because at some point you're gonna probably want to mix and match your audio when you're in post production and also to get the cleanest down possible. That microphone has to be as close to the actors as possible without the microphone ever being in the shot. You can't control the traffic. You can't control pedestrians nine times I attend. You're gonna get sometimes does disruptive audios in the background of your scenes, no matter how clean you get in life location. And that's where you end up having to do something called Advanced Dialogue Replacement. A 80 are, and we'll get more into that when we discuss pros production. Now to find those kind of crew members usually look for the crew members resume based on your advertisement for the project, and you look for the types of films that they've done previously what kind of school they want to what kind of equipment they own. Usually the more expensive crew members of the ones with the most experience, and that might be out of your budget range. But they'll work the fastest, however, if you need to get people on a low budget. There are always film schools with students cutting their teeth on student films. They're always looking for something to dio. So if you could find somebody that you could barter with in exchange for credit or for IMDb credit or some kind of small stipend or just a lunch on set. There's certainly enough young people out there who would love to be on a film shoot who just want to build up their experience and a resume. Some of you watching, this might ask, especially when you're doing your project. Can you be a one man band? Now? If you've seen the movie El Mariachi by Robert Rodriguez, which was produced in 1992 he was able to produce that film on his own with the $7000 budget. With virtually no crew in today's age, just enough technology out there to produce your own film, operating your own camera, having your own sound, doing your own biting. But it depends on the size and scale of the project you're trying to produce. So if you're going to make a movie that has hundreds of actors and extras and big locations and then ambitious script, you're gonna drive yourself nuts and likely go broke after one day. So I don't recommend ever shooting on your own, but have a team in place to get things done on time, on schedule and on budget. But if let's say you're going to do a project that's with maybe two actors and one location or just a bare minimum of locations and talent. It's very possible to do if you have a team that will be as patient with your process as you have to be with theirs. I'm gonna talk in my next video about how to get your locations. 7. Location Scouting: Welcome to the next class. Location scouting. Okay, so you've got your crew. You just about have your talent. You have everything you need. You have to do your location scouting now. So if you've done your breakdowns properly, you should have a sense. Based on the story you're trying to present, how you want those locations to be visualized. And if you're really smart, you already have written with the locations that you believe you have accessible to you way in advance. So you don't have to go on a long while goose chase to find places that are completely out of your reach. But let's say if you have to do that, I'm gonna get into all those things. So to get a location on a no budget situation, usually you try to do a favor with a place. So let's say if you want to get a restaurant and I've done this on my very first film, you could have a deal with the restaurant owner to say OK, I won't do my film for maybe eight hours, and in exchange I will give you not only special things at the end of movie, but I hope to advertise your businesses well, Usually they will go for that. But most of the time they will ask for some kind of compensation, because if they have to close their business for today, that's cutting off income for them. So that something you have to keep in mind. But that's not always the case, especially if you have family friends who own businesses like a restaurant on or off this that they could just allow you to do what one, if you can, and work with whatever you have, depending on your budget needs. Usually, you also try to find locations where you could film on a day when it's closed, usually on a weekend. And I've been in those situations where I've had contacts who have been willing toe let me film and let's say, their lawyer's office on a day one. Likely, they're not gonna be around as long as they're available to get the place open and closed after you're done so important in any situation, if you're using a business that your bartering with them for some kind of exchange, if you don't have money and if they say no, just look for the next place and just keep going from there or go back to your script and we write it to fit something else. That maybe is more easier to get and at the same time not compromise your story. And look, Everybody knows a place where they go to a bar all the time and they're friendly with the owner is where they go to an office and they're friendly with the people who run that business. You can ask around. You can make favors. You can make exchanges. It's not hard to do well. You have to do is ask and most importantly, make sure you take pictures. If you do scout that location if you get the OK, because when you get those pictures, that also helps you with your shot list. It helps with cinematographer slash dp to no word of going to be filming and what kind of lights they're going to need, how they're gonna composer shots where the camera is going to be placed. That also goes in tangent with something called text scouting. So once you have your location set, you're gonna want to make sure that you have a day set up where you'll go back to that location with the crew that we've hired. So now day see physically what's in that location. They now they will take their own pictures, but they'll see where they have access to power in case that they need to plug in light. There, the plug in a generator. They'll know how to help you blocking your actors based on the shots you put together. They also have an understanding off. Let's say structuring. So if you have a friend or producer friend that's assisting you with just the amenities part of a production, he also define your spots in that location where actors can stand by while any other seen as being a film and not be disruptive because you don't want eight million people running around the location. You want to keep it to a bare minimum when you work, and that way things move faster. You stay on schedule. You don't have a lot of disruptions going on, and at the same time we also the place where they can e, socialize and relax before they're ready to go up on the set. We'll get more into that when we start to talk about production. And without a doubt, if you've written your script properly on a low budget, keep locations to a bare minimum. The more locations you have to get the very likely end to spend more money. If you're using some favors, then it's not too difficult. But keep in mind to you're gonna probably have to move around from location to location. So if you're lucky, if you written the script that takes place all in the house, then it's easier to kind of structure everything around at one place. And you're working pretty fast if you have it structured the right way, depending on what your script is, the less location she have, the less headaches. You're gonna have to move things