Mythology in European Art - Characters of Ancient Greek Mythology in Famous Works of European Art | Karima Knickmeyer M.A. | Skillshare

Mythology in European Art - Characters of Ancient Greek Mythology in Famous Works of European Art

Karima Knickmeyer M.A., the stories of art

Mythology in European Art - Characters of Ancient Greek Mythology in Famous Works of European Art

Karima Knickmeyer M.A., the stories of art

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15 Lessons (1h 58m)
    • 1. I 1 About this Course

    • 2. I 2 About Me

    • 3. II1 Introducing Ancient Mythology

    • 4. II2 Iconography

    • 5. III 1 Apollo

    • 6. III 2 Hercules

    • 7. III 3 Minerva

    • 8. III 4 Conclusion

    • 9. IV 1 The Loves of Jupiter

    • 10. IV 2 Venus

    • 11. IV 2 Amor

    • 12. IV 4 Conclusion

    • 13. V Bacchanal

    • 14. V Conclusion

    • 15. VI Outro

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About This Class

To visualize the most unsuspected ideas of culture and society artists and commissioners found a perfect medium - the characters and stories of ancient Greek mythology, which are not only the root of European culture but also essential for understanding famous pieces of art history.       

Dive into a journey through well - known artworks and artists guided by the following themes:

- Power & Politics: How did rulers employ the gods,goddesses and heroes for purposes of representation?

- Love & Lust: How did the male gaze manifest in the mythological artworks? Is there such thing as heavenly love?

- Bacchanal: What role does the tradition of wine-drinking play for Renaissance academics?

After the introduction of selected characters we will analyze particular artworks in detail.

We focus on the Early Modern Period, such as Renaissance, Baroque and Classicism.

Here you find my SOURCES for creating this course.

Meet Your Teacher

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Karima Knickmeyer M.A.

the stories of art



I am an art historian, and I am convinced that art is perfectly fit to get closer to history while enjoying sensual diversion.

During my experience as an art mediator, I soon recognized that people are interested in art but that the immersion is affected by not particularly interesting ways of mediation. Moreover, the thematical spectrum of one exhibition is quite limited.

Here you will find online courses that offer easy access to a selection of artworks that usually would require visits to multiple museums.

So lay back and enjoy the vivid storytelling of art at any time and any place.

See full profile

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Fine Art Art History Creative

