Music Theory for Electronic Musicians 3: Extended Harmony | Jason Allen | Skillshare

Music Theory for Electronic Musicians 3: Extended Harmony

Jason Allen, PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer

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53 Lessons (4h 15m)
    • 1. Introduction

      6:02
    • 2. Working With Piano Roll Editor

      4:07
    • 3. Chords Scales Keys Review

      8:02
    • 4. Diatonic Chord Progressions

      7:56
    • 5. Intro To New Harmonic Ideas

      5:19
    • 6. How Modes Work

      7:15
    • 7. History Of Modes

      9:56
    • 8. Ionian Mode

      2:19
    • 9. Dorian Mode

      4:53
    • 10. Phrygian

      4:59
    • 11. Lydian

      5:55
    • 12. Mixolydian

      5:09
    • 13. Aeolian

      1:27
    • 14. Locrian

      6:30
    • 15. About Analysis

      2:17
    • 16. Writing With Modes

      3:04
    • 17. Example Track

      13:37
    • 18. Example Track No. 2

      12:43
    • 19. Pentatonic Scales

      5:44
    • 20. Uses Of The Pentatonic Scale

      5:36
    • 21. Major Pentatonic Scale

      12:35
    • 22. Minor Pentatonic Scale

      5:42
    • 23. Example Track

      11:04
    • 24. Example Track

      12:38
    • 25. Chromatic Mediants

      11:44
    • 26. Track Example

      10:53
    • 27. Example Track

      8:53
    • 28. Too Many Options

      2:09
    • 29. Work Backwards

      13:39
    • 30. Key Mapping Scales

      6:18
    • 31. The Essence Of Scales

      1:18
    • 32. Exotic Scales

      3:03
    • 33. Algerian Scale

      2:27
    • 34. Arabian Scale

      2:13
    • 35. Major Arabian Scale

      1:32
    • 36. Japanese Hon Kumoi

      1:29
    • 37. Japanese

      1:26
    • 38. Balinese Pelog Scale

      1:20
    • 39. Egyptian Scale

      1:10
    • 40. Whole Tone Scale

      1:36
    • 41. Spanish Gypsy Scale

      1:31
    • 42. Hungarian Scale

      1:30
    • 43. Hungarian Gypsy

      1:38
    • 44. Persian Hungarian Gypsy

      1:46
    • 45. Persian

      1:21
    • 46. Chinese

      1:12
    • 47. Oriental

      0:49
    • 48. Neopolitan

      1:54
    • 49. Hindu Scale

      0:49
    • 50. Raga Hanumatodi

      2:20
    • 51. Raga Todi

      2:28
    • 52. Thanks Bye

      1:35
    • 53. SkillshareFinalLectureV2

      0:36
12 students are watching this class

About This Class

This course is an extension of Music Theory for Electronic Musicians, and Music Theory for Electronic Musicians 2, in which we learned how to work with the piano roll editor in a DAW to make harmonies, melodies, and whole tracks. In this class, we expand on those ideas and work with harmonic patterns (harmony) that are richer than just major and minor. 

Production Techniques Through Theory
The most important part of this class is an extensive foray into using these techniques in actual tracks. I'll be creating 9 tracks through this class, right along with you, each using a different technique so you can see exactly how I incorporate it right into my music.

Full Sessions
After each production project, I'll give you the whole session of what I made using the techniques for you to play with. You can download it, expand on it, re-work it, and even release it as your work.

If Your Music is Missing Something, This is Probably It.
If you are finding that you are writing track after track, and while they sound good, there is something they are missing - then this it. You are missing the sense of harmony that professional producers have. In this class, I'll arm you with all the tools you need to produce those tracks just like you imagine them.

Who should take this course?  Anyone interested in producing their own music. This will get you up and running and give your tracks a unique sound in no time.

Structure This course consists of video lectures, which all contain a session in Ableton Live 9. If you are using a different program (or none at all), no worries! This isn't a class on how to use Ableton Live, and the concepts can be applied to any DAW.

Dr. Jason Allen is an Ableton Certified Trainer and a Ph.D. in Music Composition and master of Electronic Sounds. His music has been heard internationally in film, radio, video games, and industrial sound, as well as the concert hall and theater. His 2015 album, Aniscorcia, reaching the CMJ Top20 Charts and radio broadcasts nationwide. In 2014 he was named a semi-finalist for the Grammy Music Educator Award.

He currently is a professor at Augsburg University and the CEO of Slam Academy in Minneapolis.

Praise for classes by Dr. Jason Allen:

  • "Without a doubt the best explanation and east of use that one can get. It leaves you enough room to go explore. The classes go by quickly, so you can be on your way to being proficient. What are you waiting for!"

  • "Amazing - Seriously Loved It! I took all his courses and have to say I'm so happy! Learned loads! Jason is an awesome teacher!"

  • "I have never had any formal training in music at all. Trying to learn all the notes and how everything translated was a serious challenge. After going through this class, Dr. J has totally brought down the barriers. The content was very useful and was easy to grasp for me."

