Transcripts
1. Course Promo: So few musicians have a comprehensive knowledge of intervals. Even though intervals are one of the most important elements of music. Intervals makeup courts. Intervals makeup melodies. Because of this fact, a musician's ability to read music, play music, or write music will greatly depend upon their ability to quickly and accurately identify intervals. The goal of this course is to make you proficient at interval identification. Whether it be on the keyboard, on the staff, or by ear. The course is divided into four sections. In Part 1, you will learn multiple methods for identifying intervals on the keyboard. In Part 2, you will learn multiple methods for identifying intervals on the staff. In part 3, you will learn to identify intervals by sound. This section you'll have access to custom-made ear training choice. And in part, you will learn the fingerings used for all intervals on the piano keyboard. Enroll now and become a better musician today.
2. SECTION 1: Half & Whole Steps: In this course, we will be learning how to read musical intervals on the keyboard and on the staff. The word interval generally has to do with space and time. For example, the interval of space between two objects is the amount of space between the two objects. The interval of time between two events is the amount of time between the two events. In music, the word interval has to do with the relationship between two pitches in this course. And interval will be defined as how much higher or lower one pitches from another. When we say higher or lower, what we're actually talking about is the frequency of a pitch. We can delve into all the fascinating physics and math behind musical intervals. But for the purpose of this course, you will only need to be able to measure distances on the keyboard and on the staff. Let's begin our study of musical intervals by getting to know the two smallest intervals. The half-step, end the whole step. On a keyboard. A half-step is the distance from one key to the very next key. This is the shortest distance between two pitches. It does not matter if a key is black or white or if it's to the right or left. As long as the two keys are next to each other and there is no key in between them. It is a half-step. In this example, the distance from the red dot to the blue dot is a half-step higher. In this example, the distance from the red dot to the blue dot is a half step lower. On a keyboard, a whole step is the distance equal to two half-steps. To measure a whole step, all we need to do is skip one key. It does not matter if the key skipped is black or white or if it's to the right or left. As long as there's one key in between the two keys, it is a whole step. In this example, the distance from the red dot to the blue dot is a whole step higher. We've skipped over the black key. In this example, the distance from the red dots and the blue dot is a whole step lower. We have skipped over the white key. Now it's time for your first quiz. This will be a quiz on half-steps and whole-steps. It is important that you understand half-steps and whole-steps before moving on, because we will be using them to understand all of the other possible musical intervals. Please complete the following.
3. Number & Quality: Every interval has both a number and a quality. An intervals number is determined by the number of letters, the interval spans. There are only seven different interval numbers, since there are only seven letters of the musical alphabet. Being able to read notes was a prerequisite for this course. So you should be familiar with the musical alphabet by now. A second spans two letters. A third spans three letters. A fourth spans four letters. A fifth spans five letters. A6 spends six letters as seven spans, seven letters, and an eighth spans eight letters. This may seem simple, but because of the spacing of the black keys and depending on our starting pitch, two intervals with the same number may actually be different sizes and sound different. This is where quality comes in. An intervals quality is determined by the amount of half-steps the interval contains. Let's look at a quick example to demonstrate quality. Let's take the interval from c to d. C to d spans just two letters. So the number of the interval is two. We call this interval a second. Now let's determine the quality of this interval. There are two half-steps from C to D. If a second spans two half-steps, we call it a major second. This is abbreviated as M2. Now let's look at the interval from E to F. E to F spans just two letters. So this is also a second. To determine the quality of the interval. We count the half steps. There's only one half-step from E to F. If a second spans just one half-step, we call it a minor second. This is abbreviated as M2 with a lowercase m to differentiate it from a major second. Remember, minor intervals are always 1.5 step smaller than a major interval with the same number. Intervals that can be major or minor are seconds, thirds and sixths, and sevenths. We will cover each of these in later videos. Another type of interval quality is the perfect interval. We call them perfect for two reasons. First, the sound of perfect intervals are very harmonious and have a close relationship to one another due to the physics of sound waves. Second, perfect intervals do not have major or minor counterparts. Intervals that can be perfect. Our fourths, fifths, and eighths. We will cover these intervals in a later video. This diagram may be helpful in memorizing which intervals can be major or minor and which intervals are perfect. Notice how they alternate every two numbers. Please complete the following.
4. 8ths (octaves): In the last video, we saw that an eighth, which is also called an octave, spans eight letters. Because an octave always spans. A letters in octave will always be the distance from one letter of the musical alphabet to the very same letter, higher or lower. Here are a few examples of octaves. It is an octave from C to C. It is an octave from a flat to a flat. It is an octave from F to F. Don't forget that the black keys can help us to quickly locate octaves. Below F is to the left of the three black keys. The F and octave higher will also be to the left are the three black keys. You can also find an octave by counting 12 half-steps higher or lower. These 12 half-steps in an octave are what allowed musicians to create 12 different interval sounds. We will be going over each one of these intervals in the video lectures that follow. A third way to find an octave is to count whole-steps rather than half-steps. 12 half-steps and an octave, or the same as 6 whole-steps. Since every whole step is equal to two half-steps. Please complete the following.