around to move around your actors from around your equipment, and, more importantly, you just work faster. All right, so that is in a not show what location scouting is. Now. We're gonna talk about what kind of camera do you use 8. What Camera to Use: welcome to the next class. What camera to use. So in my long career thus far, I must have used everything. I've used 16 millimeter film cameras. I've used the Bull X from the early ages of cinema. I've Here's digital. I've used a red I've used to Canon IV's Sony Cameras five years, virtually almost everything. It's hard to know for somebody starting out where to begin. What what kind of camera do you use to start my project? That becomes the question because every camera is so unique and has so many vast features. There's a whole variety I gotta get to all of them. But let's go with some basics that you could potentially use. If you can't afford to get any high end camera, I suggest this. These camera phones now are so high tech and so up to date. I'm aware of movies now that are actually getting distributed just by being shown on iPhone . So everybody has one, and they actually have specialized lenses that you could use for that. You can actually purchase yourself, but the camera is in a phone so great and so handy that that's always a good place to start now. If you want to step it up in quality, then I suggest getting what they call it DSLR. The DSLR is what I'm shooting with right now. It looks like a standard still photography camera, but the shots are absolutely stunning if they're used properly with the right lenses and you get that sharp cinematic look with the depth of field, and you have what was really designed initially for news reels back in the early two thousands now being used to actually make cinematic work. This is what you could use now to make a good film that could play into a festival, and I have applied to a microphone, so that's accessible. There's also the acceptability of putting a flash on it if you need, like extra lighting, if you're gonna move around with it, or let's say you just starting out, you don't understand how to use a lens because of so many and understanding the math behind it can get difficult. Then I said, just getting a cam quarter with zoom feature on it. If it has a zoom lens, that's usually the one that everybody's usually starts out with. There's digital versions of it. There's even high end four K versions of Handy Cam, so the handy cam is just a basic camcorder that normally runs on an SD card, just like with the DSLR. As I mentioned, that's where all your footage will get saved once you record and you have the zoom function , so you're basically able to go from a wide shot to a close up, and I'll talk about shots in the next video. But it's easy, it's handy, and it's light so you can move around very fast, shoot fast and not have to worry too much about focusing or exposure. But that's also where to. DSLR comes into play because then you have more control off those aspects of it. You have controlled the depth of field. You have control over how much light is going directly into the camera. Then there's explosion. Exposure is more for if you have something higher and like a DSLR or rag that you could actually control between how much light you're allowing into your lens. Add that controls the brightness of your shots. That's something you need to get right when you're in production, because you will pay the price for. If you don't do it correctly when you're editing later on and you have to co correct, explain later. You also have your focus. If you're using a handy cam, it's a little harder to control the focus ring on the lens that's already attached the camera. But if you're using a manual ends on safety El solar or higher, that's where you have to make sure that depending on the lens you use that you can actually see free or viewfinder that very focus of your shot. If it looks blurry than you know, it's on focus. If you can get sharper, there are functions with magnifying glass icon you'll see usually in the back of the camera we get. Actually, zoom in and look at exactly how much of the shot is blurry and be able to get it sharp enough to where he could pull it back. And then your shot will be fully in focus. Sometimes maybe you just want whoever's in the foreground to be in focus in the background , to be out of focus and their specialized lenses. For that that will do just that with the depth of field, which I will also explain down the line. Let's say, if you don't want to use the iPhone, you want to use something that's higher end. Or if you want to experiment, go online and try to find your nearest camera rental stores and you'll be able to rent out or even test out a camera for a relatively low price, depending on the availability and what accessories are included. That will also help you to build up and sharpen up your skills and even give you a sense of what's going to give you the best look that you want. Because every camera's gonna be different with different features and functions. I even recommend some of the videos here on skill share that will also show you to paying on what model your brand you're using that you go even more specific into the functions of the camera up. Now, of course, there are so many basics to what a camera involves, and the best thing to do is to use the manual or to use any of the tutorials, right. You're in skill share that I will explain to you, depending on what camera using, be it an iPhone or something as high end as a red camera. You'll understand how each camera is different, based on the features that are available based on which cameras are better in dark light situations versus the ones that pretty much are just your standard fare and require a little bit more work and detail with your actual production lighting. Now, in the next class, we're gonna get to something even more creative, and that's what we call the shot list. 9. The Shot List: welcome to our next class. The shot list. So the last class that we did, we talked about how to use a camera, What types of cameras to use for depending on the project that you're doing. We didn't really get into Waas. What types of shots do you need for your film? You could go back to any movie you've ever seen analyzed how shots Aircraft ID based on framing composition. How it makes you feel when you watch the scene. You're gonna get a variety of different views and opinions from other film buffs out there who can interpret an image much like interpreting piece of artwork that you would see in the museum when you go for the script. Of course, you're writing based on what's gonna be upon screen, as opposed to writing a book. So you what you need to do is you got to figure out what types of shots are you going to use in order to best tell your story and to move your scene from scene to scene and what's going to create a specific mood, a specific type of feeling that you want the audience toe have when they're watching that scene, and they're watching the actor's performances now. There's, of course, a wide variety of different types of shots. I'm going to keep it basic and stick to the ones that are more common because once you figure out the common basics of a shot list, then you'll be able to know where you can kind of bend. Break the rules a little bit. Yet the extreme long shot, which is usually making your subject appear small against their location. And you make your subject field distant or unfamiliar to the location