  • "I like these courses because you can get up and running quickly without having to spend hours of time wading through TMI (too much information!). Jason hits the high points but shows you what you need to know. Thanks!"

  • "I've watched many other videos on scales and chords before, however, this one has been the best. I now understand minor scales and chords and even how to analyze songs. It really gave me the confidence to start producing music because I feel like I have some structure and guidelines to follow. AWESOME!"

  • "Clear and Informative - Jason has a clear uncluttered style (with the important dashes of humor) of presentation that is focused on the important key aspects of this course. Recommended for those starting out!"

  • "Dr. Allen does it again with his music theory series. This course really opened up everything I learned from the 1st section, and now I understand more about the composition side of things for music. I highly highly recommend this course to anyone!!! Really opened my eyes to many things I wasn't aware of."

  • "The Best Teacher Ever, who makes you understand the ins & outs of Music Theory by all means without giving what you don't want to know."

Transcripts

1. Introduction: raised fourth scale. All right, that's always really done. So we're gonna look at these in two different ways. That's one way thinking about the first way Anything look kind of similar here. And the way we organize our scale, they're actually kind of lined up to be. That's kind of related to where we get our scales. Not entirely. I mean, a lot of it has to do with math, but there is this idea of music with fears. It's kind of interesting. It's okay. I'm willing to roll with that. Um, so this court progression is cool, but it's not cool enough. The reason is it's not really very Dorian. See how that works with our drums. Not bad. - Hey , everyone, welcome to music theory for electronic musicians. Part three. I am Jason Allen. I will be your teacher over this class, as I was for the 1st 2 classes, Thies to those 1st 2 music theory for electronic musicians wanted to have In my most successful classes, I've heard from thousands and thousands of students that have taking those classes and, um, been making better music because of it just makes me so happy. So I decided to dive in to make 1/3 1 at popular demand. Um, what we're gonna be doing in this class is kind of Ah, I took a lot of the suggestions that I had gotten for 1/3 class and kind of compiled them all together into this one group of things called that I'm calling Advanced Harmony. What people wanted to know about a lot of people wanted to know about modes. We're gonna talk about modes. A lot of people basically wanted to know. How can they do more interesting chord progressions? How can I write something that sounds cooler than just using a You know, like, oh, 145 type core progressions. And there are a lot of things you can do in this class. We're gonna talk about modes I already mentioned that's going to get you out of that. Another thing that I threw in here is a thing called chromatic medians. That's something that if you take a traditional music theory class, you won't encounter until the really advanced stuff. But because I hear it in electronica music all the time, I producers using these things that in the music theory world, we would call chromatic medians. I decide to throw him in here. They're not that complicated. They just don't come up until later into the curriculum. But using those, you'll be able to make much more interesting core progressions. I bet we're gonna talk about pentatonic scales using pentatonic scales and then just a whole section on just working with advanced harmonies. Now that you've got this huge bag of tricks, how do you actually like produce music using all of these things? There's just too many things to choose from at this point. So I'm gonna walk you through a couple of tips that I do while I'm producing to kind of make sense of it all. And then lastly, I'm going give you what a lot of people want to know about. Also is these things called exotic scales. I'm gonna go through, like, 20 or 30 of them in this class. They're just kind of these scales that are around, and you can use to invoke certain feeling certain emotions on even certain geographic areas some time. Also in this class, I'm gonna be making a lot of sessions in a lot of track. So if you are able to user. You don't need to be unable to live user to get the most out of this class. But if you are, I'll be giving you a whole bunch of tracks that I'll be making in this class that use all of these techniques. I think there's nine of them, So nine full sessions and with those you can play around with those you can mix. Um, you can add more to him. You can take away. You can even release him as your own tracks. I don't care. They're totally yours. So with that, uh, let's dive in. I have a lot of great content for you in this class. I hope you decide to take this class and jump in with me. Let's get to work right away. Off we go. 2. Working With Piano Roll Editor: Okay, let's dive in first with a quick little review of the piano roll editor. Now, again, I'm gonna be working here in able to live for this whole class. But this Penarol editor thing works the same, uh, more or less, no matter what a piece of software you're working on. So you could be working on any of the platforms and you'll be just fine for me. I'm going to double click here and then I get this thing. So what you need to do in your software? Whatever you're using is find this thing. It's in there somewhere. It's called a general editor. It might also be called maybe a MIDI grid. Um, could have a few other names, but that's basically what it's what it's called now, by this point in the class, you've seen this 100 times. I'm not going to spend a lot of time on it, but, um, just a super quick little review in case maybe there's been a break since you took the second or first class. Or maybe you didn't take those and he's jumping right into this one. That's cool, too. So remember, we have basically a piano laid out this way, and then it's just kind of hyper stretched so we can see the black keys here in the darker grey and the white keys in the lighter Great. And the colors might be different depending on what kind of a system you're working on. That's fine, but somehow there's gonna be two different colors