5. Major & Perfect Intervals: In this lesson, you'll learn how to find all the major and perfect intervals within an octave on the keyboard. Within every octave, there are four major intervals and three perfect intervals. We will use C as our example octave, since this will be the easiest to understand. And then we'll be able to use it as a reference for any other octave. C to D is a major second. C to E is a major third. C to F is a perfect fourth. C to G is a perfect fifth. C to a is a major sixth. C to B is a major seventh, and C to C is a perfect eighth. Notice the pattern. Two major intervals then to perfect intervals. Then two major intervals than the Octave. Finding these intervals was extremely easy because they're all in a row and the white keys. But how would you find these intervals if we'd started with a different octave? We will learn two different methods for locating these intervals. The first is the number method, the second is the scale method. In the number method, we will use some simple formulas to help us locate the intervals. The following diagram will help you to remember the formulas. For the major second and major third. We subtract one from the interval number. And this will give us the quantity of whole-steps in the interval. For the next four intervals, the perfect fourth, perfect fifth, major sixth, and the major seventh. We subtract two from the interval number. And this will give us the quantity of whole-steps in the interval. And then we add 1.5 step to this total. And for the octave, we subtract two from the interval number. And this will give us the quantity of whole-steps for the integral. Let's go through each of these examples using a starting pitch other than C. Using e as our starting pitch. Let's locate all the major and perfect intervals within an octave using the number method. To locate a major second from E, we take the interval number and subtract one minus one equals one. Therefore, a major second will be one whole step for me. To locate a major third from E, we take the interval number and subtract 1, 3 minus 1 equals 2. Therefore, a major third will be two whole steps from me. To locate a perfect fourth from a, we take the interval number and subtract 2. 4 minus 2 is 2. We then add 1.5 step to this total. Therefore, a perfect fourth will be two whole steps plus 1.5 step from E. To locate a perfect fifth from E, we take the interval number and subtract 25 minus two is three. We then add 1.5 step to this total. Therefore, a perfect fifth will be three whole-steps plus 1.5 step for me. To locate a major sixth. For me, we take the interval number and subtract 2. 6 minus 2 is 4. Then we add 1.5 step to this total. Therefore, a major sixth will be four whole-steps plus 1.5 step for me. To locate a major seventh from me, we take the interval number and subtract 2. Seven minus two is five. Then we add one half-step. So the total, therefore a major seventh will be five whole-steps plus 1.5 step from me. And to locate a perfect eighth for me, we take the interval number and subtract 2 minus 2 is 6. Therefore, a perfect eighth will be six whole-steps for me. The other method for locating a major and perfect intervals is the scale method. If you know your scales, then all you need to do is name the pitches of the scale. And you have found all the major and perfect intervals. Here, once again, is to C major scale. As you can see, all of the major and perfect intervals are what make up the scale. If you're not familiar with scales, you'll need to memorize the major scale pattern. All major scales use this exact same pattern. The pattern is Starting pitch, whole step, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, whole step, half step. Let's demonstrate with the C major scale and then use this pattern to find the major and perfect intervals of a scale. From our starting pitch. Whole step, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, whole step, half step. Now let's find the major imperfect intervals in the a major scale using the same scale pattern. Whole step, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, whole step, half step. Once we've located the a major scale on the keyboard, all we need to do is give each key a letter name. Remember to name the keys in musical alphabetical order without skipping letters or duplicating letters, except for the octave letter. Since every major scale contains all of the major and perfect intervals in the same order. We now know each of the intervals in the a major scale. This course will always offer multiple methods of identifying intervals. Choose whichever method works best for you. Please complete the following.
6. 2nds & 3rds: We have already learned that seconds and thirds are two types of intervals that can have a major or minor quality. We've already touched on major and minor seconds in another video. But let's do a quick review of seconds before moving on to 30. Seconds can be major or minor and quality. A minor second is simply a half-step. Major second is simply a whole step. Thirds can also be major or minor in quality. In a previous lesson, we learned how to use the number method to determine the number of whole-steps in a major third. In this lesson, you will be given another option for finding major thirds. To locate a major third, choose any pitch, skip three keys, and the next key will be a major third from your starting pitch. Remember, minor intervals are always 1.5 step smaller than their major counterparts. This means that a minor third will be 1.5 step smaller than a major third. To find a minor third, we can simply subtract one key from a major third. Or we can just remember that a major third has three keys in between the pitches of the interval. And a minor third has two keys in between the pitches of the interval. Here are some examples. There are three keys between these two pitches. So this is a major third. There are two keys between these two pitches. So this is a minor third. There are three keys between these two pitches. So this is a major third. There are two keys between these two pitches. So this is a minor third. In each of these examples, we've found thirds higher than the starting pitch. You can use this same method for finding thirds lower than the starting pitch. Please complete the following.
7. 4ths & 5ths: We have already learned that the fourths and fifths are called perfect intervals. We have also learned how to find perfect fourths and fifths using the number method and the scale method. In this lesson, we will look at another way of finding fourths and fifths on the keyboard, similar to how we found major thirds. To locate a perfect fourths on the keyboard, choose any pitch, skip four keys, and the next key will be a perfect fourth from the starting pitch. This method of skipping keys to find intervals works well for finding major thirds and perfect fourths. But in order to find perfect fifths, we need to alter it a little. To find a major third. We skipped three keys. To find a perfect fourth. We skipped four keys. To find a perfect fifth. We do not skip five keys and said we skip six keys. Here's an example. Choose any pitch, skip six keys. And the next key will be a perfect fifth from the starting pitch. In each of these examples, we found fourths and fifths higher than the starting pitch. You can use these same methods for finding fourths and fifths lower than the starting pitch. Please complete the following.
8. 6ths & 7ths: We have already learned that sixths and sevenths are two types of intervals that can have a major or minor quality. We have also learned how to find major sixths and sevenths using the number method and the scale method. In this lecture, we will learn another method for locating major sixths and sevenths, as well as learn how to find their minor counterparts. We will start with the seventh. To locate a major seventh on the keyboard, choose a starting pitch. Locate an octave from that pitch. Subtract 1.5 step from the octave, and this will be a major seventh from the starting pitch. Remember, minor intervals are always 1.5 step smaller than their male counterparts. So to locate a minor seventh, we can simply subtract 1.5 step from the major seventh, or subtract two half-steps from the octave. To locate a major sixth on my keyboard, choose a starting pitch. Locate an octave from that pitch. Subtract 3.5 steps from the octave, and this will be a major sixth from the starting pitch. Remember, minor intervals are always 1.5 step smaller than their major counterparts. So to locate a minor sixth, all we need to do is subtract 1.5 step from the major sixth. Or we can subtract 4.5 steps from the octave. Here are some examples to show you the process for finding all four intervals. We will start with the octave from G to G. Major seventh, minor seventh, major sixth, minor sixth. You can find sixths and sevenths lower than the starting pitch. Using this same method, just subtract half-steps in the opposite direction. Let's use the octave from B to B to demonstrate major seventh. Minor seventh, major sixth, minor sixth. Please complete the following.
9. Complimentary Intervals: Now that we've covered all of the major, minor and perfect intervals, we will take a look at complimentary intervals. Complimentary intervals are two different intervals that have the same pitches, but in the opposite order. For example, the complimentary interval of CF is fc. Complimentary intervals have the following characteristics. They're similar sounding. And when the two interval numbers are added together, they always equal the number nine. Let's take a look at our example of CF. We know C to F is a perfect fourth. To find the complimentary interval, we arrange the pitches in the opposite order. The opposite order is F to C. We know F to C is a perfect fifth. Therefore, the perfect fourth and the perfect fifth are complimentary intervals. Since complimentary intervals have the same pitches, they will have similar sounds. Let's listen to how similar in sound these intervals are. We will learn to identify all of the intervals by sound later in this course. Take note how the interval numbers of a fourth fifth add up to nine. Because complimentary intervals when added together equals nine. We can use math to figure out which interval numbers will be complimentary. 3 plus 6 is 9. So we know thirds and sixths will be complimentary. To plus seven is nine. So we know seconds and sevenths will be complimentary. This formula tells us which interval numbers will be complimentary, but it does not tell us which interval qualities will be complimentary. Complimentary intervals have opposite qualities. We typically refer to major and minor as being opposite qualities. So a major interval will have a minor complement and a minor interval will have a major complements. The exception is the perfect interval. Since there is no opposite to perfect. A perfect interval will always have a perfect complements. We now have two rules about complimentary intervals. They add up to nine. And our opposite qualities. This means that the complimentary interval of a Major second is a minor seventh, and vice versa. That complimentary interval of a minor second is a major seventh, and vice versa. The complimentary interval of a Major third is a minor sixth, and vice versa. The complimentary interval of a minor third is a major sixth, and vice versa. The complimentary interval of a perfect fourth is a perfect fifth, and vice versa. Let's look at some examples on the keyboard. Remember to find the complimentary interval, you need to arrange the pitches in the opposite order. A major second will become a minor seventh. A minor second will become a major seventh. A major third will become a minor sixth. A minor third will become a major sixth. A perfect fourth will become a perfect fifth. A perfect fifth will become a perfect fourth. A major six will become a minor third. A minor sixth will become a major third. A major seventh will become a minor second. Minor seventh will become a major second. Note. The eighth do not have complimentary intervals because you can't arrange the pitches in the opposite order. For example, C to C has no opposite order since both pitches or C. Now let's look how complimentary intervals can be used as another method of identifying intervals. Let's say you have a larger interval and you're not quite sure what its number or quality is. Simply find its complimentary interval by arranging the pitches in the opposite order. Now the interval will be smaller and easier to recognize. Determine the number and quality of the complimentary interval. This interval is to whole-steps, which as we know from our previous lecture, is a major third. Next, use the nine role and the opposite quality rule to determine the original interval. Three plus six is nine. So the original interval must be a sixth. And major becomes minor. So the original interval must be minor. We now know our original interval is a minor sixth. Please complete the following.
10. The Tritone: So far we have learned to locate all of the intervals within an octave except for one. The last interval we will learn to locate on the keyboard is the tritone. Tritone gets its name from the fact that it is made up of three whole steps. So one way to locate the interval on the keyboard is to count three whole steps from your starting pitch. The tritone is always the pitch directly between the perfect fourth and the perfect fifth. So another way to locate a tritone is to find a perfect fourth and add a half-step. Or you can find a perfect fifth and subtract a half-step. The tritone is also the pitch at the halfway point of the octave. To demonstrate this, we will count six half-steps in either direction until we reach the halfway point of the octave. The tritone has a very dissonant, non harmonious sound. It was called dabbling in music, or the devil and music and was avoided for centuries. Today, it is commonly used in music. We will learn to identify all the intervals by sound later in this course. Please complete the following.
11. All Keyboard Intervals: We have now covered all of the following intervals that are found within an octave on the keyboard. We've also learned various methods of identifying these intervals. In this lecture, we will look at one final method that can be used to identify any of these intervals. This method of identifying intervals is called the half-step method. It consists of knowing the order that the intervals occurring on the keyboard and then memorizing the number of half steps in each type of interval. Let's go over the order of the intervals from smallest to largest. We will use C as our starting key. The smallest interval is the minor second. Major second, minor third. Major third. Perfect fourth, perfect fifth, minor sixth, major sixth, minor seventh, major seventh. And finally the perfect eighth or Octave. Once you memorize the order of intervals from smallest to largest, you will need to memorize the number of half steps in each interval. Here's a chart to help. As you can see, the number of half-steps ranges from one to 12 as the intervals increase in size, so do the number of half-steps. Some people prefer this method of identifying intervals because it's a single method that can be used for any interval. This method involves a lot of memorization. So if you prefer any of the other methods already taught earlier in this course, feel free to continue using those. Here are some tips to help you in your memorization. The smaller intervals are easy because you can simply count the number of half steps. But for the larger intervals, used, the tritone and the eighth as reference points for nearby intervals. This way, you will only need to memorize that the tritone is six half-steps and the eighth is 12 half-steps. Knowing this, you can now determine the number of half-steps in intervals that are near the tritone and the eighth. For example. If you want to know how many half-steps are in a perfect fifth, simply start with the tritone and add one. If you want to know how many half steps or an a minor seventh, simply start with the 8th and subtract to. Please complete the following.
12. SECTION 2: Interval Number of the Staff: In part 1 of this course, we learned about musical distance on the keyboard. We are now ready to begin Part 2, which will deal with musical distance on the staff. We have already learned that all intervals have a number inequality. In this lecture, we will demonstrate how to determine an intervals number on the staff. To identify the number of any interval on the staff, simply count all of the lines and spaces from one node to the other. This includes any lines or spaces the notes are on. In this example, we count a total of six. So we know that this interval is some type of sixth. And that's it. It's that easy to determine an intervals number on the staff. In the next lecture, you will learn some speed reading tips to help you more quickly identify and intervals number. Please complete the following.
13. Speed Reading with Odds & Evens: When you're reading, writing, or playing music, you don't have time to stop and count all of the lines and spaces to determine what the intervals are. Identifying intervals is something that should happen instantaneously. Although this takes years of practice, this lecture will give you a few tips on how to more quickly identify intervals without the need to count every line and every space. We will learn to speed read intervals using the odd and even roll. With odd intervals. Both nodes will be on lines, or both notes will be on spaces. With even intervals. One of the nodes will be on a line and one will be on a space. The odd intervals are 357. As you can see, all of the intervals on the left have both notes on lines. All of the intervals on the right have both notes on spaces. This method is all about narrowing down the possibilities. When you come across an interval with both notes on lines, you can eliminate 2468 as possible answers. You will immediately know that this interval is either a third, fifth, or seventh. Once you've narrowed down the possible answers using odds and evens, you will use size to narrow things down further. For example, a third that is onlines will have 0 lines in between the notes. A fifth will have one line in between the nodes. And the seventh will have two lines in between the notes. The same goes for odds on spaces. Third will have 0 spaces in between the nodes. A fifth will have one space in between the nodes, and a seventh will have two spaces in between the notes. Now let's look at the even intervals, which are 2, 4, 6, and 8. With even at intervals, one of the nodes will be on online, N1 will be on a space. As you can see, all the intervals on the left have their lowest note online and their highest note on a space. All the intervals on the right have their lowest note on the space and the highest note on a line. Again, this method is all about narrowing down the possibilities. When you come across an interval with one of the nodes on a line and one of the notes on the space, you can eliminate 357 as possible answers. You will immediately know that this interval is either a second, fourth, sixth, or eighth. Once you've narrowed down the possible answers using odds and evens, you will use size to narrow things down further. For example, a second, we'll have 0 spaces and minds in between the notes. A fourth, we'll have one space and one line in between us. A six will have two spaces and two lines in between the notes. And an eighth. We'll have three spaces and three lines in between the notes. Over time with practice, you will be able to do all of this instantaneously and recognize intervals without even thinking about it. Please complete the following.
14. Harmonic vs Melodic: Any interval can be harmonic or melodic. The terms harmonic and melodic are derived from the words harmony and Melody. An interval is harmonic when the pitches of the interval are played simultaneously. This example is a harmonic interval. Because the pitches are played at the same time. An interval is melodic when the pitches of the interval or play to sequentially. This example is a melodic interval. Because the pitches are played one after another. For the most part, it is easy to distinguish between harmonic and melodic intervals. The only interval beginners sometimes have trouble with is the harmonic second. That's because all the harmonic intervals are lined up vertically, with the exception of the second. The second cannot be lined up vertically like the other intervals because the notes would overlap and it would be hard to read. For this reason, the harmonic second has its pitches offset. Although the pitches of the harmonic second look sequential, you can distinguish it from the melodic second because it's notes are actually touching, and so they are played at the same time. Please complete the following.
15. Quality of 6ths & 3rds (scale method): In a previous lecture, we learned how to determine an intervals number on the staff. We know this interval as a sixth because we can count all the lines and spaces from one node to the other. But what is the quality of this sixth? Is it a major sixth or minor sixth? The two methods of determining an intervals quality on the staff or the scale method and the white key method. In this lecture, we'll be going over the scale method. In order to use the scale method, you must know two things. You must know major scales. And you must recognize that the major scale is made up of major and perfect intervals. Let's use the scale method to determine if this sixth is major or minor. First rename the lowest note in the interval. The lowest note in this sixth is C. So we will need to use the C major scale to determine the interval quality. The notes of the C major scale are C, D, E, F, G, a, B, C. Since the major scale is made up of major and perfect intervals, we know that C to a is a major sixth. We've now determined that the interval above is a major sixth. But what do we do? The integral we're trying to identify doesn't match one of the major or perfect intervals present in the scale. Simply compare the interval you're trying to identify to the interval from the scale. If it is a half-step smaller than the interval scale, it is a minor interval. This interval is therefore a minor sixth. We know this because flat signs lower note by 1.5 step. And because minor intervals are half-steps smaller than their major counterparts. Let's use the scale method to determine if this third is major or minor. First, we named the lowest note in the interval. The lowest note in this third is d. So we will need to use the D-major scale to determine the interval quality. The notes of the D major scale, or D, E, F-sharp, G, a, B, C-sharp, D. Since the major scale is made up of major and perfect intervals, we know that D to F sharp is a major third. But the interval above is D to F natural. F-natural is a half-step lower than F sharp. We know that minor intervals are 1.5 step smaller than their major counterparts. So the interval above is therefore a minor third. Now let's look at a harder example. Is this a major sixth or a minor sixth? And this example, the lowest note is F sharp. So we will need to use the F sharp major scale to determine the interval quality. But what do you do if you are not familiar with a particular skill? Let's say, for example, that you don't know the F sharp major scale. The first thing you can do is try using the complimentary interval. If we reverse the order of pitches to find the complimentary interval, the lowest note is now d rather than F sharp. Now we can use the D major scale to determine the interval quality, which is a much simpler scale than the F sharp major scale. The notes of the D major scale, or D, E, F sharp, G, a, B, C-sharp, D. Since the major scale is made up of major and perfect intervals, we know that D to F sharp is a major third. D to F sharp is a major third. Then it's complimentary interval will be the opposite quality. We've now determined that our original interval is a minor sixth. If you're using the scale method and complimentary interval does not help because you're still unfamiliar with a particular scale, then you will need to use the white key method for determining the interval's quality. We will learn this method in the next video. Please complete the following.
16. Quality of 6ths & 3rds (white key method): In this lecture, you will learn how to determine the quality of thirds and sixths on the staff using the white key method. This method is called the white key method because it uses only the pitches from the C major scale, which are the white keys on the piano. You've already learned that thirds and sixths are complimentary intervals. Because they are complimentary, they will share similar properties that can help us memorize which Y key intervals are major and which are minor. Thirds that have C, F, or G on the bottom. Major. All of the thirds or minor six that have C, F, or G on top are minor. All other six are major. Once you've memorized the thirds and sixths on the white keys, you are ready to use the white key method to determine the quality of any third or sixth on the staff. Here are the three steps. Ignore all sharps and flats in the interval you are trying to identify. Determine the quality as if the nodes were white keys of the C major scale. Add the sharps or flats back in, and adjust the half steps accordingly. Let's determine the quality of this sixth using the white key method. First, we will ignore the sharp. Next we will use our memorization of a white keys to determine the quality of the interval without the sharp. We know the white key sixths that have C, F, or G on top or minor. The top node is a G, so this sixth would be a minor sixth. And finally, we add the sharp back in and adjust the half steps accordingly. For music theory, we know that adding a sharp raises the note by 1.5 step because the top note is raised by 1.5 step, this makes the interval 1.5 step larger. So the minor sixth becomes a major sixth. Now let's determine the quality of this third using the white key method. First, we will ignore the flat. Next, we will use our memorization of the white keys to determine the quality of the interval without the flat white key thirds that have C, F, or G on the bottom are major, all of the thirds or minor. So this is a minor third. And finally, we add the flat back in and adjust the half steps accordingly. From music theory, we know that adding a flat lowers the note by 1.5 step because the bottom note is lowered one half-step, it is actually making the interval larger by one half-step. So the minor third becomes a major third. Please complete the following.
17. Quality of 7ths & 2nds (scale method): Now that you're familiar with determining the quality of sixths and thirds using the scale method. Let's use the scale method to determine the quality of sevenths and seconds. Is this a major seventh or minor seventh? First rename the lowest note in the interval. The lowest note in this seventh is C. So we will need to use the C-major scale to determine the interval quality. The notes of the C major scale are C, D, E, F, G, a, B, and C. Since the major scale is made up of the major and perfect intervals, we know that C to B is a major seventh. We've now determined that the interval above is a major seventh. But what do we do if the interval we're trying to identify doesn't match one of the major or perfect intervals present on the scale. Simply compare the interval you're trying to identify to the interval from the scale. If it is a half-step smaller than interval on the scale, it is a minor interval. This interval is therefore a minor seventh. We know this because flat signs lower note by 1.5 step. And because minor intervals are half-step smaller than their major counterparts. Now let's look at a harder example. Is this a major seventh or a minor seventh? In this example, the lowest note is E. So we will need to use the E major scale to determine the interval quality. But what do you do if you're not familiar with a particular skill? Let's say, for example, that you don't know the major scale. The first thing you can do is try using the complimentary interval. If we reverse the order of pitches to find the complimentary interval, the lowest note is now d rather than a. Now we can use the D-major scale to determine the interval quality, which is a simpler scale than the E major scale. The nodes of the D major scale are D, E, F sharp, G, a, B, C-sharp, D. Since every major scale is made up of major and perfect intervals, we know that D to E is a major second. If D to E is a major second, then it's complimentary interval will be the opposite quality. We've now determined that our original interval is a minor seventh. Now let's use the scale method to determine if this second is major or minor. First rename the lowest note and the interval. The lowest note in the second is E. So we will need to use the E major scale to determine the interval quality. The notes of the major scale, or E, F sharp, G sharp, a, B, C-sharp, D-sharp, E. Since every major scale is made up of major and perfect intervals, we know that E to F sharp is a major second. But the interval above is E to F natural. F-natural as a half-step lower than F sharp. We know that minor intervals are 1.5 step smaller than their major counterparts. So the interval above is therefore a minor second. Please complete the following.
18. Quality of 7ths & 2nds (white key method): In this lecture, you will learn how to determine the quality of sevenths and seconds on the staff using the white key method. You've already learned that sevenths and seconds are complimentary intervals. Because they're complimentary, they will share similar properties that can help us memorize which white key intervals are major and minor. Seventh to have C or F on the bottom are major. All other sevenths are minor. Seconds that have C or F on the top are minor. All other seconds or major. Once you've memorized the sevenths and seconds on the white keys, you are now ready to use the white key method to determine the quality of any 7th per second on the staff. Let's review the three steps. Ignore all sharps and flats in the interval. You're trying to identify. Determining the quality as if the notes were white keys of the C major scale. Add the sharps or flats back in, and adjust the half-steps accordingly. Let's determine the quality of the seventh using the white key method. First, we will ignore the flat. Next we will use our memorization of the white keys to determine the quality of the interval without the flats. We know white key sevenths that have C or F on the bottom are major. The bottom note is enough, so this seventh would be a major seventh. And last, we add the flat back in and adjust the half steps accordingly. From music theory, we know that adding a flat lowers the note by 1.5 step, because the top note is lowered by 1.5 step, the major seventh becomes a minor seventh. Now let's determine the quality of this second using the white key method. First, we will ignore the sharp. Next we will use our memorization of the white keys to determine the quality of the interval without the sharp. We know white keys seconds that have C or F on the top are minor. Since the top node is neither see nor f, this interval is there for major. Last, we add the sharp back in and adjust the half-steps accordingly. Music theory, we know that adding a sharp raises the note by 1.5 step. Because the bottom node is raised by 1.5 step, it is actually making the interval smaller by 1.5 step. So the major second becomes a minor second. Please complete the following.
19. Augmented & Diminished: In a previous lesson, we learned about the tritone. One of the methods we use to find a tritone on the keyboard was to add a half step to a perfect fourth, or subtract a half-step from a perfect fifth. When tritones are written on the staff, they are either written as modified fourths or modified fifths. We call these modified fourths and fifths augmented and diminished. To augment something means to make it larger. The abbreviation for augmented intervals is or a two diminished something means to make it smaller. The abbreviation for diminished intervals is dim or D. Here's a perfect fourth. If we make the interval 1.5 step larger, the perfect fourth becomes an augmented fourth. In the last example, we made the fourth larger by raising the top note. You can also make the fourth larger by lowering the bottom note. Here's a perfect fifth. If we make the interval 1.5 step smaller, the perfect fifth becomes a diminished fifth. In the last example, we made the fifth smaller by lowering the top note. You can also make the fifth smaller by raising the bottom note. Because augmented fourths and diminished fifths are both tritones, they will sound exactly the same. There are examples of enharmonic equivalents. Enharmonic equivalents are things that sound the same but are notated differently. So a Tritone played on the keyboard is just a tritone. We cannot call it an augmented fourth or diminished fifth unless we have context. The context comes when we write the tritone on the staff, either as a fourth or a fifth. Augmented fourths and diminished fifths are also complimentary intervals. The fourth on the left is augmented. If we reverse the pitches and put the d on the top, the augmented fourth becomes a diminished fifth. Knowing this can be useful when trying to identify these intervals using the scale method. Please complete the following.
20. Quality of 4th & 5ths (scale method): In this lecture, we will use the scale method to identify fourths and fifths on the staff. We know this is a fourth because it spans a total of four lines and spaces. But what is the quality of this forth? First, we named the lowest note in the interval. The lowest note in this fourth is C. So we will need to use the C major scale to determine the interval quality. Since the major scale is made up of the major and perfect intervals, we know that C to F is a perfect fourth. We've now determined that the interval above is a perfect for us. But what do we do if the fourth we're trying to identify doesn't match the perfect fourth found in the scale. Simply compare the fourth through trying to identify to the fourth and the scale. If it's a half-step larger than the fourth and the scale, it is an augmented fourth. The interval above is therefore an augmented fourth. We know this because sharp signs raise a note by 1.5 step. And because augmented fourths or half step larger than perfect fourths. Now let's look at a harder example. Is this a perfect fourth or an augmented fourth? In this example, the lowest note is a flat. So we will need to use the A-flat major scale to determine the interval quality. But what do you do if you're not familiar with a particular skill? Let's say, for example, that you don't know that a flat major scale. The first thing you can do is try using the complimentary interval. If we reverse the order of pitches to find the complimentary interval, the lowest note is now d rather than a flat. Now we can use the D-major scale to determine the interval quality, which is the simplest scale than the A-flat major scale. Since every major scale is made up of major and perfect intervals, we know that D to a is a perfect fifth. And if D to a is a perfect fifth, then D to a flat is a diminished fifth because it is 1.5 step smaller. If D to a flat is a diminished fifth, then it's complimentary interval will be the opposite quality. We've now determined that our original interval is an augmented fourth. As you can see, the scale method can also be used to identify fifths on the staff. Start by naming the lowest note and compare the fifth you're trying to identify with the fifth from the scale starting on that note. If it matches the fifth and the scale, It's a perfect fifth. If it's 1.5 step smaller than the fifth of the scale, it's a diminished fifth. And remember, if you don't know a particular scale, try using the complimentary interval for a different scale. If you're still unfamiliar with a particular skill, you can use the white key method, which we will go over in the next video. Please complete the following.
21. Quality of 4ths & 5ths (white key method): In this lecture, you will learn how to determine the quality of fourths and fifths on the staff using the white key method. You've already learned that fourths and fifths are complimentary intervals. Because they're complimentary, they will share similar properties that can help us memorize which way key intervals are perfect and which are augmented or diminished. Fourths that have F on the bottom are augmented. All the fourths and perfect fifths that have f on the top, diminished. All other faiths are perfect. Once you've memorized the fourths and fifths on the white keys, you're ready to use the white key method to determine the quality of any fourth or fifth on the staff. Let's review the three steps. Ignore all the sharps and flats in the interval. You are trying to identify. Determine the quality as if the nodes were white keys of the C major scale. Add the sharps or flats back in and adjust the half-steps accordingly. Let's determine the quality of this fourth using the white key method. First, we will ignore the flat. Next, we will use our memorization of the white keys to determine the quality of the interval without the flat, we know Y key fourths that have F and the bottom are augmented. The bottom note is an F, So this fourth would be an augmented fourth. Last, we add the flat back in and adjust the half-steps accordingly. We know that an augmented fourth is 1.5 step larger than a perfect fourth. So by flooding the top node, we are making the fourth one half-step smaller is therefore a perfect fourth. Let's try identifying another fourth. Is this a perfect fourth or an augmented for us? First, let's ignore the sharps. Next, we will use our memorization of white keys to determine the quality of the fourth without the sharps. We know white key fourths and have F on the bottom are augmented all of the fourths or perfect. This is therefore a perfect fourth. And last, we add the sharps back in and adjust the half-steps accordingly. Since both nodes are sharp, they are both raised to one half-step. The size of an interval changes when one of the notes is raised or lowered. But since both modes are raised one half-step, the size of the fourth is not actually changed. This fourth is therefore a perfect for us. Now let's determine the quality of this fifth using the Y key method. First, we will ignore the flat. Next we'll use our memorization for white keys to determine the quality of the fifth. With alpha flat. We know Y key fifths that have f on the top are diminished. Since the top note is F, this fifth is diminished. Now we add the flap back in and adjust the half-steps accordingly. For music theory, we know that adding a flat lowers the note by 1.5 step, because the bottom note is lowered by 1.5 step, is actually making the interval larger by 1.5 step. Since perfect fifths or 1.5 step larger than diminished fifths, this fifth is therefore a perfect fifth. Please complete the following.
22. 3rds & 6ths (ascending): By this point in the course, you've learned to identify intervals on the keyboard and intervals on the staff. This next section of the course is intended to help you identify intervals by sound. In the following videos, you will begin training your ear to recognize all 12 intervals. First as ascending intervals, that is descending intervals, and finally as harmonic intervals. Intervals with similarities and sound will be studied together since they're often mistaken for one another. These typically include complimentary intervals and intervals with the same number or same quality. One of the easiest ways to learn to recognize an interval by sound is to associate each interval with intervals found in well-known are popular songs. If you're unfamiliar with any of the songs we're using in this course to recognize intervals. You can download a PDF for the individual lecture, which includes links to listen to each song on Spotify. You're also free to choose your own songs. When choosing songs, look for songs where the interval occurs in the first notes of the song, the last notes of the song, or at a prominent moment in the song. It also makes a more lasting connection in the brain of the song is a song that has words. We will use the song Morning has Broken to help us remember how the ascending major third sounds, the interval can be heard at the first syllables. Morning. Listen to these ascending major third. First, it will be heard in isolation. And then within some contexts of the song. We will use the Canadian National Anthem to help us remember how the ascending minor third sounds. The interval can be heard at the first syllables. O can listen to the ascending minor third firsts in isolation. And then within some context of the song, we use the son, my way to help us remember how the ascending major sixth sounds. The interval can be heard at the first words. And now listen to these sending major sixth first in isolation. And then within some context of the song. We will use the song in my life by The Beatles to help us remember how the ascending minor six sounds. The interval can be heard at the first two notes. So the opening instrumental. Listen to the ascending minor sixth, first in isolation. And then within some context of the song. The intervals you heard in these songs were specific pitches in specific keys. In order to master interval identification by sound, it is necessary to hear these intervals in many different keys. And this is why it is absolutely necessary to do drills. Here are some practice tips when doing the drills for each lesson. First, listen to the interval and decide which of the songs it is associated with. If you're unsure, press the play button to hear the interval again. Do the same drill, five to ten minutes a day, every day for a week, and track your progress. Continue this process until you feel confident in your ability to recognize the intervals. Download the PDF that accompanies this video for the links to the full songs and the drills for this lesson.
23. 3rds & 6ths (descending): In this lecture, you will begin learning to recognize descending thirds and sixths by sound. We will use the song, Swing Low, Sweet Chariot to help us remember how the descending major third sounds, the interval can be heard at the first words. Swing Low. Listen to the descending major third. Firsts in isolation. And then within some context of the song, we will use the song Hey Jude, by the Beatles to help us remember how the descending minor third sounds, the interval can be heard at the first words. Hey Jude. Listen to the descending minor third, fresh in isolation. And then within some context of the song, we will use the song, the music of the night, by Andrew Lloyd Webber to help us remember how the descending major sixth sounds. The interval can be heard at the first words. Nighttime. Listen to the descending major sixth, first in isolation. And then within some contexts of the song, we will use the song, where do I begin? Sang by Andy Williams to help us remember how the descending minor sixth sounds, the interval can be heard at the first words. Where do listen to the descending minor sex, first in isolation. And then within some context of the song, download the PDF that accompanies this video for the links to the full songs and the drills for this lesson.
24. Harmonic Drills: Now that you've had some practice drilling a melodic thirds and sixths, we will begin joining harmonic thirds and sixths. If you recall from our previous lecture, harmonic intervals are intervals in which both pitches are heard simultaneously. Harmonic intervals can be harder for some people to identify by sound. The trick is to try and separate the two pitches in your mind. It is also often very helpful if you can isolate the higher pitch and seeing it, then try and isolate the lower pitch and sing it. Please do the drills in order as they're meant to ease you into this process.
25. 2nds & 7ths (ascending): In this lecture, you will begin learning to recognize ascending seconds and sevenths by sound. We will use the song silent night to help us remember how the ascending major seconds sounds. The interval can be heard at the first two notes of the syllable psi. Listen to the ascending major second, first in isolation. And then within some contexts of the song, we will use the song White Christmas, to help us remember how the ascending minor seconds sounds. The interval can be heard at the first syllables. I'm dream. Listen to the ascending minor second, firsts in isolation. And then within some contexts of the song, we will use the song take on me to help us remember how the ascending major seventh sounds. The interval can be heard at the first words of the chorus. Take on, listen to the ascending major seventh first in isolation. And then within some contexts of the song. We will use the theme from Star Trek, the original series, to help us remember how the ascending minor seventh sounds. The interval can be heard at the beginning of the main theme at 32 seconds. Listen to the ascending minor seventh firsts in isolation. And then within some contexts of the song, download the PDF that accompanies this video for the links to the full songs and the drills for this lesson.
26. 2nds & 7ths (descending): In this lecture, you'll begin learning to recognize descending seconds and sevenths by sound. We will use the song eight days a week to help us remember how the descending major seconds sounds, the interval can be heard at the first words. Bu, I listen to the descending major second firsts in isolation. And then within some contexts for the song, we'll use the song Joy to the world to help us remember how the descending minor seconds sounds. The interval can be heard at the first words. Joy to listen to the descending minor second, first in isolation. And then within some context of the song, we will use the song, have yourself a merry little Christmas to help us remember how the descending a major seventh sounds. The interval can be heard during the last line of the song. If the words have your listen to the descending major seventh first in isolation. And then within some context of the song, we will use the song White Christmas to help us remember how the descending minor seventh sounds. The interval can be heard during the last line of the song as the syllables. Christmas. Listen to the descending minor seventh firsts in isolation. And then within some contexts of the song, download the PDF that accompanies this video. The links to the FOLFOX and the drills for this lesson.
27. 4th-5th-8th-Tritone (ascending): In this lecture, you'll begin learning to recognize ascending fourths, fifths, and tritones by sound. We will use the song Here comes the bride, to help us remember how the ascending Perfect fourth sounds, the interval can be heard at the first two notes. Listen to the ascending Perfect fourth first in isolation. And then within some contexts of the song, we will use the theme song from The Simpsons to help us remember how the ascending tritone sounds, the interval can be heard at the opening syllables. The SEM. Listen to these sanding trade taught first in isolation. And then within some context of the song, we'll use the sun can't help falling in love to help us remember how the ascending Perfect fifth sounds. The interval can be heard at the opening words. Wise men. Listen to the ascending Perfect fifth, first and isolation. And then within some context of the song, we'll use the song over the rainbow to help us remember how the ascending perfect eighth towns the interval can be heard at the opening syllables somewhere. Listen to the ascending perfect eighth firsts in isolation. Then within some contexts for the song, download the PDF that accompanies this video for the links to the full songs and the drills for this lesson.
28. 4th-5th-8th-Tritone (descending): In this lecture, you will begin learning to recognize to setting fourths, fifths, eighths, and tritones by sound. We will use the TV theme song from George of the jungle to help us remember how the descending perfect fourth sounds. The interval can be heard in the first notes, the drums, and also the first words, George. George, listen to the descending perfect fourth first in isolation. And then within some contexts for the song will use the sign even flow to help us remember how the descending tritone sounds. The interval can be heard at the first syllables. Freeze in the center. That is sending Tritone first in isolation, then with his whom context of the song. We will use the TV theme song from The Flintstones to help us remember how the descending perfect fifth sounds, the interval can be heard at the first syllables. Flintstones. Listen to the perfect fifth verse in isolation. Then within some contexts of the song, we will use the song, willow weep for me to help us remember how the descending perfect eighth sounds. The integral can be heard at the first syllables. Willow, listen to the descending perfect eighth first son isolation. Then within some contexts of the song, download the PDF that accompanies this video for the links to the full songs and the drills for this lesson.
29. Fingering for 2nds: In this final section of the course, we will learn rules and tips for interval fingerings on the piano keyboard. But before we begin, we will need to know how the fingers and the hands are numbered. For keyboard players, the thumb is considered the first finger. Continue counting from the thumbs to get the other finger numbers 2, 3, 4, and 5. Notice how the left and right hands are the reverse of each other. Let's begin by looking at the fingerings for seconds. Major seconds, or played with neighboring fingers. Major seconds involving two white keys, can be fingered with 122334 or 45. The fingers you choose will, of course, depend on the context of what came before in the music and what comes next. Most of the time you can figure this out using a little bit of common sense. Major seconds involving two black keys can also be played with 122334, more 45. When playing on the piano keyboard, we typically try and play the black keys with our taller fingers and the white keys with our shorter fingers. There are exceptions to this, which again will depend on musical context. When playing a major second with the right-hand, where the lower note is white and the upper node as black. You can use 12 or 2334 doesn't work as well because the taller finger would be on a white key and you'd have to twist your wrist in order for the fourth finger to reach. 45 is even worse for the same reason. There are situations where you may use these fingerings if you move your hand higher on the keyboard. This allows you to reach the keys without twisting your wrist. When playing a major segment with the right hand, with a lower note is black and the upper node is white. You can use 4543423. Doesn't work as well because the taller finger would be on a white key and you'd have to twist your risks in order for your second finger to reach 12 is even a worse for the same reason. There are situations where you may use these fingerings if you move your hand higher on the keyboard. This allows you to reach the keys without twisting or wrist. Minor seconds are also played with neighboring fingers. Minor seconds involving two white keys can be played with 122334, more 45. Again, the fingers you choose will, of course, depend upon the context of the music. When playing a minor second with the right-hand, with the lower node is white and the upper note is black. You can use 12 more. 2334 doesn't work as well because the taller finger would be on a white key. And you'd have to twist your risks in order for your fourth finger to reach. 45 is even worse for the same reason as we saw with the major second, there are situations where you may use these fingerings if you move your hand higher on the keyboard. This allows you to reach the keys without twisting your wrist. When playing a minor second with the right-hand, where the lower note is black and the upper note is white. You can use 45 or 3423 doesn't work as well because the taller finger would be on a white key and you'd have to twist your wrist in order for your second finger to reach 12 is even worse for the same reason. Once again, there are situations where you may use these fingerings if you move your hand higher on the keyboard. This allows you to reach the keys without twisting your wrist. All of the white and black key combinations we've gone over for the right-hand, also apply to the left hand. But in reverse.
30. Fingering for 3rds: In the last lecture, we learned that seconds or played with neighboring fingers on the hand. Thirds are typically played by skipping a finger. Thirds played on white keys can be played with 1 and 3, 2 and 4, or 3 and 5. The fingers you choose will, of course, depend upon the context of what came before in the music and what comes next. Most of the time, you can figure this out using a little bit of common sense. When playing thirds that involve a mix of white and black keys. Remember to try and play the black keys with who? Taller fingers when possible. You may need to adjust your hand higher in order to reach certain thirds with two shorter fingers. The only time when thirds would be played with neighboring fingers is when you need to stretch your hand to reach more notes. Here's an example where you would play a third with neighbor fingers, 12, 2334. Here's an example where you would play thirds with 1245. You would never play a third with fingers 15, because this would squish fingers 234 together and cramp your hand up. For the same reason, you would never play a third with 14.
31. Fingering for 4ths: In the last lecture, we learned that thirds are played by skipping one finger of the hand. Fourths are typically played by skipping two fingers. Fourths played on white keys can be played with 14 or 25. The fingers you choose will, of course, depend upon the context of what came before in the music and what comes next. Most of the time you can figure this out using a little bit of common sense. Fourths played on black keys can also be played with 14 or 25. When playing fourths that involve a mix of white and black keys, remember to try and play the black keys with your taller fingers. While impossible. You may need to adjust your hand higher in order to reach certain fourths with your shorter fingers. The only time when fourths would be played with the neighboring fingers is when you need to stretch her hand to reach more notes. Here's an example where you would play a fourth with Neymar fingers 12. The only time when fourths would be played, skipping just one finger is when you need to stretch your hand to reach more notes. For example, if finger five needed to stretch to reach the a, fingers 234 would automatically be pulled over as the pinky moves over. So the fourth would be played with fingers 13. You would never play it for us with fingers 15 because this would squish fingers 234 together and cramp your hand up. The same rules covered in this lesson for perfect fourths typically apply to augmented for this as well.
32. Fingering for 5ths: In the last lecture, we learned that fourths CR, played by skipping two fingers of the hand. Fifths are typically played by skipping three fingers. Whether you play a fifth on to white keys, a fifth onto black keys. On a white and black key, you will need to adjust your hand higher so the shorter fingers can reach the black keys without twisting your wrist. The only time when fifths or played with fingers other than 15, is when you need to reach more notes. Here's an example where you would play a fifth with neighbor fingers 12. Here's an example where you would play a fifth with fingers 13. Here's an example where you would play a fifth with fingers 14. Diminished fifths are typically played with 15. If they span five white keys. However, if they span for white keys, they will be played like fourths using 14 or 25.
33. Fingering for 6ths: Sixths are typically played with fingers 15. You can use 15 to play a sixth onto white keys, or sixth onto black keys. Just remember that when you play a sixth and a white now black key, you will need to adjust her hand higher so the shorter fingers can reach the black keys without twisting your wrist. The only time when six or played with fingers other than 15, is when you need to reach more notes. Here's an example where you would play a sixth with fingers 14. Here's an example where you would play a sixth with fingers 13. There are rare occasions when you would play a sixth with 12. This is only with extremely large chords, and only for people who have a large enough fingers span.
34. Fingering for 7ths: Seventh. So typically played with fingers 15. You can use fingers 15 to play a seven font to white keys, more seventh onto black keys. Just remember that when you play 17th on a white anti-black key, you will need to adjust your hand higher so the shorter fingers can reach the black keys without twisting your wrist. The only time when sevenths are played with fingers other than 125 is when you need to reach more notes. Here's an example where you would play a seventh with fingers 14. Here's an example where you would play a seven with fingers 13. There are rare occasions when you would play seventh with 12. This is only with extremely large chords and only for people who have a large enough finger span.
35. Fingering for 8ths: Aids are almost always played with fingers 15, because it's always contain the same letter of the musical alphabet. The nodes will always be on to white keys or two black keys. Sometimes eighths or played with 14. When playing many eighths in a row at a quick pace. By alternating between 1514, it makes it easier to play it faster tempos. 1514151415. And now at a fast pace. There are rare occasions when you would play an eighth with 13. This is only with extremely large chords. And only for people who have a large enough finger span. You would never play an eighth with fingers 12. Please complete the following.