that they're in so it can make your subject feel overwhelms a little bit out of place, like a fish out of water or just a little fish in a huge pond that would be a huge long shot. A regular long shot or wide shot is usually a little bit closer, and your subjects whole body will be in the view but not fulfilling the entire frame. So wide Shots are usually good for establishing the world where we are showing exactly where characters are going, the types of environments that they're in, it gives the audience a sense of where they are that moment. Ah full shot is a little bit more emphasizing scenery. So you have the full body of the actor in the shot. Let's just say, but at the same time, you could also use it toe, have multiple characters in the scene and have the sense of environment while also at the same time showing that you may have a group of people and maybe not just a one lone individual and sometimes more powerful. We only have the one person in that particular frame because it just makes them feel like they have something going on that's strong but still, within this overwhelming environment account, way shot is what they used to call for the Westerns whenever they want to frame a character funder gun holster only up to their cowboy hat, it's roughly the same as the full shot, but just a little bit more emphasizing the size and scale of a character and sometimes just getting even more of their emotion out versus when you're doing from a full shot. And you may not see them as well in terms of their look at that moment, the medium shot is the more common type of film shot where it's from the waist up and usually visualize is the environment but emphasising more of your subject as the focus, so they'll have a different effect on the viewer. And it could be really powerful for them if you're doing it from a low angle. Or it could be something that's from a high angle and making looking a little bit intimidated like there's an incredible force coming their way on. A medium close up focuses on your subject from the chest up and focusing on the face a little bit better but keeping the subject still distant from the viewer. And so you're actually like kind of pulling back and still seeing what's around getting the actors emotion. But at the same time, you're not so up in their face to the extent where you feel this sense of discomfort as a viewer, this is usually where they used the over the shoulder shots, just conversation scenes going on. When you're going back and forth with the camera, they would use this particular type of shot. The close up is more of what the actors love. That's when the cameras really up in their face and it's capturing whatever they are feeling in that moment, and the audience is able to read their eyes. But it air sad, happy, angry, upset, frustrated, joyous. Everything will read, and the detail that comes out is what the audience is going to be drawn to. The extreme close up is where you're really filling the frame with something more specific on your subject. The eyes, the mouth off, the the hands, the feet, whatever it may be, or just an object that the the editor could cut two in the scene or something that's going to set up something for later on in your story. Now, in regards to framing, there's definitely a number of different styles that you need to consider when you're preparing your shot list. First there's the single shot. So if you're just focusing on one actor specifically, that's what they would call a single. A two shot is where you have to actors in the frame, and you normally see this in conversation scenes or if they're watching a certain character or whatever the scenario, maybe, and you want to have the view of two characters in the same place in the same frame would do that a three shot is a lot more wider if you want to have three actors in the scene. And that would require a much smaller lens, like a 24 millimeter or less, to really get more bodies into a scene to accomplish the same idea of what a looking at, what did they react into ordering to each other? Direct. There's something else. The over the shoulder shot is typically what you would see in conversation scenes so the camera would be right behind the actor looking at another actors they're talking and that cameras focusing on that actor with the camera behind the actor only seen her shoulder and maybe decided their face. And then you reverse for the second half of that scene, where you have the camera on the opposite side of the other actors, shoulder looking at theater actor who was previously having the camera behind them. This is a good time to also talk about the 1 80 degree rule, so let's say and I'll have a diagram for this. If you're shooting a specific scene where you have the characters talk to each other, there's a line you're not supposed to cross with the camera so the camera could go around and 1 80 degrees without any of the cuts being jarring. But if the camera goes exactly the opposite off where it was placed previously and you're trying to cut back and forth, typically that would end up becoming a jump cut and a jump cut will be jarring toe audience watching film where things get a little bit off balance in terms of the view and interrupting the flow of the scene. Does he over the hip shot, which is typically what you would see where Let's say you have somebody laying underground and you're only focusing. Maybe just on decided their body, but then you're still seeing the rest of the frame from a low angle, and from there you would have, maybe like saying after standing over them that would also be considered a low angle shot. Where is the high angle shot? Is what we would consider to be more like a God's eye view. Or if you have like, let's say, a security camera looking down at an entire scene, then it's sort of like just from a I've you someplace from high above, looking down at the action that's going on. That usually makes the actors look small in the frame if they wanna look kind of intimidated and fearful, whereas low angle. If you're pointing at somebody that actors looking more powerful in the frame, and then there's the P O. V, the point of view shot, which is, let's say, I've taken that camera and that camera is going to be the eye of an actor looking up at an object, looking up at another actor, looking up anything. But it's from their view there. I and we are seeing it from their point of view. Now what if you want to move the camera around this different terminologies for that as well, you have your static shot, which is your typical cameras. Staying still, It doesn't move around anywhere. A pants shot is where you have the camera on a tripod and you're moving horizontally from left to right. A tilt shot is when you're rotating the camera up and down on the tripod. A pedestal shot is when the cameras move vertically up and down without tilting. A dolly shot is where the camera is on track, and it's moving a truck shot is the same as a dolly shot, but you're moving the entire camera from right to left instead of back and forth. An arc shot is used in combination with a dolly or truck to show some kind of a curve. In the dolly track, you literally see something like this and say, like any Michael Bay movie, where he loves to move around his actors and like a 1 80 degree motion, a Steadicam shot is where the camera is stabilized on special rig, and it's moving around without it being shaky or drawing. If you remember the running of the steps in Rocky that was done on a