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1. I 1 About this Course : from kings who understood themselves as biological descendants of Hercules to academics who believed wine drinking to be a perfect means off widening your consciousness. The most unsuspected ideas of culture and society can be found in established European art history. To visualize thes ideas, artists and commissioners found a perfect medium the figures and stories off ancient Greek mythology, which are not only the root of European culture but also essential for understanding famous pieces off art history dive into a journey through well known artworks and artists, guided by the themes off power and politics, love and lust. And you can we focus on the early modern period such as renascent spoke and classicism. You will get introduced to the main characters of ancient mythology and how to identify them yourself. Learn about basic imagery, concepts and ways to convey meaning. Find out how the ancient gods and goddesses are used to represent important ideas of cultural history and get to know famous examples off European art 2. I 2 About Me : Hello, everyone. And welcome to this course. My name is Karima and I'm from Germany. I'm holding a master degree in European art history, and I want to explore with you questions off culture and society by the medium off art. Now, during my experiences as a guide and as a freelancing author, very soon recognized that that would people, including myself, are really interested in are the stories beyond the artwork itself and the ideas being conveyed by it. And that is exactly why I very much enjoyed making this course. And I hope that you will enjoy it as well. So don't forget to give me your feedback. 3. II1 Introducing Ancient Mythology: So why other concepts off ancient mythologies so important for European art? We seem to have heard so much about the ancient gods, goddesses and heroes and about their power over mankind ever since the beginning off the European culture in ancient Greece. But the reception and influence are nowhere better to be found than an art. Therefore, we will detect the way art and mythology are used to evoke certain meanings and notions. Art thereby shows us not only how mankind is keen to reflect upon itself, but also how meaning can be adapted and modified in order to convey whatever the artist or the commissioner wants to mediate. Originally in ancient Greece and according to the belief there, the 12 main guards and goddesses and heroes were recited on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece located in the northeastern part of the country. The myths where oral traditions stories told from generation to generation and therefore ever changing. The first man who bothered to fix them and writing was ancient Greek poet Homer, who is said to have been the first poet in Europe at all. His life remains a mystery, and some scholars are even skeptic about his existence, but in common teaching. Homier is the legendary author off to works that include the stories of ancient mythology, The Deal Yet and The Odyssey, written in the eighth century Before Christ. These epic poems mix confirmed historical events and traditional or a poetry. The Troyan War, for example, is a famous top excited by home air. The stories of the Olympic family have survived throughout history and is pagan pre Christian called also through the emerging off Christianity. But how did that work? Maybe it's because of their relation and analogies to human characteristics, which could be reflected on employing the ancient figures. As the story goes, the 12 descriptive main Olympic gods and goddesses had defeated the former Almighty Primer gods and a now ruling as a family swayed by all their rather unholy features and temperaments that makes them interesting and relatable for us humans at any time. In 148 before Christ, the Romans ultimately took over grease. During these times of the Roman Republic. The Greek epics were translated into Latin and transferred into Roman culture. The gods were renamed, hence, every off the 12 main gods and goddesses has a Greek and a Roman name. They're divided power. We remember they rule as a family of God's was even accepted in the despotic times off the Roman Empire, we're usually the concept of one ruler was common. Nevertheless, the imagery off ancient mythology was used to communicate the glory and victories off the Roman state. A good example for that is the former Greek goddess Athena, who was Thean vision protector off the highly civilized city in general and Athens. In specific, the Romans copied a lot of Greek statues like this one here, dating back to about 440 after Christ. She now during the Roman Empire, was interpreted and depicted SDR Homa, the Tutela. Regardless off Rome, you can even spot her image nowadays in the city escape off Rome. As seen here in the famous monument for the King Vittorio Emanuele, a C condo, Veit is an important name in that context. A C is one off the three economic help Latin poets. He wrote the so called Metamor forces, which contained orations of the Greek mythology translated into Latin, and we are talking about 15 books that he all road in a pickle meter so a very comprehensive work off literary art that remained the most important source for plastic A mythology, especially for artists throughout the time. And because of this enormous reception off overfeed, we will be using the letter names as well. After some three or 400 years when Christianity was emerging since about the fourth century , the popularity of our ancient gods and goddesses decreased. At first, statues were destroyed, temples were converted into churches and pagan feasts into Christian. Once the most famous example of that might be the 25th off. December this day of the winter solstice was the feast off a Paul, the God of the Sun and was then Christianized on being celebrated as the birth of Christ himself. Today, the Christmas Day in Christian formed society. Later on, as Christianity was firmly established, the epics were predominantly a poetic phenomenon and an inexhaustible source of inspiration . As we will see, furthermore, fathers of the church recognized the moral implication and potential to elaborate notions in accordance with the Christian ideas, virtues and guidelines. There were two main streams off usage of the mythological visions. First, the historical interpretation gods were interpreted as being human once before, but as having transformed due to the outstanding achievements by that interpretation, there were no longer a danger to the clerical world order. Besides that, there was the second the so called allegorical interpretation. In the 14th century, there was the dispersion of a book called The of It Moral Easy memorialized revised version Off Generations Off, We'd reinterpreted in a Christian sense, in certain spheres. The God's presence was unbroken, and one of them is quite obvious. The planetary system. Just think off the names off some planets like Jupiter, Mars or Venus. Ever since the ancient Greeks named the planets after their gods, the notion of them watching over us from the skies and that off their magical power was present in astronomy, astrology and therefore in human imagination. In the Middle Ages in Europe, there were several authors, mostly monks, who fixed the ancient wisdom in artistically handwritten books, which included the ancient mythology as well as the astrological concepts for effect. The heroic epics were traditional component off the reading companion in schools throughout the Middle Ages. In that way, the spectacular stories of the guards and Collis is were never really for gone. This is how the mythological characters lived on into the early modern era. Besides, it was considered quite prestigious to read in old languages like Latin or Greek. Literary epics like that off Hermia, McGill or Read were deeply rooted and sophisticated social spheres. Hence the ancient heroic epics, when integral part of the Cultural Canaan of its metamorphosis as main source, Soon iconographic traditions were formed. Hence, not every artist had read all the texts. And since the Renay, since another aspect of the lives of the gods became a focus point, especially in the visual arts, the body lee love, lust and beauty off the protagonists. The ambition in this beginning humanistic error was not only the examination of the human temperament, psyche and emotional reality, but not less the discovery and depiction off corporal and seductive features that could be expressed in works off art. On top of that, they represent the source off European culture and civilisation, ancient Greece, which is a very important notion for European rulers. Historically important persons were depicted as gods and thereby rhetorically glorified, especially by Rene since and Bihac art. As we see the value and meaning off the ancient mythology is very colored and depends on the time and context. But one aspect remains. The gods and goddesses are relatable beings and challenged in a way that humans could identify with. Um, last but not least, the stories off sex, violence, revenge frauds and sinful behavior off any kind was simply entertaining and therefore offered welcomed alteration to the sacred pieces. 4. II2 Iconography: while following this course, you will notice the importance off one term iconography. The knowledge of it enables us to recognize topics and characters. So what is iconography? It can be compared to symbolism. It refers to attributes that only make sense in a certain context. It simply means that there are certain elements, attributes or qualities shown in the picture that evoke the themes related to them. These attributes are not just showing an object for itself, but implying and visualizing topics related to them. By that they are good means to identify characters in the picture. In this fresco by the famous Italian artist Raphael, for example, that refined in the beautiful Villa Fani Xena in the city off row, it shows us the whole assembly of figures who seem to be the Olympic gods and goddesses. But how can we really know? And above that who is who here and how can we tell? Here comes iconography into play. Yes, we will get to know some of the personal in detail. In the following lectures, we hear simply take one example to illustrate the principle of iconography. So let's look for Jupiter, the father off God's with a strictly iconographic approach, so we're only looking for attributes here. Now, when I tell you that Jupiter is mostly depicted with an eagle, a globe receptor and flashes can you find the figure in the picture that this meant to show Jupiter? Yes, here he is. We can see the ego between his knees and the globe under his right foot. They identified him as the ruler in heaven and on Earth. An important aspect here is also that we are not shown all of the attributes that Jupiter figure can be depicted with, but some as yet eager, and the globe are sufficient to tell the knowing eye who this figure is meant to impersonate. I shortly show you two more examples of Jupiter depictions, both from the Italian painter Francesco Abani. First we look at this picture and it affirms that this is Jupiter shown with the flashes on the eagle again. The 2nd 1 we can see that Jupiter has more attributes. Here we see the globe, the eagle holding his flashes in its claws and an intention to that aceptar to show his head. Germany among the Olympus. But we will come to that all you have to know at this moment is that once you are a little familiar with iconography and the attributes, it is really a game changer. When looking and trying to understand what you actually see in a work of art, we see here that art has a kind of a cult of its own, so artworks can be seen as cultural heritage for the concepts conveyed by them that are fixed and established by time and practice. 