Music Theory for Songwriters | Michael Emenau | Skillshare

Music Theory for Songwriters

Michael Emenau, Music Maker!

Music Theory for Songwriters

Michael Emenau, Music Maker!

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44 Lessons (3h 34m)
    • 1. 1 Intro

    • 2. 2 Welcome

    • 3. 3. Terms

    • 4. 4. Notes

    • 5. 5. Intervals, Scales and Steps

    • 6. 6. Major and Minor scales by counting tones

    • 7. 7. Intervals on the Guitar

    • 8. 8. Note names on the guitar

    • 9. 9. Chords on the Guitar

    • 10. 10. All the Intervals

    • 11. 10.5 Download scales and chord charts

    • 12. 11. How chords are built

    • 13. 12. Major chord shapes

    • 14. 13. Minor chord shapes

    • 15. 14. Major-Minor Key comparisson

    • 16. 15. Diminished Chords

    • 17. 16. Dominant and Minor 7 Chords

    • 18. 17. Diminished chords Advanced Part 1

    • 19. 18. Diminished chords Advanced Part 2

    • 20. 19. Key Signatures

    • 21. 20. What are chord progressions

    • 22. 21. Make a Progression with Roman Numerals

    • 23. 22. Variations on I - IV - V

    • 24. 23. Roman Numerals in G

    • 25. 24. Why do we have different keys?

    • 26. 25. Minor vi chord

    • 27. 26. F maj - D maj

    • 28. 27. Going beyond the 4 chord progression

    • 29. 28. Minor chord tones

    • 30. 29. What is 6/8

    • 31. 30. Relative Keys

    • 32. 31. Transposition

    • 33. 32. Common chord progressions - Major

    • 34. 33 Common chord progressions - Minor

    • 35. 34. Tips, Exercises, Experiments with Chords Progressions

    • 36. 35. What is Melody?

    • 37. 36. Suggestions on Melody Writing

    • 38. 37. What is a Hook?

    • 39. 38. Techniques for finding a melody

    • 40. 39. Intervals with Song Examples Pt. 1

    • 41. 40. Intervals with Song Examples Pt. 2

    • 42. 41. Song Structure

    • 43. 42. Song Structure music examples

    • 44. 43. And just one more thing

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About This Class

In this course I will be teaching you everything you need to know for you to easily and confidently write the songs you have always want to.  This course has been designed specifically for songwriters interested in popular music. You won't get bogged down trying to learn things that won't be necessary to write songs in pop, rock, folk, country, EDM and and many other styles. Just the music theory you need in easy, step by step lessons designed to inspire as you learn.

You will be learning:

  • How to make scales (major and minor)

  • How to make chords (major, minor, diminished and dominant)

  • Common chord progressions used in popular music
  • How to listen to different rhythms

  • How to use scales to develop and write great melodies

  • Song Structure (parts of a song)

  • The power of intervals in songwritingSongwriting exercises and techniques

Meet Your Teacher

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Michael Emenau

Music Maker!


Hello, I'm Michael Emenau, musician, composer, app developer and overall lover of music. I created these courses based upon my experineces teaching my kids and others about how to play music from a very simple, fun base.  Everyone can play music, we just need the tools.