Steadicam rig where the camera was following Rocky going up the steps of the Philadelphia Art Museum and done in a very smooth kind of way where it's not too shaky, it's not jarring and was very innovative for its day. The handheld shot is where the camera is being held by hand by the camera operator, and there's no stabiliser. So that's where it really gets shaky and chaotic, and you may want to get that kind of look. You would typically see this in documentaries and war movies like Saving Private Ryan. A crane or boom shot, as they call it, is when you have the camera on an extremely high crane and moving toward a lower position or vice versa. High position. And these are also used commonly with overhead shots and establishing shots. Zoom shot is when the camera lens is focusing on an object, it zooming in from a wide to a close up or vice versa. So, basically in and out of a subject rack, focus is a technique that's ward in just a camera move. You're basically changing the lens focus from one subject to another, which I previously talked about in the last video, if you want to look up focusing. And then there's the Dolly Zoom, which is a special technique where the camera moves closer or further to the subject while simultaneously adjusting resume angle to keep the subject in the same size of the frame. Now, if you want to make a really good shot list, it may seem for some people starting out a little boring to try to write out exactly. We're gonna do what if you have some artistic skills or maybe not so great artistic skills . It doesn't matter because you get also storyboard your scenes. So with story boarding, you're taking the individual shots that you see in your head and you actually draw them out in little boxes. So you're sketching out the angles, what's happening in the scene and whatever kind of detail you want to get captured in your shot. Now you could do with stick figures, or you could get really artistically detailed with it, as long as yourself or your cinematographer has the sense of what you're trying to get at. There's also special programs that use three D models that you could create your storyboards with. And as for whether the director should do it or cinematographer should do it. You go Either way. You could actually work with your cinematographer to figure out your shots or you worry, may have the ideas in mind based on the script that you wrote, and you just draw it out yourself and then you eat or go out on the field. If you're gonna operate the camera and shoot what you have or work with your cinematographers, say, Here's your shot list. Here's your storyboards and then you work with that person to be cut down shots or maybe change things up or be on the same page and hopefully have a smooth shoot in terms of whether or not to storyboard the entire movie or just specific scenes that's ultimately up to you. Alfred Hitchcock was notorious for story morning, every single shot off the movies he did because he had in mind how he was gonna happen, edited. And the same goes an animation where it is crucial to have everything story boarded because you're gonna have animators ultimately having to go from every single frame to render out different shots that are gonna be edited together in a computer later on to be the final film. But if it's also like a specialized sequence like maybe you don't need to do for a dialogue scene. But if you have like a special sequence like a chase or some kind of fight scene, it's gonna be important. Toe have that. So this way you have everything mapped out, and you're not wasting time having to figure it out. On the day of that. Sometimes you may have a shot list on a storyboard set up, and you might get to the set and decide. You know, maybe we don't need this, and then you just discard it. It just gives you a foundation for something toe work with. So that way, you're well prepared. Once you get onto the set, once you have your script broken down into shots, you have to be able to organize it. Now you have to be able to do this. Usually I don't recommend it on your own, but you can do it if you want. Teoh, you cut with She were not yet this up. Your schedule and your schedule is going to be broken down at first by each individual seen so you would have seen number that's already in the script. And that's broken down by letters A, B, C, D. And so on. You list your location the type of camera using the type of lens you're using. You describe a kind of light you're gonna use, whether it's natural light or if you have specifically packages that you have in mind for the scene. Then there's framing where you have the exact framing description off your shop. You will also describe the camera action. Is it going to be static still, or is it gonna move? Then you have your description of what's gonna happen in the shot. You describe any dialogue that might be in the scene? Can you list the actors they're going to be in the shot and props that are gonna be used and then miscellaneous notes that the crew may need to know what you have that shot list put together? You work with the assistant director where you do this on your own to now, take every individual shot and set up into your schedule. There's programs like studio binder that allow you to properly do this technique where you have Christine's broken down normally based on location, whatever you're working within the day and your listing your scene number, your exterior interior. Is it a day or night? Seen your scene? Setting your location usually number your actors by number, so anybody that's reading off from the crew will know who's gonna be available for that scene for that day and how many pages you're going to shoot with for those particular shots and scenes. So this helps you organize that. Schedule your scenes as best as you can So why is this important? Why is it important to have a shot list? You might say Well, on a no budget situation where maybe you have no creek, just go out and you shoot a free for all. And that's how I started out. I was experimenting with my camera going around and just fill me whatever I wanted, not really thinking at the time about what the audience was going to perceive. But these techniques are what make films look more professional than the next. And you're focusing on all these little aspects that really present your story in a way that is easy for an audience to translate. And those rules he could break those rules he can bend once you know what's involved. So now that we've got for the shot lists and we've gotten for all the other aspects of pre production now we're gonna get action 10. Action!: welcome to the next class Action. So now we've gotten through all the preproduction work, all the shot lists, planning all the scheduling You've rehearsed your actors. Now you're ready for the day to go out and make your movie. There's gonna be two different kind of schools of thought that I'm gonna approach with this because for me personally, from my experience, no set is ever the scene. You may have the same approach in terms of how to schedule your day, how to run your set and wrap up. You never know. Sometimes, depending on the script, you work with actors, you're working with the crew you're working with, Things change all the time. It's still a theory off a film process once you're there. And that's something that I don't think any school can ever truly teach you. You just have to have the experience to know yourself how it goes. So on a professional shoe, I could tell