5. III 1 Apollo: let's look at some examples of mythological figures and how they are used to communicate concepts off power and politics. As we will see. It was very common, if not demanded, for European rulers toe identify with certain ancient gods or goddesses and their qualities . It is important to say that run ruler often used a variety of God's with which he or she all identified for the purpose off representation. In the following lecture, we will get introduced to some of the most often the employed figures, and we will approach some of thes, most important artists and artworks off European art history. By that, we should get a quite vivid idea of how aristocratic a representation could work. Naturally, you would think that the notion off power it's likely to be incorporated by Juno or Jupiter , as they are the highest gods on Olympus, according to the literature. But nevertheless, in art, other gods were more popular for that purpose. As we will see, we start with Apollo. Apollo, following the ancient myths was the son of Jupiter, and the titanium were a leader. He is described as the beautiful god of flight and son. This concept, adapted in European odd derives from the Greek gods Helios and Apollon, with whom Apollo is equated with since about the sixth century. The narration off Apollo's power is based on the story off him slaying a dragon like beast , the giant fighter at the beginning, off the Olympic gods error. And since he was seen as the preserve off justice and the hegemony off the guards since Renee, since times he was being established as the patron off the arts, most attractive with eternal youth, depicted with an athletic, a body and even characterized by slightly feminine lines of beauty, which underline his roll off the leader off the nine uses in this German class it's is painting, for example, we see him surrounded by them and their mother memos Uno. His main attributes in that context is the lira, an instrument and symbol off the poets from which the term lyric derives. Apollo is playing it with great virtuosity. Besides that, his main attributes is that of the lower wealth symbol of victory and reference to healing . As the touch of the arts was set to heal the soul. In this painting, Apollo is shown with to lower webs one Crown Sim and the other one is intended to crown the artist. As muses accompany Apollo, they, symbolically speaking, should surround the artist himself. But that is just one side to him. Moreover, Apollo is very powerful and even aggressive from time to time, striking revenge whenever the on off the guards is contested. His judge over death observation, he flayed the skin off the satyr Marcia's because he claimed to play his music better than Apollo. In this role as a revenge ER, he has shown with an arc, arrows and a quiver. Whenever the hegemony of the guards is questioned, Apollo restores the hierarchical order by striking those who dare to doubt. Apollo, as we know now, is an ambiguous figure and characterized by this enormous tension between his roll off the patron and edge of the merciless revenge, er, his temper, but also his power and virtuosity predestined Sim for rulers to identify with him and to decorate themselves with his glory. Very important for that is the notion off Apollo being the god of the sun, especially after the establishment of the hail your centrism, which is the scientific determination that all planets, including planet Earth revolves around the sun at the centre, the most famous adaptation off that for the representation off power with political expansion was surely that off. Louis, the 14th who called himself the Sun King off. What do silly in French since the Renay, since it was common to use mythological figures systematically to enhance the visual and the rate of mediation of power. But Louis, the 14th took it to extremes. Reigning in the middle of the 17th century, the French king is still famous for imagining himself as the center and therefore the metaphorical son off the state. The allegorical Yusof Apollo was therefore not far. Louis the 14th centralized Franz and made his court in Versailles the absolute center of the kingdom, which nobody, especially not the nobility, could abstain from he ritualized hiss whole day, all revolving around him just as the planets revolve around the sun. He was holding the absolute and unchallenged pop stroke against his aristocratic opposition and therefore consolidated absolutism. As Hiss form off, Regency read, the 14th had an emblem developed, showing the merge of Hiss Face and the sun sending beams, which are depicting his power and expansion. Here is an example of the grid in the royal guns off S I that you can still see today to stage himself. According to his vision, he created a whole program off visual representation, the most known and most opulent being that off the Palace of Versailles, which she had enlarged to monumental measures since 16 68 supervised by the architect Louis Le Veau and the landscape designer and really not her. The concept of Versailles, and especially its famous gardens, can be summarized as the Dominion off the human mind, and it's cultivated artificial artifact over nature. This enormous building gave him the chance of having an elaborate program off imagery surrounding himself as the royal centre off everything. Hence the picture allegories describing him as an antique God all belonged to his excessive you off himself and how he wanted to be seen in the garden. Off their sigh, we see the so called fountain off Apollo, which shows the prominent role of the idea off Apollo as a concept for the monarch. But there are even more obvious ways to connect him with the ancient guard in this portray of the king and it's family. Louis, the 14th and bodies apart, painted in 16 70 by the French court portrait's John Oakley. It gives us a really good impression off how the royal family wanted to be perceived as glorious as the Olympic Guards. The most important figure, He, of course, is Louis himself. But how can we tell that he here is depicted as Apollo? We use our knowledge off iconography. So what we see here is lower breath, crowning the king Lura being hold by two little Pooty and quite small but visible, the symbol of the sun on top of his ruling Scepter. The rest off the personnel staged a server, other Olympic gods and goddesses aligning with a political function and power. With this example, we can see how important mythological imagery really waas as it reinterprets visual hierarchies. Louis, depicting himself as the world du Soleil, the Sun King, is quite fierce, taking into account that in times before, metaphors off the sun and the light in general were implicating the notion off God or Christ himself. So to say, the one and only in a Christian sense, he saw himself in the tradition of the ancient emperors which ruled Europe before This is why we often see him in antique robes and clothing. So let's look at another example off the God Apollo as an emblem off political power. This time we are looking at South Central Germany. There's an architectural monument considered one of the most elegant, well proportioned and felicitous palaces off European laid box style. We're here looking at the words book residents or votes. Border residents in German, which was commissioned by the Bishop, prints off Votes book in 17 20. Thanks to the gifted architect by it has a Norman. It still strikes us as an enormous and well worth seeing work off architecture. As for now, we will focus on one famous part of that building. And that is the sealing off the main staircase painted by the highly decorated Venetian artist Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. In wonderful coloristic softness, we see well, first of all, a lot of figures around. So to make it simple, we are focusing at the center area off the fresco. Here we have a huge Gloria well, with shining beams reaching out, and even if we don't see much by now, we can tell that this is a quite common way to depict the God of flight Apollo. And when we take a closer look at that figure, we start to recognize even more attributes off him. First of all, he is crowned by the notorious Laurel Breath. Secondly, we have the quiver out of which she can pull his arrows and a little bit more hidden. We can also spot the Luera, the instrument we have seen him playing before. In this representative staircase. Apollo embodies the aristocratic dignity as such with his shining appearance right in the center he is ruling through are the hemisphere's, which is why we conceive visualizations off four continents at the ramps. Off the painting we see America, Asia, Africa and finally Europe, with the poetry off the Prince Bishop himself. Apollo, in that frame off reference combines the notion off political and clerical power as it was established in the diocese off words book as a clerical ruled round during the times of the Holy Roman Empire off Germany. Even if the Apollo we saw by now seems quite delicate and noble, there is another side to him. Apollo was also a welcomed figure off identification for rulers because he embodied the power of a revenge er in service of the godly Hager money as his strikes. Whenever someone dares to doubt, this comes quite close to the idea off a king or bishop who is also interested in keeping the existing social hierarchy, even if violence is needed to achieve that. The most graphic example for the brutality off Apollo instead, off him playing Marcia's subject quite popular among Bangkok artists. Marzia Sata, who dares to challenge Apollo on a musical tournament, is punished after the questioning. The superiority of the gods. Apollo, of course, wins the contest following the judgment of the surrounding uses intense. The two competitors had made a deal that whoever looses owns the winner. Whatever he wishes from him, Apollo sealed smart Zia's death by demanding his skin. He binds him and begins to flay him up from the Who's sometimes, as we see here, Marcia's even depicted as a human, which enforces the prototype of character off the story as a reminder for the beholder. This topic, as explicit as it might be, was a popular image, even for the church, as this was an appreciated and moralizing example off how one should not question hierarchical structures in society 6. III 2 Hercules: there is another famous hero in ancient mythology that stands for strong will and power. We have got Hercules. His story is the story of strength. Hercules is the sun off Jupiter and the mortal Kamina. Juno, the spouse of Jupiter, was jealous off Hercules. Mother and tense wanted to kill her offspring by sending two snakes to Hercules script. So the story off Hercule strength begins s areas in this youngest childhood, when he is already able to kill the two serpents. It's the first sign office, inexhaustible strength and checklist passions as well. Hercules hence is also a tragic figure who is bound by his temperament from time to time, which often results in Buchanan or even killing. Here we see the so called Hercules funny za, a Roman marble copy after the ancient Greek original, which can be called the Aesthetic a prototype for Hercules. It has been rediscovered in Renay since and has since been very important for art history. Here, Hercules is presented with a very strong body composition and amaze, with which he is said to have striked at a lion. You see the head off one hanging over his maze as the story goes. Hercules grew up working as a shepherd to protect us. Heard of sheeps, he killed the lion, which makes him as a leader and protect off the defenseless. Also a figure off virtue, his stance in a position that is called contact pasta. This means he has a strong supporting leg on one wait free leg, which gives him the perfect balance between stability and dynamic. He hands seems effortless and mighty. It is due to his moral side that he's a tragic figure, as Juno does not leave him alone and continues to Centam spells inform off outbursts of fury one off, which led to Hercules killing even his own wife and his three sons. Asking the oracle of Delphi. He's told to work 12 years for the king. Euro steers in order to pay for its sins. Euro steals gives him 12 tasks, known as the Labours off Hercules, which he successfully completes the first task and comm past the killing off the Nemean lion, which was threatening the people. Hercules strangled him with bare hands and wars for as a suit of armor and his head as a helmet. The's successfully completed tasks formed the narration office legend due to which he was finally received in heaven, where he since lived with the other guards. This image office, so called apotheosis, his ride into the heavenly holy spheres usually reserved for God's is important has graphically exemplifies the transformation off the reception of the ancient myths by converting them into originally Christian imagery. As we see here, the EPA Theo Sis. It's usually a Christian theme showing Christ being received by his father in heaven. You see, the analogies are striking. First, we want to focus on how he managed to finally get into heaven and how this can be used to display power, especially in the out of the modern era. We see pictures with Hiss Path that finally latitudes apotheosis as a central theme. A very famous example is the old painting, the Choice Off Hercules by the Italian Baroque artist, an Ebola Karachi. It is an allegorical picture showing Hercules in its youth, thinking about a decision that would constitute his general choice in life. We can see him in the center of the painting, sitting on Iraq, holding his maze on this right side and recollecting his forces, which he needs for this truly hard decision, the hero in this picture is shown was contemplating about what path to take to allegorical figures seem to tempt him towards each, their sites, virtues embodying virtue to us right enveloped us. The sin to Hiss left. What is interesting here is that what Hercules himself might be seeing in front of inner eye is what the beholder, what we actually are able to see. The composition in this case is not a naturalistic one, but gives us the ability to grasp what is the overall concept off what is calling Hercules to birth Hiss sides as such tuberculosis. Left side, we see a voluptuous woman from behind. She's dressed in flowing and shimmering ropes, which catch the attention and lead the view up from her. Involving removing legs to her full forms and rounds off her bag side, she's leading into a vital