in this grid. Ah, doctor color in a lighter color. So the darker colors correspond with one of the black keys on the keyboard and the lighter cholera correspond with the white keys and then time flows from left to right. So if I wanted to play some notes, I could do that. And then I hit play. It's maybe a little slower in case that didn't make sense, right? So just reads time going across and then the notes up and down so we could make cords also . And we could make longer notes, so I'm gonna have this one be a little bit longer. Yeah. Uh, let's do that is gonna be a little funky sounding. It's gonna be a little minor. That's okay. Get so I can have This is called Prolific Me having two different tracks of things happening, not track. That's wrong. Word two. Different, um, voices is the musical term we'd use for this. So there's a voice in this higher one and a voice in this lower one. I imagine two people singing we can just build cords and for me to make stuff. I'm just double clicking here. Um, you can also plug it keyboard in and play the notes in. We can move stuff around. We can go up and down and experiment this way by just moving things all over the place. Cool. So just a super quick little get us back on the same page about the general editor. I think that's really all we need to dio, um, I don't want to go into all of the special features of able to him. That's not really what this class is about. Um, we're really gonna be working with notes on the grid here, So that's all we really need to know. Up next, let's talk about our big topic from the second class, which was chords, scales and keys. The second class was really about minor stuff, but in that we talked about different kinds of minor things, and the differences between chords, scales and keys. And so I want to revisit that really quick because it's gonna be really important to us going forward. So off we go to that. 3. Chords Scales Keys Review: Okay, let's talk about chords, scales and keys. So, first court. So we remember that accord, by definition, is a group of notes, usually three or more. Sometimes you could call a a sound that's just two notes accord. But typically it's three or more, and typically it's stacked in these third. So if I'm only looking at White Keys, we have one skip to three skip four and five. So you have this 135 pattern. We're gonna talk more about that in the next video a little bit, so this is a chord. Now, remember, we have two main kinds of chords on then a couple different kinds of courts. Our main kinds of cords are major and minor. The different ones that we looked at were like diminished, so major and minor chords. This is a major chord. Sounds nice and happy. I'm gonna duplicate that and I'm gonna turn it into a minor court. Remember, the only difference between a major chord and a minor chord is this middle note is down by half step. That's a minor court. So let's hear those two. So first the major and then the minor. This is a c major chord. This is a C minor chord. So you hear. Typically, the minor chord had a little bit of a sad sound to it, right. So those records, we could have more notes in our cord. We could go up another step by, we would skip a note and we're only looking at white notes here because we're in a certain key. I'll talk about a second skip one and then we got another one and we could even go afar. So this would be called 1/7. We could add 1/9. We could add 1/13. We haven't really talked about those yet, but if we do that now, we're going to get kind of jazzy sounding chords. Minor. One doesn't sound great. That's good thing you remember. Cords are three or more notes played together, and they could be major or minor, or on some occasions they could be these other ones diminished and augmented is another one . Now, a scale is a sequence of notes that are not played together necessarily that we kind of use as a template. So, for example, I'm gonna write out the C major scale. This okay, here is the C major scale. Now, that sequence of notes we use as like, a template to write music with it can tell us what cords to make. Because it shows us all the notes we need to make chords in our pattern of every other note . Um, but important to scales is that we don't write music very often. Sometimes by just simply playing scales. They don't have a huge purpose for using exactly out of the box. So to speak, like you're not gonna have a melody that sounds like this, right? I guess what I'm trying to say here is, um, we play with scales there, like Plato. Think of scales like Plato. Here we go. So when you pull it out of the little tube or whatever Plato comes in, it's just a blob, right? But it's got everything you need in it. It's the right color. It's the right consistency. It's everything you need. But you gotta shape it. You got to do something with it. Um, you just don't want to just, like, sit and stare at that blob, right? You gotta play with it. So what we're gonna do is we're gonna say OK, Let's maybe repeat that D note. Let's take this note down and active. That's that again. And then that on that, and then throw another note at the end. So now I have used most of the notes of the scale, not all of them. And, um, I've repeated some, but I've organized them in a way that might be musically interesting, more musically interesting than just playing them all in a row, right, so I've made kind of a melody out of it. But the scale also tells us how to make cords, which we're gonna talk about in the next video. Now, the third thing here is keys. So what I'm trying to do here is get into your head the difference between scales, chords and keys. So we know chords are three or more notes played together. Usually, um, cords are derived from the scale, and the scale is derived more or less from the key. The key, basically, this means the scale. Let's go back to the scale hoops. Uh, okay. Now we're back to a C major scale. The key means we're going to do a bunch of chords and a bunch of stuff that all uses that same chunk of Plato like we're gonna work with that same chunk of Plato for an extended amount of time and that's gonna make it all in key. In other words, dropping the Plato analogy for just a minute. What we're gonna do here is all the notes in a certain piece of music or a section of music are going to fit into this template. I'm not going to use any notes outside of this or if I dio, I'm gonna use very, very few