you what the day looks like. Once you have actors and crew, you set up a call, she the call, she normally is done by the assistant director on an independent film. Or maybe you don't have a crew. The director needs toe. Have all that information put out? If they have, a producer friend could actually set it up. The call sheet lists. The actors are gonna be working the data crew that's working the day. Usually you have the crews contact of vote, but never to talent. Contact info for privacy reasons. You list the scenes that are gonna be shot. What props? Wardrobe. We're gonna meet for the day and the call. Time to call. Time is important because you want to make sure you're on a schedule in which your actors come a little bit after your crew you want to create come in first so they could start setting up. They have your actors come in, go straight to make up and then get ready for their shoot. So you have all that list it so they know when to arrive on the set. You also list there's gonna be any kind of specific weather conditions that people need to know about. What time? Breakfast, lunch, sometimes dinner when that's going to be served and also the nearest hospital in case somebody gets hurt. God forbid you send us out to the actors and the crew. Normally, I suggest a week in advance before a shoot, so everybody has their schedules cleared and then send it again. Revised the day before The shoot survey knows this is happening as a director. When you start the day you have, your crew commends, sometimes they like to chat, have some coffee and bagels, just a colleague. You don't get themselves that little kick for a morning or whatever time of data is shooting, and you're working with specifically your cinematographer and your sister direct to map out the scenes of the day. What you're going to do, what your game plan is, what your actors come in. You have them kind of like just chill out for a bit when they arrive called Get settled, have the coffee bagels. Then you have them in makeup getting ready, and once they're ready to go, you have your cameras, you have your lights set up for your shot. Then you do what they call a blocking rehearsal. So blocking rehearsal is where your guiding the actor through the individual shot that you're doing, you're giving direction, and I'd say the tip with actors is yes, you want to tell them where they're going to be in relation to the camera, but also make sure, besides mood, what they're supposed to feel at that moment. Because if you're shooting out of order, which is what I suggest to do, and that is a rule of thumb, you want to make sure they know what's the moment of supposed to be in what's going to motivate them in that scene. And sometimes you may even want to find personal things. They could really to get the best performance out of them at same time. You know your camera operators. Cinematographer has to know what the actors air doing, so they know how properly delight them and how the shots need to be framed. So they have a sense of what they need to do. Communicate that to their guys and lighting and special effects team that there's a special effects team. Everybody's on the same page, and they do what they gotta do to meet the best shot possible. Now you get all that together, you're ready to shoot before you go. You have your sound guy. He needs to check the mic levels for the actors they have make sure that they're speaking at a reasonable tone, that the audio could pick it up. And if they're on a shotgun, Mike, dip the mic down into the frame to see where they're going to be seen with the make. And how far did he get away from the frame, where they're still close enough to get the dialogue as close as possible to the actor but not be seen in the camera? That's also tricky. In certain cases, if you have mirrors or reflective surfaces in the frame, you have to have a good cinematographer to make sure that they see all those things. You also need tohave, a script supervisor or somebody that's handling continuity. Now I'm gonna discuss continuity better when we do editing. But the idea what that is? You have script supervisor not only keeping track of the actors dialogue to make sure they're not messing up on it, but also to make sure they're gonna move objects if they do certain gestures one way they got to do with the same way every single version of that scene for the consistency of the edit. Once all that's taken care of, can you rate a shoe. Eat a director if you're on your own. Or do you? Just a director will yell out quiet on the set because you want absolute silence when the performance is going on. Then you have the assistant director or assistant camera operator. Bring out what's called the slate. The slate list, the name of the project, the scene number to take number. And if they're sound or no sound, they'll have to sleep right in front of camera and they will call Seen one, and we don't call by letters, either. You don't do like the Alfa Beta Sigma business, because also, when you're editing and you're trying to sync, sound letters will sound a like So you want to make sure like it's an individual sounding were associate with that letter to make it easier for sinking. Later on, assistant director or assistant camera operator will state and clear out. And what Director feels ready and the actor feels ready. You call action and you let the scene Ron until you feel satisfied and you call cut. Now, what question you may get asked is How many takes do you dio again? That depends on a director the directors for me. Personally, I usually do no more than 4 to 5, and I'm lucky if I could get to heavier directors. Iconic directors like Stanley Kubrick will do 50 to 100 some art Eakes until they get whatever it is they want and have plenty of options to work with when they go into editing . Ultimately, it's up to you what you feel is going to get the best acting out. But you also have to keep in mind your schedule. You gotta get your shots done in a specific amount of time that you designee with your assistant director. So you keep on moving. You get for your day eight hours, 12 hours or even the minimal six hours. Whatever it is you want to make sure you're in and out and your actors air happy, your crew is happy and they're not getting aggravated because once you get past a certain point where you're going over schedule, that's gonna be a big pain in your wallet, and that's what you want to avoid. So I'd say if you're gonna do a really long day, don't go more 12 hours unless you could afford it you go for this day and you're gonna have different shots that you're going to do. You also want to make sure again. If you've scheduled properly, you're gonna be a one location. Get all your shots done in that one location. Any specific shots from one side of a room get all that done in one shot. So if you have to get to a new angle where lights are gonna have to be moved, that's going to take time to do, because then you have to do readjustments. You have to measure your light with a light meter, so you make sure that there's a consistency with how much light is being used in the scene . Or if you're gonna make it really dark, you know, making sure your exposures of proper all those things come into account normally after three or four hours. That's when you break your actors for lunch because it can get a little cranky. Sometimes you may want to take some quick breaks. IVs adjust on bigger sets. Justice have snacks. We have water, have energy, foods and snacks. Whatever it is, we'll get people through today and not feel like they're not being accommodated properly, even when you're honest set and you have what they call holding area for the actors to hang out and make sure they're in that area just chilling out until they're ready to do the scene. Because normally what I like to do with my guys is when we do scenes, and sometimes it's the first time that my crew has seen. This location will go through what's going on in this space map out. The blocking had a time before we bring the actors in, and sometimes it will bring the actors into rehearse or have a stand in to kind of know where they're gonna be placed. Once the crews sees it, then they'll know what nights they need. You let them go toe work, and as a director, you go talk with your actors to count. Let them know what's going on and go for your scene. You do this every day of your schedule for your project until it's finally done and wrapped . Anything can happen when you're on the day of your shoot because life is going on and you know there's holidays. People have other things that are happening with work or family obligations and other factors that could interrupt your shoe. So you just have tohave as best of a plan put to get over in pre production so that the problems that may come up during your shoot will be minimal. Because if you don't prepare for it, you're gonna pay for big time in the wallet. And I'm sure if you speak to me directly or any other filmmaker, they could tell you to run horror stories about things they've been through on sets and tell you how costly it is because they didn't have a full set plan. So accommodate your actors. Accommodate your crew. Keep communication clear. As best as you can see, everybody's on the same page. Have a proper shot list. Make sure your locations are locked down to the day that you're doing it. And more importantly, once you're wrapped up clean everything. Put your furniture back in place, especially if you work in somebody's business or personal property. You want everything back exactly the way it is, so they're not complaining after the fact. Now I know there's like a lot of terminologies of how to speak to certain people or terminologies of equipment, but I'm not gonna get into all that. There's plenty of websites and tutorials here on skill share that will teach you even more details than what I'm giving you. I'm just giving my own experience of what I witness on a day to day basis. You know, if you're doing a small shoot, where you just only have yourself and maybe a three or four man band and maybe just a small group of actors, usually no more than three or four. Well, you do in those situations, especially if you're not working with a lot of equipment. It's just use the space around you. Plan accordingly with your time and still keep that that professionalism there. But map out your time as best as you can and make your actress field busy. Don't have them staying around with nothing to do, because that's when they start getting cranky and keep your crew as proactive and as happy as possible. Because that could also give very hairy. They start to get a little bit, uh, anxious to go home. I always emphasize to my actors on my crew to just always think about 10 years from now, did you do your best work back down? Because that I feel will motivate them toe absolutely 100% and not have to regret it down the line because you want to give them a good experience and you want to make sure that you're getting the best project made with their skills and lasting. To even talk about is the monkey wrenches that might get thrown in Now. It's also important to even on an independent films you're shooting outside. Get your permits, you know, get your insurance if you can afford it and do everything by the book. You don't want to run to any troubles down the line, and you want to make sure that you've mapped out every single issue that could go wrong ahead of time. This is why the planning is so important. If you're doing it guerrilla style, you're bound to run into some kind of issues. But if you have everything mapped out, then whatever issues come up being power in your location. Maybe you're in a spot where you thought there wouldn't be any business going on outside your location. And then it turns out that becomes a whole nightmare when there was like a party going on or other business that's happening that's interrupting your day. You might even have the occasional actor. That's just going through whatever kind of personal issues they may have. So that and that shows production and there's so much more I could talk about with that. But we're now going to get into the next on very last phase, which is post production. 11. Post-Production: welcome to the next class Post production. So you've gone through your long days of filming and finally done and you have that big rock off your back. But now you've got to go and you got to take all the footage you shot. You gotta play to get her into a movie. Editing phase of your project is ultimately the final draft of your movie. We're gonna talk in just in general terms because there's various different editing software programs out there, from Adobe Premiere to Final Cut Acts two. Avid While they all have different features and functions, many of the basics were still the same. And that's what we're gonna emphasize on. First thing you do is whatever format you shot your movie in winter. It's on an old mini DV tape or just on digital with the SD card or higher your now take enough footage and you're gonna put it. I prefer on an external hard drive, so it's gonna take some time. But whatever you shot and whatever format you were in, you load your footage into a folder on your external hard drive, definitely, or whatever editing software that you're using, you're gonna import your footage into your software and you set up a whole new timeline off your film project. So now you have your audio. You have your footage, you start to go through the footage that you shot. You decide what takes you like, what takes you don't like. And maybe there's even some takes. Or maybe I'm not be able to use the entire thing. But there may be something that you like that you think you could use for your movie. So you go for all this And then once you start to pick out the shots you like, then the next thing you need to do is you also need to sink the audio. If you've recorded your audio separately, then this is where the sleep had come handy on your shoot. So now you follow the sound of the slate. You take your audiophile, you drag it into your timeline, you drag your footage, you put that into the time line and you locate where the sound off the sleep comes from and you sink your audio in your video. I prefer personally, if you've recorded the audio from your camera, don't use the audio from the camera for your final film. Remove it right away, but use it as a reference guy for your slate to make it easier for you with the sinking. And then from there you go for your individual scenes and you're gonna cut every individual scene by the timing, pacing the rhythm off, how the scene is supposed to play out and what you're trying to translate. Another key thing again goes back to continuity. So as you're editing your shots, you're keeping in mind making sure that there's a consistency that the actors are not changing up their movements or there's no major change in their looks or anything that got moved on the set. That's gonna look jarring to the