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1. 1 Intro: Hello. My name is Michael Emenalo, and in this course I'm going to be teaching you the music theory. You need to know to start writing your own songs, creating your own music. We're gonna learn about cords. We're gonna learn about scales, boat rhythm, about different melody making techniques and about song structure. A music theory is a huge subject. People often become overwhelmed with too much information that become frustrated, discouraged. So I have Taylor, this course specifically for songwriters to help them quickly get their ideas out into the world. Now, these tools will hopefully enable and bold and empower you to get that song that's floating in your ears out into the world for everyone to hear our petition, this course on both piano and guitar, although primarily I'll be using the piano. The reason being insisting more visual instrument for teaching theory for teaching harmony . That being said, having a basic knowledge on the piano or guitar will definitely make the course more accessible, but it's not necessary. You don't need to know how to read music. You don't need to know how to write music. You just need to come with open ears ready to explore and discover. So why learn theory anyway? I mean, people have said to me our it's just a bunch of rules. It's going to slow me down is gonna kill my creativity. You know, I have my own voice. Some 13th century monk didn't wake up one day, put three notes together. Say this is a major chord. Call up his buddies and say, Hey, this is now a major court. Everybody go play this court No, it music developed, and then theory was used to describe what we have accepted. Music is in this class. I'll be giving you the guidelines to help you create, write, compose your own music, you know, in styles that you're already accustomed to, and you will also have the terms, the language, so that you can talk. You can communicate with other musicians to co create and one last thing. Once you understand music theory, once you know what the rules are you Kenbrell, aktham, I personally and the most creative. When I have a series of confines when I have a serious rules, I have to push against the boundaries on and find a new solution to the same old problem, which is how do you read a great song? Okay, let's get to work 2. 2 Welcome : Hello, everybody. And welcome to this course. Thanks for joining. It's gonna be a lot of fun, and I hope it will inspire you to rate some fantastic songs. So what is music theory? Well, think of it this way. Music music is a language, a music notation, the written music that you see that is the alphabet and theory is the grammar. It is the instructions. It is the rule book to create music. Now you don't need theory to play music, but it does help to have a set of guidelines to help organize your thoughts. Theory is the conscious and unconscious accepted rules. It's chords and scales, its rhythm, its notation and how those things interact with each other. Ah, theory really is useful. It really is your friend without it. Every time you wanted to play a write a song, you would need a different instrument, different tuning, a different concept of how to play in writing music. Uh, consider this. If you were to play Japanese court music, you would be working with a different set of parameters. You have different scales, different tuning systems, different concepts of rhythm to play in that style of music you need to understand music theory of Japanese court music. I will be teaching you the theory that you need to play Western popular music. That means pop and rock, country folk, reggae, um, E g m and a 1,000,000 sub genres. And excuse me if I have left your favorite John Road. Okay, there's a lot to talk about. There's going to be introducing a lot of concepts. You can go back, listen to the class over and over until you get it at any time. During any of these courses. When you're playing along, you're listening and you were inspired. You hear something in your ear, you want to get it down, stop the course, write the song document. Whatever it is you're hearing everything that you do when you're writing a song, it's all part of the learning process and the creative process. So if you have an idea, if you hear something and you want to document it right away, stop the course. The course can always happen Later. Write the songs that you hear when you hear them. You may be boat to write the greatest song you've ever written right now. Okay, it's time to get on with classes. See the next lesson 3. 3. Terms: Okay, everyone, that's Ah, that's enough philosophizing. It's enough inspirational talk. It is now time to get down to the nitty gritty and we're going to learn, Ah, boat music theory for songwriters. Okay, the first thing we're gonna talk about is a bit of terminology, because there's going to be some words. I'm going to use a lot of this course, and I just want to make sure we have some clarity. First word is a note, a note also known as a pitch. It's simply a sound created on a musical instrument. Here's a note. Here's another one. It's a vibration that you hear. Um, here's two notes together now, notes convicts cried his ascending, which means they're going to the right. These notes are ascending, they're raising in pitch and the opposite descending notes is to the left, and these notes are going down there descending. The next word is a scale. Now. A scale is a set of notes from which you can build melodies and harmonies. Generally speaking, we talk about the major and minor scale major scale, sounding like this Ah, minor scale sounding like this a little more somber. Ah, but any group of notes can be a scale. I could say That's my scale. Now this is my scale that I'm just going to be building a melody off those notes. That would be a funny little thing to do. But generally speaking, that is why we use the major minor scale. They contain a lot more melodic choices for us. Okay, Key. A musical key is the songs Home. The Key tells you several things about the song. It tells you what scale the song is going to be based on major minor, what sharps and flats are going to be used. Ah, the key tells you what chords are going to sound good together and work with the melody. There's a key for each note, and it can be major minor, but more on that later. So if I say I'm an F major, I know thesis is my F major scale thes notes. We're gonna work when I'm making my melody and chords built off. Those notes are going to sound nice. Ah, no, I've already done it a bit, but accord a court is simply two or more notes played together. That's accord now, generally, in this course we're gonna be talking about. Three note and four No cords, major and minor chords. Um, so this is a major chord. It sounds like that Here's a minor chord. It sounds like that. Okay, The octave, when active, is the distance between two notes that have the same letter. Uhm, I'm going to play you something. You can hear it that is inactive. That is an octave. Interestingly, this note Well, let me Ah, this one I know for sure Thistles An A and this is vibrating at 220 times per second. If you go up an octave, any note one octave above is vibrating at twice the speed. So this is a vibrating at 220 thinness A right here is vibrating at 440 times per second. And the last thing we're gonna be talking about for terminology is the use of Roman numerals. It's not really terminology, but you're going to see it written. Ah, and I have a little chart, so you can just sort of have an idea of what they looked like when you see them, you'll know what I'm talking about. And they're just based on the 123456 and seven. And, ah, if it's an uppercase Roman numeral, that means we're probably something referring to major major keys, major chords and this lower case minor key minor chords. Okay, on to the next lesson. 4. 4. Notes: Okay. Welcome back. We're now going to talk a boat to note all the notes of the musical alphabet. Now the great thing is, there's only 12 notes and then it just repeat, it's a cycle. If we started here I am on a If I count up 12 3456789 10 11 12 after 12. Right back to where I started from. This isn't a and this is a nay, This is a B, and this is a B now it and it just keeps going after this e Here's a knee and an f e f g in the same thing going down if I met in a c b a a g a g half and this just keeps going. Ah, now there's also the black notes and it works like this. If I'm on a note and I go up one semi tone now, a semi tone is the closest note in pitch to where you have Ah, you're currently playing. So if I'm going up a semi tone, it's right here on it becomes in a sharp a a sharp if I wanna see it is a C shop, Dee Dee Sharp. Now, what strange is that these black notes are also have also have a different name, which is a flat. And how you find a flat is you go down one semi tone to the closest, no below. So, as you see here, if I'm gonna be and I go to the closest, note it to be flat, which is identical to in a sharp the same thing here. If I'm on a G and I count down to the very closest note, it's not that one. Because in between these two notes, there's another one that makes this the closest note G g flat and concurrently F f sharp. A e flat in e flat is also D sharp. Now, if we look up here, we can see it in a different pattern. Here we have our a r b flat and if you look down the B flat is the same as a sharp. The B flat is the same as the a sharp and all of these work the same d flat c sharp e flat d sharp, etcetera etcetera. Now there's one more thing to know about these notes, the white notes. We just call them by their letter name there also referred to as natural. And that's this sign right here. You don't see this as much as our flat and are sharp, but the natural And as you see here, that note is an F natural. Now why that is used sometimes would be if previously, in the same measure you had had an f sharp, this was just a reminder. Don't forget, this is an f natural. Maybe your did something like the first time it was f sharp. Then, if you played an F natural, you need a way to indicate it. There's also one other thing which you may have heard and our big confused about this idea of door Amy Far so last. Cedo the door Amy That's called selfish and it works the same way. It's just a different alphabet to indicate the same note. A dough is a sea ray is de me far now. I personally use both systems, the ABC and the door. Amy, I prefer if I'm looking at music to us. If I'm singing music without words, I was use a door. Amy, if if I was going to say that I go door, Amy. I wouldn't say C D e, although it's totally fine. I just find that the sole fish is a little easier coming out of your mouth. Ah, but as far as when I look at sheet music, I usually say A B, C D and the chord symbols, which you'll see in music a lot are always indicated with the letters. So use the door. Maybe if you like it always used for the more information I have. And but if not, the ABC is totally fine for what we will be learning in this this course all right on to the next lesson. 5. 5. Intervals, Scales and Steps: Okay, Welcome back In this lesson, we're going to be talking about intervals, steps and how to make and build scales. So we're going to start by just talking about what steps are. One more time. Just to review 1/2 step, which is also called a semi tone, is the closest interval on the keyboard or on a guitar. If I'm here and I want to go up a semi tone, the closest note, it's not the one to the right. It's this one right here because it is even closer than that one. So if I going to go up 1/2 step, if I'm going to go up a semi tone, it is two here. If I want to go down a semi tone, I want to go down 1/2 step. Same logic. I'm not going to their cause. This one's closer down 1/2 step that works in the Black Keys as well. If I'm here, I want to go up 1/2 step heads there. If I'm here, I want to go down 1/2 step down a semi tone. I'm going to hear. Okay, a step is simply to half steps, so if I'm here and I want to go up a tone or a step. It's two semi tones, 12 that is one tone up e. I want to go one toned down, half step, half step that is one toned down the distance between any two notes on a keyboard can be described and interval. So Azzawi said. Here, that's to half steps. That's one step. That's a tone now. If I wanted to go farther, for example, I'm here. I want to go two steps. That one step, two steps thes two notes, air two steps apart. And this is also called a major third. The reason why it's 4/2 step 1234 That is a major third. Ah, minor. Third is three steps of 3/2 steps apart. 123 I tell you, make a minor third on any notice works. If I am here on, I want to find the minor third above. 123 minor, third above minor, third below. That's the minor third below The next interval we're going to talk about which we have referred to already is the active and that is eight notes above on a major scale. That's also 12 semi tones or six tones. So I'm gonna kind of 12 semi tones. 123456789 10 11 On There's a rock tive like we've talked about before and that works in both directions. An octave below 123456789 10 11 12 thes two notes are an octave apart. This is an active below this. Now The reason we're talking with his intervals is because I want to show you how to build a major scale. And it is a Siri's off tones and semi tones. In a certain sequence in a major scale, it looks like this tone tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone. Now we're gonna do it in C major first to get a few afford. If I'm in c major, the tonic the route is see? And here is a see right here, mate, you're having trouble finding a C in a piano. Try. Try doing this. You see, you've got three black notes and two black notes, and these air pattern these cap and over and over. If you go to the two black notes and you go down. One semi tone. That's a see that everywhere in the piano. Okay? So back to our C on as I said. Tone, tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone toned. There's one tone. There's another tone, then a semi tone on that. A tone, another tone, another tone. Men. A semi tone, tone, tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone. Okay, that's how you build a C major scale, using tones of semi tones. And the next lesson we're going to delve into the minor scale. All right, we'll see you there. 6. 6. Major and Minor scales by counting tones: Okay, Welcome back. We're going to continue our look at how to make major scales using the tone tone semi tone model. Ah, let's start with that note then. So I haven't e and I'm going to count up a tone. I'm gonna cut another tone, a semi tone, a tone tone, tone, semi tone. And it looks like that old tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone. This works on any note, Tone told Semi told, told tone tone, Semi town. And if you want to know what note that is and you're still confused about finding world, the notes are that's OK. Remember we said, if you've got the two black notes right blow, it is a C one account down if we know that right below sea is be on. If you have a note that is lowered by a semi tone, it's flat. Eso. This is B flat, meaning that this is a B flat major scale. Now, also to think of this, if we're C B A and if I go up, a semi tone thing is a sharp, which means that this is also a sharp major scale to B flat major scale It's an a sharp major scale. Wow. Okay, we're now going to look at how to build a minor scale and just a prosthesis. We're building natural minor scales. You may have read online or elsewhere that there's three types of minor scales. Natural, minor, harmonic, minor and melodic minor. And this course we're just going to be dealing with the natural minor scale cause. That is the scale that is used Mawr in popular music in singer songwriter type styles, the harmonic miners, melodic miners is much more in classical compositions. Okay, the steps of a minor natural scale, which I'm from now on, I'm just going to say the minor scale OK, a minor scale tone, semi tone, tone, tone, semi tone, tone, tone. So I'm going to start on a because this will be the easiest one to see the beginning, a minor tone, semi tone, tone, tone, semi tone, tone tone and it looks like this, and it goes back down to if it is descending, so that's how you would build in a minor scale. Now it has the same notes as a C major scale, but it starts on a and as before, when we were talking about what a key is. The home note. Melody wants to go back to an A, and the cords are going to be built off a minor. So AAA minor progression. Yeah, is built off the minor scale. Where is a major progression is built off a major scale. They have the same notes, but again, it's about the home. Note the tonic, which in a minor isn't a Okay, let's look at a couple other examples. We're not gonna name the notes where we're not going to name the notes for the key. We're just going to start with a note and then count the tones teddy tones to make our scale. Our next note is this one right here tone, semi tone, tone, tone, semi tone, semi tone. And it looks and sounds like this. Things works on any note. Let's try this one. Okay, tone, semi tone told told semi tone, Toad, Toad, This last one is a D minor scale. Okay, I'm we're gonna hop over to the guitar now so you can see how these intervals and scales look on the guitar fretboard. See the next lesson 7. 7. Intervals on the Guitar: Welcome back, everybody. A guitar. So what I'd like to do is show you where the intervals are on the guitar, how it works, how it similar to a piano, how it's different. So let's just give it into it, okay? We're in a little closer now, So, as you see, this is the guitar. This is the fretboard of the guitar. Now I'm going back to the basics here. Every one of these threats is equal to one semi tone. So if I'm playing this note on this string right here, which is any string and then I move up and I play. I have played one semi tone above that and that's the same. If I am here on I, I take that off. I'm now playing one semi tone below. This works everywhere I go up to here. I'm playing up one semi tone down one semi town. So if I want to play a tone above or below, if I'm on this note and I want to play a tone, I count two frets to semi toes. That is one tone above this concurrently, one tone below one semi tone, two semi tones, same with a minor. Third. I'm gonna count three if I'm here. 123 I had to mind the third above. Same thing if I'm here. 123 Ah Tamayo Third and a major third would be four semi tones. I'm here 1234 That's a major third major Throw down. Same thing. 1234 And the same thing for an octave is all the way up 12. So if I'm all the way down here on an open string and I kind of 12 123456789 10 11 12. Okay. Now, as we learned on the piano, to do a major scale was tone, tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone. It's the same thing on the guitar. We're gonna do it just on the east drink, Gonna count up a tone, going to kind of another tone and then a semi tone and then a tone and then a tone tone in a semi tone. And then you go backwards. Semi tone, tone, tone, phone, semi tone, tone on and this works on every string. If I'm here, Tone told seven tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone that's the major scale in the minor scale is the same thing. If you remember tone, semi tone, tone, tone, semi tone, tone, tone. So here we go tone, semi tone, tone, tone, semi tone, tone toned. And that is how you build a minor scale. And again, this works anywhere. If I'm starting here and there's one to third string in this third note, and I'm gonna do a minor scale, I still do the same pattern tone, semi tone, tone, tone, semi tone, tone, tone. That is how you build a minor or major scale, starting in any note of the fretboard. All right, see the next lesson. 8. 8. Note names on the guitar: Welcome back, everybody. In this lesson, we're going to look at the names of the notes on the guitar and how they relate to the notes on the piano just so you can see the similarities and differences. Okay, again, let's get do it. So what I think is important and interesting is to realize that the names of the notes, the sounds of the notes are the same on different instruments. What is different is the Tambor that is the color off. Any musical instrument has a tambor, so if I play, this note on the guitar is open. E. It's that note on the piano. This is also any If I play the open A yeah, etcetera de and the same thing. If I go and I play up a semi tone that is the same as uh huh, this is a great thing about music and why I stress four guitar players to learn some keyboard because it is so visually later on the keyboard. But how else is a keyboard players? Guitar is a fantastic instrument. It's Superfund. It's much more portable than bringing a piano around. So, uh, open your mind. Open your palate when you convey one instrument. Other instruments follow the same rules. It's the same theory. So enjoy. Get out there and have some fun. See the next lesson? 9. 9. Chords on the Guitar: Hi. This is just a brief one I forgot to mention in the last lesson of boat chords on the guitar. Ah, and of course, there are chord sheets galore on the Internet. I just want to point out that a court and guitar, this is a D chord. Same tonality. Now I think I mentioned, uh, no turned different orders de a d f shot. That's how it lays out on the guitar and but on the piano, I would more likely play like this. But since it's all the same notes in this case D F sharp in a these air both d major court d major quartet guitar, the major chord on the piano, that's all. I want to stay with that for now. 10. 10. All the Intervals: Okay. Welcome back. We're back to the keyboard. Keyboard guitar. Um, Anyway, what we're going to talk about now is intervals specifically naming all the different intervals that are Sit within a knocked Ivana keyboard or in fact, on a guitar or any instrument. So here's how it works. You started any note and you count semi tones in each semi tone. Distance from the original note has a different interval. So just for simplicity, we're going to start on a see now if I want to count up one semi tone, I get my first interval, which is called a minor second. So I'm gonna go aapa semi tone, which is right. There is the closest note. So these two notes are a minor second apart. Minor second intervals. If I count up a tone, these air called a tone, this is and the tone is a major second apart. So that's a major seven. If I'm here and I can't up two semi tones, that is a major second interval, and it just keeps going three semi tones that is a minor third, and what you may recognize is that those are the 1st 2 notes in a minor chord. There is a C minor chord in the interval. Three semi tones. Minor third, four semi tells 1234 major third And like the minor third, the major third are the 1st 2 notes of a major chord. Now we're going to talk about cords more later, but just so you can hear how the sound the next interval is five semi tones away and it is a perfect 4th 12345 Uh, And on it goes. The next one is a tri tone, which is six semi tones away and 123456 And the reason why it's called a tri tone. It's good because it is three tones away, one tone to tone. Three tone. Now this tow this interval has a lot of tension on DA. When you hear it on it's own and may not sound so nice to you. The reason is because both these notes they want to move places. So if you have a tri tone, if I thought some other notes is going to sound a little a little better, I'm gonna move these Evan active again. They don't sound so good but if I put some other notes with it, they're going to sound more complete. Now I have something that wants to do this and just so you know, for the progression, I'm actually playing a D seven going to a G. So then this interval, the tri tone begin to sound a lot better because we realize our ears. No, as long as it goes there. OK, you get some resolution. That's a tri tone. Our next one is seven semi tones. 1234567 That's a perfect fifth. The next 18 semi tones. This is called a minor sixth and it keeps going. The next interval would be, Ah, nine semi tones. This is a major six and again just to show you if I'm here and I can't up. 9123456789 This also is a major sixth interval. 10 gives me a dominant seven story. A minor seven interval. 123456789 10 On this one, kind of like the tri tone has ah bit of attention to it. If we throw a couple more notes in, we get a C seven chord Now, if you here that sounds nice and normal, that's that's normal. That's a C seven. That is a C major C seven f major Again, The minor seven. Interval wants to move somewhere in this case wants to move here. We're gonna be talking more about cords later, but it's kind of fun if you hear how all these things work. So it's not just a completely abstract theoretical explanation, because when we get into song writing when you really want to write your songs, it's gonna be about how, when you hear that. Well, yeah, that kind of works with a theory. We understand why the last interval we're dealing with is, uh, must be 11 semi tones away. 123456789 10 11. And this is a major seventh. Also, a lot of tension on this, uh, hair like that. That's a C major seventh chord. That sounds Ah, that sounds kind of nice. It's a very jazzy cord, and I guess the last interval is the octave, which has spoken about before 12 semi tones away. In an upcoming lesson, I'm going to be taking all of these intervals and giving musical examples of how they sound . How does a major second sound in the beginning the song? Here's a hint. Happy Birthday. There's a major second anyway. I'll be doing that with all the songs. So, uh, stick around. There's a lot more to come see the next lesson. 11. 10.5 Download scales and chord charts : Hey, everybody, All I'm doing in this lesson is telling you that if you look right below, there are going to be downloadable forms for all the scales major and minor and all your major and minor chords. That's all I want to tell you. Go grab them. Use them all. Have a great time. See you next lesson. 12. 11. How chords are built: All right, everybody, welcome back and we're going to start a new section today. We're going to be talking about cords officially going to be talking about cords array. So there are two basic ways that we can build cords at the 1st 1 is by counting semi tones and tones, and the other is by looking at the notes in a scale. So we're going to start by counting semi tones and tones and see how that works out. And then we're gonna try the other way. So I'm going to start in a note. I'm going to start on an F because it doesn't matter what. No, you start on. It's gonna be the same process. No matter what. To make a major court. You count up four semi tones. There's my first note. I'm gonna count four semi tones. 123 four. That is my second note of my major scale. And then I count three more semi toes. 123 That is a major chord. And since it is starting on this note, which is an F, it is an f major chord. Now that same counting technique works for anything. I'm going to start in this note con up four and and then three more major court. In this case, it's a D. Major court works anywhere. That's a major chord. Now, to make a minor chord, you just flip it around. You count three semi tones and then four semi tones. So if I go back to this original, I did in F Major on a kind of three semi tones 123 and then 41234 That is an f sorry. That isn't f minor chord. The reason being Charter Neff and I use that pattern of three and four. Now you may have noticed that the F minor in F major look quite similar. This is F major count. 41234123 versus 123 So another way to make quickly to make accord. If you have a major chord, it's just this middle note here has to go down one semi tone. Now I'm in a minor chord, So if I'm in a major chord by started C 1234123 c major, I take this middle note that C minor and again that works anywhere. So if I'm here 1234123 Major middle note down. One semi tone F sharp minor or G flat Minor Because I m f has an F sharp, sharp, minor G G flat, G, flat, Byner, F sharp minor and G Flat Minor sound Remarkably similar. Okay, so that is one way to make major minor chords. Another way is to start with a scale and then you high. Then you make patterns. So I'm gonna do this simply first with a c major scale on what you do. If you want to make a C major chord in C major, I take the first, the third and the fifth. Note. First note. Third note of C major FISA to see Major. It is also every other note. That's how I'm making C major court and this works in any key. So if I'm in the key of D major, that's a D major scale. I take the first note. The third note and the fifth note e have a D major court. Now I know to make a D minor chord. I just have to take that middle note, bring it on a semi tone D minor. So when I'm trying to find cord, especially when I was beginning, I use a combination of all these different techniques to find my chords. Because if I know Oh, this is a G Well, then, oh, that's a G minor versus G. What does the G minor scale looked like? A toned, semi tone tone. Uh, so that's a G major. Well, I just move that around if I know that this is sorry I have this cord. Whatever is called, I just have to take this down a semi tone. That's a minor chord, anyway, next lesson. 13. 12. Major chord shapes: Okay, everyone, welcome back. Today we're going to be talking a boat. Major chords. We're gonna go little born depth and what we've spoken about before, But just for a bit of review, um, we were talking about making cords using a semi tone. So if I'm going to see 12341232 c major chord. 1234123 f major. This works on any accord. As we know, I've made PDFs of the 12 major chords rolled downloadable on this course. And but the question really is why, Why we're learning all these chords. And, um, I think it's just very important to basically have the largest palette, the largest amount of information possible when you want to write a song. Because if you're writing your song and you're here, then you're here and then you go here trip. You may feel a little blocked in. There's so many of their options. This is a major chord. Now the question is, does that work with this? You're singing along your song? Do you like that? Maybe you do. Maybe you don't, but it's good to know that the option is there. Although this is not a piano classes per se, I Ah, there's something I want to share with you about how I look, accords and especially how I find them quickly because the easier the more fast Highland is for you to find the cords, the more likely you are to use them. The easier the song writing process will into being. Because you're not being you're not focusing on just where are the cords. So when I look at the chords on the piano, the major chords, I actually see them in different groups of chords, and what I mean by that is visually, some of the cords look similar to each other, and I break them into four groups. The first group I just called the All Whites. And what that means is that these Corsair Onley have white notes in them. Ah, and there they see. You see, it's all white f and G. So if you know you want to play a CF Fergie major court, but you know, roughly that's the shape it's gonna be. Clunk, clunk, clunk! The next set looks somewhat like an upside down U on. That's because it has a sharp note in the middle of the three notes. So, for example, a D major chord askew see its shape. It has this sort of U shape. Now there's three chords in total that have that shape. There's the D chord. There's the shape. E major chord has that shape, and the A major court has that shape. So if you know you want to play a D ear A what? There's the shape. Now. The next three chords have the opposite. Opposite of that, they have a sort of ah, I guess you'd say you shape and ah, they are all starting on flats or Sharps or starting in Black Keys. And the 1st 1 is E flat major, and you see the shape there now. D Flat Major has that same shape, and it's all right beside it. D Flat, major E flat major, a flat major, the same shape, this next shape. It's limited to the All Whites. It's an all black, and there's only one like this. But again, it is a straight line like the all white ones, and it iss f sharp. Now there's ah to other chords, which is sort of vote liars and they are B flat, major and be major with that, I think of them as as a shape I always think of. The be file is looking like that, and the B was looking like that. So knowing all that, I'm able to quickly find cords and because if I have an idea, I don't want to be guessing like, ah beam at what used to be major chord. 1234123 Well, then I've kind of already forgotten the idea. I just know a B or what kind Looks like that in my a on my d on my e all looked like that. Anyway, that's so I find my major chords on the piano. 14. 13. Minor chord shapes: Hello? Hello. We're back. This time we're going to delve a little deeper into the minor chords. Ah, just to review again with accounting Remembers three semi tones, four semi tones. 1231234 231234 They're all built the same way, Way now. Ah, like the major court, all the minor chords will be in downloadable pdf format. And again, why the minor chords? It's opening up your palate. More choices you have, the more interesting your songs can be. Now what I want to show you was this sort of visual trick I was doing with the major chords . I want to show it to you for the mild minor chords. Um, now this time the all white notes There's three chords that are all white, and they are a minor, D minor and and e minor. And like with the major there three chords. Three minor chords that have the upside down new shape. They are C minor, F minor and G minor. You notice my finger didn't move. My shape of my hands did not move it all, sort of being three chords with the U shape. There's only two this time and they are D flat, minor or C sharp minor. See the shape and a flat or G sharp minor again because a flat is g sharp. There's our shape. We have three old liars this time one of them is E flat minor, which is all black Pretty easy to see it all black and it starts on an E flat. And then, like with the majors that be minor and B flat minor are also have their shapes. Ah, the B minor again is a very similar shape to the B major. You get that swooping up like this on with the B flat minor like the B flat major, you get the swooping down shaped like that B flat, minor B flat major B flat, minor. One thing that's kind of neat. If you remember back to the majors, the C f N g major chords were all the all white ones. C f g these air now the upside down you Those were in verse and the same What was the A minor D minor e minor. When they were major, they were the upside down. You a major major. Hey, Major, that's all I'm gonna say about the shapes of your minor chords. Have fun 15. 14. Major-Minor Key comparisson: Hello, everyone. You know the words major and minor. They get tossed around a lot and we use terms like happy and sad. And we talk about the chord structures and what they look like and how a major turns into a minor minor turns into a major. But what One thing we don't really talk about is, Well, how do they sound? So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna play a couple familiar songs and I want to listen to them . And then I'm gonna play those same songs which, originally a major key. I'm gonna play the same songs as if they were in a minor key just so you can hear the difference and that this may help give a bit more clarity to really, what a major in minor song sound like? So, um, here's a couple of basics. I'll do it in major, and then I'm gonna do a minor, and I'm gonna do all of these in Ah, si two. So again, you've got a bit more clarity and how they look very hot lamp. See, Major now in C minor, I'm going to instead of playing a C major scale and using the note. I'm going to use a C minor scale. And instead of C an f n g type major court, I'm going to use the minor chords C minor scale. Looks like that versus C major looking like that. But again, all I really want you to do is just listen eso one more time. Quickly. Mary had a little lamb in Major Mary had a little lamb in minor. Here's another popular one. Uh, now in minor. Yeah. Happy birthday to all of you out there, Here is a biggie. - So as you can hear when you change the major to minor, you were really changing the quality of the song. And again, this may be something that interests you. You may write a song and see on you like it and, you know, as a variation, you may want to switch. You know, I'm gonna try playing the same song and c minor and said, a c major, change the cord and just singing again and your voice will naturally move to a minor scale to complement the cords airplane. Anyway, I just wanted to open up your ears a bit to the difference without using too many words. Happy, sad, somber. This is much more effective. See, at the next lesson 16. 15. Diminished Chords: Okay, everybody, how are you feeling so far? You feeling a little overwhelmed? The dominant chord I know are a bit confusing. And, ah, their purpose may seem a bit abstract at this point, but the more you play with them, the more you will enjoy them and appreciate them and really fall over the sound. Now, this class is about something that you know what? You could just go right to the next less right. Now, if you want to, we're gonna be talking about diminish scores. And these are abstract, their bit confusing, And they may not really be of much benefit to you, but I feel it's important to talk about them because again, they're going to richer palette. And if you like, the sound will then go for use them all the time. So here we go. Diminished chords. There are gonna be three types. We're gonna talk about three types of 10 minutes chords. My God, Go to the next lesson now. Anyway, you're still here. Good, diminished chord number one, also known as regular old diminished. Now a diminished chord is actually formed by two sets of three semi tones. So if I'm here and I count up. 3123 123 That's into diminished chord. 123123 Diminished chord. That's one way to build a diminished court. The other way is with the chord tones. So if we're in C major, it is the chord based off the seventh note of the scale. The corn based off the seventh notes of the scale C major 12345671 Always keys. 1234567 Skipper. No Play a note. Skipping a plane out. That's how you build a diminished chord. If I were just to show you if I were in the key of G major, which looks like this 1234567 one I go to the seventh note skipping no play. A note. Skipping a plane out thing is also a diminished chord. And look. 123123 Thes things work on all 12 notes. It's quite convenient. No, the real challenge with the diminished court is what the heck do you do with it? Well, all I can tell you is diminished. Chords want to move. They want to go somewhere where they want to go is anybody's business. I'm not going to get into that today. Just know that it exists now this to other types of diminished chords. The next type is called 1/2 diminished. What 1/2 diminish court is now. Remember how we built the dominant and minor seven chords where we took the top note could be counted down to. It's the same idea for 1/2 diminish court. So if I am want to make a C half diminished chord, I start by making a C diminished chord. Regular diminished count of 3123123 So there is a sea diminished chord now, like in the dominant in the minor. Seven. I take this bottom note that tonic and it put another one up top, and I cant down to 12 That's how you make a half diminished chord. This it's see half diminished. I'm going to make an F sharp, half diminished chord. So where's have sharp It's here. Gonna count up 312313 There is an f sharp diminished scored, have sharp down low, have sharp a pie, and I count down to 12 night is an F sharp halftime underscored. And what does it do? It was to go somewhere, generally, wants to go to hear my God. That's a B seven chord, which means they're going to go to probably the major court. Like I said, you don't need this lesson. This is just for fun just 17. 16. Dominant and Minor 7 Chords: All right, Welcome back in this class, we're gonna be talking about dominant and minor seven chords. What these two chords are, they are an extension of the major and minor chords that you've already learned. So the major and minor shapes you've already learned, we're gonna be using those. And we're just going to add one note on top. The first thing I want to do is just talk a boat, a three note chord and what that actually means. So we'll start with a C major chord which looks like this on. As you see, you have the notes, See, e and G. Now, we've always been playing the chords so far in what is called root position. That's because the route is the bottom note. But when you play a chord, you can take these three note and you could have them anywhere on the keyboard, like see, e g. I could take this E I could put it here. That is still a C major chord. I could take this e haute. This is still a C major chord. I could see this G I could double it up. I could put it here. I can put another See right here or here. This is all. See, Major, that's a C major C major this. See, E g. This is all a c major chord. Okay, now what we're gonna do to build dominant chords, we're gonna look, let's go back to the C major chord on. We're gonna this see down here. We're gonna put another one up here. So we know this is still a major chord, but what we're gonna do with his top C, which is an octave above the tonic. Okay. Tonic. 12345678 Octave means eight. We're gonna take the second see, and we're going to count down two semi tones 12 that tell you, build a dominant seven chord major chord. Also major chord dominant seven chord. You count down two semi tones from the top from the top. Note how this works on any court. I'm going to do a d major chord. So there's D f sharp. A And as we know not to d we can have another d up top. We're gonna take this top note. We're in a countdown. Two semi tones that is a D dominant seventh chord. It's also written as D seven, which is probably how you see it on sheet music for guitar or piano on D seven. It works on any court. I'll do. Ah, here's F sharp major. Okay, this is the top note. We're going to count down to 70 talents. That's all there is to making. A dominant seventh chord is an F sharp seven chord, and it is also a G flat. Seven chord. That's how you build a dominant seventh chord. Now the other cord. If we're starting with a minor chord, we use the same logic. So here's a minor way, even a here. We can put another a up top that's still in a minor. We're in a countdown. Two semi tones from the top. This'd is a a minor seven chord. It has an a minor, and it has the seven again. This works on any chord. F minor seven f minor. We know that the F minor has that upside down new shape, and then we've got another F on top. But, uh, that's an F minor. Seven. Court E flat minor, seven D minor. Seven. So the question is why hope is the question. Why? So the the step, of course, have different functions, So I'm going to start with the dominant seventh chord first. What dominant seventh chords generally want to do is resolve because there's a fair amount of tension now. Remember back We were talking about intervals earlier, and there was a couple of intervals that I said had a lot of tension and want to be resolved, two of them being the tri tone because that was six semi tones. Don't worry if you don't remember this, this is just more for interest. Ah, than anything else. And I said that these want to resolve and also minor. Seven 123456789 10. Now look at this. Here's what's interesting and why this cord wants to resolve. So the C seven chord it has a bunch of stuff it has. Does that interval? Yeah, which is the mod minor seven, which wants to resolve? It also has, and this is the tri tone. Six semi tones. 123456 You have a cord that has two different things that want to resolve somehow on, and that's what and that is really what Dominic Cores want to do. If you have a dominant quarters, wouldn't want to go somewhere. And generally speaking, a C seven. I want to go to an F cord Lefcourt. And that's a Lefcourt I was playing in a song. If I was playing piano for a company somebody, I would probably maybe break it up like that. I don't want to get into Ah, tone leading and resolution in this course were I really want you to realize is just that dominance having cord? It wants to go somewhere, and that's OK. That and that's OK because that's a great technique in song. Writing is a when you're telling your story when you're singing your song you want have moments where there's tension because tension leads to resolution. You have a story you're going along in your story. Ah, problem arises. We want to find resolution, and that is a satisfying story that is, Ah, one of the The basic techniques of how to tell a story is by tension, conflict resolution, tension resolution. There's attention. There's a resolution now. Minor seventh chords serve a bit of a different function. They also have some tension in them. I'm going to make a I'm gonna make a D liner seven chord right now. So it's a D minor chord, which we know is up on the White Keys. And if we take that bottom D we put it up to the top. There's the another D minor chord and one account down two semi tones. Now this cord is a pretty Why would we use it? Well, I like the sound. Personally. I think it has a fuller sound than ah than a regular minor court. It's it's luscious, rich on it wants to go places. And again, I don't want to get too much into, ah, tone leading and things like that in this class. But a D Minor seven generally wants to go to a G seven, and G seven wants to go to a C major, and this is actually one of the most classic progressions in jazz music. Even more jazzy, however you want to use these chords is obviously up to you and again, the larger palette, the more ways you'll have to express yourself, the stronger your song writing will become. So take all this information, use it as you wish. See you the next lesson 18. 17. Diminished chords Advanced Part 1: Okay, everybody, how are you feeling so far? You feeling a little overwhelmed? The dominant chord I know are a bit confusing. And, ah, their purpose may seem a bit abstract at this point, but the more you play with them, the more you will enjoy them and appreciate them and really fall over the sound. Now, this class is about something that you know what? You could just go right to the next less right. Now, if you want to, we're gonna be talking about diminish scores. And these are abstract, their bit confusing, And they may not really be of much benefit to you, but I feel it's important to talk about them because again, they're going to richer palette. And if you like, the sound will then go for use them all the time. So here we go. Diminished chords. There are gonna be three types. We're gonna talk about three types of 10 minutes chords. My God, Go to the next lesson now. Anyway, you're still here. Good, diminished chord number one, also known as regular old diminished. Now a diminished chord is actually formed by two sets of three semi tones. So if I'm here and I count up. 3123 123 That's into diminish court. 123123 Diminished chord. That's one way to build a diminished court. The other way is with the chord tones. So if we're in C major, it is the chord based off the seventh note of the scale. The corn based off the seventh notes of the scale C major 12345671 Always keys. 1234567 Skipper. No Play a note. Skipping a plane out. That's how you build a diminished chord. If I were just to show you if I were in the key of G major, which looks like this 1234567 one I go to the seventh note skipping no play. A note. Skipping a plane out thing is also a diminished chord. And look. 123123 Thes things work on all 12 notes. It's quite convenient. No, the real challenge with the diminished court is what the heck do you do with it? Well, all I can tell you is diminished. Chords want to move. They want to go somewhere where they want to go is anybody's business. I'm not going to get into that today. Just know that it exists now this to other types of diminished chords. The next type is called 1/2 diminished. What 1/2 diminish court is now. Remember how we built the dominant and minor seven chords where we took the top note could be counted down to. It's the same idea for 1/2 diminish court. So if I am want to make a C half diminished chord, I start by making a C diminished chord. Regular diminished count of 3123123 So there is a sea diminished chord now, like in the dominant in the minor. Seven. I take this bottom note that tonic and it put another one up top, and I cant down to 12 That's how you make a half diminished chord. This it's see half diminished. I'm going to make an F sharp, half diminished chord. So where's have sharp It's here. Gonna count up 312313 There is an f sharp diminished scored, have sharp down low, have sharp a pie, and I count down to to night is an F sharp halftime underscored. And what does it do? It was to go somewhere, generally, wants to go to hear my God. That's a B seven chord, which means they're going to go to probably the major court. Like I said, you don't need this lesson. This is just for fun just 19. 18. Diminished chords Advanced Part 2: um Now, the last type of diminish court is called a fully diminished court, and I find these pretty interesting. And the reason why is because there's actually only three fully diminished chords or, I should say, three fully diminished chord shapes. Let me just show you by example. So I'm back at sea again. I'm gonna make a C diminished chord. Okay, Now, if I keep going in groups of three semi tones, hold on to that. I'm gonna count three more semi tones on 23 This is a C fully diminished chord When What is interesting If I keep counting 123 I'm back here again. If I count three more keeps going. Thistles called a symmetrical cord. What a symmetrical court is is a chord that is the same shape as another chord with a different name. Say that again. A symmetrical court basically has more than one route I see diminished. Look at this. If I say e, I want to start on here. If I want to start a court on a diminished, fully diminished chord On this note, I do the same thing. Look at the shape one more time. 123123 123 This is a D sharp or E flat, fully diminished court. It has the exact same note as a C diminished. And guess what if I count up three more semi tones? E get my next symmetrical Minnis court have sharp, diminished chord. Fully diminished court is the same as Hey, Flat Fully diminished. Yes, the same as see fully diminished. And guess what? Down three shapes still works. This is a native fully minutes scored, a fully diminished, and they can climb four different chords. A diminished see diminished e flat diminished F sharp diminished all the same note. It's just crazy now. Ah, that's just the cords based on. See, You have the same concept if I start here. 123123123 That's a diminished chord. Look at that. That's another diminish Scored. I take my EA moving up here. Now I'm on a G fully diminished. Put my g appear. Excuse me to be flat diminished. That's the shape too white to black. And if I go off a semi tone one more same concept. Don't work with the names of these. I'm just sort of showing you different possibilities. What the's diminished chords are These things just climb. They go up. If you get asked to score film and you've got the classic scene with the person tied to the railroad track, that's the cord for you right there. Okay, that is well, more than enough talk about diminished chords. Congratulations. If you have made it through this lesson, as I've said with all the cords, it's about enriching the palette of sounds that you can work from. So if you really wanna have a tense moment in their song than that cord could really bring you an amount of tension. Now you want to probably resolve it after, But that is look up to you again. So, uh, thank you for being patient. And we're now going to go back to, um, more mainstream and drink practical harmony to help you with your song writing needs. Okay, see? Next lesson 20. 19. Key Signatures: Welcome back, everybody. Today we're going to talk about key signatures. What is the key signature and what is its purpose? So basically what a key signature does in the piece of music there. Look at this. Here's a piece of music here. Some notes. There's some chords. Ah, this says it's for B flat, trumpet, exciting stuff. And right here you have these four sharp notes, and what these do is indicate what key you are in. And also what notes you're going to play sharp in this particular song. Now I'm going to include a list off which the number of Sharps and flats. What key is that is for not so important right now. This lessons more about just being aware of that a key senator exists, so let's take a little closer. Look here appear. We've got two flats. Look at that. There's a flat and there's a flat, and this thing right here is called a trouble clef. And this thing, this sort of indicates where the different notes are. This is not a music reading class. We're not going to delve into that, but again, this is just about knowing what it is so this flat right here is on the B line. So in this song, if you ever had to be, you would be played flat in this flat Right here is on the east space. Which means if it were an e, you would play e flat. Here is another key signature This one like the song below has the four Sharps c sharp d sharp f sharp and G sharp. So if you were in a song, you would always play those sharp. So as I've mentioned before what a key does it gives you the home The home for the song The home note sort of where the melody is probably going to end up And also what chords are going to work with the melody? What scale? The key signature and the key give you the basic information for building the song And one last thing I want to mention Ah, and this is a bit strange Will go back to this example right here. This is There's two flat now. There was something called a relative minor and a relative major. And what this means is that I know and you'll be able to see this two by looking at the chart. If a song has two flats, it means that it is B flat major, which looks like that that is the major scale with two flats, but also G minor, which is the relative minor to B flat. Major also has two flats. Now What is strange is how do you know if it's a G minor or a B flat? Major key. When you see the two flats and how it is is you look at the cords you play along, you see where the melody wants to go. Is the melody gravitating around B flat is a gravitating around a B flat major chord or is that gravitating around G and the G minor chord? That's all I want to say about key signatures. When you see them in a piece of music, just be aware of them and impress your friends. Okay, All word 21. 20. What are chord progressions: All right. Welcome back, everybody. Today we're going to begin the deepest, most interesting part of this whole course I feel, which is court progressions. So we're going to start with the basics. What? Our core progressions. Core progression is a group of chords played in a particular order, and it provides the harmony it provides the backing. It supports the melody for the song. Now, generally, what happens is the melody will sit on top of, ah, harmony. So if I'm playing a harmony, just a simple if I'm just playing a C chord. Generally speaking, the melody is going to be up here to the right. There's my melody. There's my harmony when it plays them together. So I'm going to show you some examples of some chord progressions and keep these short. These are all going to be four bar core progressions. I'm going to do them in the key of C, and the cords are all going to be C, F and G. So these were going to be four measure core progressions with one chord per bar. So if the tempos here do the core progression again, it's the second time through see 12341234123 For I played a core progression, which had a C for one bar and F for one bar, a G for one bar and to see for one bar. And then I repeated that chord progression a second time. This time I'm going to play the same core progression, but just with a different rhythm. 234 again. 1234123412341234 22. 21. Make a Progression with Roman Numerals: All right, everybody, welcome back, chord progressions. And as you see on the keyboard, I have these Roman numerals now, Way back in the beginning, this course we talked a vote Roman numerals what they looked like just to review one, 23 four, 567 and back to one. Because it's a knock tive. These are both ones. That's a one as well. And this continues. 12345 1765 it is goes in both directions. Why were using Roman numerals is because these air going to indicate the root of each chord and also whether their major or minor. So if I look at the one I know, I'm gonna build a cord on this note here, which is the first note of a C major chord. It's a one, and I know if C major chord looks like that and I know it's major because this is an upper case number. So right now I'm going to make a progression that has a one in a four and a five. So there's the one and there's the four and the four is also upper case, which going to be a major court as well. And the five also uppercase major. So let's just start from the very beginning. And ah, I'm gonna do a progression that goes 1415 and it's gonna be one chord per measure. And I'm going to start just by playing the roots so you can hear what it sounds like. I'll do a little faster tempo like 1234123412341234 Now that's the progression. 1415 Now, since we know that one is a major, it's going to be a major chord. And the four is major in the five this major. So here's what my progression sounds like with all the cords. 123412 Okay, now we're gonna do the progression in a different order again with the 14 and five chords. Um, this time I'm going to go 451 123 Go do. 3412341234123412344 Now the rhythm at this point is not important. What is important is that the cords are changing on the beat ones. 1234123412341234123412341234 three, four. Okay, now this progression 451 is in the key of C major. The next lesson, we're going to go to a different key, and you can see how the Roman numerals work everywhere. All right, on to the next lesson. 23. 22. Variations on I - IV - V: All right. Welcome back, everybody. Today we're going to delve deeper into the 145 core progression, and I'm gonna show you a bunch of fun ways to mix it up. And this will hopefully inspire you to, uh, start writing your own songs with the sort of chord progressions. So first of all, we're going to do this in the key of C. And I still have my 12345671 And don't worry. Later on, we'll be talking about the 236 and seven. But for right now, we're just taking care of the 145 So in C major a one there's 11 is a C major chord four is the f chord and five is the G chord. So again, I'm gonna do these progressions in just little circles so you can sort of hear how they repeat and ah, basic one would just sound like this to No, I can change the rhythm up. Now that is a 145 Now we can mix these cords up in all different ways, So I've attached to form here, take a look at this. So here's some variations on the 145 progression. And actually, what I just played was the first variation. 145514 five. But as you can see, I can mix these up all different ways and the different ways you do it. You know, it's gonna inspire you, make you think of different things. So let me just play through these and follow along and listen. And, ah, if you're at the piano, then you should play alone with these two, 34 three. - So , as you can see, I went down to all of these variations and I did those all in the same tempo. But you could make thes longer or shorter. I'm gonna play Variation five, and I'm going to do it. Ah, sore version 34 That was Variation five note again. You can do these any way you want to. Ah, I'm doing them in small groups right now. Just to help you hear the patterns, you can make them longer that these were four bar patterns. You could do eight. You could do any number you want. Often they're done in groups of four or eight. Now, look at this again. We have the 145 And what I want to show you now is explaining why we use the 145 Why were using the Roman numerals instead of just saying the cords all the time? And the reason is by referencing the Roman numerals, we can easily move from one key center to another. So we just played in the key of C were in the key of C and so we had the one. The four is an F court in the five is a g chord. Now say I want to play a song in the key of D So here we are with the d, and I still want that same 145 progression. So I look at this chart D the G in the A. Now, let me just quickly find these here. Hang on. You know what? Let me take the stickers off so they don't confuse you. OK, the stickers air off and I look at this one. Nothing I wouldn't mention is that all of these the 14 and five are upper case. That means that all of these are gonna be D. That means that all of these are going to be major court. So if I'm in the key of D 145 d major g major, a major and nothing, you're a little farther along this course. I should say that generally speaking, when people write down chords, if there major the letter, they don't put in em a J or a big M after it. Ah, it's just implied. If there's Onley a letter that means it is a major court. So d major, he remember, looks like this g major. It looks like that and a major looks like that. So if I have these three chords DJ and A and I want to go back to look my variations, let's try Variation six with the on D major. So if I know the four chord is what is it? The forecourt and D is a G. So I've got G to D five. It is an A and then back to D G d. A. D. How does that sound? So with all this information, you can pick the key you want. You can pick this sort of variations you want. Make up your own variations. There's lots of choices here, and What's important is to just sort of play around, get a feel for all these different variations. What does what excites your ear? What inspires you, Um, and to sort of start playing along, so I just sort of suggest you go through all these cords. Start with the seeds. The easiest fuel. Good about it. There's no stress. There's no rush to, ah, start playing things and all the different keys. It's really what makes you comfortable so that you can write the song you want. 24. 23. Roman Numerals in G: everybody. Ah, just a little lesson here to show you the magic of Roman numerals. Look at this. Now look at this. The Roman numerals are on different keys. And the reason why is because I am in a different key. Before I was in C major. So one which is now on G was on C. Now that I'm in G major, the tonic is G. And so my one chord is going to be a G major court 234 which is a c. So my four chord is going to be a C major chord because this is an upper case for and the same with the five. It is an upper case. So it is a okay, d major. And if you remember from the shapes or from the different ways of learning how to make chords a d major has that note in it an f sharp. So when I'm making a core progression in the key of dream major, this is how I'm going to think about it. Thes of the cords that are going to be working together. Okay, we're gonna go back to see major again, and we're gonna go through a whole bunch of different core progressions to see what inspires you. Okay, next lesson 25. 24. Why do we have different keys?: Hi, everybody, welcome back and I just want to talk about something. That is a question that gets asked him Ah lot. And I just want to try to clarify a couple reasons why this exists. And the question is, why do we have different keys? What what is the purpose of all this? And, um, you know, And also, why did you, as a songwriter, want to be writing in different keys? So here's a few things to think about. Number one is a merely practical thing. To write in certain keys is just physically easier if I'm on the piano. If I want to write in C just kind of falls in my hands nicely on concurrently. If you're on the guitar, it if you're strumming long D G a B minor chords like that e a B that fits into your hands much easier than trying to play in, for example, F sharp major or e flat major. These may slow down the creative process simply due to physical limitations, but there is a much more important reason for writing in different keys, and where that comes down to is when you write a melody, you want to find the key that fits your voice The best for that melody And what you need to do is a couple things. Number one. You need to find the top the highest pitch note that is in your song and you need to find the lowest pitch because your voice wants to try to find a sweet spot in between that range . I'm gonna take a ah well known song whose name I'm not going to say just for ah copyright reasons. I hope you recognize the melody and I'm gonna played in a couple different keys to help you here and discover what is the top and lowest note. Um, okay, it sounds like this. Okay, I hope you recognize that song. Even if not, what is important is that I'm going to show you where the top and the bottom notes work. So this song went on long like this, but it was at this point this note appear was the highest note that I played. So in the song your writing, if you could only sing up to here or here, or even here you may be in the wrong key. And also as a song the melody ended. Hey, went all the way down there, which is Ah, pretty low note. So that was my range. So the question is, Are these is this a nice area between these notes for you to sing? Because maybe that's a better range for you, or that's a better range. And this really comes down to experimenting with your voice. Ah, I'm gonna play that same song again in a different key just so you can hear how, where the top note is now and how it feels in the voice. Let's see, uh, now that is my lowest note, and that's my highest note. Again, this is Ah, a moment of experimentation for your voice is here what works for you know. Another thing to consider is that there is the top note that you can sing, and there's also what we call like the power notes or certain notes in your voice, which can really cut through and have a more intensity than other notes. And sometimes there are only a semi tone apart. Maybe you saying that note and wow, it just boom. It cuts through everything else in the mix and you go up here, which is higher. So you think it may be? Ah, logically, it should be a bigger note, but your vocal chords may begin to constrict too much and may not sing out the same way. So this is, Ah, fun part about singing and writing songs, discovering your voice and your you know your physical voice as well as your emotional song writing boys. So you want to try to be aware where your power notes are on your voice. Another thing to consider this. Ah, little more abstract. But, ah, you may have heard of the terms chest, voice and head, voice and journey When people saying they have a one, your vocal cords work in a couple different areas. So if I'm in my chest, voice singing, I'm singing down here. Uh, and after a certain point, I'm not able to sing any higher. Uh, and I get that lovely cracked note like I may 16 or 15 year old going through something, but I'm now have to go into my head voice, which is could be called a falsetto and about in that range. Sometimes there's a few notes that in your voice may not sound well. Some people transition from chest voice ahead voice very smoothly. Other people don't. It's is something you want to be aware of. So if there's a lot of action in your melody around, just a few notes, if you're melody is doing this, you don't want these notes to be where the transition between your head voice and chest voice are. There's something to be aware of now, as you know why, as we have been talking a lot about the Roman numerals, if you write a song in one key by using the Roman numerals, you can transposed to other keys. And maybe best first, to figure out what key would like to transpose to and then, by using the Roman numerals, transposed the cords, and you will find that your voice, after hearing the courts a couple times, will naturally gravitate to the new key. There's one last thing I want to talk about, a boat playing in different keys, and that is comfort zone, with the very first thing I said about why playing different keys is because it may be easier to play in the key of C and in the key of F sharp your hands will have, ah, easier time moving around. But sometimes I personally like to be challenged. And the reason why is it forces me to look at new ways and to hear things differently. So if I'm up was playing here and I'm in this key, you know, this feels nice. An easy I know. I just got to play these white keys or if I'm in G major, I know. I just have to get that one black note I can get stuck in doing the same sort of, ah, composing ideas. Now, if all of a sudden I am here, Okay, now I've got to be thinking, Well, uh, what notes are good and sort of the tricks that I may I have another songs may not work as well, so it's going to get you out of the comfort zone, make you think force of different ways to ah, to write your songs. This is not for everybody. And it could be a little slower, little more tedious. But if it forces you to think differently, I think, uh, within different boundaries. And not it can spur creativity in a way that you may have never thought before, so it was worth trying out. All right. That is why we have different keys. See the next lesson? 26. 25. Minor vi chord: Welcome back, everybody. It is time to move forward in our harmony lessons. And ah, until this point, we have just been dealing and playing with the 14 or five course. This key of C one half his four five is G now in most popular music today, and I really I do stress in most popular music today is written in for chord progressions, which means you have four different cords which are sort of used, and they're sort of jumbled around in different ways. Sometimes other chords have thrown in, but it is amazing how many songs just use these four courts by these four chords. I mean these four Roman numerals and free them. You already know the one chord major, the four chord major five chord major, and there's another one. The last one is the six minor to find the six minor I'm starting in 123456 And as we know from our Roman numerals in a major scales, six is a minor chord. So if I'm in C major and I kind of 6123456 it is a minor. So what, we're looking at is groups of C major F major G major, A minor in the key of C Ah, I'm gonna try some other keys in a second, But first, let's just listen to this. I'll just pay progression one minor 645 Just get a listen to it. You've probably heard that progression 100 times. Now these courts can really is. It's kind of crazy. It is really a mix and match situation. Here. I'll do 1459 or six next time. Impression. Maybe you know the part of the song. I will then change it. Going back up. That is nothing but four chords. So I suggest you just take this for court. Play around with them in different ways, and they don't need to go in order. You could go one minor, 615 for for minor six. There's 100 different variations, and it's it's fun to try. And, um, let me just played in a different key, too. So we got a bit more clarity. Let's say in the key of D major, which looks like this. Uh huh. 1234 is a major 12345 is a major. We know six is a minor. 123456 b minor and to make our mind record 1231234 Eso There's Accords five six. So if I did that same progression that I was doing in C one for 65 would sound like this one. I'm sure you've heard a number song for that. That compression. Now the matter. Six Chord I've often wondered why isn't so popular why it doesn't work so well in pop songs . And, um, I put it this way. The major chords are all very strong, and they're happy where they are or they definitely want to move as we've talked about. So if you're in the key of C major, there's one. It's solid. It's the home. It is where your song start and end. Most likely, the four is strong. It kind of must have moved back to the one and the five Chord G. It wants to go back home. That's just the nature off that type of cord. Now the minor six court. It kind of sits in a funny place in between because it's kind of very soon it a home. There's only one no different between an A minor and a C major. These here's C major. If I take this G and I put it down there at the name Minor chord one. No difference because of that. It feels a bit like home, but it is moving somewhere, but it's not a dramatic motion. So it ends up working well as a way to elaborate and to make your melody maybe a bit stronger, because you could repeat a melody. But have the core change. Let me make something up. Um, let's say typical would be a 145 progressions. 114 five. So here's a melody With that, Um no. If I add a minor six instead of playing the sea twice. If I did, the second isn't a minor. You have very common pop music progression, and it works over that same melody up due. That melody won't one more time. And just with the CCF G, I'll put in the a minor. The a Minor worked as a passing chord to get to F. It also works as a passing tour according to get to G. It's a great court. It kind of glues everything together. So I'm going to include a list off the minor, six chords and the different keys, and I just suggest you start playing around with him. You'll be amazed to hear 100 or 1000 different songs that you already recognise when you start playing through these four chord progressions, so onward. 27. 26. F maj - D maj: everybody. Welcome back in this lesson, we're gonna be doing a little more on the 145 minor six chords and showing you some different variations and playing things in different keys. Why we doing that? Well, as I've said, these a very common core progression and I think would be good for you to hear it in different variances. And what I've done to make it a bit more fun is I've actually done a multi track rubbed on guitar and piano just to help you hear how it sounds when it's a bit fuller and that also may inspire you in your song writing. So what I have is not going to play three different progressions in two different keys. So we're going to start by playing in a major. And the first progression is 14 mine or 65 Here we go. All right. This progression also in a major, is going to be 16 That's a minor 645 Here we go. - Okay . Our last progression in a major, this is gonna be fast, and it's gonna be 415 minor six. Now, I'm not starting in the one core, but That's still we're still in the key of a because our home is a major and it's on a major scale. All right, now we're going to go over to F Major and the first progress we're going to do again, we're not gonna sort of one. It's going to be a six minor 6451 So we started in the minors in the minor and we end up back in the major. Here we go. - This one also in F major, we're not going to start in the one we're going to start of the five and lead back to one. On the progression is five minor 641 The last progression is going to be one. Find her 645 Okay, I hope you've enjoyed hearing these different variations in different keys. Try playing along. Try playing in your own keys. And, of course, the most important thing is to experiment. Play along, play different rhythms anything you can do to expand and to increase your level of creativity and to inspire you to create your own song. All right, next lesson 28. 27. Going beyond the 4 chord progression: Okay, everybody, welcome back. Today we're going to look a little deeper and accords and we're going to start talking about other chords you can use besides the 145 in the minor. Six. So take a look at this chart here, and we have our major scale all the way keys. And as you can see, I now have a Roman numeral for each note. Okay, now what we've done so far as we've been playing with the one before the five in the minor six. But there are other notes in the scale the second, the third and the seventh. And we can also make cores off of these. And when you make any cords off, based off a note from the major scale, these air called diatonic chords or also scale tone triads that there's different ways to describe this. But basically, we're now going to just enhanced from what we've already done with a 1456 So if we look at this right here, we've got the two, and it's a lower case, which means it is a minor chord, and the note is a D. So if we look here, here's a D were in C major, which means it's only white notes. This is the D minor chord. Now, this works very well when you're playing in C major, as does E minor, which is right here The third note of the same thing. If we count up the 71234567 we get this here. Now this is get the 567 It's also got this other little dot right here. What that indicates that is diminished. We talked about that before. Diminished chord. You count. 123123123123 That is a diminished chord and since it started to be, it's a be diminished court. Now what I want to talk about is you now have a whole set. Of course, you know of seven chords that work together in the key of C major C major d minor e minor F major G major A minor be diminished on. We're back to see again. Now these different chords have different sort of feelings. As we know the one is a home five wants to go home before is kind of restive, and although it can create motion. The minor six, as we said, is similar to the one now these two chords D minor, which is the two minor and three minor e minor. They kind of sit in a I don't know. I guess it's a a gentle spot as well. They want to move a bit, but he also kind of sound nice as they are. So if I'm playing a song just kind of work eso What I want you to do now is just to experiment with playing with these different chords. So maybe, um, make a progression. Make it Let's keep with the four bark progressions and try incorporating different chords that you know now it could be a 12 minor 30 I don't know Minor six two minor. How does that sound? Uh, I like it. Maybe you do. Maybe you don't. But I will say that when you're writing your melodies these groups of court all work very well together. The diminished chords a bit funny. Ah, use it. Use with caution. But the diminished court kind of functions like a five chord look. It shares these two notes. Five chord kind of wants to go home. Diminish Court also wants to go home. May want to go to home up here. That sounds kind of nature than again. Um, there are no specific rules. I should say the rule is does it sound good in the future lesson? I'm going to be giving a whole bunch of different chord progressions that used these this group of court. And since we're using Roman numerals, this technique will work on any scale. So if I'm in the key of D major 12345671 Well, there's my one. There's two minor three minor. Four major. Five major, six minor, seven diminished back to one. All I've done is I've I made a note, skipped a note, play the next note in the scale, and I've based it on the court tones, and this works in any key. If I'm in the key of F sharp major, there's gonna look a little crazy. But there's your notes. 123456711 major. Two minor. Three minor. Four major, five major, six minor. Seven Diminished on. We're back to one. Use this knowledge wisely and you as I said. In the future lesson, I'll be giving more examples about how do I use all these different courts and how they have been used in ah songs over the centuries? Okay, I hope that wasn't too much for you on to the next lesson. 29. 28. Minor chord tones: All right, everybody, welcome back, and we're going to continue with using diatonic chord tones. Now, in the last lesson, we talked about major scales. Now, this works for minor scales to take a look at this. Okay, so here we have a minor scale attacked a minor scale. Ha ha. Now, the difference is, as we know, the A minor scale like this C major scale has no sharper flies. It's all white keys. But what happens is the one is no longer major. The order is deferred. So if we look at it from the beginning one a minor is now a minor chord to the second note is B, which is be diminished. The third note C is now major the fourth this minor. That would be a D minor. Five e minor six is now Major F major. The seven is now Major G major, and then we're back toe one minor. It looks like this a minor be diminished. C major d minor, e minor, F major, G major and back to a minor. Now, like with the major chord with the diatonic chords and major same in minor. These group of chords, sound and work well together. So if you have a melody that is an a minor that all kind of works now, of course, you will have some conflicts. We're gonna talk about that in other lessons. But you should know that these cords, what kind of work? Together, they sound quite nice. They harmonize together now, as in the same in major the whether you're in a minor, a flat minor G minor f sharp minor, etcetera. This same pattern of one minor, one diminished to major three minor, four minor, five major, six major, seven back to minor one that works. Take a look at this. Now we're in C minor now. We've gone over this earlier. C minor looks like this. And like an a minor, you build a cord off of each note. You play a note, you skip a note, play note, skipping note. So that is one minor in the C minor. How to go to de mine to the second now to go to the two Dementors scored. Everything moves up of one note in the scale. So goes to hear my question here De diminished c minor. I need a minister, and you just keep moving up that scale E flat major F minor, G minor, a flat major, the slot major c minor. And that's why when I played Mary had a little lab. Uh, that's why these cords work together with the melody. Because if I play the diatonic chords in minor and I play the melody and minor it works, so five mix and match. It doesn't really work so well or sounds horrible. So I'll ask you to do the same thing that you did with the majors. Just play around with these groups of minor court. Pick your key, picked the key you would like to work in, and ah, discover, hear what sounds good to you? Experiment. The only true judge is if you like it if it sounds good to your ears. The reason why I'm presenting these rules is to give you a guideline, a baseline of what has been successful in the past. It's up to you to learn the rules is up to you to break the rules. See the next lesson 30. 29. What is 6/8: Welcome back, everybody. Let's take a little break from the cords you've had a lot of court work on, and I hope you are enjoying it. But there are some other aspects of music that I like to run over, and one thing that we have not really spoken about at all is rhythm. And specifically, what I want to talk about today is about time signatures. I've said nothing about this at all, except to imply that when we've been going through core progressives, we go in four bars of four beats. Now those four beats are what we call the 44 time and what 44 time actually means. In one measure, we play four beats, and each of those beat receives 1/4 note. How work specifically the upper note is how many beats and the lower note is what type of beat gets that beat. So if the lower note is a four, it's 1/4 note. If it's an eight, it's an eighth note. If it's a two, it's 1/2 note. Almost all the music that you listen to that has been written in the last 100 years is in 44 time I would say probably 80 85% of it. But the road some other time signatures, the most common would be 34 in 68 Now 34 really again hasn't been used much in a long time . It is what would be called waltz music. 123123 That is Ah, 34 Beat. But there is another time signature, which is quite common, and I want to talk about it a bit today, and it is 68 now. Here's how 68 works. You have six beats in a bar, but each beat is subdivided into two groups of three. So instead of, for example, in 44 where your grooves air like 12341 and two entry like, for example, the 44 drumbeat. Everything is divided into groups of two, which can then be subdivided into smaller groups of two. In 68 the bigger groups are divided into groups of three. So in the 68 you're Heavy Beach aren't beat one and beat 4123456123456 to 3 on drums. Sounds like this. There's a lot of popular songs that having written in 68 some of the biggies like We Are the Champions as Queen Light My Journey, How You Can Mend a Broken Heart by the Brie BeeGees I think out Green did it to Norwegian Wood. A pack. A lot of Beatle songs are Ah, old darling, that was another big beetles to that was in 68 lot of Motown tunes from the sixties were written in 68 and but I want to do right now is just play a couple songs in 68 just to introduce you to the field. And once you hear that, you're probably going to go back to a bunch of the music that you already know into. Oh, hey, that songs in 682 I didn't realize that till now. So, um, the basic subdivision, as I said, are 123456 like 1234561 So I'm in a flat because of the sun. Want to. So here's a song. It has a swinging feeling. - Swazi , her 123456 want to kind of rolls along versus 44 which is more like one, even though the eighth those are the same. 123 Another big tune is Ah, we are the champions. Let's see if I can do this like 145 68 Love it. 31. 30. Relative Keys: Okay, welcome back. And once again, we're going to talk a bit more about cords, but this time in a different way. And I'm really what they want to do is to clarify a term that I've used a couple times and , ah, explain it once more, as well as give you some tips and how to use this for your song writing techniques and to give you some tips and tricks on how to expand your song writing palette. How to help you develop songs in different ways. So major and relative, minor or concurrently, minor in relative. Major, let's take a look at this. Okay? Have a chart here with the major and the relative minor. So, as we know in a major scale, the first note of the scale is a major and you build a major court off it. And if we count up to the 6123456 is a minor chord and we call that the relative minor because it's quite closely related to this, as I showed you before. The difference between C. Major and his relative minor a minor is one note. This is the same everywhere. Here's d major role to have minor Take this note. I put it here. Ah, that's a B minor, which is the relative minor of D Major. Now this works also in anyone if I know if I in the key of E and I want to know what the relative minor is it c sharp A. Becomes f sharp minor, etcetera. But there's also worked the other way around. So look at this now as we went over in the minor Roman numeral part. If I'm in a minor dean, one note is a minor court and it goes up diminished. Major, minor, minor, major major. Then we're back to one minor. So the relative major in a minor you account of 3123 and it's a major. I'll get to why we're doing this in the second. I just want to clarify. We know what's going on now. This works in any key again. So if I'm in c minor on, I know that my scale and see minors. 123123 I'm going to make a major chord because in a minor scale, the three chord is major. Those are my notes because those are the notes in C minor scale. Okay, Hang out with me. I'm getting somewhere with this. This also works anywhere. If I'm injury mine and I want to know the relative major, it's b flat de miner is f This goes on and on now here is what is the same between a relative major and a relative minor versus transposing. If I'm in the key of C on I had my song and I'm using the scale notes from C major. I use the cord from C major on most importantly the home IHS See Courtis, See, my melody wants to go whole. If I'm in a minor which is the relative minor of C Major. My home is now a my home court is a minor. My melody is in a minor feel but I'm using the same notes as C major. A minor c major. It's the same note but the whole Mr So because of this you can do some pretty neat things. What I like to do and thousands of other songwriters also do is when you're going from one section of a song to another, you may switch to the relative major or relative minor. So, for example, I have my song. Let's just say I'm have a song and see the chord changes are Let's say it's C D minor F. And, um, I have a smell. It e very simple. Okay, so I've established This is the melody. This is the verse. My home is there now let's say in the course, I wanted to be with somber a bit more dark. So I am going to choose to play the course in the Relative Minor and C major. That's a minor. I could still use all these same name, the same notes they will work, but my home is different. I want to get to in a minor. I want to get to an A, and my chord changes are going to relate to a minor things that would bring me back to this home. So let's just say my chorus, it's just going to have to court that's gonna have one minor and a four miners D minor. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to play this melody major, and then I'm going to go to the course and minor the relative minor, and I'm going to play a melody there and then go back to the verse just like that. You hear the different tone centers and the difference it of impact. And also, this really helps define the different parts of your son. Okay? - Yeah , etcetera. So you heard when I went to the a minor? There's a dramatic change in the tone of the song. I feel much heavier on. I want to resolve things there versus the verse where the melody wanted to go here to a C. Now, this also works using a relative major for a different part of the song as the minor, for example, I choose you going to do it in a different key just so you can hear things. Let's say I'm gonna play in the key of D minor moving my verse. So I got D minor G minor, a minor. I'm going to use as my chords as my verse and the chorus. I'm gonna play in the relative major 123 It's good, B F major. And maybe I'm just gonna do an F in a C one on the five. Now I'm doing this arbitrarily. But just to give you ideas and what I really want you to do here is the difference in tone centers. So here is my verse. And then I'll tell you when I get to the course, hopefully, we'll just hear it. Um huh. - So again, this song, the verse was in minor and then up to the major for the course. It was the same melodic Notre, both parts. But the tone centers were different. So that is how I use and how thousands of other people use the relative minor to help break your song up into give different parts. I hope this is being of help to you. 32. 31. Transposition: Welcome back, everybody. I want to clarify what I was talking about in the last lesson in case there's any more confusion, especially about the concept of transposing or transposition, also known as a key change. What we're doing in that last lesson, we were not transposing we were changing tone centers By choosing the harmonic minor or harmonic major relative to what we were already playing in C. Major, I switched to the relative time of a minor. I'm in G minor. I switched to the relative major B flat Major transposing is different when you transpose also known as a key change what you were doing. You are taking a collection of notes and chords and you're moving everything up or down at the same amount. So if I am in here, see Major and I want to transpose to C Sharp major, I am going to transpose everything up a semi tone that's going to go here that's going to go here. So if I'm in C major on, I want to transpose to C Sharp Major. All of my notes are going to go up the same amount. C two c Sharp is a semi tone all my notes Cup of semi tone Concurrently, if I had a melody in C transpose to see Sharp, every note in that melody will go up a semi tone to up a semi tone thes three that's going to go for seven tone that's going to go percent Daytona scope. A semi tone. So see, Major, I transpose a c sharp Major d major. I heard this sort of modulation before modulation means to change also to, ah, different key. And I can also transposed down everything down to semi town. So, uh, why do we transpose well, like I was talking about earlier? When we're talking about key changing, it can help your voice to fit in a better place. I can help make it an easier key for you to play in. It was a very, very common technique until really about 10 or 15 years ago. You listen to any sort of the sort of the classic power ballad from the eighties and nineties, Mariah Carey or sell India. All that songs would have a key change at the end of the songs who sort of really drive it home, make it more exciting, making more powerful. So the difference. Relative major and minor. Same notes in the melody, the tone center changes and a transposition. Everything changes the melody, notes, the cords and the home tonal centre. That's all I want to say, but transposing for now. I hope that cleared up any questions you may have had on the subject. Okay, on to the next lesson. 33. 32. Common chord progressions - Major: All right, everybody, welcome back. This is going to be Ah, hopefully a pretty fun lesson for you. So what? I want to talk about his groups of common chord progressions. Now there's many, many different progressives. We've talked about quite a few of them already. So we're really what I want to do is sort of amalgamate them. And I thought about this for a while, and initially I was going to go stylistically disable. This is gonna be a rock progression that is a pop progression that is an R and B progression, etcetera. But really, at this point in, ah, music styles and how the music world is going, I don't really see much of a difference for progressions and the style of music. What really seems to matter more is the performance style. If it's a country song, then you're going to be using certain vocal technique certain instruments of it's an e. T m piece. You're going to be again using this sort of the styles and the techniques of that musical style. If it cdn going to using a like, you know, electronic instruments, it's ah, death metal song that it may be just very heavy, distorted guitar type things. So at this point, it's really I think it's a mix and match. You grab the progression, you want your eight, the song you want And then this style is really up to you. So wanting to do, I'm going to play a series of progressions based on major keys. Ah, they're going. I'm going to change the keys. I'm going to change the tempo and change the style. But again, it's all mix and match. So enjoy. Here we go. Song number one In the style of a very famous Beatle song Song number two Here we go Song number three um song number three We're gonna do this one in 68 song number four A little faster So number five little country Uh , song number six Song number seven Ah, Progression of a raid And the last one This is gonna be long is actually going to be an eight bar progression. I'm gonna do it four times, Which a little long. Here we go. Okay. Now we're gonna try this in minor 34. 33 Common chord progressions - Minor: Okay, everybody, welcome back, and we're going to continue this time. We're gonna go through some very common progressions in minor keys, as you will be able to see on the downloadable pdf that I've included. Wherever there is a chord that is red, that means that is the tonic of the songs. So not all the songs start on the tonic, although in the minor, they usually do. Anyway, here we go Song number one, which I think is pretty pretty similar to an Adele song song number two. And I'll say that Ah, the f will have to Cord will have two measures. - Song number three. Kind of like this one that has a nice moving base to it kind of goes up and down in steps. - Song number four. - Next one. This is gonna move quickly. - This north was a nice climb to it. - This one, we will have two bars of F at the end. - And this last one 35. 34. Tips, Exercises, Experiments with Chords Progressions: Okay, that was a lot of court. So the question is, what you gonna do with all these course you have a lot of cords going in different places. Here's what I suggest. And this is just a couple little exercises or just some tips or advice for you. First of all, what I really want to do is when you're listening to a group of these cords, I just played, you know, for a hum along with its sing along with its play along with that of the piano. However, you feel comfortable and you can just repeat from the lesson that I had. Another thing you can do is play alone with accords yourself and say, There's a progression you like. You like that? Ah, there was the miners, J. D. Well, you know what? There's many different software programs on your computer. Just search on Google. There's many different free software to help you record, and you could record a progression you like and play along with it, you know, loop with 100 times if it excites you. And, uh So, for example, if I have that progression, you know, things I will do is maybe I'll just find I'll play one note of my other hand and sort of see how that sounds World the cord. So if I, um, etcetera etcetera, you could Ah, maybe just make a little group of notes that you like e worked. I'm just playing around the ideas that you play around. Now another thing is, where do these notes wanna go? I mean, if I'm here, I've got my melody Now My court fell here When here went down there Now two things that could happen Melody three things could happen The melody could go up The melody could don't go down The melody could say the same I'm gonna try all the melody going up That sounds good Doesn't really clash I'm gonna try the melody going down It also works melody the same This one kind of clashes And again though it is up to your ear To me, these sounds clash And the reason why is because thats note here, This don't sound so nice together. But again, that's my opinion. Maybe that is the effect you're going for. But it is important thing. Lester cords move around. Where does your melody want to travel? now, another thing you could do is sing a malady. Sing something that you like something you've written or something you've heard. And, um, play around with the cords to see which cords work and maybe, ah, the core progression. You have kind of clashes. Maybe your voice will begin to change to fit to the cords. Or maybe you will change the cord to fit to your voice. All of this is experimentation. All of this expansion palette gives you more options in your song writing and one final word to get back to the theory in those downloadable pdf from the last two lessons. Whatever key you are in, generally speaking, the notes in that scale are going to work with the cords. If you are in the key of F major and you look and you can figure out Major is thes notes on the cords are like this. Generally, these notes are gonna work. So use all this knowledge I experiment, play around, have some fun, see the next lesson 36. 35. What is Melody?: Hello, everybody, Welcome back. Today we're going to talk about a different part of song making. We're going to talk about the melody now. The melody is something that is seemingly in many ways so obvious that it's even hard to talk about. So I'm going to go to the very basics and talk about what is a melody. What a melody is. It's a single line of notes that you can sing or play. Also, it's the most identifiable part of a piece of music. It's the melody. It's what you sing along to. I mean, it contains rhythm. It contained notes. You can put lyrics to it. Um, it's also this a little more abstract. It is generally the top line of the harmonic motion, meaning whatever cords you have, what is to the right of it. Up here is the melody, um, years of melody, the That's the melody. There's the cords that go with it. Notes can repeat. They can hop all over the place. Theo, that's a melody. This is a melody, not maybe a great melody, but it's the lyrics or strong. It could be a fantastic melody. Um, one thing when you're writing your songs. As I said before these cords, these groups, of course that you've been using are interchangeable there like a little blocks that can be moved around. It's really your melody, and the words that go with it are what is going to make your song identifiable? Consider this legally, you cannot copyright a Siris of chords, but you can copyright a melody. So this really is how humans think, how they hear how they identify it, so that it doesn't seem like much for melody. But if you put cords to it Big Bob Dylan tune Okay, we're going to, ah, continue in the next lesson and just talk about little bits of components about the melody and ah, onward. 37. 36. Suggestions on Melody Writing: how to write a melody. Well, this is a very, very, very subjective conversation. First of all, just to preface is this is a This course is on the theory of music not on how to write music. How to write your beautiful melody. What I'm giving you is the tools, all the information for which basically all the beautiful melodies All the fantastic songs have been written. It's the cords, it's the scales. It's the structural aspects. How chords and notes work together, different rhythmic feels. When you're making your melody, All I can say is use the information I've given you and, uh but I'll give you some tips anyway, because I feel guilty, not just give me at least some opinions about what I have about what makes a great song. Um, and what a lot of it is about is about balance and just how it presents itself. First of all, you need to consider how is this going to sound in your voice? So you need to know what your voice is like. How high can you sing? How low can you sing? So you have to consider the scale in the key. Now, once you've done that. You know a lot of this is gonna be. But experimentation. Consider this versus generally have Mawr lyrics. Have mawr syllables have more musical notes than choruses. Ah, the reason being is, Jimmy, this is where you're trying to tell your story, and then you sum it up in the course, so just sort of consider that maybe when you're doing your verses, uh, gets the more information in there now they can be short knows they could be repeated. Generally, universe, the melody is not as memorable. You were trying to get at the information, so you may have more repeated notes. That's a pretty decent verse, because if your notes are moving around a lot and you're trying to tell your story quickly , things can get jumbled up now in the choruses where you have a more of a grandiose have bigger jumps and talking about jumps, this is really ah, something that is a good exercise to have all your songs. At some point, it's good to have some larger interval jumps in your song. Now I mean that the real winners are are the fifth and the octave, uh, many memorable melodies have this sort of jump in them at some point, it captures the year. It makes it fresh. It's exciting. It's uplifting. Um, I mean, sort of The classic Somewhere over the Rainbow has huge jumps. In that song starts in an octave. There's a six. There's 1/4 jazzy version. Sorry, big jumps all over it on that You don't have jumped all the time because it does get to be very challenging to sing. And often it is a balance between big notes, big intervals and then mawr constant, smaller interval notation. Ah, good one with the fifth is Ah, the theme to The Flintstones. I hope I'm not dating my I'm sure I'm dating myself. Job, my boy. You remember that bomb bomb? Excuse me, That's not a good key for me. See, that's the magic of transposition right there. If it's a bit low and ah, some other things that consider is the use of rhythm in your songs again. You wanna have sort of different rhythms and different points. Leave spaces. Consider that when you sing a song lyrically should sound similar to how you speak, so your emphasis. It's the joke. It's emphasis, not emphasis So if your song, its emphasis emphasis thing, is instead of emphasis. And if your melodious emphasis emphasis emphases works more than on buses. Um, I'm sort of roofing at this point, but these are just things to consider. How does this deliver? How does it fit in your voice? So I would experiment with big jumps balance with smaller intervals. I think this really makes for a solid song, and again, it's very subjective. Take my advice, use it and then throw it away for just if it doesn't work for you. Okay, let's continue the conversation in the next lesson. 38. 37. What is a Hook?: What I want to talk about now is the term hook. What is a hook? I think the best way to put it is it's a bite sized piece of a melody. I can be a vocal, lyrical thing. It could be an instrumental part, but it's just a small little nugget of music that's very recognizable. It's repeatable. Ah, it can happen again and again throughout the song. It could be part often part of the chorus. It's often what makes a song appealing issue. Really, it's used to catch the ear of the listener. No, your song. I'm not saying it has to have a hook, but it sure is going to help because it's going to draw people in. It's going to give them something that they can latch onto that they it's going to have them remember the song. It's ah. Often the hook is something that you sort of hum along or seeing. And as I say, it's often part of the course It could be the entire course could be the melody. The entire course could be a hook or ah, or part of it. Um, for example, the Leonard Cohen tune Hallelujah, um up and back and up in back. That is really the hook of the song, and it's part of I'll play the chorus and then you'll see which part is the is the hook. So the entire chorus as the hook contained within it you would say that this is the hook. This'll It'll part here not so much, but it does complete the horse. Another hook can also be an instrumental part. It could be something that grabs your attention that comes back and repeated through with song. Ah, walk this way. Ah, Aerosmith and Run D M C. It's kind of in a court of the end. The sample that they use is very distorted. So it sounds more like a something like that. Um, but that doesn't really matter. We're talking. But what hook is, you know when you hear that. Oh, it's that song. You haven't heard any lyrics yet, But you know, while actually you know, in this case it could be Run DMC or Aerosmith because a Run DMC sampled the hook from Walk this way. So you want your hook to be simple enough that it's easy to ah, repeat, but not so simple that it becomes a knowing and mundane. So it's having slight variations can help in a hook, but still the nugget, the essence of it, is something that is recognizable and repeatable. 39. 38. Techniques for finding a melody: Okay, Welcome back. Mawr on the melody. So as you may have noticed, I'm a bit reluctant to tell you exactly how to write a melody because ah, a melody It is from within you. So I'm couldn't really do is give you the information The theory that dumb We've been discussing all these courses as well as give you some ideas. So one thing I do at times is ah, When I want to write a melody I will start by creating a chord progression, you know, And then I will record the progression. Then let it just play back and forth. And I can just sort of do what I want with it. I can hum along with it, sing over it I could just noodle round on the keyboard or another instrument until I find melodies that I like. And then I could just sort of work on those and hone in on. So we're going to do now is just show you an example of that. Here's the progression going to do. It's ah, I've decided to do it in the key of G S. O G. Has the one sharp all the white knows except your F r f sharp And then these are all the sort of chords that I could be using. I am going to use. Here's my progression. It's going to serve the one chord. Then I'm gonna go to the minor three, which is a B minor. Nothing. I'm gonna climb up to the sea. Then I'm going to go down to the A minor, which is the two minor chord, and then finish it off with the five court and I'll probably do some five sevens. So what I'm gonna do first is record it. Ah, it's gonna sound like this. You want to place a few times dis looping. What I'm actually gonna do is record that loop and then play along with it. Okay, I have just recorded it, and we're not going to play along. So what I'm gonna do is I'm just going to listen, and I'm going to try to find two melodies, and I personally like to start by playing simply and then adding to it because I haven't really thought about lyrically what I'm gonna do. I'm really just trying to create a melody now, which later I will then put words to And we have a word. Stewart able probably once again alter the melody. The rhythm will probably change the note, etcetera. But at this point, I'm just trying to find something. Find something I like. So here we go. I can't stop. So it looks like, you know, what I really like was this And then I sort of repeated, but in a different note, I kind of like that so I could go back, listen to what I've played and then, you know, experiments. So I go back like how that works. But maybe I collected what they hopped up to here kinda like that. And then I Was that a minor? I kind it kind of like how this sort of fell around two. And yet that was that when I talked with the leaps. That's kind of nice. The Buddha. So what I have here what I've done in this I'm thing, that I've just improvised this as I was playing and talking, I have a combination of simple little little jumps, not too much motion, and then the occasionally nice big jump kinda Lil's up gives in this case, it gives it the melody sort of ah ah launch into a different section. So this is sort of my thinking process. When I'm creating a song now, I'm not. This works for anything. Just because I'm playing this very sort of, ah milk commercial type, uh, music that it's not the result of the song. It's the process that I'm going through So find from core Do like looped Um, Play along, Sing along, Hum along Finally elect Change the cords change the melody changed the key. It's all about experimentation. You've got the tools. Make yourself a great song. Okay, next lesson. 40. 39. Intervals with Song Examples Pt. 1: Welcome back, everybody. What I want to do with this lesson, it's just to give you a large number of examples of how songs were written specifically, would have want to do is show examples of intervals and how powerful intervals are in defining what melodies air like. Because I think the more you think about the intervals and little intervals, big intervals gives you an impact, a boat, the power and effective different songs. Because I can sit and give you words and metaphors and descriptions and uplifting and solemn and passionate whatever. Ah, vote different songs. But I think ah, just by listening is a much more powerful example. So what I'm gonna do, I'm gonna give you a whole series of musical examples, just little snippets of them that all demonstrate the different intervals that start the songs. So we're going to start. We're gonna do songs that ascend and descend. So let's just start. The first song is going to be the theme from Pink Panther, which is based on the first interval of minor second descending. Another minor second, the theme from Jaws Ah, the underlying pattern is just a semi tone ascending descending, which Also, if you went up a couple octaves, recognize it Joy to the world. Search for the descending semi tone forward. A different key. The most common motion and intervals is the tone, and there are tons and tons of songs that that have ascending and descending tones that start and finish their songs. Ah, there's a tone. Um, no. Oh dear starts with two ascending tones. Other direction. Um, there's a tone, Another tone that was a pretty popular song. Minor thirds minor thirds ascending list over that. There's a minor third Spider Man. Ah, here's another mind. Third ascending thes notes may know this song This old Man Children's Classic. In fact, this song is the only melody which is found in every civilisation in the world. Everybody has this minor third descending melody Don't know why Major Third, another very popular one. Ah, summer time continuing on fourth ascending when we got here Now fourth is there's 1/4 Uh uh Oh, wait. Here comes the bride. Yeah, old legs, I It's the ah song that they play at midnight on New Year's Eve And that mind with a church with that fourth line. That music you know that one will actually do. It's this that force. Um, I've been working on the railroad. The tri tone is used very rarely, although there's one piece of music which everybody has heard, which is the theme to Simpson's The Simpsons. And it starts with That's and there's also a, um from the musical West Side Story. Maria. I think that's the tryto. The fifth. Another classic. Um, a lot of instrumental music uses fifth intervals of the beginning, Um, as well as this classic. Here's what Fifth is like. You know, it's also the team's star Superman. But I was gonna play Twinkle Twinkle that when I played earlier theme to The Flintstones all over the place There. Minuet in G. Buy back. You know this one? There's a nice fifth. Okay, I'm going to take a little break and then come back with the bigger intervals. See you soon 41. 40. Intervals with Song Examples Pt. 2: Okay, We're gonna continue with some more songs and intervals after an interval. The fifth, The pickings get quite a bit thinner, so Ah, but here's some songs I found. And just again, this is all Just open up your ears. Thinking of the possibilities. So a minor six way have the theme from the entertainer, which is maybe probably recognize before it starts for two semi tones. And then you get this big minor six Jump under six the ah intro to, um the intro to In My Life by the Beatles. The guitar intro is ah, has a minor six jumping. It is that one. Ah, there was the theme to Love Song, which was a movie from way back with a very famous melody and the melodies hunted like this couple this big leaps a couple big leaves. Okay, we're not gonna go into the major six a little bit bigger. There's a major six and the 1st 1 is a Children's bedtime classic Hush, little baby. Nice major. Six. Interestingly, the little chime sound that ah NBC uses before their TV shows. You'll hear it all the time now, major six. Ah, there is ah one the chorus of Man in the middle. Oh, sorry. The course of man in the mirror. Not Michael Jackson. Song has a descending six to start. The course was very brave, Theo. That course. Ah, minor seventh. There is not much. The only thing I could really find that is recognizable is the theme from Star Trek. The original one. Recognize it? I do. I'm from the generation. Um major. Seventh. Also very thin pickings. Ah, but one of the biggest songs from about 89 10 maybe 15 years ago. A nor Jones tune called Don't Know Why. Uh, the melodies first within major. Seventh. No, major. Seventh is 1/7 Notes of the scale. 34567 Great interval now for the active. We talked about that before, but there are many. The somewhere over the rainbow. Uh, the Christmas song. I just got a major 62. Sorry. With that of a yes, lovely active. So, uh, I hope this was of interest to you to hear all these different intervals. The options are limitless. It is really up to you. Your creativity, what you hear in your ear, what you want to say. So have a great time. And to know that their space for you there are space for you out there. 42. 41. Song Structure: everybody. Welcome back. It is time to talk about a different subject today, something we haven't really talked about yet too much. I have said words like chorus, verse and instrumental parts, but I haven't really specifically talked about song structure. How songs typically layout. So we're going to talk about the different parts of the song because there's a lot of different parts. Not every song has every part, and they, ah, end up sort of becoming blocks, movable blocks. You can put them here and there, and we'll talk about different ways to place him in your song. So take a look at this. Okay, well, I'm just gonna talk with these different parts just to give you some 30. The intro, Generally speaking intro. Start with simple Siris of chords. Maybe there's a drumbeat, really The purpose. This is just a set up. The sound, the groove, the song, what we're going to be expecting. But it doesn't need to be, you know, the guitar strumming along with the drum. Sometimes it's just a series of sound effects, or it could be an instrument playing what will later be the chorus or the melody on an instrument to sort of imply the future. Generally, after that, you get the verse now the verse. What it does, its function, it gives you most of the lyrical information tells you why things are going to happen. What's happening? Who is it happening to, how you feel about those things now? Generally, what happens in a verse is you have a melody in a series of chords, and they repeat their generally eight measures long. They can be shorter, longer, and with each verse the lyrics will change. But the chord progression and the melody will stay the same. One less thing with the verse, I just a little. I always say that it's very important, very first line of the very first verse. You really wanna have something memorable in your lyrical content there, The reason being. It's the first time that your voice is being heard by the audience in the song, and you want to make it impactful. The next section called the Pre Course now pre courses air kind of strange. They don't happen all too much, but there's a fair number of songs that have them. They're also known as a B section. The purpose really is to set up the course. It's sort of drives. You worked as a bridge between the verse and the course, and it's sort of driving up to that course where you're gonna really hit home what your song is about. And generally they're fairly short. The next section is the course now the chorus is where you really drive home the point of your song. Whatever you were saying, whatever you were implying in the verse and in the pre course, it's all ramping up to this point where boom, maybe I love you or whatever message you're trying to get across is that that is a classic , though, Um, so it's less worthy than the verse, uh, and really one having very catchy, melodic something that it's really the take away the song. When people think of a song, they generally think about the hook in the course. That's what they sing along to now. Structurally, uh, lyrically, the lyrics generally say the same. There may be slight variations. The melody and the cords stay the same now, sometimes after the chorus, or it could really happen anywhere. But generally it's after a general. After the second chorus. We have something called the Bridge, also known as the middle eight. It's usually short, and it generally it's quite different from the rest of the song. It's almost like a way to sort of clear the palate little sorbet, uh, between courses and your meal. And, um, again it's its purpose is to sort of break up, give you a new section of new flavor. And generally it sort of occurs later in the song room, I would like 2/3 of way through if it's there at all, um, solos or instrumental breaks again, although it sounds very different. The it is another way to clear the palate after hearing a chorus and a verse being repeated back and forth and back and forth instrumentals or solos. No vocals Or if there are, they be more like background vocals whose things like that, um, harmonically, it could be from the verse for the course. It can really be from anywhere and again. Its purpose is to give the song a little bit of breath. Another aspect is that it could also be instrumental break. It doesn't need to be a guitar, so a piano solo, etcetera, it could be, Ah, you know, a written apart with horns or a synth line, something that is memorable as well. And finally, you come to the O tro of the O TRO. Very similar to the intro it could have. It could just be an identical or a mirror version of the intro. Often you were going to use the same chord structure as the chorus, and it just may be a repeated line. Another little solo. A fade out. Um, again, Its purpose is to take the song home. Put the bed so those are the different parts of a song. Now there's many ways at thes lay out there. There's thousands and thousands of permutations. I'm just going to show you here for typical permutations that air that are using a lot of pop songs again. There's a little code up front here. What we got going on the different parts. Ah, this is a very typical intro verse, pre chorus course verse pre course of this whole section right here has happened twice. Then you get your little break down the bridge will solo and then a couple courses. Boom, Your song is over. Um, there's a very typical version for especially folk music and singer songwriter for scores for scores. Verse course for scores etcetera, etcetera is very more linear, and it's more of a storytelling format. Intra verse chorus verse course. This already verse course is the same as this without the pre courses. And then here, you know, bridge solo, a couple courses. You could have a solo over the course again. Maybe Euro Tro is the same chords as the course. And then this is beginning to be more and more popular where you just knock it over the park right at the top. Start with the chorus. Ah, in this world of Spotify, 30 seconds streaming or you don't get paid. A lot of songwriters are putting the courses read up, top to at least get them 30 seconds into the song when the first verse starts so they can get paid. Um, but it can also be an effective songwriting tool. Excuse my, uh, comment on the its current state of the music industry anyway, there many, many, many different ways to mix us up, and as always, these decisions should be lyric based. How you wish to tell your story is going to dictate what progression you want to use. Okay, The next lesson. I'm gonna take a couple songs and just sort of point out sonically how these things can sound. All right, See you soon. 43. 42. Song Structure music examples: everybody Welcome back Song structure. Yeah, I use all the words yesterday described all the parts So we're going to do now is give you a couple concrete examples. Unfortunately, due to copyright issues and not warning some algorithm or bought to shut down this course, I'm not going to say the names of the songs amusing. You'll should most likely recognize both of them. Ah, they're both classic songs. I'm not saying that I'm a fan of these songs one way or the other, but they're both very effective in giving you examples of what's going on now. The first song I chose is because it has a very wonderful and powerful pre course. Not a lot of songs have pre courses. This one does, and I'm going to point it out. I'm not going to start the song from the beginning, Nor am I going to let it run to the end. Um, so let's just listen to it now. Here it goes. Okay, so this song actually is sort of a double intro. It has a hard instrumental part, and then this is still the intro. Is this kind of shows out to set up the first verse. So this is pre chorus. It's driving forwards. Of course, we're gonna get even bigger comes for now. Yeah, is an instrumental part, not a solo instrumental because it's working out what's been happening for This is the same as the intro leading to the second verse. Yeah, second pre chorus. Same length is the first same effect driving, driving towards scores Course. Okay, now the second song, I have chosen it because it has a fantastic bridge. Middle eight. It's very different from the rest of the song you may have never noticed before just how radically different it is from the rest of the song. So I'm going to talk through this song a little bit now. Okay? This is the intro. Very simple. No drums. Just setting it up. First, I'll be sitting in the car watching the ships are holy, and I want you roll away. First course now known the doctor will be watching the tithe. I left my second birth it in school notice the melody and chords of the same, but the lyrics are different. So I'm just second chorus The same lyric watching the tie. Same court, same melody, sit known a doctor Bay, please. This is the middle eight look different chords, melodies, different field. Everything's remain I can't do what 10 people tell me Todo So guess how may 3rd verse in this long That's it's to go wrong Just make it is not my home Now I'm just sit final course watching the tithe. No, no way. And the O tro instrumental Osho. Nice job, everyone. Okay, I hope this has given you some insight on song structure. And again, it's a mix and match situation. There are many classic ways that songs are structured moving the verses and choruses around and ah, just have some fun with it onward. 44. 43. And just one more thing: Congratulations. You've made it through this course. You are a superstar, and I now think it's time to go to the world and write and write and write experiment, take chances, make mistakes and see where this all takes you. I wish you the best and a one little note. I do have other courses available through this site, and my favorite one is actually something that's very dear to my heart, which is learning how to play music by ear. Ah, you can search for it. It's under my name Michael Emenalo. And again, I wish you the best. And I'll be seeing another courses too. Okay, Have a great day.