notes outside of this, and that means that it's going to be in this key. So the scale kind of works as the template for the key. So, uh, the difference between chords, scales and keys cords are like this smallest in the amount of time that they get. Usually we use a bunch of chords together to make a core progression, which makes it some scales are how we derive our cords. Keys mean that we are sticking to a single scale for an extended period of time. We're going to talk about all of those things in this class, and we're gonna be talking about different kinds of them We've looked at major chords and minor chords and major scales and minor scales, and we looked at major keys and minor keys. But there are a lot more than those two. Look, we've looked at major and minor, but there are a lot more, particularly scales. There are a lot more scales on. We're gonna look at a whole slew of those. They each have a different kind of emotional quality. So it's Some of them get really interesting, actually what they convey, especially historic from a historic standpoint, I'll try to spare you the big history lesson. But, um, there are stories of some of these scales that we're gonna be looking at, Um, being while there's one in particular that at a certain period of time in the history of humanity, if you played that scale ah, you would get your head chopped off like literally, literally, they would say, Hey, that's the devil's scale And so you must be the devil. So we need Teoh. Remove your head from its shoulders because that scale was played. People took this stuff really seriously. Okay, um, let's move on and do a quick review of our diatonic chord progressions this word that you must be sick of by now. And I hope you are, because it's that important quick review of that and then run to some new stuff. 4. Diatonic Chord Progressions: Okay. The diatonic chord progressions. If you've taken my other classes, you've seen me do this literally hundreds of time. Well, not literally, but close to hundreds of times. So let's do it again. Um, just a quick refresher to get it into our head because we're gonna need it a lot. No, I have here a c major scale. So remember, a diatonic chord progression tells us all the cords in a given key, which is another way of saying all the cords that can be derived from a given scale. So in the C major scale, we can build accord on every one of these notes so we could have a C chord, a d accord, an e chord and F chord G chord in a cord and a b chord. And then this is a C again. So that's the same as that note an octave higher. So that means there are seven possible cords that we could make. So how do we make those? We use this thing called the diatonic chord progression from where the word diatonic is a fancy way of saying it's in key. It's a note that's in key. It just means related to the key. So if we say diatonic core progression, who are saying all the chords in the key? So how we're gonna build the first chord is we're gonna take every other note. So there's our 1st 1 We're gonna skip that one. We're gonna add that one. Let's put that there and maybe I'll make it. Ah, a little pinkish so you can just see So the root of the cord just the note that it's named after. I'll leave kind of this darker salmon color and the other notes I'll make lighter like that . Uh, okay. Uh, so we skipping out, we add the next note e never gonna skip a note on the next note, G Okay. And that's our first court. Now let's build one on D So we do the same process. We skip a note, we add that note we skipping out, we add that note. Now let's do it on eat. Be skipping out way. Add that note skipping out. Had that note. Okay, let's go f There's f So we skipped g We add a a We skipped be. We add C Now we're gonna have to kind of double back. You'll see what I mean a second. So g way skip A we add b b we skipped. See, when we go back around over here Piercy again, which we just skipped. So we end up on D. So we need a d here. But let's put an octave higher, which is right there. Okay, here's a So we skipped being We add C. So here's see. Let's jump down to this scene. Same note we skipped E and we add e Let's go up there. Scroll up. Just a hair. Here's B we skipped. See an ad D Let's go down here. There's the d. We just added, but an active lower we Skippy and we add. And now we could go to see again. It's gonna be the same as this, so we know it's gonna be e and G if we want. So let's add e and okay, and that is our diatonic chord progression. So we added all the notes by doing every other note of the scale for every note in the scale, and it makes this pattern right. The pattern is that this ends up being let me change all of these notes to be the same booth there. Okay, I got rid of the light pink thing because it wasn't you couldn't hear it as well. So the pattern that emerges now, remember, we used a major scale. So that means that we have our first chord Is gonna be a major triad are major chord. Our second is gonna be a minor chord Our third is gonna be a minor chord Our fourth is going to be a major chord Our fifth is gonna be a major chord are six is gonna be a minor chord Our seventh is going to be that goofy, diminished chord And our last one is gonna be the same as the 1st 1 I made record. So that is the major diatonic chord progression. Now we could do it for a minor key. Also, remember, the main thing about a minor key is that thief third. Well, then let's let's quickly do it for my go back to my scale. Okay? Now I'm on a major scale. Let's turn that major scale into a minor scale. Remember, we do that by going. We take the third, sixth and seventh down 1/2 step and that gets us to a minor scale. Now we're in a minor triumph. We're sorry. Not a minor. Try out of minor scale and then we do the same process. So we skipping out? We had one skipping out at one. Here's D. So we're gonna add F and G sharp or a flat more accurately, but okay, G B flats. Half C t b. Okay, So here's our minor diatonic chord progression now. So in this sense, the pattern is a little bit different, right? So here we have a minor scale. Let me change the velocities so that they're all the same color and sound a little bit better. There we go. So now we have a minor triad. Here we have our goofy, diminished triad. So that's on the second scale degree. So we call this a diminished too. Here we have a major Triad minor Triad minor Triad Major major on minor. So