audience, making sure that there's a consistency there, because if it's not, the audience is going to notice that some famous directors have been able to get away with it. But that's only if the film is good enough that people are absorbed in it, that they don't think about those little errors but still be a smart editor. And keep all those ideas in mind to make sure there's consistency all across the board. There's ideas of had it built tension in the scene with a slow buildup in how you find your rhythm in editing. If you want to do the rocky or MTV style montage, that's when you get fun and creative with jump cuts. Comedy is also the hardest. Maybe at it, because you're really having to think about the timing of hitting that punchline with joke and giving the audience enough breathing room toe laugh. Because if you have a joke and then suddenly you're next shot is some important information that the actors were giving. You don't want the audience to like. Overlook that and for, you know, just goes over their head because the joke that just came before is just so friggin funny that they're laughing hysterically down the aisles. All these techniques, you just have to keep in mind, depending on the genre that you're doing and also the audience reaction to your film. When you do have your project it together, you want to get sound effects right? Sometimes you could record your own sounds through whatever source there may be doing at home. You could build your own sounds or does plenty of websites and old CDs that have sound effects that you can rip and using your projects. Just be short of credit, any of the authors off those sound effects. So that way, you don't get into trouble in the kind. Like just give a special thanks credit for the use of they're free footage or free audio and also with music. I suggest if you're starting out, there are websites out there similar with audio, where you could get royalty free music that you could put it to your project. That's the same deal you want to find the kind of music that's gonna play well to your scenes. Tell your story and get the audience off feeling in a mood When you're watching those scenes, just be sure to credit the musicians and the writers of the end. I also would say, if you have musician friends that were record, that's even better, cause then they could actually go through your entire movie and scored from beginning to end. I don't recommend as much as it pains me to say it. I don't recommend using any popular music unless you can afford it. If I told you the costs of using popular music from today and even all the way back to the 60 seventies and way beyond, you wouldn't even be able to have a bunch of to make a movie. Let's just put it that way. So now once you get your film edited altogether, you have it the way you want. Then it's time to export, and you want to put it in a format where, depending on where it's gonna go, you have a number of different options. Usually, I go with 1920 by 10 80 which is regular HD format, which works for anything YouTube DVD. Blue Ray. If you try to go higher, you're gonna eat up more gigs off of your hard drive. Or a likely it's gonna be tougher to convert onto a DVD or blueberry desk and also takes a lot longer to load onto a streaming platform. And one other thing that I recommend even before you export your movie is half a second. I look at your film, so get a friend. What did they know? Film or they don't Usually I think it's better to get somebody that knows nothing about film, but they watch a lot of movies to know what they like and they don't like, have them watch it and get their opinion about what they like, what they don't like and what's working, what's not working. If you get people around you that give their honest, constructive criticism, that helps you with the stronger head it. So what I prefer to do in my process is assembled of footage as is, doesn't matter how long it iss you could have all your footage round out to three hours. But for our purposes, if we're doing a short let's just say maybe you have 10 minutes worth of footage for your three minute piece. You put that to get a first, that's your assembly. Then you start making creative decisions. What seems they're gonna stay? What seems gonna go, what scenes need to move faster. What seems to take their time to be a little bit more patted out? These are things you're gonna learn as you add it. And as you figure out the rhythm off your film, it's like putting together a good piece of music. You're finding the beats or find the peaks and valleys and what is going to be simple enough for the audience to understand what's going to translate to them. So it is a timely process. That's why they do test screenings for big films because they want to see what works, what doesn't work. And then, ultimately that decides the better chance of their success with that particular movie when it comes out in theaters and it's important to have that could short the criticism because it'll help you not only get better, editor, they will help you to understand the rhythms of your project so it can work as best as possible for your audience. Nutshell. Does of the basics of editing and I feel like I've kind of exhausted myself with the entire film process, but I still got one more video guys so we will get to our next and final conclusion. 12. The Conclusion: All right. So this is that this is the conclusion off. No budget filmmaking for beginners arts. I've gone through this entire process if you guys from the conception of your project to the very end of your post production. So where do you go from here? You've made your film and you wanted to be seen, right? You don't want to just put it onto your shelf for nobody to see. You have a number of options. You could dio, if you're making in this case a short three minute piece than the film festival, right is the way to go for the exposure. And there's plenty of websites that give you information on the cost with the require in terms of formatting, what types of genres they're looking for fortune. And unfortunately, there's a fee you have to pay for most of them. And it's a crap shoot the end of the day. What or not they accept your film. But if you do get accepted and I say, do your research and see which festivals work best for your project, then it's worth going out there and seeing how your audience reacts to your film. They're gonna program It probably the time that you don't have control over, but once you know, promote the hell out of it. Go on your social media shared a link. Share all the information one time and then you that your film is going to play. So you get the most eyes on it because the trick is not only to get the lights reaction, but you want to make your next movie, and you want to build that support, and that's your starting out. You definitely want tohave the fan base to build from so they could support you in the long run as your projects become a little bit bigger and a little bit more ambitious. Or maybe you don't want to do the film vessels and you don't want to spend the money, and you just want to do you to. That's fine. Two guys. I have no friends that have struggled as filmmakers for a long time just to get their film scene and then put them onto YouTube. And to get the number of hits that they get from viewers is to den more important than trying to get people to pack it theater, So yeah, you could definitely take your movie. Put on YouTube, Vimeo or any other video streaming site and get people to see your movie. Get feedback in the comments. Sometimes it's good. Sometimes it's bad, but you're getting reaction. If you push your product well enough, you could book out venues your local community centers, your local schools. Show your movies there if it fits their programs and isn't something that they feel is derogative in any way, then that's your audience right there and you're building from the street level. It's a beautiful thing. I often get asked. You know what it takes to improve from project to project, and it's simple. You learn as you go. The textbooks that you see in schools were the ones that you made by in a Barnes and Noble will only give you so many basics of how these techniques work, as I've done here in these classes, but you really don't know until you're in the thick of it. Everybody comes from a different school of thought when it comes to this approach to cinema , so everybody's ideas and approaches tend to adapt with one another, or they find some kind of common ground to make the best project possible. You just learn as you go different experiences, some good, some bad, but a lot of bad experiences you could tend to learn from or when things tend to get a little rougher. Go off the rails because it just makes you stronger enough tow. Avoid those pitfalls down the line, and it's okay to make mistakes, guys. There is nothing perfect about even the greatest movies that are considered to be the best have ever been made. Even the best jumps have laws. Sometimes it's miscasting. Sometimes it's just overall direction. It doesn't matter how bad your movie is in the beginning, because everybody starts somewhere. You make a piece of art, you know, maybe don't get a reaction the first time. But then you learn some things from that first experience that make you better. I mean, the case in point for me is one of the very first movies I did. You know, it was a sci fi film that, to be quite honest, I didn't really have enough control over, and I had people around me that, to be honest, we're trying to exert their influence and try to say to the actors how they wanted to performances to be how they wanted to seem to be played out. And I was just a college student who only knew what he knew from a textbook. But I took that experience, and I used it toe learn how to be a stronger filmmaker and as a stronger person to direct Actors. Better understand my vision had a time so I don't have to compromise on it too much when I get to that next home and you continue to go on and other things happen that you learn from and you just go into the next and I know you get asked about money and how you have to raise that to keep going. It's the same thing. It's here. You pull out of your pocket until you decide you had enough and you want to go crowdfunding . Get tired of crowdfunding and begging your family, your friends for money. Then you try toe, put together a nice proposal and go after a grant or try to find a big time investor that's want help with your film. Everything is a process. Everything takes time, guys, and it's the very things that you learn from project to project that make you stronger and watching different films and getting different influences not only from blockbusters in Hollywood but from independent films. From the films you see in a festival toe farm films, everything's gonna have an influence that you got to absorb and figure out how it fits your style and your voice, and it still takes time. I'm still trying to find my voice is filmmaker guys, but I feel like I'm making dough, strives to get there, and I believe you can to even just starting out, which is your phone. Getting your friends together and shooting in the backyard Just something simple, something simple that could build into something much bigger as a career down the line if you choose to do so. So now I say to you, Go out, make your movie. As you see from the class project that I have presented here. I am asking you guys to make a movie in the reacts, and it could be of any genre. No more than three minutes. You could use any camera you want to use your phone. You could use a camera that's available to you right now, we could go out and you could rent one. You could use any lights, any audio gear. If you want to use the audio in the camera, that's fine, too. As long as it's nice and cleaning and not disruptive, your lighting could be anything from high end H M eyes to something as simple as just getting led lights from Home Depot. If you wanted to keep it simple. Guys do a three act structure within 3 to 5 minutes of screen time, and it's got to be in there. I am not going to accept abstract art projects of waterfalls. Okay, it's got to be something where there's conflict and a resolution and then uploaded to me, and I'll give you my thoughts and my critiques off your project. Now again. I didn't go through everything here, guys. You know, I was only so little time that I can do, and it's a whole world of a process. I suggest going to the other videos here on skills shared. Get into more camera basics, editing techniques, film set, acquit on a set, anything you need to look forward. It you need more information on. I'm also available through my contact info here. If you have questions, concerns, even comments if you want to leave them, I am willing and able to help you guys with whatever you need to help you make your class project the best it can be with the resource is you have available to you. On that note. I want to thank you guys for subscribing to this class on skills share. I really hope he gained something from this and what you pursued his career, or you're just doing it as a simple hobby outside of work. I would just be happy to see you guys pick up the camera, make your film and tell your story. It's just a simple is that so? Thanks so much, guys. And I hope to see you guys again soon at the movies. 13. Bonus Lesson: Hey, guys, this is a very extra class as part of no budget filmmaking for beginners, and this was an oversight that I made on my part when I was talking about hiring your actors and your crew and your locations. So I apologize. It is so important before you go out on the field that you have release forms that are signed by your actors, your crew and the property owners of the location that you will be using. So any specific arrangements that you've made with the people that are on your production, you want to make sure that's all in writing. So this way you don't have any legal headaches that may come about. Should your project be put online or put it to a film festival or by the chance of doing something really ambitious, you get distribution because you don't want anybody that maybe you've had a handshake deal and verbally agreed on something that suddenly turned back on their word. You know, we kind of live in a very sensitive society where people will take the littlest things and try to go after somebody legally overnight, so this ensures your safety when you're making your project and ensures that you have that level of trust with the people that you're going to be working with. So that is very important toe have. And I will provide templates for actors, crew as well as locations for release forms that they could sign and have for your records , and to be sure that you will be safe and protected when you do your project. So that's my tip, really. Take that one seriously because it is so important and you want to do your project as quickly as safely and efficiently as possible.