and rich flora, flashing and inviting glance at our hero, who might feel quite tempted by lust and the promises off leisure made by the attributes on her side, like a violin, a theater mosque and playing cards on this right side. By contrast, we see another female figure in front of you. She's pointing her arm length, emphasizing a steep and twisty path to the top off a hill where the poet horse pig as was, is waiting for him as a reward for the uncomfortable hike full of hardships which are being announced by the broken off tree stump. Now, are there any details in this picture that give us a clue regarding the outcome off Hercules? Considering I will give you a minute to take a closer look. Did you spot anything well? Firstly, Hercules is sitting one leg up, exposed with his masculinity towards Villa PDAs, which already hints at the low degree nature off the path following her. Secondly, on this left side in general, he seems to be unstable if you take a look at this left leg and foot, especially in contrast to the stable position off the right side of his body. If you then take a look at the body composition and the movements of Hercules and virtues to his right, you will find similarities that in towards the inner constitution off Hercules, their feet, their arms and their posture in general are mirroring each other slightly from an imagined access between them. Also, they are much closer to each other than Hercules and Philip does. If we take a glance at the right arm off for juice, we can see that it is the end point off a diagonal, unifying the arm movements off Hercules and her. Besides that, the hero is clearly looking to the side off. Weren't you last, but not least, you surely already spotted the figure sitting in the lower right off the painting. A lower breath as we know it from Apollo and the book in his hands identify him as a poet who indicates the superiority of the mind and therefore the honorable part of the right. This painting by an Ebola Karachi is an allegorical painting, conducting the metaphor off the right path off virtue. It's narration, allow, and compositional features cater to the view of the beholder. By that we can tell that it was painted and shown to moralize everyone who looks at it. Karachi originally composed this painting for the Roman cardinal or do our do funny za. He commissioned theater cystic design for its stolen in the famous Palazzo Farnese a today's French embassy in Rome. The overall theme for that should be the virtues off order. Dafa Neza We already see where the employment of Hercules choice for virtue could help to represent the authority of the clerical ruler. The painting of Karachi conveys the concept off pair Hospira at Astra, which means as much as getting to the stars by a lot of effort That basically means you have to earn your position through a live off virtue and worthiness in order to be seen and chosen by Heavenly Grace. This is the general legitimation off the high social position off the clearers and in this special case, that off tomorrow for Neza who in fact already comes from a wealthy and powerful family line due to Christian oceans, the figure of Hercules Waas used to state a graphic example off a moral role model that s tempted but overcomes the bad forces ruling him as such, he displayed the very essence of what religion wanted humans to be up from the early modern era, Hercules embodied the power off righteous mind and heart, his superiority as 1/2 God as a chosen and virtues deputy among humankind, predestined Hercules for the identification off several monarchs. But besides that Christian allegorical type of interpretation. There was a historical interpretation that claims the ancient Hercules, originally from old Greece, as we remember, came further north and founded the city off Paris. And as crazy as it sounds, some European rulers and especially French ones happen to see themselves as none less than the direct heirs of this bloodline. One of them is Louis, the 14th we already got to know and an example office employment off Hercules as a representative for this historical legitimation off his power is still to be found today in the cityscape off Paris, we here see the Ark Post Soma tone, designed by Piepoli. It was billed in honor off Lewis victories in the eastern region off Frantz, with really f showing the inscription Ludovico Magno, Which means Louis, the great Hercules who is supposed to depict the French ruler, is shown with his maize and line for as he is being crowned by heavenly figures on the left side, another important employment off the mythological Hercules. In historical interpretation, the hair Alec imagery off the Spanish Hapsburgs by Charles the Fifth, well off both the Spanish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire through inheritance he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western, central and southern Europe and the Spanish Vice realities in the Americas and Asia. His Emperor E was the first to be referred to as the empire on which the sun never sets, as we see here in the official code of arms off Childs, the fifth Hercules was a quite important figure for child's well, How can we tell? The two columns on both sides are symbols for the so called pillars off Hercules, which are to be found at the outermost of the European coastline and off the penninsula off Spain at the border to Morocco and the African continent. But the columns Hercules are not actually architectural pillars, but figuratively speaking, they name two hills that flank the straight off Gibraltar that wouldn't see. Refer to as the pillars are the famous rock of Gibraltar, located on the European continent, and the Jebel Musa on the Moroccan side. The writing, close order meaning and more reminds off the Spanish Conquistadors since the 15th century, which reached far beyond the realm off Europe, and we can see the coat of arms of Spain still consists off the four mention parts and especially we can still see the pillars of Hercules. So by now we already got to know the allegorical and the historical way to interpret the figure off Hercules. There is a kind off, let's say, alternative approach, which in a way combines the two but constitutes a quite special case as it adds a little bit off humor. We here see an engraving by the Dutch artist handling gold shoes. What speaks to the eye here is most surely the exaggerated musculature developed into a multiplicity off bombs. Our hero here standing in front of the landscape, the line for blowing behind him in the wind with a Ted on that off Hercules, he's carrying the maze over his left shoulder and holding her horn in this ride, courageously is taking a big step forward. His eyes focused on something outside the picture between the hills off the landscape. We can see him completing his labors for King euro steers, for example, the wrestling with the river god Oculus in the shape of a bull whose horn he's holding as a trophy in the foreground. For a long time, this engraving was titled Nolan Munn which means as much as bobbles or bump man in Dutch. Due to his appearance, gods use ire Anizers Theo idolizing off the mythological Hercules among the fine arts. What is interesting here is that God's use actually combines this humorist IQ outlook with a quite serious political message. The resistance to the occupying force off the Spanish Hapsburgs, who ruled the Netherlands completely until only a few years ago. In 15 81 this was all part of the Dutch. We bowled a fight for freedom that should not be over until about 60 years later. The figure of Hercules by handling gold's just can here be seen as a moralizing and strengthening imagery with the spies off humor. 7. III 3 Minerva: But what possibilities did female monarchs have to represent their virtues and strength through a visual concept? The most employed female deity is probably me. Nerva. Her character derives from the old Greek goddess Athena, who were seen as the patron off Athens. Efforts in ancient Greece was most elaborated and civilized, which is why Athena and therefore me. Nerva is connected to that notion, off wisdom and civilized modoff behavior. What predestined sir to be that mindful and strong figure protecting cities and even leading into combat, and that in times where those were suspects, that rather contrast id the notion off the feminine well, me. Nerva is the daughter of Jupiter and meters goddess off prudence who the father off God swallowed because he feared that the baby growing in her womb was to be a boy and too powerful for Jupiter's taste. Beatus nevertheless lift on inside of Jupiter, and when the God will keano split it its head with an eggs. The unborn child of meters me Nerva, came into this world. Hence this story off a birth as she isn't born unnatural way. But it's literally a hat birth. Her rational and controlled nature is already con rotated. Other than her brother Mass, who also leads into Battle Me, Nerva fights with reason and for purposes off protection, where us mass temperament is leading him to head over heels and quite few years, warfare. Me Nerva is mostly depicted in armour, with the lance under shield, a helmet with a little Sphinx figure and a big feather plume an often employed attributes off me. Nerva is also the head of Medusa, one on her shield, as you can see here on a brooch, because as the story goes, we never helped the hero pass eyes to defeat the killing. Gorgon, Medusa as me. Nerva was the one who had the idea off letting Medusa, which her own reflection in the glazed surface off the shield she gave to passers. She wears the emblem off her head as a symbol off victory off prudence. With her strength, she was believed to accompany warriors just like she accompanied pathways, her prudence, strength and chest city. Ah, prototypical values for female leaders in politics, off which we want to look at. One famous example, she ruled France for seven years after her husband, Henry the fourth, had been maliciously assassinated in 16 10 Malley de Medici. Here we see her dressed in black robe with a black headdress that identifies her as a widow . Back when her husband was still alive, they had bronze medal made on which married Immediate Key is depicted as me Nerva with feather plume, helmet shield and ancient looking robes. Her husband, Henry, the fourth has shown on the left side is mass, with an ancient looking suit of armor swore lands and a so called pollute momentum, which the cloak off Roman military commanders fastened at one shoulder. They are shaking hands of the head of a small child carrying a helmet, one foot standing on a dolphin. This is the heir to the throne, their son Louis, the 13th whose only two years by then but was soon to be king. The dolphin is a symbol for this as to Fong in French is the heir to the royal throne off France. At that time, the ego connected with the father off gods. Jupiter is flying down to Crown Louise soon. It was only seven years later, when Henry, the fourth king off Frantz, was murdered until their son, Louis, the 13th came off age married a Medici reigned until 16 17 as Queen off Frantz. And this queen knew how to represent herself even and maybe exactly because times got hard for her when her son kicked her out of the capital and she had to take exiles several times because she didn't want to let go off the power she had uring her regency. When she finally came back to Paris, she had a palace built for her, the police looks and book, which today is the seed of the French Senate. She headed equipped with 24 paintings serving only one main topic herself, including her Regency, her power and noble upbringing. Now let us look at thes representational paintings that a famous artist painted off this famous woman as she was originally from the powerful and rich Medici family of Florence in Italy. She really liked to have those painted in a manner which shows her grand s just like the Italian art was used to depict it. For that, she chose an artist which had lived and learned several years in Italy and was therefore able to provide the queen with the representation, artistry and glory that she had envisioned for his health. Peter Paul Rooms, originally from Flanders in today's Belgium, signed a contract that obliged him to pain 24 paintings showing the queen off France, her life and her political work, as well as the tribes of Henry, the fourth in antique Roman style. So what does that mean? Antique Roman style and how is that expectation to be met by the artist? Rooms chose to combine a historical and an allegorical interpretation off Maria's life, using mythological figures to depict the virtues and skills she brought to the table when the powerful country of Franz was at her command. Therefore, one painting off the cycle was important for the argumentation in the first place that showing Henry's death intends the very moment when the power was given to her legitimately . Here we see two panels that are originally one single painting on the left one. We see Henry being taken into heaven after his death, his so called apotheosis on the right panel, we see Maria de Medici being given the orb as a symbol off Regency by the heroic figure of Franz, styled quite like the goddess me Nerva, but not only that we know of are also accompanies her. As she is standing right next to Maria. End seems to advise her in other pictures off the cycle, for example, that off her upbringing we can see me Nerva again as she's teaching the queen all her wisdom so we can already see that Me Nerva is a key figure for Maria de Medici as she embodies the qualities that she wants to represent. But as for now, me, Nerva only accompanies her that changes with the rhetorical pitch off the cycle. In the last and certainly most iconic painting, we can only see one person, and that is the queen herself. But this time not in some worldly or historical arrangement. No, the Queen has now become the goddess Minerva. So let's have a close look at that center piece off this well thought out cycle. It had a very special place in the police looks and book as it was positioned at the fund end off the gallery where it was the only piece at the wall Here. Maria faces us in the middle, access off the painting on. You have to imagine that this wasson over life sized painting, so the effects when standing right in front of it as a visitor in her Palais, her appearance might have been even more immersive. She holds the SEPTA off Frantz in her left hand, and in her right she carries a small statuette off the figure off Victoria, Impersonating the victory off Maria and which victory in specific We will come to that later. Maria fears fully glances at the beholder while to cherubs a crowning her with a Longworth under which she is wearing the feather plumed hammered off the nova. She's standing in contract pasta, dynamic but yet strong, pushing her left foot down on a shield that it's lying on the ground. She's standing on a plateau, locating her in the sphere off heaven, which is emphasized by the very low horizon line, which makes the clouds the inter alia, out of which she seems to emerge. And she's showing her left breast bear right to behold us glance. But wait naked breasts. How does that match with the glorious, more than aristocratic vision she wants to create off herself? The most important question regarding that is as what do we see? Married omitted, she here as a queen, as a mother or as the goddess. The answer to those questions is not that clear, but generally, said Maria de Medici, years to be seen as a little bit off everything. And that exactly shows the mastery off the artist Peter Poor rooms. And not only that, the answer to that question has the potential to explain to us nearly every bit off the picture. So let's go. By that approach. Let us first search for indicators off her being presented as a monarch, the first woman off the stage. The most obvious might be the alternative title The Queen to, Um, fund Maria de Medici as Minerva Beatrix, which already announces the depiction off a queen. A stateswoman more so we can see Marion immediate, she holding the SEPTA off France, which, just like her rope, shows the Flor de Lee theoretic symbol off the rulers of Franz for many 100 years. In addition to that, the colors used for the ropes off my year red, blue and gold recollect those off the coat of arms off the house of bourbon, the dynasty off Henry, the fourth Maria de Medici, and hence that awfully the 13 more. So the painting manifests the moment off Maria de Medici being crowned not as an historic event, but allegorically speaking by chair apps by Heavenly Dignity, which wants to implicate the infinite nous off a royal time transcending glory on the We speak of a so called day fight portray, which shows Maria as the goddess. We can still spot the indications off her worldly monarch identity. Such a certain earrings and the Poile necklace, indicating her high social status on that are part off. Nearly every portray rooms painted off Maria de Medici. As we can see here, for example, Maria strikes us as a calm, serene but powerful queen positioned on a plateau, which leaves an extract at the lower left march of the painting, offering the view off landscape exemplifying the realm, which is under Maria's victorious protection as it is to be found right under the statuette off the goddess off Victory. But there is another motive implicated in the way Maria is represented in the painting. This might be so obvious that one might forget about it. She gave birth to the king to be looted. 13th who? She had a very antagonistic relationship with, including her organizing political uprisings and even being forced into exile for visualizing that mental image of the mother. She is shown as a fleshly human being, making her perceptible beyond her social status. She's giving us a considerate, attentive look and her bare breast, and that context can also be seen as a sign for her nurturing strength, bringing prosperity to both the king and to the country. This motive off the mother serves two purposes. One, Maria de Medici, is shown as superior to her son, the king, as she ears and stays the one person he owes his life to, who nurtured and hence prepared him for the regency. And second, she is presented in the nurturing and caring dignity off the mother of the state. She here impersonates all the good trades and forces the country needs to maintain. Now let us look at the main and title motive here. Maria as a goddess. What exactly identifies her as such? At first we have that calm, strong on moving posture. First, she herself does not move, and her stable nous is visually emphasized by her strong legs and arms interval ominous body. But Although she herself does not move, there actually is a lot of movement going on who golden robes blowing around her body and upwards towards the sky. It can be perceived as being animated by heavenly powers. The chair apps, another mean to depict unworldly activities, are flying, crowning her and showing the same quality and color off skin as Maria, which again connects her to the supernatural. Maria is holding the statute off Victoria. The Guards Off victory, which is staged in the same way mafias, the same composition off the body, posture and rope, the same naked right breast, a lower wealth. And instead of the flying rope off Maria actual wings, beholder should notice by watching Maria de Meted. She has the same essence as the goddess off victory. What is important for exactly this emblematic impression is the fact that the scene is not generational, not showing historic events or even events at all. This painting is composed by abstract surrounding and figuration style izing Maria as an emblem off herself beyond time and space, seeming to be rising out of the heavenly sphere behind her. And as we already mentioned, one off her breasts is uncovered. And that is a striking difference to those scenes in which he is acting as a worldly person as, for example, here in the panel showing her as she is handing the Regency over to her son. No. In the last piece off the cycle, she is depicted as a goddess, the naked breast being a sign of for Holiness. This nudity refers to antique motives where the human body is celebrated in his purest appearance as untouched God created nature and therefore associate ID with sacredness. But Maria is not only pictured as any kind of goddess, no, she here clearly impersonates that goddess that has accompanied her since she was a child. The goddess me, Nerva Maria's to Italy regard us as which she has been depicted before. How can we tell? She simply is surrounded by the established attributes that identify her as such. Do you see them? The Lord wealth, the feather plume talent with a sphinx figure honored antique star sandals and robe. And even though it might or might not be me nervous, she had on the ground iconographic. Lee joins the attributes off me. Nerva goddess off wisdom. Reasonable and clever diplomacy and provider off well thought out combat strategy and last but not least, a guard Lee given ruler ship. The remaining question seems to be. What did the triumph in Queen actually defeat? Traditionally be nervous, seen as a goddess off wisdom and protection off the realm. As such, moneyed, immediate she years seems to be successful as she's holding Victoria. And in fact, this queen was ruler who always tried to make peace and come to arrangements with other European houses. By wise counselling and diplomatic strategy, she was known to be an intelligent counselor for Louis the 13th and those times they got along. All this is why it is very likely that she wanted to vision herself as defying furious warfare, bringing death and atrocity to the people of Franz. And in fact, the weaponry in this painting is like uselessly on the ground, thrown together and overcome by Maria so we can tell that by this cycle and this painting as a climax, Marie admitted she wanted to literature made her work as a queen off successful diplomacy. She wanted to manifest her political influence and record her power, even though she was close to retirement from political affairs when they were painted and even had to leave the country only six years after the cycle was completed. What remains is the outstanding craftsmanship off the artist Peter Paul Rubens, who managed to include several strategies off interpreting one mythological figure. Hiss Media Gee cycles set the tone for that type of image for as long as the next 200 years . Maria Successors got inspired by her imposing portray off her as me Nova and hence adept that this mode of style for themselves one off many examples showing here her daughter in law and off Austria mother off the infamous King Louis. The 14 she as well uses the iconography off me Nerva to depict herself a such an antique robes and the middle is a brooch with feather plume, Talmud and a shield crowned with the Lower Worth and an owl in some artworks present to visualize her prudence looking from behind her right leg 8. III 4 Conclusion: we got to know some European rulers, clerical and monocle who employed the old ancient guards to their political advantage to display power and Hagar money. And although the gods are not shown in their original rich context, their story is pre supposed in order to understand this quite prestigious art off representation. So what were these gods and goddesses that are thousands off years old able to do for them ? Well, they offered culturally established concepts that were also fit to legitimate power. As the heritage off European culture, it should be seen as a coherent continuation off qualities given to European rulers by heavenly forces. In addition to that, they brought with them a vivid context and background story that was especially appealing to the sophisticated audience for which day as a ruler, at the same time, qualified by using these concepts off ancient literature and art 9. IV 1 The Loves of Jupiter: Now we look at mythology in European art with another focus point the idea off love and lust for which the mythological figures were needed in order for artists to depict the fleshly last. Therefore, we will be looking at thes three examples the loves of Jupiter, Venus and ammo. In times before, the love act itself had to be shown in a strongly encrypted manner like for example, in this depiction showing two lovers talking about what could not be visualized explicitly as the texts over the heads say in rough translation women, Look, I offer you my casket. Please take it, man, I really would like to, but unfortunately, my key is too small. So you see, it was a quiet, humorous tick and very clear form off relating to the lovers sexuality. But nevertheless, showing these topics and picture would have been a scandal with severe consequences. And neither off course was the biblical cannot fit to convey these kind of fantasies for that purpose. The figures off ancient mythology served artists well as their love and sex stories could be seen allegorically and as an examination of culturally established narrations. Most popular for that purpose is where the love affairs off the father off God's Jupiter Jupiter spouse Juno, as you might remember, tends to get jealous and even furious because of the countless love affairs of Jupiter. For that reason, he always disguises himself when approaching a potential new lover. Unfortunately for them, there misdoings are always revealed, and especially the unknowingly or even unwillingly seduced lovers are punished by Juno or society. One example for such a dramatic plot is the story off Jupiter and your You was a young female priest who worship the goddess Juno. Intense flee from Jupiter's approaches Jupiter then transforms into a huge cloud and has intercourse with your without her knowing what is going on. This moment is captured by the Italian Hi Renee, since artists Antonio Decor Rachel. This painting, this one piece of a Siri's off four paintings depicting the love affairs off Jupiter for the do cough mantra in North Italy, Carajo decided for the stories off you don I ghani meat and leader. We will take a closer look at that one, showing you what's being seduced by the cloud into which Jupiter had transformed. We see a female nude from behind, sitting on Iraq, with her head sensually inclined to the back. So the viewer gets to see her and 3/4 profile with her lips opening a little bit as forming libidinous sounds. Her body is full of birth, shown in the Mannerist manner. She's being surrounded by a huge cloud, out of which hand describing her by her waist and the face evolving to kiss her. In this painting, carajo employs the contemporary aesthetically and deal's off a woman's beauty. In the 16th century Italy, there was a certain Canaan off how the perfect women should look, moving with slender elegance, autistic hairstyle with white skin, tiny mouth and high forehead. What we see here is the contemporary males erotic dream. What we do not see is a real male counterpart. It's the disguising off Jupiter, predestined the stories off his erotic adventures for the depiction off the female body and last and only the female. There were several treatises concerning the rolls off the woman and the man in a Morris encounter. One famous example. It's the blog DeMora written by Leonor, a Braille, a Hebrew philosopher living in Italy. It was first published in Italian in 15 35 and then later translated into French, Hebrew, Letten and Spanish. You see it was published after Correggio finished the Siri's off You Pittis loves, but it is nevertheless fitting example off the discourses at that time. Now listen to this conception off the female and the male part while looking at coca, just picture showing you quote. Humans consist off. A complete and active may apart the intellect and an incomplete and passive fee may apart. The body and the meta God unite thes two parts into a complete unity as such as the bodily sensual female follows the mail, which is the intellect and the mind unquote. Maybe you can find these ideas in the painting according to which the man is not shown within the sexual act because the actual bodily laugh is incorporated by the woman. The female part is body Leanness. The male part is power, the will that forms the female that complies passively. We see the mayor counterpart actually is constructed by thes visualizations off Jupiter's loves. It is just that you did not need a body depiction to do that. A similar case. It's the depiction off the Donna myth at which we will look at next. The model Donna was the daughter off a king who feared that if his daughter gets pregnant and gives birth to a boy, this boy would ask the oracle of Delphi. He predicted kill him. That s why he had his daughter locked up in the tower. Jupiter saw Donna and fell in love with her. Since she had to stay behind bars. The only inconspicuous way for him to approach down A was by converting into a golden shower that impregnated her with her son, Pastore's who actually got to kill his grandfather later. Sometimes this golden shower incorporating Jupiter is interpreted as actual coins off gold . Like in this famous down I depiction by Teetsi on or sometimes pronounced Titian, that became a defining model for the explicit illustration off erotic experience in the scene. As you can see, the golden shower off coins is literally falling into her lap. The Dutch artist Rembrandt Fondren, in alteration about 18 years after Teetsi on depicted it as a golden shower off light pouring over don iced body that constituted a considerable change in the iconography as the golden coins. Until then when identify are for the figure off Don I? What speaks to the eye here is the enormous sensual appeal off the way Donna is shown. Her skin shines in the light, coming from outside the image area and highlighting her body. Lying delicately on the bed, she's positioned Frontal to the beholder, holding her right arm up with her palm, inviting the view into the image space. Her mouth slightly opened a sense sensual anticipation off Jupiter for seeing the seduction . Dan eyes flesh, seems almost riel, softly adapting to the sheets and cautions on which she lies and especially sensitive point for this argumentation off of softness off her skin is her left breast being pushed a little bit up against her body by her left arm. The half style and jewelry identified the model for this down. I figure, as a contemporary off Rembrandt, making it easy for the beholder, to imagine a re a woman here forgetting about Donna and the cultural associations. That, and the absence of the iconographic Lee fixed sign for the citation off the ancient mythology, the missing off the golden coins that several art historians in the 19th century to the conclusion that this was regular new to portray, which led to titles like The Lover expected not indicating any literary or mythological reception at all. But there actually is a little symbolism at play here, for example, the small arm or figure being bound to the bed, which, referring to the art historian Panofsky, indicates the forced chastity off the mythological donna being broken by the approaching Jupiter and the house shoes laid on the floor with the opening accessible for the beholders , I are unknown indicator off sexuality in Dutch paintings at that time. This motive off intimacy is reflected by the huge curtains hanging from the bed, indicating the revelation off the secluded. This semantically fits the story off Danny, who was being held captive in an UN accessible tower despite thes few iconographic a indicators for this being a donna depiction, the predominant image language serves the aesthetic ALS intensification. Off this painting, the beholder should not only see the woman but also have the illusion off knowing how her skin the cautions, the curtains in the scene feel this enormous sensuality is being sublimated by the God like light, illuminating the set informer tradition, the sensuality and eroticism off Donna figuration was simultaneously balanced by the figure you see in the background. This is supposed to be the made off the mythological don I. And it's traditionally like here in Tits. Ian's painting interpreted as agreed as she's trying to catch the gold coins falling from above. No, Rembrandt is giving as no moralizing direction off. Reading the picture, he tries to give us an realistic impression off a woman in anticipation off Central encounter. An interesting point here, which is connected to the underlying tone of courageous work that we saw before, is that hear us well. It is all about the depiction off the female body Leanness, whereas the male counterpart is the sublime and ephemeral off the light. Re remember, these paintings are supposed to show us a sexual act. The out of body reception off the man here is reflecting the common sense during these times, which assumed that the male sperm is equivalent with a spirit being transmitted into the woman's body in order to impregnate her. The mythological epics surf here as a legitimation, often erotic imagery as well as interational basis, adding semantic depth to the central artworks. Another taboo could be made visually accessible by employing the laughs off Jupiter. Gay love Jupiter did not only duct female of us no, he also laid eye on a young shepherd boy with the name Ganymede. Jupiter took him away to Olympus in the guise, often eager, several well known artists attended to the topic, for example, Michelangelo rooms and to Rembrandt, the artistic appeal off this topic lies in the painting of young men's body within the dramatic scene, often abduction by a huge and mighty ego, Ganymede. It's mostly depicted as an adolescent naked boy with delicate facial features and blonde curly hair. An exception concerning many respects is the painting off Rembrandt, which we will be looking at in detail later. First, we examined this sketch drawn by Italian artist Julia Claudio after Michelangelo banality tentative Flynt's explore the unfolding off the eagle fixating gunny made with its claws, grabbing his legs and his swings carrying his arms. The softness off this drawing enhances the impression off a sexual approach. Moreover, Jupiter is holding Ganymede tightly from behind and exposing his sex to the beholders. I, while Ghani made, is closing his eyes and surrendering with calm inwardness in classical ancient Greece. In times where the Ghani midmonth is rooted, the love between an elderly and a young man was seen as the highest form off relationship, expanding from educational purposes to erotic aspect. This is their homoerotic depiction concerted by Michelangelo in Rene since times when homosexuality was prohibited. According to the renascent author Vasari, who is describing the lives off Italian artists in detail. Michelangelo himself had homosexual affair with the 23 years old Tommaso dei Cavalieri when he waas 57 years old, Peter Paul Rubens as well examined the topic with eroticized approach. We see Ganymede from low angle being grabbed by Jupiter. The main plot here concentrates on the central image area, with the eagle biting the strap off Ghanim. It's quiver, which in the lower image area marks a dynamic and strong diagonal representing a phallic motive. It is positioned right at the height office. Sex and his bag is being graphically explain, ated by color and four Rembrandt at the same time. Elaborated humorist IQ interpretation of Ganymede, Especially when you compare it to the rooms painting, you get a clear idea off how Rembrandt converted the formerly erotic depiction off Ganim. It's back on the phallic associations into the back view off a sobbing child, which can't even withhold its water because of the shock induced by the abduction. The post off the eagle, in turn, records Michael Angelos draft with indicated heaviness off the Ganymede figure and the resulting alteration office posture again gives the parodist IQ impression. The Cherries thereby hint at the former erotic connotation off the theme as they allude to a pair of testicles and the tassel hanging from gunny mids ropes is commonly interpreted as reference to the Dutch term for it crust, which could also mean fool. It gets very clear that Ram Bond breaks with the established form off representing this mythological oration. But Rembrandt, as a master office craft, managed to go far beyond the satirical aspect off this imagery. There are several other notions conveyed in Rembrandts mode of presenting the subject to US one off, which is that since classical antiquity, the story off Ganymede was used to mediate the idea that young Children who died that early are being taken directly into heaven as their sole was supposed to be pure still, instead off meeting the semantical and former requirements for this George Off history painting, Rembrandt gives a new perspective with several possibilities off interpretation, making this ambivalence see off semantics, a pictorial subject. A swell. 10. IV 2 Venus: next we attend to one of the most famous and most aka typical figuration of the idea of love in general and womanhood in particular Venus. The assumed inclination off beauty. The Venus figure derives from the Greek Aphrodite E. Who the poet homier describes as this arming the beautiful, richly robed and with hair off gold. Venus is the goddess of love, whereby this concept is often divided into heavenly and earthly love. According to the mythological epics, she was being married against her will to cocaine, who she was not attracted to. Instead, she felt for the war God Mass. Who's furious temperament. She managed to balance Mars and Venus together, embody the notion off the passionate relationship, which was soon to be discovered. When will Cain spawn a net in which the two lovers got Kortan? Sometimes, like in this picture by child's green move, we can also spot the assembly of gods in the background, watching and even laughing at the clumsy scene. Venus alone is often depicted with attributes that symbolized fertility like blossoms, rabbits are pigeons. This concept off a cosmological active force off fertility, was very important for humans, especially in times when survival depended on the fruitfulness off the earth dating back to s earliest 30,000 before Christ we see the first so called Venus figurine we know about it is called the Venus off villain Dov. And it was found in 1980 in Austria. It is shown at the Natural History Museum in Vienna. This only 11 centimeters or 4.3 inches high. Figurine, of course, predates the mythological Venus, but it is supposed to have symbolized the feminine ability to give birth and secure life. We see extremely rounded forms, emphasis and exaggeration off the corresponding features off the female body. It shows the importance off fertility in a more abstract cosmological dimension. Such archaeological findings were also made in the cultural region off the Orient. The concept of fertility was now embodied by the goddess Sierra's, the Greek diameter. But her image was by far not so popular as that of Venus, the female body as representation off beauty in classical antiquity. The depiction off the body should answer the ideas off pureness and aesthetic pleasure. While male nudity was associated with strength, agility and therefore autonomy, the female body was now to be pure beauty created for the aesthetic of stimulation off the beholders I Here we see the first life sized female act that became very important for the cultural history of the female mute. We hear. Look at an effort died the statue made in the fourth century before Christ, that is Roman copy after the Greek original off a sculptor Cold Packs E. Tillis. It is commonly called Aphrodite off tornadoes after the ancient Greek city, Canada's where the statue was commissioned for the local temple. So what does this figure tell us about the reception of Aphrodite E. As a woman? Well, firstly, she is embedded in a worldly context as the cloth she's holding in her left suggests a bath thing Seen now, the beholder is kind of invading this intimate scene, which is why Aphrodite, a here, uses her right hand to cover Herp Uber's but at the same time, of course, drawing attention to it, it is clearly a sexual connotation off which the figure itself seems to be aware and even ashamed. This is the foundation off a Venus type that will succeed in art history. The Venus Politica, which means as much as the Venus that is ashamed. In this picture, for example, we see a copy of an anti queen, a statue that was in the possession off the Medici family. A shameful but also eroticized and character is increased by her right hand touching her breast. Do you recognize this gesture from a famous Renee since painting showing Venus Yes, it is quite similar to the famous Venus, painted by the northern Italian artist Sando BOTTICELLI. This Renee, since painting is showing us in a lively and beautiful manner. The arrival of the heavenly Venus on land after she was born out of the foam off the ocean's waves from the right and goddess off the season spring comes rushing to cover Venus naked body. Everything is vivid and seems to be flowing in the winds that are blown by the God of the West winds. It's a supernatural, aesthetically experience this very moment, when we catch Venus naked in her God given beauty event, celebrated by blossoms as another symbol, offspring and fertility. Venus CEO seems to be pure. Her beauty should simply be perceived while memorizing the wonders off nature and the gift of the season that principle off sensuality leading to higher and noble consciousness is pretty much the essence of a very important philosophical movement at thes times around the ending 15th and the beginning 16th century. The new plate in is, um, a revival of the ideas off ancient Greek philosopher Plato, especially in Florence. Under the Medici family, Knew Clayton isn't flourished, which income past the establishment of a new Platini Stickley influenced academy. The followers of that philosophy were convinced by the idea that everything you see and sense is just an imagery shadow off what lies beyond the materialistic object itself, but nevertheless, objects and central experiences like here to be seen. The beauty off a human body can lead to an anticipation off the guard lease fears beyond sensuality, and that perspective was a little too mate mean to get closer to the superhuman. It was cozy mood Amedi CI on influential banker and politician who founded the Platonic Academy of Florence in 14 45. Other relation off BOTTICELLI to the Medici was quite busy as BOTTICELLI painted several paintings for the family. So this Venus, as inclination off heavenly laugh and sensuality, has to be understood in that context as a pre face for spiritual spheres. And in this there are some similarities to our next lady who became famous herself. Here we see the so called sleeping Venus by Italian painter Arjona. This piece was presumably intended as a wedding gift embedded in a marriage chest, a rich and showy Italian type off furniture. It was typical for it to contain erotic images off mythology. It refers to the old notion off the last garden, where love, lust, music and nature are ever present. Female beauty here is linked to a new topic. Anticipation off. A paradise will place remote from the everyday city life and the temporal. So could you guess why this painting got so famous and important for European art history? Well, you see, in this painting there's nothing left really that identifies the figure as the mythological Venus. We see no attributes and no narration, embedding so that the simple s that tickle effect off it is that of a Knute. In addition, the female figure he is lying, which is also where the tradition of this imagery, when you consider the shut eyes it is really an invitation for the beholder to glance at the woman's naked body in detail without having to imagine being seen. She's not desiring herself as femininity was defined by the contemporary literature at the CIMB poses off beauty, devotion but simultaneously by chest ity. This combination off erotic appeal and chastity was a challenge for the artist. This artistic rendering off the view itself belonged to the beholder and hierarchies implied. But it are prototypical representation of the view of the female body, which is often only object to the viewer, not physical dimension, often autonomous subject. This shifts a bit with the next painting, which was painted by the pattern off Joe Jonas Venus, the so called Venus off Urbino, which was commissioned by the Do Cough Urbino. It was painted by Teetsi on who worked in the same workshop as Joe Jonah. He knew Joe Jonas Venus quite well, and some scholars even think that he contributed to the peace. Now have a look at the two paintings yourself. I supposed to spot some similarities. Well, we see at first side that the overall composition is clearly based under Jonas Piece on the left side. That is the case for the positioning off the body in the image area the dark background behind the area off the head and the upper body is commentating a sense of intimacy. Also very similar is the reservation off the right image area for a scene hint off profanity and everyday life, which sort of contrasts the special and intimate scene off the naked figure and emphasizes that delicate nous. Moreover, the clear, ephemeral and unf Leschly slightly geometric body forms are related and look at the gesture of the left hand, continuing the traditional hand off the classical Venus politica but going beyond that by bending the figures in a neurotic manner. So after we affirmed the similarities of both paintings, what is so new with Teetsi ons depiction that he painted above 30 years later the new thing with D. C. Ants Venus is there. Not only is the figure now even more clearly in a profane context and therefore a regular naked woman in an elegant domestic setting, she's also fiercely returning the beholders glance, nearly inviting him to look at her that was considered quite bold. We also see a little dog sleeping to her feet. It is the common symbol for loyalty again, another promise to the man watching as this is assumed to have been a wedding piece as well . The painting was also called Donna Nura, which basically means Naked Woman. This illustrates quite clearly that art has now officially come to the point where the image reframes off classical mythology were transformed into an aesthetic approach of staging the human body. Only that was exaggerated. In following times in which there was really no taboo concerning unity anymore, presumed, he roughly employed a mythological setting. Sometimes even the title was enough, Like this painting from Alexander Carbonell, which clearly serves erotic purposes. When these demanded hints at mythology were not given, you had to reckon with public slander, like it was the case with Money's so called Olympia that he exposed in 18 65. But there is a context implied in this painting that strongly contributed to the scandalous appearance off it. Even though the overall composition is clearly inspired by the traditional Venus depictions to detect the special semantics here, let's take a closer look at the woman in the picture. First, she has no abstracted body forms. She is described quite naturalistic Lee and not devotional. On the contrary, she's looking straight at the beholder. No bent neck, no cock a tree. She's confident. And the ram off the erotic is her everyday routine, the flowers being brought by the dark skin servant at probably a gift trauma lover. The lawyer little dog off Teetsi ons Painting is now a black ket, suggesting unpredictability. The title Olympia sounds quite noble, but actually it is not ID. Well, money painted this in 19th century Paris. In this time, Olympia was a term for prostitutes. And not only that, the spontaneous and unclassified cystic manner in which it is painted, not idolized with rough brush lines was simply not meeting the standards of the Parisian art academy that dictated the public taste at that time. 11. IV 2 Amor: by now, we saw quite different interpretations of the Venus figure concerning love, lust and beauty. But is there any mail figuration within these contexts? Of course. Um, the former Greek errors, the oldest literally sources errors Waas, the mighty primal force who was engaged in the creation of the Earth as a cosmic principle . Nobody was safe from his arrows with which he could fire at any time and any place you can easily identify him by his ark and arrows. He's almost always winged and able to fly. The arrows striking the lover are symbolizing the passive and unwillingly nature of falling in love. In late classical antiquity, his appearance began to change in poetry as well as in the pictorial arts. Hiss figure was described younger and more droll since about the third century before Christ, he was even depicted as a small child, the son of Venus off even blindfolded, which indicates the randomness and playfulness off his actions in Rene. Since times, Little and Moretz are also called Cupid's, or put E are inhabiting even the Christian imagery like thes two little ones by Italian Renee. Since artist Rafael, who became quite famous and even an independent motive in relation to the new Platini. Stick Thinking in Rene, since I Am a was seen as a positive force and experience a ble perception off beauty. This gave way to several provocative depictions, like this one here by the Italian Mannerist painter Parmigianino. We see arm or in a scenic setting in front of a black background from behind, carving his bow and looking at us from over his left shoulder. Even though this are more, seems to be quite delicate for the softness office flesh, the playful curls, the fluffy textures off its wings and the gentle shading off color. He actually refers us to his power and savagery. He casts his bow with purposeful grip and sharp blade, hinting at the accuracy and power off his shooting. The brutal force off desire is, furthermore, pictorial by the two Pootie in the background. As the mayor characterized, Poto is holding the female one fiercely, even though she tries to defy him. No chance. He as well is looking at us as demonstrating is doing proudly analogous Lee to that little puto are more strikes us as well, and that is by his clans. Parmigianino manage ST Louis trade is looking as directly, and striking SS arrows are supposed to strike the amorous hard. So we are directly addressed and immediately bound by his power. Most so his angiogenic nudity might have fed an eroticized in effect on some Spectators, too. The seduction off the beholder was a set goal. At that time, only the artist who managed to bind the fewest glance and arouse his or her temperaments was acknowledged to master the visual arts. The artist there for himself should be inhabited by lust and love in order to convey the effects off the artwork. Parmigianino was considered successful in this his master. Here is the symbiosis of showing our most savagery and a seductive sensuality in one painting, just as it was the case with Venus. The idea off are more split it into two concepts that, if a earthly armor, a playful and shiki childlike figure who is conducting humans to fall in love and feel erotic desires often employed from the early modern era onwards, and that often heavenly Armel representing the love between humans and guard in this variety, it is a motive employed by the church. First we take a closer look at this painting by the famous Italian artist Caravaggio, it is called, Um Yevhen said are more, which means love conquers all, or by its English title, triumphing Armagh relating to the wording off the Latin poet figure. The central motive is a young boy moving gleefully and balancing honest right leg. His body language speaks off agility, openness and playfulness. The head a little bit inclined. He glances at us with a convincing smile. He tries to bind the look of the beholder by the realism office aura. Hiss wings are strong and touching his left leg with a hint of sensuality for the softness off the textures off the feathers and that of Armagh skin. Moreover, he is presenting his sex without hesitance, clearly sexual illusions. In the background, we see various objects on the ground symbols off what armor is supposed to overcome, over which he prevailed. Instruments, square compass, suit of armor, a laurel worth and a crown. This armor triumph was effortlessly over the arts sciences, glory and profane power, and over the beholder, a swell the heart lines off the object there. By contrast, the softness and delicate nous off the boy's body. The special thing about this painting is that you can see are more in a realistic manner as a fleshly young boy. His outlooks and balancing posture are so convincing that you can see the genuine model for this painting through the figuration. Off are more the mythological armor here's only needed to transmit the symbolic level of love, triumphing over everything on the aesthetic, a level are more directly wins the attention and feelings off the beholder, This direct aesthetic approach off the corpora ality off this are more. Painting by Caravaggio provoked opposing illustrations as critical comments. Within a year after Caravaggio's Armagh was seen publicly, the artist Giovanni Baglioni, just like Caravaggio situated in the city off Rome, painted a direct visual comment on it. The painting Sacred and Profane Love, shows us two or more figures. The boy, lying naked and defeated on the ground, is being beaten by another armor, this time bigger and older one a young adult in Armagh and just reaching back to attack. If intended or not, this figure is highly inspired by the Christian notion off the archangel Michael, who defies the devil or evil in humans as we can see. The similarities in the iconography are obvious. Mythology here is converted into Christian imagery and concepts in order to strengthen the expression in terms off the clerical message that the love of God and loving God is mightier and far more noble than the fleshly love off the worldly spheres. In comparison to the Caravaggio piece in Bag Leona's painting, the composition of the scenery and the lines off the face and the body a much more idolized and generalized we don't see the slightly naturalistic er thinness of Caravaggio's are more , but unis are more is a saint and unworldly holy force striking against the human temperaments and form off the beaten and exposed to ridicule. Smaller are more on the ground, therefore, by the Ulis painting can be described as moralizing and didactic, in line with the clerical ideas off the church. By these examples, we perfectly see how the mythological themes can be varied and interpreted according to the intention off The artist. Same time, same place, same mythological figure, but two totally different positions 12. IV 4 Conclusion: in this section, we looked at the various for sets in which the themes off love and lust were presented in the arts, and we saw that all examples have to be seen within their historical context. The very same mythological figure could be used in order to mediate a multitude off concepts, especially the theories off gender, beauty and sensuality such as the philosophical movement off new Clayton ism played a huge role for the artists and artworks We got to know even the ideas off the church could be expressed if we think of the heavenly armor who's supposed to prevail over the earthly one . We saw how odd converts several ideas and approaches off the human body and temperaments into a variety off, visually stimulating images. 13. V Bacchanal: Our next focus point is the notion off world pleasures and feasts off ecstasy because, as the name giver for these festivities, the Ba Cannell's celebrated toe honor his gift to mankind. The wine he the Greek Dionysus is a young god who is very popular and art and culture because of the concept of disinhibition and pleasure that he embodies. He is the son of Jupiter but was raised by mythological creatures off nature. In this picture by the French artist William Bogo, we see the young bajos amidst these so called man. It's and hybrid creatures like satyrs and Cellini, who have certain body parts off rams or donkeys in order to visualize that their instinctive animal nature. According to the mythological literature, Bajos was educated by the corpulent, silent Papa Zilina's who you can spot here in the background drunk and riding Swingley on a donkey. As depicted in this scene, the bajos culled and the Cannell's include dance, music and drinking, as he, of course, is the god of wine. His attributes, therefore, are grapes, wine and twine leaves and, of course, a wildcat like a panther or tiger, or at least defer to indicate that even these wild animals are tamed by the force off wine . Sometimes like here, we can also spot so called to resist the backhoe stick decorated with wine leaves or pines . Originally in ancient Greece, people celebrated religious feasts in drunkenness in order to thank the god forgiven wine to humanity. In the early modern era, as the spiritual realm was occupied by the church, the Baja's card was interpreted in a more personal and social manner. The wine now was celebrated as a vehicle for conversion and exit from boundaries off everyday life. Since classical antiquity, the host is depicted as young and attractive, with slightly feminine lines off beauty just us upon. But we identify Bourjos by his particular attributes and scenery. The compliment. Harry forces off a pole and a horse should be united in the artist who benefits from both the control of the mind and dissolution off the small minded boundaries off the every day. The later off, which was connected to the notion off the Dia Ni Z. In principle, these ideas are even being a vote when the wind got himself. It's absent in this painting by French classicist. Artists equal oppose, Um For example, we see that man. It's sartorius wine. And while dancing such a sum, eroticized moments are enough to identify a scene. Espa Cano. They're reminiscent off the old peasant imaginings off nature spirits. Nature, in this context, is a sphere off freedom in terms off bodily love, dance, music, ecstasy and disillusion off the social boundaries. This setting is directly commentated with the utopian idea off the so called Golden Age. This golden age is described in ancient literature as an error where humans lived in harmony with nature before the ongoing civilization let atrocity and the constrained artificial lifestyle off The times after the desire to dive back into this golden age is expressed in lyric and visual arts. Here we see a painting by the Venetian renascent artist. It's yon, which is titled The Cannell Off the Andriy Ins. He is showing us a scenery with inhabitants off the Greek island. Andrews, who are celebrating a ba Cannell and honor off Bauhaus who made them the present off fertile soil and rich vintage, admits the picturesque nature setting. There are two women and two men who can be identified a citizens of Venice, which is to be concluded from their clothing and hasta can you spot them. The women are easily identified. They are positioned in the foreground with a sheet of music and flutes in the hands. If you look closely, you can see that they are lying at the rim off a small stream off red wine. While they're served with even more by a naked back and from behind, the Venetian men are standing a little bit more hidden in the background, singing next to the tree to which graves and wine leaves are attached. But what about the rest off the personal here, partially naked or in ancient robes that are flowing to the rhythm of the dance, engaging in drinking or lying voluptuously on the ground, The four citizens are surrounded by names, natural spirits and figures that illustrate the former golden age on the island off and rose as thes Andriy Ins and Venetians are drinking, playing music and celebrating together, they form ammonia unity. Teetsi on might have had the intention to praise the peaceful relationship between Venice and the more remote provinces within its realm, which are here represented by the also more rule living. Andrean's important for that imagery is the ship in the centre background, hinting and Venice by indicating its former success as an enormously rich see trading republic. This is especially interesting when you take into consideration that the Republic of Venice at that time actually struggled for the hegemony in the region. It's Realm, nevertheless, was still huge and reach as far as the historic Andras Teetsi in here succeeds in visualizing the unity off the city off Venice as the governmental core off its provinces, employing the imagery of ancient mythology. For the commissioner off the painting, the Duke off the Province Ferrara, it might also have symbolized a newly strengthened union between Fella and Venice. But besides this unsuspected political context, there is another very important implication. It lies especially in the aesthetic equality. Off the painting. They had most very concert ng of the body postures and movements, the picturesque landscape, the fantasy scenery drained by streams off wine and moreover, the eroticized in promiscuity are painting a place off desire and longing. In the reference frame off the renascent humanism, which desires of free and open contact with a human body and mind, ecstasy and wine drinking Here are not only symbolizing this social liberty, they are enabling the personal freedom to explore into sexual relations as much as three transgression off everyday life. It can be seen as a Kartik experience off a social and individual utopia. The idea off powerful disinhibition, leading to epiphanies and wisdom, is commonly described as the Dionysian principle after the Greek name off the wine God, Dion Izzo's Italian Renay since in the cities of Florence and Venice, for example, academies were founded the members off, which believed in the gain off knowledge facilitated by the lifestyle off the Golden Age. They heard garden festivals which indulged in the Dinei sick forces by music, sensuality and francie in nature. This was to be read in the literature off the 15th and 16th century, and the Venetian artist Your Jonah, who he has shows us. A so called pastoral concert introduced these ideas into the visual arts. Music, nudity, at least of the attempting lymph like woman. Wine and a pastoral setting are the key components for this image off cultivated pleasures . But surely when talking about drinking and Cannell, it can look much more uncultivated. Of course, who ever over indulges in drinking might get exposed to ridicule. This thematically aspect was mostly handled and illustrated by the figure off Selena's The Teacher off Baja's who we already saw as an unhand e and copulate consume off wine in these illustrations. For example, like this painting by Anthony Fund Ike, we can easily see the downside off drinking too much here. It's no joyful well being anymore. A Selena's isn't even able to hold himself on his feet. He is held by two persons, a woman and a man holding him up and generating a stark contrast between their cultivated appearance and the inhibited drunk and silent. Who here opposed to classical prototypes, has Dylex off Iran? So Salinas here is depicted as a south to a wild creature able to control its impulses. The drinker behind Selena's clearly demonstrates the root off this condition. What's The dark skinned man is lustfully flashing its tongue towards the rather modest woman. This figure derives from the telling that the wine got battles that, as far as India in order to radiate his power and since then has followers of several origins. Nevertheless, Salinas here is crowned with the ivy with off Baja's, which shows assist agency being present, even though he does not attend the scene in person. In this would cut by the German artist Hans Bowling Green, the boundaries off the personnel get more fuzzy as a dis titled Drunken Bajos by art historians made at the beginning off the 16th century, it intentionally contrasts with the morale, IQ and Christian notions off former centuries, which is indicated by the church tower sticking out of the landscape in the left background . In the foreground, we see the boss figure lying almost unconsciously, leaning against a huge barrel off wine. He is surrounded by grapes and wine leaves, as well as by Pootie, who are making fun off him, including one being right on his head. This drinking scene is framed by the wooden sign hanging, a buff like indicating the location off the Tevon. This realistic approach is useful for hinting at the everyday nature off. People getting drunk, as it was quite common to depict a usually noble and attractive young guard has no B's old drunkard. There is the possibility left that green might have meant the oldest sigh Leanna's, but these are just speculations. More important is the humorist IQ depiction off the downsides off overindulgence in the essentially delicate pleasures off the Bahamas gift 14. V Conclusion: we see that the figure off bajos offered welcomed image to locate the ideas of personal freedom, social unity, pleasures and epiphanies in the realm, off mythology, in times off urban growth and the relating, strict civic etiquette. This constituted a desired antithesis to the images off the church and the public sphere, which artists help to envision because in that context is one of the most popular mythological figures. As the individual and the world, the spheres are clearly and sensually approached. 15. VI Outro: thank you very much for listening to this course about mythology in European art that I hope you enjoyed. As you might think, there is a multiplicity off artistic interpretations off the ancient myths. Naturally, this course could not cover all of it. But nevertheless, to a hope that you got a comprehensive impression off how the employment off these notions Good work. I'm looking forward to your feedback.