that's the pattern for a diatonic chord progression in minor. Let's just hear it. That's what you're in a little bit slower. So those are all the chords in the key of C minor, because that's what we started with your a C minor scale all the cords that are gonna work . Okay, so if you need more help with this, I know I just really blazed through this really complicated thing. If you need help with this, jump back to the second class or even the first class of this music theory for electronic musicians sequence and be sure and watch that because this is a very important concept that we're gonna need moving forward. So once you're comfortable with that, the concept of diatonic chord progressions, then let's move on. We're gonna talk in the next section about new harmonic ideas. Things that weaken due to get a little bit mawr exotic sounds than just the major and minor . This is where stuff starts to get really fun. Off we go. 5. Intro To New Harmonic Ideas: Alright, it's time to start talking about these new harmonic ideas. So here's the deal. Um, when we look at this stuff we have, let's just dio just get a good old major scale. Well, do you see? Because we love see? Because it's easy. All right, so there's a c major scale, right? All the white keys. Now we know this pattern, right? This whole step, whole step, half step, Whole step, whole step. Whole step half step, right? We've seen that pattern and the other classes. We know that that makes up a major scale that defines a major scale, that pattern. We also know that we can convert it to a minor by altering the 3rd 6th and the seventh. Now our pattern is whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step right. Those were the two that we know. Let's go back to a major. Okay, so those are the two different patterns that we know, But you might think Well, I could just alter anything, right? Like I could do. What if I took the, uh what if I took a major scale and took this note and raised it now. It's technically not a major scale anymore because it's whole step, whole step, whole step half step and the rest of the same whole step whole step house. So we've changed it. It's not a major scale anymore, right? Because now we have in f sharp instead of an F. I use this as an example because you could do that. You could take any note and just change it by upper down by one or a couple notes up or down by one. And you've altered it to make it not a perfect major scale or not a perfect minor scale anymore. And what you've done when you do that is you've created undefined kind of scale, and these scales exist. Every, uh, modification you can make to a major or minor scale has a name. Someone's put a name on it already. So what we're gonna dio is we're gonna go through a bunch of those right now. We're not gonna go through all of them because there are literally thousands, um, of different ones. But I'm gonna go through some of the kind of most common ones. This that I just made is actually fairly common one. Let's take a listen to it and just just listen to it for a second, right? So it's still a major scale. It still feels like a major scale. There's something a little goofy right here. You can kind of feel, um, something different in it, but it has a use. And really, when we start diving deep into these, what we find and I'm going to talk more about this in just a minute. But we find is that all of these different scales, these modifications to the major and the minor scale they evoke different moods. You know how early on when we learned the major minor scale, we said the major scale is claimed? A happy the minor scale is kind to set, right? What if you wanted to invoke something with a little more finesse than that? Maybe you don't want to invoke Ah ah, happy feeling. But you want to invoke a feeling of optimism, right? Something like more refined than just happy and sad. That's where these different, uh, alterations to the scale can come in handy because they have these different qualities to them. It's hard to describe, but you'll see as we get into it. So that's what we're gonna be doing with this new harmonic idea. We're gonna be essentially taking major and minor scales and altering them in fairly popular what not popular ways, but in ways that that people do fairly often. We're gonna look at some of the most common ones, and they all have names. There's there's tons and tons of different names for these. So the first chunk of them that we're going to look at are called the modes. Now I've seen in the comments for these classes and in my college classes, people ask me about modes all the time. So if you've heard this term before of modes, um, we're gonna get into those right now, it's one of the most popular things that people have asked me to cover in this class is to cover modes. So here we go. Um, so in the next video, I'm gonna talk about kind of what modes are. Then we'll talk a little bit about the history of and then we'll get into him. But modes are Justin alteration of the major and minor scale in slight ways, but they have kind of a historic precedent, So we'll talk about that right now. So let's jump in and just introduce Moz 6. How Modes Work: Okay. What are modes? Modes are scales. They're a bunch of different kinds of scales. They kind of come in a pack. There are seven modes that we use. There is an order to them. There's a sequence of them. You can use them however you want. Some of them are popular in different styles of music. Some of them give us kind of a Brazilian sound. Some of them give us kind of Eastern sound. Some of them give us like a jazz blues sound. But at the end of the day, they are a sequence of scales that we use to make melodies, riffs, uh, and to some extent, harmonies. So how Modes work. There's two ways to think about modes. Um, when you're looking at them, we can look at them in relation to major minor scales like I was just talking about. And they're alterations to them. Let's take, for example, this one called Lydian. We're gonna go over a Lydian mode more in a minute. I just want to kind of use it as an example to explain how much work. So Lydia is actually the one I did just in the previous video where this note is one higher . This is called Lydian the Lydian Mode. You could also say a Lydian scale. What we've done here is we've taken a major scale and we raised the fourth scale degree, right? That's all we've really done. So we're gonna look at these in two different ways. That's one way the first way is looking at either a major or minor scale. And all of the modes are a type of major or a type of minor. So this one Lydian, is a type of a major scale. Um, other ones are types of minor scales. They all can be related to a major or a minor scale. So So that's the first way we're gonna look at its closest major or minor scale. So if it's a majors type mode, well, look at the major scale and then we'll see how what we need to do to alter the major scale to get it into that mode. In this case, we just need to raise the fourth scale degree and we get into a Lydian moat, right? But there's another way to look at it. Another way to look at it is by just moving the route. And this is where things get a little Harry at first. If I explain this right, then this is an easier way to understand moat, but it's kind of hard to explain. So let me try. Let's see if we can end up on that same, um, scale. So all we really need is a raised fourth. Here's what we're going to dio There's an order to the modes they go in an order. This one that we're looking at is the 4th 1 in a series. So just trust me on that. We're gonna look at the whole Siris in a minute. So this is the 4th 1 So what? That means weakened Do if I take a c major scale, I'm gonna you see, for example, I go up to the fourth note, okay, because it's the 4th 1 Now I'm gonna do is I'm gonna treat that as the root of my scale. But I'm not going to change any notes, so stick with me here. What that means is that I'm gonna do a C major scale, but instead of going from sea to sea, I'm gonna do a C major scale. But go from half to F. So let's keep going up the C major scale until I get to an F. Let's get rid of these and that. Okay, so now I have only white notes here, right? So that means we're still using a C major scale. But I'm treating F as the root of the scale instead of see, so all the notes of sea or another way to think about that is the key signature of C but using F as the root. So I'm using the wrong route with this scale that actually makes a mode because check it out. Remember our pattern for a major scale? Whole step, whole step half step that needs to be right there. So if this was a major scale that would be down, the rest would be the same. But it's no, it's right there in this thing that we just made, which means that four scale degree is raised, which means it's a Lydian mode. Let's do another one. Let's go back. Words came back to my C major scale. Let's make another one. Let's build the 2nd 1 The 2nd 1 in the series called Dorian. So what I need to do for Dorian is I'm gonna use a C major scale. I'm gonna go, but I'm gonna go from D to de now. I have a Dorian scale because I have all the notes of C Major, but I'm going to go from two to to and because this is the 2nd 1 in the sequence, it's a Dorian scale. So this pattern of modes there's one based on See, There's one based on D There's one based on either based on F. But if I change my starting point, I could say Let's do a D major scale. Now I'm on a D major scale. So now if I make a Lydian scale using the d major scales my starting point, I'm going to make a G Lydian scale. Okay, We're going to do this over and over as we go through each mode. So if that didn't quite make sense, I think it will lock in once you see it in action a couple times. So the thing to remember from this lesson is all modes can be tied back to either a major or a minor scale. It's kind of their closest brother. So to speak. So that lady and when we looked at its closest brother is a major scale that Dorian, when we looked at its closest brothers a minor scale, they all could go back to a major a minor scale. And we can alter that scale to get the mode if we want. Second thing to remember is any mode can be found by just shifting the route of another key or another way to put that would be used a major scale. But put the wrong key signature on it and you'll end up with a mode. If you do it right. That doesn't mean you can just, like, slap any key signature on any scale and end up with something that sound interesting. Not true, so we're gonna look at more as we go into them. Before that, though, let's take a little stroll through the history of modes because it's kind of interesting 7. History Of Modes: Okay. Where do modes come from? How do we know about them? Um, and who figured him out? And when? Uh, this is actually really interesting. Especially interesting to me to talk about in the context of an electronic music history class. Because our electronic music theory class. Because check this out. This is gonna blow your mind. Modes are used today in a lot of electronic music. A lot of rock music, a lot of jazz. Um, they are older than you can possibly imagine. We had modes before. We had pretty much anything else in music. Um, we can trace the origin of modes back to about 3000 years. Ancient Greeks figure this stuff out, and it's another thing that we can think Pythagoras for so back then. So I The reason I say it's so interesting is because I really like the juxtaposition of something that's like 3000 years old mixed with. Now we're going to use them to make completely Elektronik music. Ah, when Ah, In the old days, they were sung by monks, um, for the church. Because if you look back in history 3000 years ago, 2000 years ago, 1000 years ago. Ah, even 500 years ago, even 100 years ago, you could say all music was essentially the property of the church, depending on what ruling church there was at the time, usually Catholic. But the church kind of had a monopoly on music. You were either making music for the church or you were making music that was evil. Um, I guess maybe some people would still say that's true, But they had There was this this idea back then about thes three different kinds of music that can exist music. And this is, you know, I'm not a particularly religious person, but this is actually a really kind of beautiful sentiment, the three different kinds of musics. I can't remember the actual Latin names for them, but they were, um the the lowest form of music was the kind of music that was made by people. People made music. Um, and it was this very pedestrian thing. It was not Ah, uh, it was really kind of obscene in a way. You shouldn't just make music. This middle level of music that was deemed as okay it was good was the music of the Earth, the music, the the birds, the wind in the trees, all of these things. And there was this music all around us all the time, and that was good, the highest form of music. And remember, this is from the perspective of, ah, ancient, essentially Christianity, um, was called and this one, I actually do know the kind of English translation for what the Latin's called it, uh, was called the music of the spheres. Music of the spheres was the music made by the planets, all in alignment. The planets generated this music that was happening all the time, and it was loud. And and it's just so we hear it from the day we're born until the day we die. And so we largely learned to ignore it. Um, so you don't really hear it on a day to day level because it's just always there. This was kind of the sentiment of the time. It's really kind of beautiful idea. And here's another mind blowing thing. If you look at the way our pitches are organized like look at my screen. If we're thinking about planets, does anything look kind of similar here in the way we organize our scale? Yeah, they're actually kind of lined up to be, ah. Similar to how planets are in the solar system. That's kind of related to where we get our scales. Not entirely. I mean, a lot of it has to do with math, but there is this idea of music of the spheres that our pitches are based around the the organization of the planets. Um, mind blowing. Right. So, um, back to modes Theo was gonna let this play for a minute because I just find it really beautiful. You know, sometimes when you work all the time with, like, big, smashing beats, you just listen to something like this, and it's just gorgeous. Um, actually, I'm not gonna talk over that, because that just seems disrespectful to it. Okay, So I mentioned that there are seven modes. They are Ah, the 1st 1 we call Ionian. And I'm gonna go over each of these in detail. But, um, Ionian is kind of just another name for the major scale. We know that, um, we know the major scale already. That's an easy one. Okay, then they start getting interesting. So the 2nd 1 is Dorian we looked at Dorian really briefly. I want to tell you kind of the emotional qualities of these was very interesting, according Teoh Church back then. And it's kind of true now in the general sense. So Dorian was seen as giving a serious feeling, and they called it Taming the passions was what they called for during and I don't know exactly how to interpret that, um, to calm you down, I think, was the idea. Um, the next one is Fridge Ian Fridge in had a mystic quality, and this one was used to incite anger. And there's actually really interesting story about this one. Ah, if you read more of that music of the spheres stuff, you'll find that there's a famous story about a king sending his troops into battle and they had a court musician. The musicians job was to, uh, play music for the troops. Going into war and modes was very important part of that, so they would be called in to place something in the fridge in mode to incite the troops for battle to rile him up, get him ready to go into battle because fridge in was the mode to do that with. But there is this famous story of the the court musician getting his modes wrong. And he didn't play for Indian. He played lady in, which is our next one lady in is associated with ah, happy and in particular let's just say amorous nous. Um so the troops didn't do so well, Um, because the, uh, they were looking for some melts because hey played the wrong mode and eso a lot of people died. I don't know if any of this true, but these air like kind of stories people tell about the modes. There are lots of stories like that. Eso Lydian is happy or let's just say amorous. Um love let's call it love the love mode mix a Lydian eyes one that modern music we use for jazz and blues. Um, in the ancient sense it symbolized angels also used for ah, pleasure and sadness. I don't know how those two go together, which is that's quite interesting. On the next one is a Olean, which is another word for minor. That's straight up minor. So we'll see that when we get to it, but a only and it's just the kind of mode word for minor. And the last one Its most interesting low Korean. That one, uh, sounds crazy. A second guess from the name of the Mod loco Low Korean. Um, that one was the one. If you played it back in the church days Ah, you would be beheaded. You would be killed because that was the devil's mode. That was the mode for the devil only. And he played it and no one else did. So, um, you did not play that one, but well, we're gonna play it. It's going great. We're gonna rock out on it for a minute when we get there. So those are our modes and a brief little history of them. If you are interested in this, there's tons of books on this music of the spheres idea. Really fascinating stuff. Um, there's another book I would recommend if you're into the kind of mysticism about thes called Harmonies of Heaven and Earth. It's called Can't remember the author. Um, it's kind of a random book I found somewhere, but I really loved it. It was really interesting on some of these modes and people going into battle and those kinds of stories in that book. Anyway, Okay, let's dive in and start working directly on modes 8. Ionian Mode: Okay, let's dive in with the seven modes and we're gonna start with the 1st 1 Ionian. Now, Ionian is really just another word for the major scale. Um, it was a mode back in the old days, but it's kind of evolved into being our modern major scale. That's what it is. So in terms of its closest cousin being a major minor scale, obviously this one is a major scale. So let's look at it. Um, let's go back. I'm gonna do all of these in the key of C because they're a little bit easier toe comprehend. There especially, we start moving stuff around. So one thing I want to look at with each mode is I wanted to look at the diatonic chord progression and see what chords are generated with them. So now one thing you'll notice what I just did There is. I copied the entire scale, and I shifted it up 1/3 and then again another third. So that gives me my tonic Triad. That actually doesn't work because that was a chromatic shift. Um, meaning I just kind of slid everything up and ignored the key. So if you're ever gonna do that. You have to go through in a just so I know there's no f sharp in the key of C, so that needs to go down there. There's no G sharp c sharp, that's a C. There's no d sharp, there's no f sharp, and that should do it. So that gets us our diatonic chord progression. The in the key of C Or if we're talking about modes Ionian, we know how to use the major key of C major. We know how to use the Ionian mode. We'll talk more about using modes and writing with modes on the next chunk of this class. Right now, I just want to introduce all different modes. So now that we're familiar with Ionian or Major, let's move on to Dorian. 9. Dorian Mode: Okay. Up next is the Dorian mode. So remember, Dorian is the second in the sequence of modes. That doesn't mean you have to use them in sequence when we start using them. Doesn't mean that it out. Um, but it is the 2nd 1 in the order of which we normally talk about them. It is closest to a minor chord, so let's not use C Major. Let's convert to a minor. Okay, Now I have a C minor and the difference here. So this is a minor scale. So the I own er the Dorian mode is close to a minor scale, but it's got a modification. The modification that happens here is Thesixties scale. Degree is raised. Now we have the Dorian scale. Let's check it out. So to me, just by itself like this, it sounds a little. It sounds pretty normal. You know, it doesn't sound all that strange because we're in a minor key. This major six instead of the minor six doesn't jump out all that much, you know? So let's go. Let's look at it the other way now. So let's go back to a C major. Okay, Now we're back to see Major now because it's the 2nd 1 What we can do is we can look at it in terms of a major scale if we just get if we just use D because it's the second note of the major scale and this is the second mode world will use D and we'll just take this c away well at a D on the top. So it goes from D to Dino, but we're still in the key of C major Onley going to use the key of C Major, and this will result in the exact same pattern of whole steps in half steps. So now we have a D Dorian scale. Let's check it out. So here's minor. We expect to see that minor minor. If this was a D minor scale, that would be a B flat or in a sharp, but it's not. It's raised just because of the way we're just shifting things right now, right? So let's look at it like this. If we left to see here, we could say this is a C major scale. I think this is a D Dorian scale, right? That's just how the modes work. So Let's look at our diatonic chord progressions. So let's go through 3rd 5th on all of these. - Okay , there we go. So let's look at what we have now. It should be pretty close to the minor diatonic chord progression, right? Eso we have a deem minor. So our first court is a minor. Then we have another minor share e minor. So it's a minor to you have an F major G major way, Have a minor? Yeah, we have be diminished. That's going to be different, just as here, because it's gotta be in it. Remember, B is the note we're altering, So this is just gonna be a straight up minor scale cord now instead of the diminished we would have gotten. This is going to be a diminished chord now because we've altered this. Be on and then we have a seven major, but and then our one minor again. So that's the Dorian scale. Let's hear it kind of has, ah, almost a major quality to it, right? It's very it's not as kind of that. Sad is the minor one pressing on Let's go to the 3rd 1 which is Fridge Ian 10. Phrygian: Okay, the third mode and the sequence is the fridge Ian mode spelled with a P H bridge. Ian, um, this is one of my favorites. Actually, it's It's closest major. Minor scale is a minor. Um, so it's close to the minor. So let's get us over to a minor scale first, just to look at it that way. So I'm gonna raise my third my sixth and seventh. Now we're on a C minor scale. Now, this one, we have one more alteration to make. We're gonna take this second note, and we're gonna pull it down. Okay? So now we have this half step right at the beginning. Uh, which is going to make it sound a little gritty. Let's hear it. Okay, so it's a minor scale with a lowered second scale degree, is what it is. Okay, let's go back to our major R C major and let's look at it the other way now. So the same way that we figured out Dorian by just going from D because it's a second scale degree. Fridge. Ian's the 3rd 1 so we can do the same thing. Let's get out of those. Let's continue to scale up in the key of C, but using E as our roots on that gets us the e fridge in scale. Is that half stat? All right, so it exists right there. So let's do that other little experiment. I did. There's a C. There's a D. Now check this out. So we've got C major scale right there. D Dorian scale. Right there on E Fridge. Ian scale. Right there. Right. That's how that works. It's just shifting up. Right? All right, let's look at our records in the diatonic progression and see how it differs. This f is gonna throw us through a little bit of a loop here. It's gonna be kind of fun. Okay, here we are. So raises based on minor, A minor scale. So the diatonic corporate Russians probably gonna be kind of close to minor. So here we have a Our first court is a minor. So even e minor right here on then we have a major too. So remember, we would expect to diminish to here and now we have a major too, so that's fairly different. And it's actually well, yeah, it's a major, too. And then we have a major three minor for diminished five. That is a head scratcher. Um, because remember, the five is our dominant right. That's like the that's that's the one that leads us back to tonic. So having a diminished chord in that spot as like are basically our second most important cord of the whole A key? Uh, yeah, it causes a bit of a wrinkle that's gonna be kind of fun to deal with. So a diminished five on a major six, a minor seven and a major one again. So let's hear it right. And, you know, it's kind of interesting about these modes is that it almost feels like they always feel like they go on a little too long cause you're expecting this to be the end, because modes air all kind of built around there are others, these other scales, right? So the C major feels like the end like this, and we stopped right there. It would feel pretty normal, right, because that's just see Major. That's where it stops. But in the mode we have these two more because it keeps going because we wanted to feel like that. E is the tonic. All right, let's move on to the 4th 1 Lydian. Nice, pretty one 11. Lydian: okay. