Music Theory | Jonathan Peters | Skillshare
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210 Lessons (4h 17m)
    • 1. Course Promo

      1:06
    • 2. Music's Elements

      3:35
    • 3. Supplemental Article - Defining Music

      0:17
    • 4. Notating Duration

      4:28
    • 5. Memory Questions for section 2

      0:17
    • 6. Quiz for section 2

      0:17
    • 7. The Definition of Beat

      4:52
    • 8. Beat vs Tempo

      2:56
    • 9. Memory Questions for section 3

      0:17
    • 10. Quiz for section 3

      0:17
    • 11. The Definition of Meter

      2:49
    • 12. Time Signatures

      1:45
    • 13. Occurrence of Strong Beats

      3:16
    • 14. Memory Questions for section 4

      0:17
    • 15. Quiz for section 4

      0:17
    • 16. Relative Duration of Silence

      1:40
    • 17. Memory Questions for section 5

      0:17
    • 18. Quiz for section 5

      0:17
    • 19. Adding on Duration

      2:46
    • 20. Memory Questions for section 6

      0:17
    • 21. Quiz for section 6

      0:17
    • 22. Adding Notes Together

      1:21
    • 23. Ties vs. Dots

      1:27
    • 24. Memory Questions for section 7

      0:17
    • 25. Quiz for section 7

      0:17
    • 26. Three Eight and Six Eight Meters

      2:42
    • 27. Strongest Pulses

      0:51
    • 28. Memory Questions for section 8

      0:17
    • 29. Quiz for section 8

      0:17
    • 30. The Half Note as Unit

      2:57
    • 31. Memory Questions for section 9

      0:17
    • 32. Quiz for section 9

      0:17
    • 33. Simple Meter

      2:03
    • 34. Compound Meter

      3:46
    • 35. Complex Meter

      0:17
    • 36. Memory Questions for section 10

      0:17
    • 37. Quiz for section 10

      0:17
    • 38. Artificial Divisions

      0:17
    • 39. Memory Questions for section 11

      0:17
    • 40. Quiz for section 11

      0:17
    • 41. More About Tuplets

      0:17
    • 42. Artificial Divisions & Meter Type

      0:17
    • 43. Memory Questions for section 12

      0:17
    • 44. Quiz for section 12

      0:17
    • 45. Sound Waves

      3:57
    • 46. Pitch Experiments

      0:17
    • 47. Memory Questions for section 13

      0:17
    • 48. Quiz for section 13

      0:17
    • 49. Staff Lines

      1:01
    • 50. Ledger Lines

      2:28
    • 51. Clefs

      2:23
    • 52. Types of Movement on the Staff

      1:50
    • 53. Memory Questions for section 14

      0:17
    • 54. Quiz for section 14

      0:17
    • 55. The Musical Alphabet

      1:18
    • 56. The Grand Staff

      1:15
    • 57. Direction of Note Stems

      1:42
    • 58. Memory Questions for section 15

      0:17
    • 59. Exercises for section 15

      0:17
    • 60. Quiz for section 15

      0:17
    • 61. Letter Names of the Keys

      2:14
    • 62. Relation to the Staff

      1:07
    • 63. Half Steps & Whole Steps

      1:22
    • 64. Memory Questions for section 16

      0:17
    • 65. Quiz for section 16

      0:17
    • 66. Sharps

      2:16
    • 67. Flats

      1:48
    • 68. Memory Questions for section 17

      0:17
    • 69. Quiz for section 17

      0:17
    • 70. Reading Sharps on the Staff

      2:20
    • 71. Reading Flats on the Staff

      1:48
    • 72. The Natural Sign

      1:30
    • 73. Memory Questions for section 18

      0:17
    • 74. Quiz for section 18

      0:17
    • 75. Measuring Musical Distance

      3:15
    • 76. Musical Ratios of Intervals

      0:17
    • 77. Memory Questions for section 19

      0:17
    • 78. Quiz for section 19

      0:17
    • 79. Steps of the Scale

      3:13
    • 80. Tetrachords

      0:17
    • 81. Memory Questions for section 20

      0:17
    • 82. Exercises for section 20

      0:17
    • 83. Quiz for section 20

      0:17
    • 84. The Definition of a Key

      0:17
    • 85. Key Signatures

      3:40
    • 86. Major Keys with Sharps

      3:52
    • 87. Major Keys with Flats

      3:43
    • 88. Enharmonic Keys

      0:17
    • 89. Memory Questions for section 21

      0:17
    • 90. Exercises for section 21

      0:17
    • 91. Quiz for section 21

      0:17
    • 92. Number vs Quality

      3:48
    • 93. Intervals and the Scale

      2:47
    • 94. Memory Questions for section 22

      0:17
    • 95. Exercises for section 22

      0:17
    • 96. Quiz for section 22

      0:17
    • 97. Augmented Intervals

      3:01
    • 98. The Double Sharp

      1:44
    • 99. Diminished Intervals

      2:18
    • 100. The Double Flat

      1:34
    • 101. The Tritone

      3:49
    • 102. Memory Questions for section 23

      0:17
    • 103. Exercises for section 23

      0:17
    • 104. Quiz for section 23

      0:17
    • 105. Complementary Intervals

      3:03
    • 106. Compound Intervals

      2:45
    • 107. Reducing a Compound Interval

      0:17
    • 108. Open and Close Harmony

      0:56
    • 109. Quality of Compound Intervals

      0:17
    • 110. Memory Questions for section 24

      0:17
    • 111. Quiz for section 24

      0:17
    • 112. Major and Minor Chords

      3:28
    • 113. Ratio of Major & Minor 3rds

      0:17
    • 114. Memory Questions for section 25

      0:17
    • 115. Quiz for section 25

      0:17
    • 116. The Augmented Chord

      3:47
    • 117. The Diminished Chord

      3:20
    • 118. Memory Questions for section 26

      0:17
    • 119. Quiz for section 26

      0:17
    • 120. The Harmonic Mean

      0:17
    • 121. The Arithmetic Mean

      0:17
    • 122. The Geometric Mean

      0:17
    • 123. Memory Questions for section 27

      0:17
    • 124. Quiz for section 27

      0:17
    • 125. Chord Roots

      1:14
    • 126. Chord Qualities of the Major Scale

      1:58
    • 127. Roots of Scales and Keys

      2:25
    • 128. Memory Questions for section 28

      0:17
    • 129. Quiz for section 28

      0:17
    • 130. Comparing Major and Minor Scales

      3:02
    • 131. Memory Questions for section 29

      0:17
    • 132. Exercises for section 29

      0:17
    • 133. Quiz for section 29

      0:17
    • 134. The Harmonic Minor Scale

      2:29
    • 135. The Melodic Minor Scale

      2:18
    • 136. Memory Questions for section 30

      0:17
    • 137. Exercises for section 30

      0:17
    • 138. Quiz for section 30

      0:17
    • 139. Relative Keys

      6:09
    • 140. Shared Key Signatures

      1:43
    • 141. Parallel Keys

      1:15
    • 142. Memory Questions for section 31

      0:17
    • 143. Quiz for section 31

      0:17
    • 144. Natural Minor Scale Chords

      1:43
    • 145. Harmonic Minor Scale Chords

      1:27
    • 146. Memory Questions for section 32

      0:17
    • 147. Quiz for section 32

      0:17
    • 148. Naming with Roman Numerals

      2:55
    • 149. Memory Questions for section 33

      0:17
    • 150. Quiz for section 33

      0:17
    • 151. Chord Relationships

      5:25
    • 152. Memory Questions for section 34

      0:17
    • 153. Quiz for section 34

      0:17
    • 154. Reordering Chord Pitches

      1:55
    • 155. Location of the Root

      1:41
    • 156. How to Identify Chord Inversions

      2:01
    • 157. Memory Questions for section 35

      0:17
    • 158. Exercises for section 35

      0:17
    • 159. Quiz for section 35

      0:17
    • 160. Transition Between Chords

      5:14
    • 161. Memory Questions for section 36

      0:17
    • 162. Quiz for section 36

      0:17
    • 163. Naming Scale Degree Roles

      3:59
    • 164. Memory Questions for section 37

      0:17
    • 165. Quiz for section 37

      0:17
    • 166. Extension of the Triad

      2:08
    • 167. Dominant Seventh Inversions

      3:00
    • 168. Memory Questions for section 38

      0:17
    • 169. Quiz for section 38

      0:17
    • 170. The Major 7th Chord

      1:41
    • 171. The Minor 7th Chord

      1:12
    • 172. The Diminished 7th Chord

      1:50
    • 173. Memory Questions for section 39

      0:17
    • 174. Quiz for section 39

      0:17
    • 175. Musical Punctuation

      0:17
    • 176. The Authentic Cadence

      3:54
    • 177. The Half Cadence

      1:13
    • 178. The Plagal Cadence

      0:45
    • 179. The Deceptive Cadence

      1:19
    • 180. Memory Questions for section 40

      0:17
    • 181. Quiz for section 40

      0:17
    • 182. The Whole Tone Scale

      2:10
    • 183. The Chromatic Scale

      1:28
    • 184. Supplement Article

      0:17
    • 185. The Pentatonic Scale

      1:06
    • 186. Memory Questions for section 41

      0:17
    • 187. Quiz for section 41

      0:17
    • 188. Polytonal Music

      3:09
    • 189. Atonal Music

      0:17
    • 190. Memory Questions for section 42

      0:17
    • 191. Quiz for section 42

      0:17
    • 192. The Ancient Greek Modes

      0:17
    • 193. The Church Modes

      0:17
    • 194. The Modern Modes

      3:59
    • 195. Memory Questions for section 43

      0:17
    • 196. Quiz for section 43

      0:17
    • 197. Overtones

      6:11
    • 198. Hearing Overtones

      0:17
    • 199. Memory Questions for section 44

      0:17
    • 200. Quiz for section 44

      0:17
    • 201. Natures Hierarchy of Harmonic Sounds

      4:59
    • 202. The History of Consonance

      4:28
    • 203. Memory Questions for section 45

      0:17
    • 204. Quiz for section 45

      0:17
    • 205. Tuning Pitches

      0:17
    • 206. Pythagorean Tuning

      0:17
    • 207. Just Intonation

      0:17
    • 208. Equal Temperament

      0:17
    • 209. A Brief History

      0:17
    • 210. Congratulations

      0:16

About This Class

Why should I learn music theory? Isn't it just "theoretical" knowledge that I won't really use? Nothing could be further from the truth! Music theory also has many practical applications. A musician who has studied music theory has a huge advantage over a musician who has not. Not only will they read music more fluently, their performances will be more musical because they will understand the various elements of music and how all the parts work together. Song writers and composers with a background in music theory will also have a huge advantage over those without such a background. In fact, for those who want to write music, there is nothing more important than having a firm understanding of music theory.

Why You Should Take This Course:

  • you will be learning from a professional musician and award-winning composer
  • the course is in-depth and covers all levels 
  • the material is presented in a straight forward and easy to understand approach
  • the videos and PDFs get right to the point, and do not ramble on for lengthy amounts of time saying very little and leaving you confused
  • you will go beyond just definitions and terms and get the added benefit of learning the "why" behind the subject matter  

Course Requirements:

  • no previous musical knowledge is needed

Includes:

  • 112 lectures
  • over 350 diagrams
  • over 90 audio examples
  • 369 memory questions
  • 45 on-line quizzes
  • nearly 1,000 quiz questions
  • exercises, experiments and downloadable music apps

Transcripts

1. Course Promo: 2. Music's Elements: music is made up of two basic elements. Rhythm and pitch. The study of rhythm is concerned with the relative duration of sound. How short or long one sound is relative to another. The study of pitch is concerned with the relative frequency of sound. How lower, high one sound is relative to another. As you can see from the following diagram, Pitch is further divided into two different categories. Melody and harmony. Melody is an ordered sequence of pitches. Harmony is two or more pitches her and simultaneously we will begin our study of music with the study of rhythm. Since rhythm is more fundamental than pitch, why is rhythm more fundamental and pitch? There are two reasons. First, rhythm can exist without pitch, but pitch cannot exist without rhythm, and second, rhythm comes naturally to more people than pitched us. Let's discuss reason number one a little bit further, as you can see in the diagram rhythm, this place to the bottom of the pyramid on this is because of rhythm is the foundation for the rest of music. Rhythms could be heard by themselves, but without rhythm, pitches could not be heard. Let's listen to an example of a rhythm without any pitch. See if you can tell what song this is. That was the song Happy Birthday with just the rhythm. Now let's listen to the same song with both rhythm and pitch. It would be impossible to play or sing Happy Birthday or any song for that matter using only pitch. And that's because every pitch, whether higher low, must have a duration or length if it does not have duration than we would not be able to hear it. If you take another look at the diagram, you will notice that rhythm is the biggest section of the pyramid. Melody is the second biggest, and harmony is the smallest. Rhythm is the biggest section because it comes naturally to more people. When we say naturally to more people. What we mean is that the average person without any previous study of music is able to hear a rhythm once and then repeat it from memory. Fewer people are able to do this with melody and even fewer people with harmony. In the next video, we will continue our study of rhythm by learning how rhythm is conveyed through notation 3. Supplemental Article - Defining Music : 4. Notating Duration : in music, we communicate the duration of sound through written symbols called notes. There are three basic parts to a note. The note had that stem and the flag were able to alter the duration of a note by changing any of its three parts in this? Listen, we're going to look at five different types of note durations. The first is called the whole note. It has no flag and no stem. The whole note is the note of longest duration. The exact amount of time ah whole noticed played for is determined by various factors, which we will learn about in the coming lessons. In this lesson, we're only concerned with the relative duration that is the duration of one note compared to the duration of another note. The next four notes derive their names from their relation to the whole note. The following note is called 1/2 note. It has a note head and the stem. It is called 1/2 note because it is half the duration of the whole nut. Because of this fact, the duration of 2/2 notes is equal to the duration of one whole it the blue lines in the diagram represent time. The next note we're going to look at is called the quarter out. 1/4 note has a note head, which is colored in and the stem. It is called 1/4 note because it is 1/4 the duration of the whole nut. Because of this fact, the duration of 4/4 notes is equal to the duration of one whole nut. The following notice, called on Eighth Note on a Throat, has a note head, which is colored in a stem and a flag. It is called on eighth note because it is 1/8 the duration of a whole nut. Because of this fact, the duration of 8/8 it's is equal to the duration of one whole nut. The final note we're going to look at in this lesson is called the 16th that 1/16 note has a note head, which is colored in a stem and to flying's. It is called 1/16 note because it is 1/16 the duration of a whole nut. Because of this fact, the duration of 16 16 notes is equal to the duration of one whole note, as you've probably already noticed each time of flag is added to note, the duration of the note is shortened by 1/2 a. Thoughts. Have one flag. 16th notes have two flags. 32nd notes would have three flags and so forth and so on, very often in music, notes with flags are grouped together. When this happens, the flags air replaced with beams. For example, 28 No sitter group together would be joined with the beam like this for 1/16 notes. The group together would be joined with two beams like this. Here is a chart of the no durations learned in this lesson. It is very important that you recognize the mathematical proportions between the nuts. Notice how each type of my note is half the duration of the note above it. For example, 1/16 note is half of an eighth note on eighth note is half of 1/4 note. 1/4 note is half of 1/2 note. Ah, half note is half of a whole much be sure to study the chart thoroughly before taking the lesson. Chris, A good idea would be to take one duration at a time and observe how Maney notes of that duration it takes to equal each of the other durations. Don't forget to study the lesson memory questions found under the downloadable materials tab on the right side of your screen. 5. Memory Questions for section 2: 6. Quiz for section 2: 7. The Definition of Beat: in the last lesson. We learned some basic note names and their relative durations and this. Listen, we're going to assign numerical values to the note durations. But before we can proceed, we first need to define what beat ISS. People often comment. The song has a nice beat when what they're actually referred to is the songs rhythm. Although Beat and rhythm are often used interchangeably, they're not the same thing. Rhythm deals with the relative duration of sound, where his beat is a unit of measurement. Let's explain what is meant by this When we measure the physical length of a thing, we may do so using different units of measurements such as inches, feet, yards, smiles, etcetera. Let's say that we wanted to measure something using inches. When we do so we're Does he need the inch as our unit of measurement? By deciding to it a value of one, we can apply the same concept of measurement two musical notes, but instead of measuring physical length, we will be measuring duration of time. Any type of note may be chosen is the unit of measurement. If we assigned to it a value of one in this lesson. We will be studying what happens when we assign a value of one to the quarter notes by signing a value of one to the quarter. Now the quarter has been designated as the beat or the unit of measurement, by which we will measure the duration of all other notes. Let's look at some examples. In the last lesson, we learned that the duration of 1/4 note is 1/4 of the duration of the whole notes. If we assign a Valley of One to the quarter note, the whole noble therefore be equal to the value of four A musical terms when 1/4 no equals one beat. The whole note equals four beats in the next four audio clips. The clicking sound represents the quarter notes where the value of one the piano sound represents all the other notes, huh? We also learned in the last lesson that the duration of 1/4 note is 1/2 the duration of 1/2 Note. If we assign a value of one to the quarter note, the half note will therefore be equal to a value of two. In musical terms, when 1/4 note equals one beat. The half known equals two beats. Remember, 1/2 note is not half a beat. Its name comes from its relation to the whole nuts. We also know from the previous lesson that the duration of 1/4 note is twice the duration of an eighth note. If we sign a value of one to the quarter, note the eighth. It will therefore be equal to a value of 1/2. In musical terms, when 1/4 note Eagles one beat the A 30 equals 1/2 of a beat. Remember, an eighth note is not an eighth of beat. Its name comes from its relation to the whole nut. And finally, we know that the duration of 1/4 note is four times the duration of 1/16 net. If we assign a value of one to the quarter, the 16th note will therefore be equal to a value of 1/4 in musical terms. When 1/4 note echoes one beat, the 16th no equals 1/4 of a beat. Remember, 1/16 note is not 1/16 of a beat. Its name comes from its relation to the whole note. Here is a helpful chart that shows. The quarter note is the unit of measurement and its relation to all the other notes we've learned thus far. Half notes and whole notes are called multiples of the unit, since their doubles and quadruples of the unit, eighth notes and 16th notes are called subdivisions of the unit since their haves and forms of the unit. 8. Beat vs Tempo: is a common mistake for beginning music students to associate one beat with one second of time when we assign numerical values to notes were not designating that they be played for any specific amount of time. The actual time it takes to play a note is determined by something called tempo. Tempo is the Italian for rate of speed. When the tempo of the song is quick, the beach will be occurring at a much faster rate, and therefore the duration of the notes and actual time will be shorter. When the temple of a song is slow, the beach will be occurring at a much slower rate and therefore the duration of the notes and actual time will be longer. Let's demonstrate this using a whole nut, although Whole note has a numerical value of four beats, its duration maybe longer or shorter, depending on how quickly or slowly the beats occur in actual time. When beats occur at a faster rate, the whole note will be played for a shorter period of time. When beats occur at a slower rate, the whole note will be played for a longer period of time. Tempo is indicated above the notes in the music using a metronome markings. No mention, um, is a mechanical device that keeps track of musical time. Here's an example of a Metro marking this marking indicates to the performer that there to play at a rate of 120 beats per minute or be PM In other words, quarter notes will occur at a rate of two per second. Up until the early 19th century, tempo is indicated with the telling words placed above the first notes of a song. For example, the word allegro place at the beginning of a song would indicate the performer that there to play quickly. As you can see, this method is not as precise as Metro markings, since the word allegro only gives us a rough idea of the tempo and does not indicate an exact measurable speed. Here's a list of some common temple markings, and here's another list with modern day metronomic with violence 9. Memory Questions for section 3: 10. Quiz for section 3: 11. The Definition of Meter: in the previous lessons, we learned that the study of rhythm is concerned with the relative duration of sound. In this lesson, we will begin. Our study of meter rhythm is connected with meter, but they're not the same thing. Meter is the natural division of rhythms into equal sized groups. Let's explain what is meant by this. These 6/4 notes could be grouped in various ways. Using what we call bar lines by placing a bar line every two notes. The's six knows congee grouped into three sets of two. By placing a bar line every three notes, the six notes can be grouped into two sets of three. We call the space from one bar line to the next in measure. In the first example, there are three measures. In the second example, there are two measures. What are we measuring? We're measuring time through beats. Have you ever heard someone say that a piece of music is in three? What they mean by this is that there are three beats between each bar line that is three beats in each measure. The second example is in three. Because there are three beats in each measure, the first example is in to because there are two beats in the treasure. Remember, the quarter note has been designated as the unit or the beat. Let's look at another example. It is very important to understand that two beats per measure does not necessarily mean to notes per measure. For example, although there is only one note in the second measure is equal to two beats. Therefore, every measure in this example contains the same number of beats two beats in each measure. There are, however, not the same number of notes age measure in this example. There are four notes in the first measure, one note in the second measure and two notes in the last measure who are adding up the total number of beats. In each measure, it can be seen that there are four beats in each. This is an example of music and four 12. Time Signatures: meter is always indicated at the start of a song by two numbers. We call these two numbers a time signature. The top number of a time signature indicates the number of beats in each measure. The bottom number indicates which note has been designated as the unit of measurement or beat. In each of the following time signatures, the number four appears on the bottom four stands for quarter. It is indicating that the quarter note has been designated as the unit of measurement. That is, it has been assigned a value of one. In the previous lesson, we learned that any note could be designated this unit, but for now, we're only dealing with the quarter note. That's the unit we will learn about other notes being designated as the unit and subsequent lessons. The time signature for four can also be written using the letter C. The use of the letter C originated in the 15th and 16th centuries and actually stems from a circle that have been cut in half. The half circle signified in perfect time since four was considered in perfect, while three was considered perfect. Today the sea has come to stand for common time. This is due to the fact that so much music has been written in 44 time 13. Occurrence of Strong Beats: Let's delve deeper into our definition of meter. Meter was defined as the natural division of rhythms into equal sized groups. It was previously demonstrated the through placement of bar lines. Music can be divided into equal sized groups, which contain the same number of beats. We will now explain what is meant by natural division using our example of 6/4 nets. As we saw previously, these six notes could be grouped into sets of two or into sets of three using bar lines. But what determines where the bar lines are placed? Bar lines are placed based on where the strongest pulses in the music naturally occur. If you've ever seen people clapping along to music there, usually clumping along with strongest beats, this is because music is natural to man. Even someone who knows nothing about music can instinctively recognize the strongest pulses of the music. When the strongest pulse occurs every two beats, then the 6/4 doubts would be grouped into sets of two. Strong beats are marked with eras. When the strongest pulse occurs every three beats, then the 6/4 notes will be grouped into sets of three music that has a strong pulse. Every four beats will be written in for four meter musicians, oftentimes plays a strong pulse on the first beat of each measure and a slightly less strong pulse on the third beat of each measure. Sometimes it is easier to understand strong pulses by singing the words to a song. What meter do you think the song Mary had a little lamb is in? Listen to the audio and decide which meters correct. - Could you tell that 44 was the correct meter? The strongest pulses in the 34 version did not match up with where the strongest pulses occur, in the words. 14. Memory Questions for section 4: 15. Quiz for section 4: 16. Relative Duration of Silence: during a piece of music. There are not always notes being played. Sometimes there are periods of sounds, just as there are relative durations of sound. So to their relative durations of silence, we call the symbols. For these durations of silence rests. Take a look at the following chart. On the left side of the chart are all of the notes you've learned up to this point in the course on the right side of the chart, the corresponding rests of equal duration because they're of equal duration, they share the same names with their counterparts. For example, Ah, half rest is half the duration of the whole rest. Just as 1/2 note is half the duration of a whole note. Make sure that you commit this chart memory before taking the lesson. Chris. Everything we studied about rhythm and meter and the previous lessons applies to rests as well. There is one important exception. The whole rest fills an entire measure with silence. No matter what the meter, this means that the whole rest will be equal to two beats in a measure of to four meter. The whole rest will be equal to three beats in a measure of 34 meter and the whole rest will be equal to four beats in a measure of 44 meter. 17. Memory Questions for section 5: 18. Quiz for section 5: 19. Adding on Duration: in this listen, we will be learning about some new note durations. The's notes have a dot directly to the right of the note head. When a dot is placed to the right of the note head, the duration of the note is increased by 1/2 of the notes value. Let's demonstrate this with some examples. The following note is called a dotted half note. As we already know, half notice two beats in duration by placing and dot to the right of the note head. The note's duration is increased by 1/2 of its value. Half of two is one. Therefore, the half notice two beats and duration. The dot is one beat in duration, and together they're three beats in duration. This condition clearly in the following diagram, let's take a look at the dotted whole nut as we know whole notice. Four beats in duration by placing a dot to the right of the note head. The note's duration is increased by 1/2 of its value. Half of four is too. Therefore, the whole notice four beats in duration. The dot is to beat in duration, and together they're six beats in duration. Let's see what happens when we had a dot to 1/4 note. As we know, 1/4 note is one beat in duration. By placing a dot to the right of the know head. The note's duration is increased by 1/2 of its value. Half of one is 1/2. Therefore, the quarter note is one beaten duration. The dot is half of a beaten duration, and together they're 1.5 beats in duration. And finally, let's take a look at the dotted eighth. Now it as we know an eighth note is 1/2 of the beaten duration. By placing a dot to the right of the know head, the notes durations increased by 1/2 of its value. Half of 1/2 is 1/4. Therefore, the eighth note is 1/2 of a beaten duration. The dot is 1/4 of a beaten duration, and together they're 3/4 of a beat in duration. Please read the PDF file. Origins of the dotted note Before taking the lesson quiz, it can be found under the downloadable materials tab on the right side of your screen. 20. Memory Questions for section 6: 21. Quiz for section 6: 22. Adding Notes Together: the note of longest duration we have learned thus far is six beats in duration the dot at home it to create notes of longer duration. We must add two or more notes together, for example, to create enough that is, 12 beats in duration. We could add together three whole nuts. This is done using something called a tie. A tie is a curved line strung between two notes, indicating that the durations are to be added together. In this example, the first hole note is played and then held for duration of 12 beats. The second and third notes are not replayed but are continued to be held. The use of the Thai also allows for no durations that last longer than a single measure. Notice that the notes are tied across the bar lines in this example, notes that are tied together do not necessarily need to be of the same length. Any to know durations may be tied together, for example, Ah whole note could be tied to 1/4 net or the whole note could be tied to don it half note 23. Ties vs. Dots: Sometimes rather than adding a doctor note, Notre tied together to create a duration equal in length to that of dotted note. For example, half note tied to 1/4 of his three beats. This is the same is adding a dot to 1/2 net. 1/4 note tied to an eighth note is 1.5 beats. This is the same as adding a dot to 1/4 note. In fact, the same piece of music written using dotted notes can also be written using ties. Here's a diagram that shows the advantages and disadvantages of both methods. Let's listen to each line. Did you notice that both line sounded exactly the same? That's because the rhythm in the first line is the same as the rhythm in the second line. There two ways of writing the same thing. The dotted version is the more common way 24. Memory Questions for section 7: 25. Quiz for section 7: 26. Three Eight and Six Eight Meters: in less than three, We learned that any note could be designated is the unit of measurement or beat if we assigned to it a value of one. Thus far, we have only studied meters, in which the quarter note was designated as the unit of measurement. In this lesson, we're going to look at meters, in which the eighth note is designated as the unit of measurement. Let's begin with 38 meter, as we have previously learned, the top number of a time signature always indicates how Maney beats. There are in each measure in 38 meter there, three beats per measure. The bottom number in a time signature always indicates which note has been designated as the unit of measurement. In this case, the number eight represents the eighth note, just a the number four in the bottom of the 34 meter represents the quarter. Note. This means that the eighth note has been designated is the unit of measurement that is, the eighth name has been assigned a value of one. Now let's take a look at 68 meter once again, the top number indicates how many beats there are in each measure In the case of 68 meter, there are six beats in each measure. The bottom number indicates that the eighth note has been designated as the unit of measurement and assigned a value of one. What are the ramifications of changing our unit of measurement by making a thin equals one beat were also changing the new miracle values of all the other notes. It is very important to understand that although each notes numerical value will be changed , they're durations relative to one another will remain the same. For example, half now it will still be half the duration of the whole much. The following child will street this. If you study the following chart, you will find that the values on the right side are double those on the left. When we made the eighth now equal to one beat, we doubled its duration from 1/2 toe one. We must therefore double all the other notes so that their durations roads have toward another remained the same, that is, they maintain the same proportions to one another. Memorize this chart before taking the lesson. Chris 27. Strongest Pulses: When we studied 2434 and 44 meter, we learned where the strong pulses occurred in three a meter. The poll strength of the beats is strong, weak, weak. The arrow indicates the strong impulse in 68 meter the polls. Strength of the beats is very strong, weak, weak, less strong, weak, weak. 28. Memory Questions for section 8: 29. Quiz for section 8: 30. The Half Note as Unit: Thus far, we have seen the quarter note designated as the beat in 2434 and 44 meters, and the eighth note doesn't need it. Does the beat in 38 and 68 meters and this Listen, we're going to learn about a meter which doesn't need to. The half notice to beat. It is known as cut time. We're 22 meter cut time could be notated as to over to or as the letter C with the vertical line through its. As you know, by now, the top number at a time signature always indicates how many beats per measure in 22 meter . There are two beats in each measure. The bottom number and time signature always indicates which now has been designated as the unit of measurement. In this case, the numbers who represents the half note just does the number four in 34 represented the quarter notes, and the number eight in 38 represented the eighth. It This means that the Haffner has been designated as the unit of measurement. That is, the half note has been assigned a value of one by making the half no equal torn beat were also changing the numerical values of all the other notes. It is very important to understand that although each notes in numerical value be changed, the durations relative twin another will remain the same. That is, ah, have no stood be half the duration of home it. The following diagram illustrates this. Here is another chart which shows the numerical values of each note. When the quarter note is designated as the unit on the left calm and when the half note is designated as the unit on the right call, it also includes a few more of the common dotted notes as well. Unease e way to remember The note values in cut time is to picture each of the note values and 44 as having been cut in half. All the values on the right of the chart, or half of the values on the left meters such as 22 are actually very helpful when reading music at fast tempos. Here is an example of the same rhythm written first in common time and then in cut time. Even though each line has the same number of notes, the second line is much easier to read when playing at faster tempos. This is because there are fewer beams, thus making the music much cleaner, less cluttered looking. 31. Memory Questions for section 9: 32. Quiz for section 9: 33. Simple Meter: At this point, you're familiar with a few different time signatures. In the next few lectures, we're going to learn how to classify them, and we'll also be learning a few new meters. When a meter has two pulses per measure, it is called Super Meter. The reason we're using the word pulse to replace the word beat will become clear as we move forward through the lectures. When a meteor has three pulses per measure, it is called triple meter, and when a meter has four pulses per measure, it is called quadruple meter. All of these meters are called simple because each polls could be divided by two. Let's explain, because each pulse or quarter note in this diagram could be divided by two. The meter is classifying this simple, and because there are four pulses in each measure, the meter is classified as quadruple for for time is therefore called simple quadruple meter. Because each pulse or quarter note and the diagram could be divided by two. This meter is classified a simple because there are three pulses in each measure. This meters cross finest Triple 34 time is therefore called simple triple meter because each pulse or quarter note in the diagram could be divided by two this meters. Cross Find a simple because there are two pulses in each measure. This meters cross fight, as do Paul 24 time is therefore called simple Do pull meter. 34. Compound Meter: in compound meter. Each pulse can be divided by three. Let's look at an example of 68 meter to explain what this means. Even though there are six beats in each measure of 68 time, the rhythmic pulse falls. Every three beats the strongest pulses on beat one, and the second strongest pulses on beat four. This gives it the feel that their two beats in each measure rather than six. Listen to the following audio clip and try tapping your foot along with the music. Do you see how the feel is two beats per measure rather than six? This may be very confusing to you, since you've previously learned that the bottom number of a time signature always indicates which note has been designated as the beat. In order to avoid confusion, we used the term pulse. His simple meter beat impulse refer to the same thing, but in compound meter. Be refers to the note with the value one. Whereas pulse refers to what is perceived as the beach, it is very important that you understand this distinction before moving forward. So in 68 time, each pulse or dotted quarter note can be divided by three. Therefore, the meter is classified as compound and because there are two pulses in each measure, the meter is classified as do Paul 68 Time is therefore called compound do pull meter in 98 meter. Each pulse or dotted quarter note can be divided by three. Therefore, the meter is classified as compound because there are three pulses in each measure. The meters classified as triple 98 times, therefore called compound triple meter. There are 9/8 note beats and each measure, but we feel three pulses per measure in 12 8 time. Each pulse or dotted quarter note can be divided by three. The meter is classified as compound because there are four pulses in each measure. The meter's cross fighters quadruple 12 8 times, therefore called compound quadruple meter. There are 12 8th note beats in each measure, but we feel four pulses per measure. Memorize and understand the following chart before taking the lesson Quiz. Note. No matter what the meter type, you can only have 248 16 or 32 for the bottom number of the time signature. That is either The half notes. Quarter Note. Eighth note. 16th note or 32nd note has been designated as the beach. The simple meters are 23 and four. The compound meters our 69 and 12. 35. Complex Meter: 36. Memory Questions for section 10: 37. Quiz for section 10: 38. Artificial Divisions: 39. Memory Questions for section 11: 40. Quiz for section 11: 41. More About Tuplets: 42. Artificial Divisions & Meter Type: 43. Memory Questions for section 12: 44. Quiz for section 12: 45. Sound Waves: In the beginning of this course, we learned that there are two basic elements that make up music, rhythm and pitch. Let's review the study of rhythm is concerned with the relative duration of sound. How short or long one sound is relative to another. The study of pitch is concerned with the relative frequency of sound. How low or high one sound is relative to another. Up until this point, in the course, we have only looked at rhythm. We will now turn our attention to pitch when we speak of the high and low of a sound. What exactly are we referring to you when we say the bulls are on a higher shelf in the glasses were referring to physical space in music high and low refers to tonal space. To understand this, who must first take a brief look at sound waves When air is moved, sound is produced. This moving air travels in waves similar to ripples in the water. There are two types of pitch indefinite pitch and definite pitch. The sounds produced by random waves of air are called indefinite pitches. Examples include snapping your fingers, a door slamming shut or thunder the sounds produced by uniform waves of error called definite pitches. Examples include speaking, singing and any sound made by musical instruments. Whenever we refer to pitch in this course, we will be referring to definite pitch. Before the advent of modern technology, the only way to measure pitch was by comparing one pitch to another. The ancient Greek philosopher and mathematician by thunderous is considered to be the first to discover that particular mathematical divisions of a vibrating string produced different pitches. Because of mathematics, he was able to definitively stage that a certain pitch was twice as high as another pitch. We will learn more about Pythagoras and his discoveries when we study intervals in the coming lessons. Today we measure pitch by its frequency. Frequency is the rate at which the waves of air reach are here. This could be measured in cycles per second. A cycle is from one wave crest to the next wave crest. All sound travels at the same speed when temperature is constant. The speed of sound is about one mile every five seconds. Because of this fact, all the sound waves in the diagram will reach the year of the same woman in time of of the sound is traveling at the same speed. The waves of the top of the diagram are hitting the ear more frequently. More cycles per second enter this higher in pitch. The waves at the bottom of the diagram are hitting the year less frequently. Fewer cycles per second enter this lower in pitch. When we speak of the frequency of a pitch, we're referring to how frequently the waves reach our years. That is how high or low the pitch sounds to us. Be sure to do the pitch experiments found in the pdf that accompanies this lecture. 46. Pitch Experiments: 47. Memory Questions for section 13: 48. Quiz for section 13: 49. Staff Lines: a staff is a device by which we indicate pitch. The modern day staff consists of five lines called staff lines. In between, the lines are four spaces. Notes may be placed on either the staff lines or in the staff space is the notes that are placed higher on the staff, represent higher pitches. The notes that are placed lower on the staff represent lower pitches. For example, the note on the left will sound higher than the note on the right. It is helpful to think of the five staff lines as rungs on a ladder. 50. Ledger Lines: we wouldn't be able to play or sing very higher low, using only five lines and four spaces and very little music could be written. So to indicate even higher pitches, we add additional lines above the five staff lines to indicate even lower pitches. We add additional lines below the fire staff lines. These additional lines are called ledger lines. Notes may be placed on the ledger lines. Justus. They replaced on the staff lines. They can also be placed in the spaces. Although the addition of Legend lines allows us to know Tate a greater number of pitches, it also creates a problem extremely high and extremely low. Pitches would need so many ledger lines that even the best musicians would have a difficult time reading the music to determine the pitches in this example, a musician would have to count every single line in space. This would take a very long time. It would not be conducive to the actual radiant music, which needs to be almost instantaneous. Let's do a little experiment glands quickly the lines that will appear on the screen and see if you can tell how many there are notice that you did not have to count the lines one at a time to know that there were four. That's because the human brain and eyes are able to take in a small number of objects at a glance, typically 4 to 5, and recognize how Maney objects there are without counting them without counting them quickly glanced the lines that will appear on the screen and see if you can tell how many there are. Like the majority of people, you probably had to make an educated guess at the number of lines because there were more than four or five lines. Your brain and eyes could not taking the objects at a glance and recognize the number without counting them one at a time. This is why the staff is made up of only five lines and why ledger lines are usually limited to 45 above and below the staff 51. Clefs: If we're limited to five staff lines and a few legend lines, how do we indicate other pitches that are even higher or lower? This is where the use of clubs comes in. Clough is a symbol placed at the beginning of a staff, which indicates the exact pitches the staff lines and spaces will represent. Without a Clough, we would not know which pitches the lines and spaces represented. This will become clearer as we move through this. Listen and the next. The following symbol is called Trouble Clough. When a trouble cloth is placed on the staff, it indicates that the five staff lines and four spaces were represents Pacific higher pitches. This will be explained momentarily. The staff itself is referred to as a trouble stuff. The following symbol is called a base Clough. When a base closes placed on the staff, it indicates that the five staff lines and four spaces will represent specific lower pitches. The staff itself is referred to as a base stuff. Listen to and compare the following two pitches. Here's the pitch on the left. Here's the pitch on the right. As you can see, the very same staff lines can represent completely different pitches. Depending on what Clough is used, we will learn to identify each staff line in space in the next lesson. Higher voices and instruments read. Music written in trouble. Clough Lower voices and instruments read music written in base. Clough There are many other types of cliffs for all ranges of voices and instruments, but in this course we will only be studying the trouble on base cliffs, since they are the most commonly used cliffs. 52. Types of Movement on the Staff: There are three basic movements that knows, convey, make on the staff, stepping, skipping and repeating. Let's look at examples of each. When a notice on online and the next note is on the same line, it is called a repeat. These notes are the same pitch. Remember, we read from left to right a music justus. We do in reading words when a note is in a space and the next note is in the same space. It is also called a repeat. Once again, these notes are the same pitch. When a note is on a line and the next note is in this space above or the space below, it is called a step. These notes are stepping higher in pitch when I noticed in the space and the next note is on the line above or the line below. It is also called a step. These notes are also stepping higher in pitch when a notice on a line and the next note is on the line above or the line below it is called a skip. These notes are skipping higher and pitch when a note is in a space, and the next note is in the space above or the space below. It is also called a skip. These notes are skipping higher and pitch. 53. Memory Questions for section 14: 54. Quiz for section 14: 55. The Musical Alphabet: in the last lesson, we learned that a notes position on the staff determines its pitch in this. Listen, we're going to learn specific names of each pitch. The notes placed on the staff lines and spaces are named with letters of the alphabet. Unlike the 26 letter English alphabet, the musical alphabet uses only seven letters A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Once we reach the letter, gee, we begin the alphabet all over again. Here the letter names of the notes on the trouble staff and the base staff. If you look carefully, you'll notice that the pictures of the base staff are just two letter names. Apart from those in the trouble stuff, recognizing this fact will help you in your memorization of the note names for the lesson quiz. For example, G in the base staff is to letter names from E in the trouble staff and see in the base stuff is to better names from a in the trouble staff 56. The Grand Staff: the majority of voices and instruments use only one staff, as mentioned previously, the higher voices and instruments use the trouble staff, while the lower voices and instruments use a base staff. Certain instruments such as the piano, have such a large range of pitches from extremely high to extremely low that both the trouble and obey stuff is necessary. We call this the Grand Staff. The Braves on the Left shows that the clubs have been joined together, as you can see in the following diagram. By joining the trouble on bass stabs we can accommodate, many were pitches. And with the addition of a single ledger line between the trouble stuff and the base staff , the pitches can move from base to trouble without break. The note on this ledger line is called Middle C. The letter names can continue in either direction with the addition of leisure lines above and below the grand staff 57. Direction of Note Stems: The last thing we need to cover in this lesson is the notes Stem rule as mentioned in the lesson on tablets we saw that note stems may point up or down, you know, it seems the point up are placed on the right of the note head Newt Sims. The point down are placed on the left of the note head. The note. Stem rule is as follows. If I know is on or above the middle line, the stems point down. If you notice below the middle line, the stems point up. There are two reasons for this rule. First, by following this rule, most stems will stay within the staff, allowing room for text and other musical symbols to be placed below or above the staff lines. Second, by falling in this rule, we also keep the notes stems in the trouble staff from colliding with those in the base staff. This makes reading music on the page much easier for the musician. Let's demonstrate with some examples. The following is what would happen if we didn't have a notes General. Notice how the stems in this example nearly cried with one another. It's messy and hard to read here is the exact same example. With stem rural being observed, it's much neater and easier to read. 58. Memory Questions for section 15: 59. Exercises for section 15: 60. Quiz for section 15: 61. Letter Names of the Keys: Although this is not a course on how to play the piano, understanding the piano keyboard is vital to understanding music theory. This is because most music theory concepts could be easily understood and demonstrated very clearly on the piano Going forward. In this course, you should always use a piano and trying to understand the theory concepts. If you do not own a piano or digital keyboard, you can find many virtual pianos online. Bookmark the following virtual piano for future use. Let's begin by looking at the black. He's the Black Keys are arranged and alternating groups of threes and twos. Locate the white key directly to the left of the group of two black. He's We call this note, see, locate the white key directly to the left of the Group of three Blackie's. We call this note F one purpose of the black eases to service points of reference. Without them, we would not be able to locate any particular pitch to illustrate this. Try and find the piano key, see on the following diagram. Since all the keys look exactly the same, we're not able to locate sea or any other pitch, for that matter. We need the black. He's as reference points. Now that we know we're see an effort located on the keyboard. Let's learn the names of the other white cheese. We will learn the names, the Black Keys. In another lesson, just as the musical alphabet is repeated on the staff lines, it is also repeated on the keyboard. For example, once she's reached, we begin again at a be sure to memorize the key names before taking the lesson quiz. 62. Relation to the Staff: Now let's take a look at the piano keyboards. Relation to the staff. Each of the staff lines we learned in the previous lesson corresponds to a particular piano . He The single ledger line between the trouble on base steps corresponds with C nearest to the middle of the piano keyboard. Middle C. There is one important distinction to be made between pitches on the staff and pitches on the piano keyboard. In the previous lesson, we saw that pitches on the staff get higher as they're placed higher up on the staff on the piano keyboard. Higher and lower, refer to right and left, not up and down. The following diagram will help to illustrate this. 63. Half Steps & Whole Steps: to understand the piano keyboard. We also need to understand how distance on the keyboard is measured. We measure distance on the piano keyboard, either in half steps or whole steps. 1/2 step is the distance from one key to the very next key. This could be the key directly to the right or directly to the left. It does not matter if the keys are black or white. Here are a few examples of half steps. A whole step is equal to the distance of 2/2 steps. This means that there will be a space of one key in between the two keys. Here are a few examples of whole steps. 64. Memory Questions for section 16: 65. Quiz for section 16: 66. Sharps: at the end of the last lesson, we learned that distance on the piano keyboard is measured in half steps and whole steps, if you remember, ah, half step was defined as the distance from one key to the very next key. This will be important for understanding sharps and flats. A sharp sign is a symbol which indicates that were to play a particular pitch 1/2 step higher. The letter after the sharp sign after it indicates that were to play the pitch 1/2 step higher than F, the next key to the right. We call this key f sharp. It is a common misconception that sharps are the Black Keys. While it is true that some sharps are black, he's not. All of them are. Here is an example of a sharp that is a white he, as you can see the key 1/2 step to the right of B is a white he. Since this key is already named C, it will therefore have to different names, see and be sharp or two different names for the same key. When two nodes sound the same but are spelled differently, they're called and harmonic equivalents on example of something, and now, I guess, to this and language would be the words beat and beat. Both words have the same sound when spoken, but they look differently on the page. They also have different meanings and are there for use differently. In a sentence. Be sharp is the and harmonic equivalent of C. This probably seems a little silly, but there is a reason for certain piano. He's having two different names. We will learn why in later lessons. 67. Flats: a flat sign is a symbol which indicates that were to play a particular pitch 1/2 step lower . The letter B with a flat sign after it indicates that were to play the pitch 1/2 step lower than be the next key to the left. We call this key B flat. It is a common misconception of flats of the Black Keys. Well, it's true that some flats are black. He's not. All of them are. Here's an example of a flat that is a white key. As you can see, the key 1/2 step to the left and half is a white key. Since his keys already named E, it will therefore have to different names. This key can be called E or in certain circumstances, which will learn about later. It could be called by the and harmonic equivalent. Name A flat. Why? Keys are not the only keys that could have two names every black heels, last two names. Here's an example, since the key to the right of F and the key to the left of G is the exact same key, it will therefore have to names 1/2 step higher than f is F sharp and 1/2 step lower. The G is G flat, F Sharp and G flat are, therefore, and harmonic equivalents. The following diagram lists all the possible letter names for each key. Be sure to memorize it before taking the lesson quiz. 68. Memory Questions for section 17: 69. Quiz for section 17: 70. Reading Sharps on the Staff: In the last lesson, we learned about sharps and flats on the piano keyboard. In this listen, we will learn how to read sharps and flats when they're placed next to the notes on the staff. Let's begin with Sharps for this example. We will use the note on the bottom space of the trouble staff, or F When we see a sharp sign in front of enough, it indicates that were to play an F sharp instead of enough important all sharps are placed the left of the note on the same line or space as the note. To determine which flyers space the sharp is on, locate the too thick horizontal bars of the sharp sign. If the line passes between these two bars, the sharp is on the line. If the too thick horizontal bars of the sharp signed fall between the staff lines, the sharp is in a space. The most important thing to remember about Sharps is the following rule. All notes on the same liner space that occur after the sharp are also played. A Sharps notes until the end of the measure. In the next measure, the Sharp has no effect, and all sharp notes returned to non sharp notes. This is illustrated in the following diagram. As you can see the first notice played as a non sharp note. The next three notes are played a Sharps notes, because the sharp sign effects all the subsequent notes on the same line for the remainder of the measure. In the second measure, the 1st 2 notes are played as non sharp notes. The last two notes are played, a Sharps notes, because the sharp side effects all the subsequent notes on the same line for the remainder of the measure. 71. Reading Flats on the Staff: for our next example, we will use the note on the middle line of the trouble staff, or B. When we see a flat sign in front of a B, it indicates that were to play a B flat instead of a B importance. All flats were placed to the left of the notes on the same liner space as the note. To determine which liner space the flat is on, locate the belly of the flat sign. If the line passes through the belly, the flat is on the line. If the belly of the flat same falls between the staff lines, the flat is in a space. As with Sharps, the most important thing to remember about flats is the following rule. All notes on the same liner space that occur after the flat are also played is flooded notes until the end of the measure, and the next measure, the flat has no effect, and all flooded notes return to non flooded nuts. This is illustrated in the following diagram. As you can see the 1st 2 notes who played as non flattered notes. The next two notes are played is flatted notes because the flat side effects all the subject with notes on the same space for the remainder of the measure. In the second measure, the 1st 3 notes are played is non flooded notes, the last time displayed as a flatted note because of the new flat sign. 72. The Natural Sign: as we learned previously. Sharps and flats apply to all subsequent notes on the same liner space until the end of the measure to eliminate a sharper flat from any of the subsequent notes. In a measure in natural Sign is used, a natural sign is a symbol to the left of a note head that eliminates the effects of any preceding sharp or flat for the remainder of the measure, or until another sharper, flatter scene. This is illustrated in the following diagram. As you can see, the 1st 2 notes are played a sharp notes. The next two notes are played as non sharp minutes because the natural sign eliminated the effects of the previous sharp. In the second measure, the first noticed played as a non sharp note. The second notice played as a sharp turn urge. The third notice played as a non sharps note because the natural sign eliminated defects of the previous sharp. The last note has played as a sharp turn. It again, since another sharp sign has been placed subsequent to the natural sign 73. Memory Questions for section 18: 74. Quiz for section 18: 75. Measuring Musical Distance: in this lesson, we're going to learn how distancing music is measured. The distance from one pitch to another is called an interval. This is from the Latin interval alone, meaning the space between two walls. Distance between pitches could be measured on the piano keyboard or on the staff. Measuring an interval on the keyboard is simply counting keys. We call this interval of fifth, since it encompasses five keys. Always remember to count the starting and ending case. Measuring interval on the staff is simply counting lines and spaces. We call this interval of fifth because it encompasses five lines and spaces. Always remember to count the starting and ending lines or spaces. They're seven basic interval types, the smallest being the seconds and the largest being the eighth. We will look at examples of each, both on the piano keyboard and the staff. You will notice in the audio clips that the pitches of the intervals are first played consecutively and then played simultaneously. Pitches played consecutively air called melodic intervals. Pitches played simultaneously are called harmonic intervals. Most music contains both types of intervals. When harmonic intervals are written on the staff, the notes are placed vertically, one above the other. The one exception is the harmonic second, which is written with the Upper Newt place slightly to the side but touching the other note . This is due to the fact that the notes would overlap if placed vertically. 76. Musical Ratios of Intervals : 77. Memory Questions for section 19: 78. Quiz for section 19: 79. Steps of the Scale: in the last lesson we learned about Pythagoras is discovery regarding the ratio of pitches in the coming. Lectures were going to be learning how this discovery played an important role in giving us the modern day scale. There are many types of skills that will be studying in this course in this. Listen, we're going to be learning about the major scale. The major scale is a particular sequence of whole steps and half steps encompassing eight pitches. The sequence in ascending order, his whole step, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, whole step half step. We call this a C major scale. Since the sequence of whole steps and half steps begins and ends on C. It is important to understand that as long as the sequence of whole steps and half steps remains the same, a scale may begin on any pitch. Here's an example of a G major skill. It has the same sequence of whole steps in half steps, but because it begins and ends on G, it is called a G major scale rather than a C major scale. Uh, you may have noticed that the C major scale consisted of all White Keys. Where is the G? Major skill contains one blackie, ah, black. His used to maintain the secrets of whole steps and half steps. For example, if F was used instead of f sharp, the sequence of whole steps and half steps would have been ho whole, half whole whole half hole. This would not be a major scale. It would also sound very different from a major scale due to the difference in the sequential order of whole steps and half steps. It is important to understand that the pitch is of a scale must be neighbor letters of the musical alphabet. For example, F sharp is used rather than it's an harmonic equivalent G flat. To avoid having to G's in a row. Using G flat would be an incorrect spelling of the scale. Here's what the G major scale looks like on the staff. Whole steps and half steps can be easily perceived on the piano keyboard, but they're less apparent on the staff. No, your piano keyboard Well, so that when you see the notes of the staff, you will have a mental image of the corresponding whole steps in half steps on the keyboard 80. Tetrachords: 81. Memory Questions for section 20: 82. Exercises for section 20: 83. Quiz for section 20: 84. The Definition of a Key: 85. Key Signatures: the key pieces written in is indicated through a key signature. A key signature is the Sharps, or flats, that are placed on the staff at the beginning of each fine of music. This is the key signature of G. Major, a performer who sees this one. Sharp will know the song is written in the key of G major, and there are two ways that they will know this. The first way is their scales. If they have learned their skills, they will know that the G major scale consists of G, A, B, C, D, E and F sharp the second ways by memorizing the circle of fifths and we'll be learning about the circle of fifths in the coming lectures. In less than 18 we learned that a sharp or flat ID pitch remains sharp or flat it until the end of the measure. It's very important to understand that a sharper flat in the key signature applies to the entire song. This means that if you're in the key of G major, all the F's will be sharp for the entire song, not just the top line F, but any F on any liner space. This brings us to the topic of key signatures versus accidental Zell's key signatures are sharps and flats that are part of the key accidental. Zell's are sharps and flats, or nationals that are not part of the key. For example, if a composer is running a piece in the Q G major and he uses a C sharp, this C sharp will be called an accidental because it is not part of the scale or key. Accidental does not mean that they happened by accident. It refers to something being non essential. For example, if you colored a piano purple, they would still be a piano. The color purple is only an accident, since it is not essential to what a piano is. All keys signatures are written with the sharps and flats in a particular order. The reason for this will become apparent as we proceed to the lectures, sharps and a key signature always placed in the following order on the staff, and we call this the order of Sharps. Flats and a key signature are always placed in the following order on the staff, and we call this the order of flats. They're too useful. Pneumonic devices that will help you to remember the order of Sharps and flats. They are father Christmas gave Dad an electric blanket blanket explodes and dad gets cold feet. Notice that the order of flats is the reverse of the order of Sharps. Here are the order of Sharps and the order of flats on the keyboard. Take note how every sharp or flat is 1/5 of part or 7/2 steps. Also note that the order Sharps goes from left to right on the keyboard. Well, the order of flats goes from right to left. 86. Major Keys with Sharps: now that we've learned a little bit about what keys are, we're going to find about all the major keys that contained Sharps. But to do this, we need to study the circle of fifths. The Circle of Fifths is a very useful tool that has many applications understanding and memorizing. It will help you to know all the different keys that songs may be written in. All of the keys that contains sharps are found on the right side of the circle of fifths. And so we'll be focusing only on the right side of the circle in this lecture here, the three important things you need to know about this diagram The first is each keys 1/5 apart. If we start on C and we move in a clockwise direction will find that sees five from G G's five from Dee Dee's fight for May, etcetera. The next thing we need to notice is the addition of Sharp. So see has zero sharps and then we add a sharp two sharps, three sharps, four ships, etcetera. The final thing we need to notice is that the chefs that are added are following the order ships. So for ship is a father father. Christmas Father Christmas gave Father Christmas. Gave Dad. Father Christmas. Gave Dad on Father Christmas Gave Dad an electric father. Christmas gave Dad an electric blanket. So using this knowledge, let's look at some practical applications of the circle of fists. We'll use a piano keyboard to make things even clearer. Let's say you want to know how maney sharps there are in the queue a major have. We start on sea and move up by fifths until we get to a We'll discover the A has three Sharps, but which three notes or sharp? Well, to find this out, we just list the order of Sharps and stop without their shock. So Father Christmas gave So therefore, a major has three Sharps and the three Sharps R, F, C and G. This is the most straightforward way to find out how many which Sharps are in a particular major key. Here's another way to find out which pitches or sharpen a particular key. Step one named the sharp pitch 1/2 step lower than any with the key. So, for example, if we're trying to figure out The'keeper's A we go 1/2 step lower they and that gives us the sharp G sharp. The second step is less the order sharps until he reached the sharp that she just named. So Father Christmas Escape. We stopped one g and that tells us to the key of a has three sharps f, c and G. So we've just seen how you can start with the name of the key and figure out how many sharp stick he has now. We're gonna work in reverse order. Let's say we're playing a song and there's three sharps. We want to find out what kit is. Well, there's two steps. The first is named the last sharp. So here the last sharp is G sharp, and step two is named the pitch 1/2 step higher. Well, 1/2 step higher is a Therefore, the key is a major and you can use this technique to find the name of any key signature that contains sharps 87. Major Keys with Flats: in this lecture will be looking at the other side of the circle AFIS, the left side, which contains all the keys with flats. A few important things to note about the diagram, our starting at sea and moving in a counter clockwise direction. Each key is 1/5 apart. See is 1/5 from half F is 1/5 from B flat, etcetera. Next notice the addition of flats. C zero flats have has one flat before. It has two fronts. If I has three flights, etcetera, the last thing we want to notice is the order of flats. The one of the flats appearing are blanket, blanket explodes, blanket explodes and Blake It explodes and dad blanket explodes and dad gets blanket explodes and Dad gets cold. Blanket explodes and dad gets cold feet. Using this knowledge, let's look at some practical applications of the circle of fifths. Let's say you want to know how many flats there are in the key of B flat. Major simply started seeing countdown by fifths until you reached the flat. See his zero floods Fs one flat people has to funds. Andy Flight has three funds. We now know that the key fought major has three flats, but which three pitches or flat? Well, to find this out, we simply list the order flats and stop with the third flat blanket explodes and the three flights in the key of B flat major are therefore be foot. He flat in a flat. This is the most straightforward way to find out how many rich flats are in a particular major key. Let's look at another way to find out how many and which flats there are in a particular major key. Let's say you want to know how many flats there are. The key for major well, simply lists the order flats until you reach the letter name of the key blanket explodes, then add one more flat and therefore the three flats in the key of B flat major R B flat E flat on a flight. We've seen how we can take the name of a key and figure out which flats air in the key signature. But we can also do this in reverse order. We can begin with the flats and find out the name of the key. So let's say you're playing. It's on and their three flies in the key signature work here. You playing simply named the second to last flat and this is the name of the key. The second to last flat is the flat, and therefore the key signature is E flat major. You can use this technique to find the name of any key signature that contains flats. The one exception is the key of F major. Since the key of F major only has one flat, there is no second toe last flat. The key signature of F major must be memorized. 88. Enharmonic Keys: 89. Memory Questions for section 21: 90. Exercises for section 21: 91. Quiz for section 21: 92. Number vs Quality: in this lecture, we're going to be learning a little bit more about intervals. All intervals have a number and equality we've already learned. The in intervals number is the amount of lines and spaces that it spans on the staff. We're not going to learn about animals quality. This refers to the amount of house steps the interval spans. There are five types of interval qualities, and this lecture would be learning about major, minor and perfect intervals. Let's begin by looking at the interval of a second. The interval of a second could be either major or minor, and this is determined by the amount of half steps. The interval spans remember. 1/2 step is the distance from one piano key to the very next Piano key, either higher or lower. Here is an example of a major. Second is equal to 2/2 steps. A minor second is smaller than a major seconds. Meyer second is equal to 1/2 step, and this is the smallest in size that an interval. Maybe. Here's a diagram showing the interval qualities from the minor. Second through the octave, uppercase M stands for major. A lower case M stands for Minor and P stands for perfect here, a few important items that should be aware of in the diagram. The number of half steps increases by one, moving from the top to the bottom seconds. 3rd 6 and seventh could be either major or minor. 4th 5th and eighths are perfect. Minor intervals are always 1/2 step smaller in their major counterparts. You may be wondering about the interval made up of 6/2 steps. We'll be learning about this in a coming lecture. We're now going to demonstrate how to determine an intervals number and how to determine intervals quality. To determine the intervals number, we ignore all flats, sharps and natural, and count the total number of lines and spaces that the interval spans on the staff, including lines or spaces that the two notes are occupying. The interval above spans a total of six staff lines and spaces, three lines and three spaces. It's there for six. But is this a major sixth or minor sixth to determine that we need to know the intervals quality to determine the intervals quality, we need to count the number of half steps from the bottom note to the top note. You may use a piano keyboard if necessary. Make sure that you do not include the first note in your account, but rather the first half step away from the first note. The interval above is equal to 9/2 steps of the piano using the interval chart. In this lecture, we find that 9/2 steps is a major sixth. 93. Intervals and the Scale: all of the major and perfect intervals can be formed from the pitches of the major scale. Let's demonstrate this. Using the C major scale C to D is a major second. CTO is a major third C to F is a perfect fourth. C to G is a perfect fifth. See, today is a major sixth see to be as a major seventh and see to seize a perfect eighth to form the minor intervals. We simply lower the highest note of the major intervals by 1/2. Step C to D Flat is a minor second, C T e Flat is a minor Third Sees a flat is a minor sixth and C to B flat is a minor seventh . We will learn about the pitch between the perfect fourth and the perfect fifth and it coming lesson. Knowing these things, we can use the scale to determine their roles quality. Take the following. For example, we know this is 1/7 by counting the lines and spaces, but to determine if the seventh is a major or minor, we would use a D major skill since the interval has D as its Lois pitch. As you know, from previous lessons. The D major scale is made up of the pitches D E F Sharp G, ABC Sharpened D. We also know that all the major in perfect intervals could be formed with the pitches of the major scale. Therefore, D two c Sharp is a major seventh. Let's try another example. To discover this intervals quality would once again used the D major scale. Since the interval has D as its Lewis pitch, we know that the D major scale is made up of these pitches. The top pitch of the interval see is therefore not a pitch of the D major scale. It is, however, 1/2 step lower in the seventh pitch of the D major skill. The sea shirt. This interval is therefore a minor seventh. This is just one of the important reasons for knowing each scale. If you have your scales memorized, you should be able to quickly identify any intervals quality. If you can't remember a particular scale, you can always resort to counting half steps using the piano keyboard 94. Memory Questions for section 22: 95. Exercises for section 22: 96. Quiz for section 22: 97. Augmented Intervals: in the last section, we learned about the interval qualities major, minor and perfect. In this lecture, we're going to learn about the argument it interval. The word augmented comes from the Latin augment Tari, which means to increase when we are meant something, we increase it. An augmented interval is any major or perfect interval that has been made larger by 1/2 step. There are two ways to turn a major perfect interval into an augmented interval. We can either raise the top note by 1/2 step or lower the bottom note by 1/2 step. Either way, we're increasing the size of the interval by 1/2 step in all the following examples, we will augment the interval by raising the top note. This could be done by placing a sharp sign next to the top note. The abbreviation for augmented is an upper case A or are remember M equals major and P equals perfect. Uh uh. Many of the augmented intervals sound the same as other intervals that you've already learned. For example, the argument is seventh is the same. Sound is the perfect eighth, when two different intervals have the same sound. But are spelled differently. They're considered to be an harmonic intervals and harmonic intervals are a type of an harmonic equivalent. We learned about an harmonic equivalents in Section 17. Note that there was no augmented eighth in the diagrams because in our minute eighth would be larger than an eighth. And all pitches after the are simply re occurrences of the same pitch is only an octave higher. We will learn about intervals larger than an octave incoming lecture. 98. The Double Sharp: not all intervals could be augmented by simply adding a sharp to the upper note, as we did in the last lecture. For example, if we're gonna he with flats, we may have to use a natural sign toe augment the interval in this example. In order to raise the upper note by 1/2 step, we must get rid of the B flat and right. Be natural. If we're in a key with Sharps, we may have to use something called a double sharp. In the following example, A. To C Sharp is a major third since the upper note in this major third is already sharp. How do we raise it by 1/2 step? Well, the note, 1/2 step higher than C Sharp is D, so he could write the interval as a D. But that would change the number of the interval from 1/3 into 1/4 because A to D spans four lines and spaces. This is where the invention of the double sharp comes in a double sharp look similar to the letter X. When placed next to a note, it means to play the note to half steps higher on the piano keyboard. This would be the key two keys to the right. So this no D is also called C double sharp D and C double sharp are and harmonic equivalents. 99. Diminished Intervals: So far, we've learned about the following interval qualities. In this lesson, we'll be learning about the diminish interval. The word diminished comes from the Latin diminution E o, which means to decrease. When we diminish something, we decrease it. A diminished interval is any minor or perfect interval that has been made smaller by 1/2 step. There are two ways to turn a minor or perfect interval into a diminished interval. We can either lower the top note by 1/2 step or raise the bottom note by 1/2 step. Either way, we're decreasing the size of the interval by 1/2 step and all of the following examples. We will diminish the interval by lowering the top note. This could be done by placing a flat sign Next. The top note, the abbreviation for diminished, is a lower case D or dim. Remember? Okay, Sem equals minor and P heels. Perfect. - I noticed that there was no diminished second in the diagrams. This is because diminished second is not possible. A minor second cannot be made any smaller, since it is already equal to 1/2 step 100. The Double Flat: not all intervals could be diminished by simply adding a flats. The upper note, as we did in the previous lecture. For example, if we're in a key with flats, we may have to use something called a double flat. The falling minor surgery is G two B flat. Since the upper note in this interval is already flat, how do we lowered by 1/2 step to diminish it? Well, the note 1/2 step lower than B flat is a. We could write this interval as G A. But that would change the number of the interval from 1/3 into a second because G today spends two lines and spaces on the staff, and this is where the invention of the double flat comes in. Unlike the double sharp, the Devil Flat does not have its own symbol. It is simply written as two flat signs next to each other. When placed next to a note, it means to play the note to half stuff slower on the piano keyboard. This would be the key to keys to the left. Therefore, A and B double flats are the same note. They're called in harmonic equivalents 101. The Tritone: Now that we've learned about augmented and diminished intervals, we can finally give a name to that mystery interval that spend 6/2 steps. It is called a tri tone. The name try tone comes from the fact that it's made above three whole steps. Three whole steps is equal to 6/2 steps. Notice that both the augmented Fourth and the diminished fifth are called tri tones. That is because both or equal to 6/2 steps on the piano keyboard or the staff the augmented Fourth and diminished fifth are considered an harmonic equivalents. They sound the same but are spelled differently. Listen to the sound of the tri tone, played first as a melodic interval and then, as a harmonic interval has completely here. The tri tone is not very pleasant sounding as you learn later, the tri tone is one of the most distant sounding intervals possible. In fact, it was called Diablo Loosen Musica, or the Devil in Music, and was avoided by musicians for centuries before slowly making its way into the composer's harmonic toolbox. A skull composer knows how to use the tri tone in such a way as to add to the music rather than detract from it. Try tones could be found by dividing any active exactly in half. In this example, the midway point between C and C is F sharp or G flat from either. See, it is 6/2 steps to the center of the active. The trying tone is, in fact, the farthest. You can travel away from any particular pitch before you start getting closer to the same pitch in octave, higher or lower. In the lesson, exercise and quiz, you will be asked to identify the number and quality of various intervals. Here are some steps to help you with this. Always determine the intervals number first, then count the number of half steps. The interval spans if the amount of half steps, it's one less than the minor or perfect interval with same number and it's diminished. If amount of half steps is one more than the major perfect interval with same number, it is augmented. Let's practice thes steps and identify the following interval. Ignore the sharp and count the number of lines and spaces C D E A. That's three lines and spaces and therefore this interval is some type of third Now we count the number of half steps. C two c Sharp is one c sharp, two D's two D, two d, Sharpest three d sharp. He is four and e. T. Sharp's five. This interval, therefore, has 5/2 steps. Because the amount of half steps is one more than the major interval, it is therefore an augmented third. If it was one less than the minor interval, it would have been a diminished third. 102. Memory Questions for section 23: 103. Exercises for section 23: 104. Quiz for section 23: 105. Complementary Intervals: two intervals that together equal inductive are called complimentary intervals. We can find the complementary interval of any particular interval by simply inverting. The interval inversion oven interval means moving the lowest pitch of the interval an octave higher. It's that it becomes the highest pitch or vice versa. Moving the highest pitch in the interval unlocks of lower so that it becomes the lowest pitch. Let's demonstrate with an example. The inversion of the perfect fifth is the perfect fourth. If we move the lowest note of the perfect fifth and octave higher, it becomes a perfect fourth. The inversion of the perfect fourth is a perfect fifth. If we move the highest no of the perfect fourth an octave lower, it becomes a perfect fifth. These two intervals are complementary intervals because together the equal inductive, the inversion of the major third is the minor sixth and then version of the minor. Sixth is the major third. These two intervals together equal active and are therefore complimentary. Thean version of a major sex is the minor third, and the inversion of the minor third is the major sixth. These two intervals together equal inductive under their full complimentary Thean version of the major Second is the minor seventh and then version of the minor. Seventh is the major. Second, these two intervals together equal, inductive enter, therefore complimentary thin version of the major. Seventh is the minor second and then version of the minor. Second is the major seventh. These two are also complimentary intervals and finally, the inversion of augmented. Fourth is the diminished fifth and vice versa. And these air also complimentary intervals. Unease e way to remember which intervals are complementary is with the number nine. If you look back at each of the complementary intervals in this lecture, you will notice that each pair of intervals, when added together, equals the number nine. Here's a chart that lists each interval quality and the corresponding complementary interval. Notice that major intervals become minor intervals when inverted and minor intervals become major intervals from inverted perfect interval stay perfect augmented intervals become diminished and diminishing levels become augmented when inverted 106. Compound Intervals: So far, we have only studied intervals that are on October. Smaller in size. Intervals that are on October, smaller in size are called simple intervals. When an interval is larger than inactive, it is called a compound interval. Compound intervals air formed by adding one or more octaves to a simple interval. Here's an example of a compound interval from sea to the highest E. As 1/10. 1/10 is simply 1/3 close and eighth. It may seem like 1/3 person eighth with being 11th since three plus eight is 11. But if we added the intervals together this way, we would actually be counting. The lower E twice Once is part of the third and once is part of the eighth. In order to add intervals together, we need to add the two numbers and then subtract one. For example, 1/5 person, eighth five plus eight, is 13. So tracked one from 13. You get 12. Therefore, 1/5 plus an eighth equals 1/12. Let's say we're adding 1/4 person ease. Four plus eight is 12. Subtract one from 12 and we get 11. Therefore, 1/4 plus an eighth equals an 11th. Here's an example of adding two octaves to a simple interval to form a compound interval. It might seem like 1/3 person Eighth plus in eighth would be 1/19 because three plus eight plus eight is 19. If we want to add to actives to a simple interval, we must subtract the number two from the answer. Why? Because if we don't will be counting certain pitches twice, the host E will be counted once it's part of the third and once is part of the 1st 8th The Middle E will be counted once as part of the 1st 8th and once as part of the 2nd 8th Therefore, 1/3 person eighth person eighth equals of 17th. 107. Reducing a Compound Interval: 108. Open and Close Harmony: harmonies made up of simple intervals are called close harmony. Here is an example of close harmony. All of the intervals here are simple. There an octave or less harmonies made up of compound intervals are called open harmony. Here's the same example. Using open harmony, notice that open harmony is much bigger and fuller sounding than close harmony. 109. Quality of Compound Intervals: 110. Memory Questions for section 24: 111. Quiz for section 24: 112. Major and Minor Chords: in the previous lessons we learned about intervals over the next few lessons were going to be learning about cords. One of the differences between an interval and Accord is that an interval consists of two distinct pitches, whereas a cord consists of three or more distinct pitches. In fact, cords are actually made up of multiple intervals As we'll see momentarily. Most cords have three distinct pitches on. We call these cords triads. The courts will be studying over the next few lessons will all be triads. And so they were all consist of three distinct pitches. The first chord we're going to be looking at is the major court. The major chord is made up of two intervals. The lower interval is a major third in the upper interval is a minor third. Remember, a major third is equal to 4/2 steps, and a minor third is equal to 3/2 steps. Listen to this major chord. Played first as a broken chord and then as a block cord. It is important to note that the pitches of Accord must skip the letters in the alphabet. See skip D E Skip S G. The pitch is on the staff must skip blinds or spaces. So here we're skipping the space D in the space f The Notaro Online's the letter name of Accord is determined by the letter name of the lowest pitch in the cord. This court is called a C chord because it's Lois pitches. See, there are exceptions to this, which will be learning about in another lesson. The quality major can be represented with Capital Letter M or as an abbreviation. Now let's look at the minor chord. A minor chord is, in a sense, the opposite of a major court. It is also made up of two intervals, but the lower interval is a minor third, and the upper interval is a major third. Did you notice the difference in the sound between a major chord and a minor chord? The sound of major chords are often referred to is happy sounding well. The sound of the minor chords are often referred to as sad sounding. The quality minor could be represented with a lower case, letter M or as an abbreviation 113. Ratio of Major & Minor 3rds: 114. Memory Questions for section 25: 115. Quiz for section 25: 116. The Augmented Chord: in the last section, we learned about the to court qualities major and minor. And this. Listen, we're going to learn about the argument to court quality. We've already learned how intervals could be augmented by increasing the size of the interval by 1/2 step in a similar way. We can also augment cords. An augmented court is formed by raising the top note of a major chord. 1/2 step augmented chords could be represented by the abbreviation Ogg or by the superscript plus sign. The first court in the diagram is a C major court. The second cord is a CR augmented chord. As you can see, the top nog was raised 1/2 step to G sharp. Uh, one characteristic that differentiates the major and augmented chords is the size of the fifth and record in a major chord interval from the bottom. Note to the top note is a perfect fifth, but in augment accord, the interval from the bottom to the top note is an augmented fifth. Another important characteristic that differentiates the major and I went to cords is the size of the thirds in the cord. We know from the previous lessons that a major court is composed of a major third with Admire. Third, add it on top. An augmented chord is composed of a major third, with another major third at it on top. The use of the double sharpest, sometimes needed when augmenting certain chords just a zit was been augmenting certain intervals. Since the top note of a B major court is already sharp, we need to place a double sharp next to the top note in order to raise it 1/2 step. Even though F double Sharp is the same his G on the piano keyboard, we cannot write the top note as G. This would be an incorrect spelling of the court. Why? Because, as we've already learned, an augmented court is composed of a major third with another major. Third, add it on top. So if we were to write the top notice G, we would be notated. 1/4 on the staff de Sharp to G spends four staff lines and spaces. Where is D sharp after Double Sharp spends three staff lines and spaces in the previous lessons, we saw that different chord qualities evoke different emotions. When heard the major court evokes happy or joyous emotions. The minor court evokes sorrowful emotions, the AWG magic or is often described as anxious or unsure. Of course, sometimes emotional depend on context. We're speaking in general here, listening into the sea augmented chord and decide what type of emotion you think the augmented chord evokes, Uh. 117. The Diminished Chord: in this lesson will be looking at another court quality. The diminished chord. A diminished chord is formed by lowering the top note of a minor chord. 1/2 step diminished chords can be represented by the abbreviation dim or by a superscript degree sign. The first court in the diagram is an a minor chord. The second cord is in a diminished chord. As you can see, the top note E was lowered 1/2 step T flat. One characteristic that differentiates the minor and diminished chords is the size of the fifth in the cord. In a minor chord, the interval from the bottom note to the top note is a perfect fifth. But in a diminished chord, the interval from the bottom note to the top note is a diminished fifth. Another important characteristic that differentiates the minor and diminished chords is the size of the thirds in the cord. We know from a previous lesson that a minor court is composed of a minor third, with a major third add it on top. A diminished core is composed of a minor third, with another minor third added on top. The use of the double flat is sometimes needed when diminishing certain chords. Just a zit was when diminishing certain intervals. Since the top note of an E flat minor chord is already flat, we need to place a double flat next to the top note in order to lower it. 1/2 step, even though be double flat is the same. Key is a on the piano keyboard. We cannot write the top note as a. This would be an incorrect spelling of the court. Why? Because we've already learned a diminished court is composed of a minor third with another minor third on top. So if we wrote the top note is a, we would be notated a second on the staff G Flat today spends two staff lines and spaces. Where is G flat to be double flat spans three staff lines and spaces. The diminished chord is often described as angry or frustrated again. Sometimes emotion will depend on context. Were speaking in general here, listen again to the a diminished chord and decide what type of emotion you think the diminished court evokes. 118. Memory Questions for section 26: 119. Quiz for section 26: 120. The Harmonic Mean: 121. The Arithmetic Mean: 122. The Geometric Mean: 123. Memory Questions for section 27: 124. Quiz for section 27: 125. Chord Roots: in this. Listen, we're going to learn about the correlation that cords have to the scale. We will be again by looking at how composers and songwriters decide which cords to use in their pieces. Most of the time, they're using chords to come directly from the scale. Let's explain what is meant by this. The red notes in the following diagram form a C major scale. If we take a major scale and build accord on each note of the scale, we conform seven different chords. The pitch of the scale of the court is built upon is called the route. The route also corresponds to the courts Letter name, for example. The root of the Sea court is C, and the root of the D chord is D. It is important to note that each of the cords in the diagram is formed, using only pitches from the C major scale. In other words, no other pitches are used in the cords other than C d E, f, G A and B 126. Chord Qualities of the Major Scale: next, let's look at the quality of each chord that can be formed using only the pitches of the major scale. As you can see in the diagram, there are a total of three major chords, three minor chords and one diminished course. It is important to understand that the court qualities found in the major scale always appear in the same order, no matter what the scale. Here's an example of the cords that could be formed using only the pitches of the D major skill. Notice once again that there are three major chords three minor chords in one diminished chord and that they all occur in the same order. Major, minor, minor, major, major minor diminished. The reason that so many of the notes in the following diagram have sharps next to them is because the courts were formed using only the pitches of the D major scale D E E of sharp, G, A, B and C sharp. Therefore, all efs and all season. Any of the cords must be sharp. When a composer or songwriter is writing music in the key of D major, they will most likely be using any of these seven chords if you are reading and playing music, having knowledge of each of the cords found in a scale will be a tremendous help in reading and processing the music much faster and also in understanding what it is you're playing. This portion of the lesson was just introduction into the correlation between chords and the scale. We will delve deeper in the subsequent lessons. 127. Roots of Scales and Keys: At the beginning of this section, we learned that every court has a route scales and keys also efforts. The root of a scale is the pitch that the scale is built upon. For example, a C major scale will have see as its root. The root of a scale is also sometimes referred to as the keynote or home note. It is the pitch where the music feels most peaceful and at rest or most at home. To demonstrate this, listen to the C major scale with the final roots omitted. Did you hear how limiting the final roots leaves you hanging? Our ears are not at rest until we hear the home note. The root of a key is the tonal centre of a piece of music or section of music. A total center is a specific pitch, which the peace or section centers around. For example, a piece of music in the key of G major. We'll have G as his tonal centre. That means G will be the pitch which the music is centered around. There are numerous ways a piece of music could be centered around the pitch, G g. Maybe the first and last pitch of the song Gee, maybe the most frequently heard pitch the court built on G may be the most frequently heard court chords with strong relationships. The G chord will be used to refer the listener back to the tunnel center G. We'll learn more about court relationships in a later lesson, since the key of a piece originates from the pitches of a scale, the root of the scale and the root of the key will always be the same pitch. 128. Memory Questions for section 28: 129. Quiz for section 28: 130. Comparing Major and Minor Scales: in less than 20. We learned about the major scale and its origin and this. Listen, we're going to learn about the minor scale. There are three forms of minor skills the natural minor scale, the harmonic winter scale and the melodic minor scale. The foreign that will be studying in this lesson is the natural minor scale. The term natural has nothing to do with the natural sign that cancels out a sharp or flat here. Natural denotes that the scale is in its natural form. The meaning of natural form will become clear when we studied the other two forms of minor skills in the next lesson. Just like the major scale minor scales originated from Greek Tetrick warts. The natural minor scale is made up of two text records, each consisting of two whole steps in one house step. The difference between the major scale and the natural minor scale is the order in which the whole steps and house steps occur. Let's compare each notice that the half steps in the natural minor scale occurred different places than in the major scale in the major scale. On the half steps were located between pitches three and four and seven and eight in the natural minor scale. The half steps were located between pitches two and three and five and six. Let's listen each scale first, the major scale now the natural minor scale. This natural minor scale is called a natural minor because it begins and ends on a. If we had begun the scale on a pitch, other than a certain pitches would need to be sharp or flat ID to maintain the order of whole steps and half steps. Here's an example of a D natural minor scale. As you can see, a B flat is needed to maintain the half step between the fifth and sixth pitches. Important, the pictures of the scale must be neighbor letters of the musical alphabet. For example, B flat was used above rather than it's an harmonic equivalent, a sharp to avoid having to age in a row. Using a sharp would be an incorrect spelling of the scale 131. Memory Questions for section 29: 132. Exercises for section 29: 133. Quiz for section 29: 134. The Harmonic Minor Scale: in the previous lesson, we learned about the natural minor scale and this. Listen, we're going to be studying the other two forms of minor scales, the harmonic minor scale in the melodic minor scale. Let's begin with the harmonic minor scale and compare it with the natural minor scale. As you can see, there is only one difference between the natural minor scale and the harmonic minor scale. The seventh pitch of the harmonic minor scale is raised 1/2 step. Because of this, the order of whole steps in half steps is different. In fact, the distance between the sixth and seventh pitches of the skill after G Sharp is neither a whole step nor 1/2 step. It is 3/2 steps. This makes the harmonic minor scale the only scale that is not made up entirely of single full steps in half steps. Let's listen to you scale first, the natural minor scale. Now the harmonic minor scale important. The pitches of the scale must be neighbor letters of musical alphabet. For example, G sharp is used above rather than his end harmonic equivalent a flat in order to avoid having to age in a row, using a flat would be an incorrect spelling of the scale of the three forms of minor scales . The harmonic minor scale is the most commonly used by composers and songwriters. One of the reasons for this is the Rays. Seventh, The race seventh produces a larger distance between the sixth and seventh pitches of the scale and a smaller distance between the seventh and eighth pitchers. This creates a stronger pull towards the Keys tunnel center A. In other words, hearing the route A becomes even more satisfying in the sense of being at rest on, the home note is even stronger. 135. The Melodic Minor Scale: the third and final form of minor scale that we're going to study is the melodic minor scale. We can understand it best by comparing it to the natural minor scale. As you can see, there are only two differences between the natural minor scale and the melodic minor scale . The sixth and seventh pitches of the melodic minor scale are raised 1/2 step. Because of this, the order of whole section half steps is different. Let's listen to each scale first, the natural minor. Now the melodic Reiner is important to note that the melodic minor scale has played one way when ascending and another way when descending. It is only the ascending version that contains the raised sixth and seventh pitches. The descending version is played exactly like a descending natural minor scale that is, without the raised six and seven pitches. The ascending, melodic minor scale has a similarity to the major skill. The sequence of whole sips and half steps formed by the last four pitches are the same. You need skill, whole step, whole step half step. I was listening. Compare each scale first, the melodic minor, now the major scale due to the ascending melodic miners. Similarity to the major skill music that uses the pitches of the ascending melodic minor scale is not a sad sounding as theme music that uses the pitches of the natural or harmonic minor scales. 136. Memory Questions for section 30: 137. Exercises for section 30: 138. Quiz for section 30: 139. Relative Keys: before we learn about relative keys, we need to do a quick review of some important terms will be using, in this lesson keys, a specific group of pitches used to write a piece of music. The specific group of pitches is determined by the scale. Pieces written using pitches from the major scale are said to be in a major key. Pieces written using pitches from the minor scale are said to be in a minor key. A key signature are the sharps and flats placed on the staff at the beginning of each line of music. The key signature indicates which key the pieces written in. In this lesson, we're going to learn about minor keys. Every major key has a corresponding minor key. We call this corresponding minor key, the relative minor. Every minor key has a corresponding major key. We call the corresponding major key the relative major keys that are relative share the same pitches and therefore the same key signature. To determine the relative minor, we simply count 3/2 steps lower than the major key. For example, if we wanted to find the relative minor of G major, start on G and count 3/2 step lower. 3/2 steps lower is he. Therefore, the minor is the relative minor to G major. They will have the same pitches and share the same key signature to determine the relative major count 3/2 steps higher than the minor key. For example, to find the relative major to G minor, start on G and count 3/2 steps higher. 3/2 steps higher is B flat. Therefore, B flat major is the relative major to G minor. When you count 3/2 steps, be sure to skip one letter of the alphabet so that you end up with the distance of a minor third. We named of the highest pitch in this example B flat brother than a sharp since G to a sharp is a second and G two B flat is 1/3. You can also use the scale to find relative keys. For example, if we wanted to find the relative minor to see Major, we take the C major scale and name. The sixth pitch of the scale. The sixth pitch of the C major scale is a Therefore, a minor is the relative minor of C major over this way. Finding the relative key is more difficult because it involves memorizing every possible major scale that makes the relationship between relative major and minor keys very apparent . Both of the scales here are made up of the exact same pitches, and this is the reason of this share. The same key signatures, a song written in C Major, uses the exact same pitches as a song written in the key of a minor. The only difference is that the song and See Major has see as a sternal center well, the song in a minor has a is this tunnel center to find the relative major of a minor key, using the scales simply named the third pitch of the minor scale, and this will give you the relative major key. Here is the circle of fifths diagram we learned in a previous lesson this time, including the minor keys. Major keys are shown in red using upper case letters. Minor keys are shown in blue using lower case letters. The key of C major is the relative of a minor. We'll share the same key signature of no sharps and flats. The key of G major is the relative of E. Meyer, and both share the same key signature of one sharp they keep. The major is the relative of the minor, and both share the same key signature of two shops and so forth and so on. Here's the other side to the circle of fifths diagram showing the key signatures with flats . The key of F major is a relative of D minor, and both share the same key signature of one flat. The key of B flat major is the relative of G Minor. On both share the same key signature of two flats to keep the flat. Major is the relative of C minor humble share, the same key signature of three flats so forth and so on. Be sure to take note of the six and harmonic keys in the two circle of fist diagrams. A short minor is the end harmonic equivalent of B flat. Minor de shirt Minor is the harmonic equivalents E flat, minor and G. Sharp Minor is the and harmonic equivalents of a flat minor 140. Shared Key Signatures: Let's say that you're given a piece of music and the key signature had no sharps and flats . How would you determine if the piece was in C major or its relative Minor? A minor. Since relative keys share the same key signature, there is no way to tell by looking only at the key signature. You must also use our ears and look at the pictures in the music just using our ears. Ask yourself, Does the music have a minor or sad quality, or does it have a major or happy quality? This example definitely has a minor quality Without using our ears. We could also look at the music and try and find the tonal centre measures one tuned for have downward motion ending on the pitch A is also a very frequently repeated pitch is also the final pitch in the sun. These three aspects point to the music being in the key of a minor rather than key of C major 141. Parallel Keys: in the last lesson, we learned that relative keys are keys that have the same key signature but different tonal centers. Parallel keys are keys that have the same tunnel center, but different key signatures. So they're, in a sense, the opposite. Here's an example of C Major, and it's parallel minor C minor. As you can see, both keys have the same tonal centre or root C. All the pitches have the same letter names, but three of the pitches air flash in C minor, the key signature of C major and the key signature of C minor will therefore be different. Relative and parallel keys are very important in music because it is very easy to transition from a major key to the relative minor key, or from a major key to the parallel minor key and vice versa. 142. Memory Questions for section 31: 143. Quiz for section 31: 144. Natural Minor Scale Chords: in less than 28. We learned which courts could be formed using only the pitches of the major scale and this . Listen, we're going to learn which course conformed using Onley the pitches of the minor scale, starting with an A natural minor scale and building. According each pitch of the scale, we end up with the following court qualities. It is important to note that each of the cords above is formed, using only pitches from the A national minor scale that is, no other pitches air used in the courts other than A, B, C, D, E, F and G. As you can see, there are a total of three major chords, three minor chords and one diminished court. They will always appear in this order no matter the scale. For example, the cords built on a natural minor scale will have the same order as the core is built on a D natural, minor scale, minor, diminished major minor, minor major major. Furthermore, the natural minor scale has the same number of major minor and diminish courts as the major scale, only there in a different order here, the cords built on the C major scale for your review. Compare the order found in the major skill with the order found in the natural minor scale . 145. Harmonic Minor Scale Chords: in less than 30 We learned that the harmonic minor scale was formed by raising the seventh pitch of the natural minor scale 1/2 step. The pitches of the a harmonic minor scale are there for a, B, C, D, E, F and G sharp. If we build a corridor in each of these pitches, we get the following court qualities. As you can see, there are a total of two major chords to minor chords to diminished chords and one augmented court. They will always appear in the following order, no matter what the skill. For example, the core is built on an a harmonic minor scale. We'll have the same order is the corn belt on an E harmonic minor scale. The order is minor, diminished, augmented minor major major diminished. The reason some of the cords in the diagram contain a G sharp is because all of the cords were formed using only the pitches of the a harmonic minor scale, which includes a G sharp. By using the harmonic minor skill rather than the natural minor skill, composers and songwriters can have a different set of chords to work with when writing music 146. Memory Questions for section 32: 147. Quiz for section 32: 148. Naming with Roman Numerals: Thus far, we have named the pitches of the scale and the courts built upon them using letter names. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to name the pitches of the scale and the cords built upon them. Using Roman numerals. Naming with Roman numerals is actually the preferred method. Namie. The reason for this will become clearer as we proceed. In case you're not familiar with Roman numerals here, the 1st 7 or many worlds in their modern equivalents pasta video and memorize them if needed. In the following diagram, the Roman numerals were placed under each degree of the scale. Degree is another term for pitches of the scale or steps of the scale. It is very important to understand the Roman numerals were not specific to certain pitches , but rather their specific to the degrees of the scale. For example, in the first diagram, See is the first pitch of the C major scale, and so it is named using the Roman numeral one in the second diagram, See is the fourth pitch of the G major scale, and so it is named using the Roman numeral four. Roman numerals are not only used to name each pitch of the scale, but also the cords built upon them. Major chords, air indicated with an uppercase Roman numeral. Well, minor diminishing augmented chords are indicated with a lower case. Roman numeral just his Roman numerals are not specific to certain pitches. So, too, they're not specific to certain chords. Rather, they're specific to the degrees of the scale. For example, in the first Diagram, A. My record is the sixth court of the scale, and so it is named using the Roman numeral six in the second diagram. The Amen record is the second court of the scale, and so it is named using the room. Now, too. Calling cords by their letter names is very useful and identifying them. But calling cords by the Roman numerals has an even greater benefit. It tells us about accords positional relationship to the other chords in the scale. The relationship between chords is an important aspect of music who learn more about the relationships between certain chords as we proceed through the course is important to note . But although only major scales were used in the diagrams for this lesson, the degrees of the minor scale can also be named using Roman numerals 149. Memory Questions for section 33: 150. Quiz for section 33: 151. Chord Relationships: in the last lesson, we learned how the pitches of the scale and the core is built upon them could be named with Roman numerals. And this. Listen, we're going to take a closer look at the one for and five courts. We call these three chords the primary courts. The primary chords are the cords most frequently used in music. There are two reasons for this. The first is their ability to harmonize with the pitches of the scale. Using only the primary chords, a composer or songwriter is able to create harmonies that will blend with any pitch of the scale. This is because every pitch of the scale can be found in the primary. Courts, for example, sees the lowest pitching. The one chord, and the highest pitch in the four Chord D is the highest pitch in the five chord. He is the middle pitch in the one Accord. F is the lowest pitch in the four Chord. G is the highest pitch in the 1/4 in the lowest pitching. The five chord is the middle pitch in the four chord and bees the middle pitch in the five court. The second reason the primary chords or the core is most frequently used in music. Is there strong relationship to the root of the scale? Let's explain this book in each of the primary chords. In turn, the one chord has the strongest relationship to the root of the scale because it is built on the route of the skill, in fact, the root of one court and the root of the scale of the same pitch. The five chord is discord, with the second strongest relationship to the root of the scale. We know that the first and fifth pitches of the scale create a very constant interval and therefore have a very strong relationship to one another. We saw this with the Python Gris experiment on the Mont Accord with the mathematical ratios of pitches, and we will see this even further when we study the physics of sound waves in the coming lesson. Because the first and fifth pitches of the scale have this very strong relationship to one another, therefore the cords built upon them. We'll also have a strong relationship to one another. But what do we mean when we say that the five chord has a strong relationship to the one chord. Do we mean that they sound well together the same way? 1/5 sounds constant? No, What we mean is that the five chord has a strong tendency towards the one court. In other words, after hearing the five chord our ear desires to hear the one court, we'll learn more about this incoming. Listen after the one chord and the five chord, the four chord is the cord with the third strongest relationship to the root of the scale. We know that the first and the fourth pitches of the scale create a constant interval and therefore have a strong relationship. Twin another. We saw this with the Pythagoras experiment on the Mont Accord with the mathematical ratios of pitches, and we will see this even further when we studied the physics of sandwiches and it coming lesson, because the first and fourth pitches of the scale have a strong relationship to one another . Therefore, the cords built upon them will also have a strong relationship to one another. But what do we mean when we say the four chord has a strong relationship to the one court? Do we mean that they sound well together? the same way of fourth sounds constant. No, what we mean is that the forecourt has a strong tendency towards the one court, but not a strong is the tendency that five has toe one. You'll be able to hear this distinction when we learned about cadences. Incoming lesson. Because cords for in five have a strong tendency towards one. They're often used to refer the year back to the root of this scale, thus helping to create eternal center in the music. Everything regarding primary chords and chord relationships that was mentioned in this lesson also applies the primary chords in minor keys. Well, the primary chords of the major scale are all major chords. Notice that the primary chords of the minor scale are all minor. If, however, the cords are built upon the harmonic minor form of the scale, the five chord will become major. We observed this in less than 32 but it is mentioned again here for your review, since it specifically relates to the concept of primary cores 152. Memory Questions for section 34: 153. Quiz for section 34: 154. Reordering Chord Pitches: in less than 24. We learned the intervals, maybe inverted by moving the lowest pitch of interval an octave higher, so that becomes the highest pitch. Court inversions are formed in the exact same way. Let's illustrate this, using a C major chord on the piano keyboard in the first diagram, See, Major Court is in its natural state. A minor third added to the top of a major third. We call this ordering of the pitches position you may recall from us in 28 that C is called the root of the cord. Since C is the pitch of the scale which the court is built upon, it is also the pitch. For much. The court takes its name. The second diagram shows an inversion of the C major court. The lowest pitch see has been moved in octave higher so that it is now the highest pitch we call this ordering of pitches first inversion. This new C major chord and first inversion also has an inversion. In the third diagram, the lowest piggy has been moved in art of Higher so that it is now the highest pitch we call this ordering of pitches. Second inversion. It is important to note that no other inversions air possible. Moving the G in the second version on Arctic fire would result in route position once again . Although major chord was used in all the preceding examples, any quality of cord may be inverted, major, minor, augmented or diminished. 155. Location of the Root: an important aspect of chord inversions are the intervals formed due to the inverting of the courts were position in the following diagram. You'll notice that on Lee, the root position court has made the third's the first and second inversion cords are made up of thirds and fourths. Knowing where the interval of fourth is situated is very important. This will help you to determine the location of accords route. The courts route is always the upper pitch of the fourth. Each of the cords in the diagram is a C major court when the C major court is in first inversion. The route see is the upper pitch in the interval of 1/4 when the C major court is in second inversion. The Root C is also the upper pitch in the interval of the fourth. Here's helpful ways Remember which inversion is which. If the route is the first pitch from the top, the court is in first inversion. If the route is the second pitch from the top, the court is in second inversion. Let's listen to how a C major court sounds first in route position, then first inversion and finally second inversion 156. How to Identify Chord Inversions: Once we know which of the three court pitches the rule is, we can then identify which inversion the court is in and named the court. Let's go over some examples and some steps to help you properly identify chord inversions. First we locate the fourth. Then we named the upper pitch of the fourth. In this example, the upper pitch of the fourth is F. So now we know the F is the root and the name of the court. Next we re ordered the pitches so that the root is on the bottom. The last step is to count the number of half steps between each pitch after a is 4/2 steps , a major third and A to C is 3/2 steps a minor third. The quarter version on this staff above is therefore and ask major court, let's go over one more example. First we locate the fourth, then we name the upper pitch of the fourth. In this example, the upper pitch of the fourth is a so now we know that is the root and the name of the court. Then we reorder the pitches so that the root is on the bottom in other words, so that the court isn't reposition. The last thing we do is to count the number of half steps between each pitch. A to C is 3/2 steps, a minor third and CTO is 4/2 steps. A major third. The court inversion on the staff is therefore an a minor chord. 157. Memory Questions for section 35: 158. Exercises for section 35: 159. Quiz for section 35: 160. Transition Between Chords: in this lesson, we're going to look at the different ways that one court can transition to another. The transition our movement from one court to another is called a chord progression. But before we can talk about court from Russians, we first need to define voice and voice. Leading each pitch of record is sometimes referred to as a voice the top pitches called the top voice. The middle pitch is called the middle voice on the bottom pitches, called the bottom voice. Voice leading is the manner in which each voice, in one chord, transitions to the corresponding voice and the subsequent court. Here's an example of a four chord moving to a one. Court noticed that each voice in the four chord moves to the corresponding voice in the one chord by way of 1/4 have to see A to E and C to G. The reason for this is the both corridor and reposition. Listen to what a four chord moving to a one chord sounds like when both cords are in position. This court progression sounds OK, but they're even better ways to transition between these two courts. This is where the use of inversions comes into play. Let's use the second version of the four Chord and compare the sound of the transition to the first example, which uses only were position courts. All right, although we've used the exact same two cords for and one, this court progression sounds more pleasant. There are two reasons for this, which can be summed up in the following rule. Voice leading the transition between chords is most pleasant when one or more of the voices remains on the same pitch. And when one or more of the other voices moves by a step, let's analyze the preceding diagram and see how this particular court progression follows. The rule just stated. The bottom voice in the four chord remains on the same pitch. See when it moves to the one court, the other voices in the four chord top of middle voices move my steps to the one chord. A T G is a whole step after years, 1/2 step. Now let's look at an example of a five chord and moving tool in court notice each voice in the five chord moves to the corresponding voice in the one chord by way of 1/5 G to C, B, T, E and D to G. The reason for this is the both chords. Aaron Reposition. Let's listen to a five chord moving to a one chord when both cords are in a position. This court progression sounds OK, but with the use of inversions, we can make the transition between the courts sound even better. Let's use the 1st 1 version of the five Chord and compare the sound of the transition to the first example, which uses only reposition courts. This is a much better voice leading, although we've used the exact same two chords five and one. This court progression sounds much nicer since we've stayed true to our rule of voice leading what's analyzed the diagrams. The top voice in the five chord remains on the same pitch G. When it moves to the one court, the two other voices in the five chord middle of bottom voices moved by steps to the one chord D T is a whole step B two C is 1/2 step. Why does following this rule make the sound of the transition more pleasant? First of all, by keeping one pitch the same in each chord, we create continuity between the two courts. Second, movement by steps is the most melodic form of movement is both natural to the human voice and the movement that we find present in the scale. It is important to note that inversions could be used to improve the transition between any type of court major, minor, augmented or diminished. The one foreign five chords were only used as illustrations for this lesson. 161. Memory Questions for section 36: 162. Quiz for section 36: 163. Naming Scale Degree Roles: In the previous lessons, we learned how to name the scale degrees and the cords built upon them, using both letter names and Roman numerals. In this lesson, we will learn another way of naming the degrees of the scale and the cords that could be built upon them. We will learned house named them by their function. That is, by their role in the diagram of the C major scale. You will find the function name under each scale degree. These names may look very foreign right now, but by the end of this lesson they will make more sense. Each pitch and each court built upon that pitch is named first particular function or role in music and for its relation to the roots of the scale. Some of the names, the diagram, our little misleading. For example, the word sub means under, if you look at the diagram, the sub median, it is not under the immediate. It is much higher. The reason for this is because the Greeks scale did not start in end with the route and said their scale have the brood at the center of the scale. If we take the route or tonic, see and place it in the middle of the skill. The names will become clearer. Let's take a look at them one at a time, starting with the dominant. The dominant scale degree is 1/5 above a tonic. The word dominant means prominent. We know from Pythagoras and his mathematical discovery about intervals that the fifth is very prominent. Interval because it is one of the most constant sounding intervals the court built upon. The dominant pitch is called the dominant chord. Next, let's look at the immediate. The word comes from the Latin media are a to be in the middle. The immediate is the midpoint between the tonic and the dominant. The court built on the median pitches, called the median court. Our next scale function is the sub dominant, just as the dominant was 1/5 above the tonic. So the sub dominant is 1/5 below the tonic the court built on the sub dominant pitches, called the sub dominant chord. Next, let's take a look at the sub mediaite. Just as the media. It was the mid point between the tonic and the dominant, so the sub median is the midpoint between the tonic and the sub dominant. The court built upon the sub median pitches, called the sub median cord. Last of all, we will look at the super tonic and the sub tonic. We can gather from their names that the super tonic is above the tonic and the sub tonic is below the tonic. The cord built upon the super tonic pitches called the Super Tonic Court. Well, the court built upon the sub tonic pitches called the sub tonic chord. It should be noted that the sub tonic is also more commonly known as the leading ton in the modern day scale. It is the pitch that leads back to the tonic here, all the cords from the scale and its modern form, with the functions and Roman numerals labeled This was just an introduction to functions and a demonstration of how each function relates to the root of the skill. Understanding the actual role that each scale degree record built upon Discovery plays in music falls outside the scope of a music theory course. This topic can be studied in more depth than music composition, course 164. Memory Questions for section 37: 165. Quiz for section 37: 166. Extension of the Triad: up to this point in the course, we have studied cords made up of three distinct pitches. In this lesson, we will learn about cords made up of four distinct pitches. Chords with four or more nesting pitches are called extended courts. There are a few different kinds of extended chords. The extended quote will be studying in this lecture is the dominant seventh chord. Dominant seventh chords have formed by adding a minor third to the top of a major chord and root position. The dominant seventh Chord is abbreviated with a superscript seven, and we pronounced the court is G seven, not G seventh. Extending the court does not change the underlying major chord. It only adds flavor to the existing sound. When we name this court by its scale degree, we call it a 57 rather than a G seven. This diagram will help you to understand why the court is named as it ISS. The Roman numeral five signifies the courts place in the scale on the dominant bitch. The superscript seven signifies the interval between the top and bottom pitches of the court. It's very important that you understand this before moving forward. We learned in a previous lesson that the five court has a strong tendency to return to the one court. The same holds true for the 57 chord, since it is Justin extended version of the five chord. The voices of the dominant seventh chord from bottom to top are called The Route the third , the fifth and the seventh. 167. Dominant Seventh Inversions: since dominant seventh chords have four pitches instead of three. 1/3 inversion is now possible, remember, and versions were formed by moving the lowest pitch of the court an octave higher so that it becomes the highest pitch. Uh, the root of a dominant seventh chord is the lows pitch. When it is in a position to determine the location of route in the inversions, identify the interval a second. The route will always be the upper pitch in the second, in this case, is the note G. Here's helpful way to remember which inversion is which. If the route is the first pitch from the top, the court is in first inversion. If there is the second pitch from the top of the court is in second and version, and if the route is the third pitch from the top, the court is in third inversion. Sometimes a dominant seventh court will occur in music with one of the pitch is missing in order to make it easier to play or for another musical reason. Generally, it is the fifth pitch which is left out as in the following example. Through process of elimination, we can see the reason why the fifth pitch is the pitch generally left out the seventh Pidge cannot be left out since the seventh pitch is what makes the chord a dominant seventh chord . The third pitch cannot be left out since the third pitch is what gives the court. It's major quality. The route pitch cannot be left out since the route pitches the foundation, which the court has built. This leaves us with only the fifth pitch as an option. Here's Thean version of the seventh chord with the missing fifth. Because this court only has three pitches, it could easily be mistaken as something other than a dominant seventh court. The interval of a second tells us otherwise. The upper noon and the second is G, and this court is therefore G seven chord. Remember, just like any other court. The dominant seventh chord can occur in music as a block cord where the pitches are heard simultaneously or is a broken chord where the pitches air heard sequentially 168. Memory Questions for section 38: 169. Quiz for section 38: 170. The Major 7th Chord: In the last lesson, we learned about the dominant seventh chord and this Listen, we're going to learn about three other types of seventh chords. The major seventh chord, the minor seventh Chord and the diminished seventh chord, all seventh chords or types of extended chords. The major seventh chord is the most similar to the dominant seventh chord, if you recall from the last lesson. The dominant seventh Chord is formed by adding a minor third to the top of a major court interposition. But the distance from the bottom pitch of the top pages in minor Seventh, a major seventh chord, on the other hand, is formed by adding a major third to the top of a major court number position. That's the distance from the bottom pitch to the top. Pidge is a major seventh because the major seventh chord is comprised of a major chord and a major seventh. It is also known as the major, major seventh. Today the name has been shortened to simply major seventh chord. It is abbreviated as M seven or M A J seven. It is important to note the thirds in the major seventh chord from bottom to top our major , third, minor third major, third 171. The Minor 7th Chord: the minor seventh chord is formed by adding a minor third to the top of a minor chord in reposition. That's the distance from the bottom pitch to the top Pitch is a minor seventh because it is comprised of a minor chord and a minor seventh. It is also known as the minor Minor seventh. Today the name has been short to simply minor seventh chord. It is abbreviated as M seven or M. I N. Seven. Take note. The thirds in the minor seventh chord from bottom to top are minor. Third, major, third, minor third. This is the opposite of the thirds in the major seventh chord, which were major third, minor third major third. 172. The Diminished 7th Chord: the diminished seventh chord is formed by adding a minor third to the top of a diminished court in her position. Thus, the distance from the bottom pitch the top pitch is a diminished seventh. Because the diminished seventh quarters comprised of a diminished chord and a diminished seventh, it is also known as the diminished, diminished seventh. Today the name has been shortened to simply diminished seventh Chord. It is abbreviated as superscript agree. Sign seven or D. I am seven. Note that all of the thirds in the diminished seventh court are minor. From bottom to top, they are minor. Third, minor, third, minor. Third, Did you notice that the diminished seventh chord sounds much more intense than the diminished chord? This is because of the inner large diminished fifths created by the addition of 1/4 pitch, if you recall from Lesson 23 The Diminished Fifth is also known as the tri tone and is one of the most dissonant sounding intervals. By interlocking to try tones, we create a very unstable court. As with any chord, each of the seventh chords learned in this lesson could be inverted since, therefore, notes in each chord there could be four possible arrangements through position, first inversion, second inversion and third inversion 173. Memory Questions for section 39: 174. Quiz for section 39: 175. Musical Punctuation: 176. The Authentic Cadence: unauthentic cadences movement from 5 to 1 or 57 to 1. This is the strongest type of kittens since five has the strongest tendency towards one. Authentic cadences can be further classified into perfect and in perfect. Both are considered to be strong cadences, but the perfect is slightly stronger than the in perfect. As we will see momentarily. Before we look at examples of these cadences, it's important that you understand doubling the cord in the trouble. Clough is a G major court in second inversion. In actual pieces of music, the three pitches of Accord may be duplicated or doubled and heard in many different octaves, depending on the number and type of instruments that are playing. In this case, the left hand of the piano is duplicating the pitch G that was heard in the right hand. This does not change the quarter. Make it a different chord. It is still a G major chord with the G doubled. There are two criteria for perfect, authentic kittens. Each chord must have its roots as the lowest pitch. The final chord must also have its hurt as the highest pitch. Here's an example of a cadence in the key of C major. She is the five Chord and C is the one court. As you can see, the root of the five chord G is the lowest pitch in the five court, and the root of the one chord C is the lowest pitch in one court. Thus criteria one is met. The root of the one court is also the highest pitch in the one chord and this criteria to is met. Do you hear how the sound of this kids is very final and absolute? This is mainly due to the root of the one chord being both the lowest and the highest pitch of the final chord, Unauthentic Hidden says. Considered in perfect if criteria to is not met, here's an example. As you can see, the root of the five Corgi is the lowest pitch in the five chord, and the root of the one Chord C is the lowest pitch in the one chord. Those criteria number one is met, but the root of the one court see is not also the highest pitch of the one chord, and this criteria number two is not met. This kid's is still very strong But because the root of the one court is not in both the highest and lowest positions of the cord, it is not as final and absolute sounding as the perfect authentic kids waas authentic. Ince's are a great way to establish a tonal centre for a piece of music or even a section of music. In either of these examples, you definitely feel like you're in the key of C major. In other words, see, feels like home. 177. The Half Cadence: In the last lecture, we learned that the authentic Hayden's is movement from 5 to 1. The half kids is, in a sense, the opposite of the authentic ins, since it is movement from 1 to 5 because it is movement away from the one chord or the tonic chord. The half cadence is considered to be a week kings, this type of cadences usually found at the end of a section of music because it creates the sense of coming to a temporary stopping place before moving on to another section. Here's an example of half kittens Britain in the key of C major, where the G major court is the five chord and the C major chord is the one court. Do you hear how there is some sense of closure but that the music wants to continue on to something more? 178. The Plagal Cadence: the play Go Kittens is a movement from four toe one. It is often referred to as the armed man kittens because of its frequent occurrence in hymns. On the syllables are men. It is not quite as strong as the authentic IDs. Here's an example of a Playgirl kittens in the key of C major uh 179. The Deceptive Cadence: with the authentic kittens. We had movement from five or 57 toe one. The deceptive kittens is movement from five or 57 to accord other than one. It is called deceptive because the ear is expecting to hear the resolution to the one chord . But then accord, other than the one court has played these types of kids is create a sense of suspension, and they're more like commas or even question marks in the sentence. Here's an example of a typical deceptive cadence in the key of C major. The notes in the base Clough with left Hand give you the feel of moving from five a. G 21 a. C. But if you take a look of the top three notes in the last chord, you'll see it's an a minor court. You are a six chord and the key of C major. 180. Memory Questions for section 40: 181. Quiz for section 40: 182. The Whole Tone Scale: Besides the major minor skills, there are many other forms of scales that are used to create music. And this lesson. We're going to learn about some of the more common forms. The first is the whole tone scale. The whole tone scale is exactly what it sounds like. It is made up entirely of whole tons or whole steps. There are no half steps present in this scale. The whole tone scale is called a hex atomic scale. Because it is made up of six tones on the piano keyboard. It is the set of three Y keys and three black. He's It can also be written as to Bakkies and four White Keys with these two ways of writing. The whole tone scale would cover all the possible of pitches from sea to sea, an octave higher C D flat, D e flat, E F, f sharp, G, G sharp, A, A Sharp and B. You cannot construct any major minor chords from the whole tone scale. The only course it could be formed are augmented chords. Because of this music written, using the pitches from the whole tone scale is very anxious and unsure, just like the argument accord. Even more importantly, because there are no half steps in the wholesale scale, there's no leading tone. The absence of the leading tone means there is no tonic. No tonic means that we will never feel at rest. There is no pitch that air year will here as the root or home key, the music will feel as if there is no beginning and no end to wander aimlessly. 183. The Chromatic Scale: The chromatic scale is, in a sense, the opposite of the whole tone scale. It is made up entirely of half steps. It has 12 notes within an active since all the pitches air equal distant from each other. There is no single pitch that sticks out as the tonal centre. You can therefore begin a chromatic scale on any pitch. Here is the descending chromatic scale. Observe how it is notated with flats instead of sharps. Although there is no one correct spelling of the skill, it is customary to sharps one ascending and flats when descending the spelling of the scales, also determined by the key signature of the song. For example, the key of D major has an F sharp in a C sharp. We will therefore continue to spell these pitches as such, even when descending, in other words, will not use their harmonic equivalents. G flat and D flat 184. Supplement Article: 185. The Pentatonic Scale: the pentatonic scale has a total of five pitches within an active. It is widely used in the folk music of many countries around the world. The pentatonic scale has the pattern whole step, whole step minor feared Holsten. Here is a pentatonic scale beginning on C, since there are no greatly dissonant intervals in this scale, such as the major seventh miner. Second or try tone thes five notes could be played in almost any order and combination and still sound relatively constant. You could test this out for yourself by going to a piano and playing on just the Black keys . That's right. The five black keys on the piano, starting from C sharp, form a pentatonic scale. 186. Memory Questions for section 41: 187. Quiz for section 41: 188. Polytonal Music: eternal music is music that is key centered. Key centered means that the music is written in a particular key and has a tonic, pitch or route. For example, Mozart Sonata in C major is called eternal because it is key centered. It is written in the key of C major and has a tonic, pitch or bird of C in this lecture. In the next, we're going to learn about to other forms of tonality, poly tonal music and a tonal music. Music that is Poly Tunnel is not centered in one key, and this does not have one tonic, pitch or route. It is in many different keys. At the same time, Paul eternal means many tones. The most basic way for a piece to be in many keys at once is to have different instruments , each playing in a different key. In the case of piano music, for example, the right hand would be in one key on the left hand would be in a completely different key . Let's look at an example. This is the right hand of a piano piece, as you can see from the four Sharps in the key signature, it is written in the Kiev E major. It uses the pitches of the E major scale and has E as its tanak. Here is the left hand to the same piano piece as you can see from the three flats in the key signature. The music is written in the key of E flat major. It uses the pitches of the E flat major scale and has e flat as its tonic. Here is what the right and left hands would sound like together. Not very pleasant sounding, is it? Polly Tonality was not really used until around the 20th century. Before that, it was used very infrequently and only as a comical effect. A famous example of this is the fourth movement of Mozarts musical joke. The whole piece is very tonal, except for the very end, which is written in four different keys at once. You might want to check it out 189. Atonal Music: 190. Memory Questions for section 42: 191. Quiz for section 42: 192. The Ancient Greek Modes: 193. The Church Modes: 194. The Modern Modes: modes dominated European music up until about 1500 a. D. For another 100 years or so, they continue to have a strong influence on composers. But his music became less melodically structured and more and more harmonically structured . The use of modes started to fall by the wayside, and only two of the church modes endured. These were the Ionian and alien modes. The authentic Ionian mode is equivalent to the modern day major skill. It has the same sequence of whole steps in half. Steps estimate your scale the authentic A only in mood is the equivalent to the modern day natural minor scale. It has the same sequence of whole steps and half steps as the natural minor scale. In fact, we sometimes referred to the major minor skills as the major and minor modes. In the 20th century, Mode started making a comeback in the works of certain classical composers and film composers, but they're also still used in chant and some folk music. The modern day Moz come from the authentic modes of the church and have retained the same names. Unease e way to remember the different sequences of whole steps and half steps it's a play them using only the white keys on the piano. Here's the Ionian Murdered, played on C. Here's the Dorian mode played on D. Here's the fridge emerge played on E. Here's the Lydian mode, played on F. Uh, Here's the mix O Lydian mode played on G, the alien mode played on a the LA Korean mode played on B. Here's a helpful pneumonic device for remembering the modern Moz. It's important to understand that the modes air not limited to the White Keys, arranging them using the white cheese was just a nisi way to remember the sequence of whole steps and half steps. In actuality, any mode can begin on any note. Here's an example of Dorian starting on two different notes and the first diagram. Dorian began on D. And so we call it D Dorian. In the second diagram, Dorine began on E. And so we call it a Dorian. Both modes Air called Dorian because the sequence of half steps and whole steps remains the same in each 195. Memory Questions for section 43: 196. Quiz for section 43: 197. Overtones: In a previous lecture, we learned that Pythagoras discovered the mathematical divisions of a vibrating string resulted in particular intervals. Thousands of years later, another discovery confirmed and also expanded upon his discovery. This may come as a surprise to you, but when you hear a specific pitch, you're not just hearing a single ton. You're actually hearing many tones all standing together. This is because of vibrating. String is not only vibrating as a whole, it is also simultaneously vibrating in fractional parts halves 3rd 4th 5th etcetera. These parts create their own sounds. The blend together to form the sound of the whole these other sounds air called overtones and are part of what we call the harmonic Siri's. In this first video, you will see the string vibrating as a whole. The sound produced gives us what we call the fundamental. The fundamental is the main pitch that a rear perceives. Next, we'll look at the string vibrating and have the vibration in halves. Gives us the first overturn of the fundamental. They're called overtones because they're over or above the fundamental. The first overtone is an octave above the fundamental. In each of the videos, the sound has been filtered so that you can hear the overtones. If you listen carefully, the smaller waves you're in the bottom of the screen show the entire string vibrating, and each of the vibrating parts for large string at the top of the screen shows the combination of these. The string vibrating and thirds gives us the second overturn of the fundamental pitch. The second overtone is an active plus 1/5 above the fundamental pitch. The string vibrating and fourths gives us the third overturn of the fundamental pitch. The third overtone is two octaves above the fundamental. The string vibrating in fifth gives us the fourth overtone of the fundamental pitch. The fourth overtone is to actives, plus a major third above the fundamental we call the fundamental pitch and it's overtones the harmonic Siri's. Here's a diagram of what the harmonic Siri's would look like if it were written out on a grand staff. Although we can choose any note is our fundamental pitch we have chosen the Low C is our fundamental for simplicity of demonstration on the piano. This is the C two octaves below middle C. When we hear this low, see the sound we're hearing is made up of the fundamental pitch, the entire string vibrating and all of its overtones, the parts of the string that air vibrating simultaneously within the whole. Each pitch in the harmonic Siri's is given a number. The first note, the fundamental is called the first harmonic. The second note is called the Second Harmonic, but it is also called the first overtone. The third note is called The Third Harmonic, but it is also called the Second Overtone, and so forth and so on. These numbers also represent the frequencies of the harmonics. Harmonic number two is vibrating twice a fast as the fundamental pitch. Harmonic three is vibrating three times as fast as the fundamental etcetera. The numbers can also refer to the ratios of the string lengths as we will see in the next lecture. Since the harmonic series continues on indefinitely, only the 1st 16 notes in the Serie Zahra listed here notice that as the Siri's progresses, the pitches get closer and closer and sound harmonics wanting to give us the octave harmonics two and three give us the perfect fifth. Next comes the perfect fourth than the major third. The minor, third major, second, minor second, etcetera. If you kept going higher in the harmonic Siri's, you would end up with intervals smaller than half steps. 198. Hearing Overtones: 199. Memory Questions for section 44: 200. Quiz for section 44: 201. Natures Hierarchy of Harmonic Sounds: In the last lecture, we learned about overtones in the harmonic Siri's. In this lecture, we're going to illustrate the most important characteristic of the harmonic Siri's, which is the order of the Siri's, is always the same. No matter which pitches chosen is the fundamental. In other words, harmonics wanted to always created active harmonics two and three always create 1/5. Her monks, three and four, always created forth etcetera. Let's look at an example of a harmonic Siri's beginning on G, as you can see Harmonics one to create an active two and three. Creative fifth, three and four. Creative Fourth Foreign five Created major. Third, five and six. A minor third at Centra. What's looking on? Harmonic series Beginning on e harmonics. Wanted to create a knock tive. Harmonics two and three of Fifth Harmonics three and Floor Creative fourth Harmonics four or five. A major third Harmonics five and six a minor third. This is an astounding thing that, hidden within any pitch is this very same hierarchy of intervals. It is nature's inherent order of harmonic sounds, for by thunderous in the Greeks, pitches were considered continent because of the ratio of the string lengths. The simpler the whole number ratio, the more constant the sound. We see this confirmed by physics thousands of years later in the harmonic Siri's, The Lower You Go in the harmonic series, the more constant the pitches. Harmonics wanted to give us the eighth. This is the ratio of 2 to 1. It is the most constant sounding interval because it is the sound most similar to the fundamental. Take a look at Harmonix 1248 and 16. Did you notice they're all sees? This is because they all have the ratio of 2 to 1. The ratio of the octave harmonics two and three give us the fifth. This is the ratio of 3 to 2. It is the next most constant interval because it is the sound after the octave that is most similar to the fundamental harmonics. Three and four give us the fourth. This is the ratio of 4 to 3. It is the next most constant interval because it is the sound after the fifth that is most similar to the fundamental taking nature's hierarchy of harmonic sounds found in the harmonic Siri's. We get the following order of intervals from most constant police. Constant perfect days. Perfect fifth Perfect fourth, major third in minor, sixth, minor, third and major sixth, minor, seventh and major seconds diminished fifth and augmented fourth, major seventh and minor seconds. Physics and the harmonic Siri's gives us an objective way of measuring the constants or dissonance of harmonic sound. If we take all the intervals found in the 1st 15 harmonics of the harmonic Siri's and place them within one octave. Starting on C, we would get the following notice the pattern as we move from unison on the left, to the active on the right. The sound becomes very dissonant the moment we leave unison to the minor second, but then slowly starts to become more and more constant until we reach the perfect fourth. At the midpoint, we have the harsh sounding try tone. The reverse occurs as we travel from the midpoint of the tri tone to the active 202. The History of Consonance: it is important to realize that from the time of the ancient Greeks, until today, what people have considered as constant and dissonant has often changed. For example, the Greeks did not consider the major third to be constants, but today it is considered very constant. Without the major third, we would not have most of Western music. He will learn why the Greeks did not consider the major third to be a Constance. When we study tuning systems and they're coming lectures using the harmonic Siri's as our standard for measuring constants, we will now briefly follow the history of restroom music. You will see that over time, more and more dissonant harmonies begin to be used in music. That which used to be considered dissident, was slowly redefined and began to be considered constant. Most music of the ancient Greeks was Monta Phonic music that is mono phonic consists of melody rather than harmony. If two notes were sung at the same time, it was usually done in unison the exact same pitch or in octaves as you already know. Fifths and fourths were also considered constant by the Greeks, but they were not suing together in harmony they were used primarily as a basis for tuning their instruments. Around 900 a. D. We begin to see fifths and fourths used. His harmonies in organism organism was a type of chance in which one person saying the melody and another personal sing the same melody at the same time. Only 1/5 or fourth higher or lower around 1400. We see the first appearance of the Triad. If we look at the harmonic Siri's, we can see that the major Triad is one of the most natural elements of harmonic sound. If we take a look at the 1st 5 notes in the Siri's, we get C, C, G, C and E. If we remove the duplicated pitches, all the active sees, we get three distinct pitches. C, G and E. These are the three pitches that form the major chord. You can also see a major chord very clearly formed by harmonics for 56 Other forms of the trade can also be found in the harmonic Siris. For example, the diminished court could be found on the harmonics 56 and seven. A minor court could be found on the harmonics 67 and nine on augmented court could be found on harmonics 79 and 11. Also during the Renaissance major and minor thirds, and their inversions begin to be frequently used around 1600. The dominant seventh chord, which involves the use of the minor Seventh, begin to be used. If we move higher up in the harmonic Siri's, we find that the intervals are closer together. Instead of finding major minor thirds begin to see seconds. Our whole steps, in fact, harmonic seven through 11 give us the 1st 5 notes of the whole tone scale. Around 18 80 we begin to see music created, using the whole tone scale even higher. Up in the harmonic series, we begin to see a prevalence of half steps around 1900. We begin to see the use of 12 turn a total writing and total Chromatis ism, sir. As you can see from the preceding seven diagrams, Man's idea of constants has broadened over the centuries to include more and more dissonant sounding intervals. This historical development of musical constants can be traced through the harmonic Siri's 203. Memory Questions for section 45: 204. Quiz for section 45: 205. Tuning Pitches: 206. Pythagorean Tuning: 207. Just Intonation: 208. Equal Temperament: 209. A Brief History: 210. Congratulations: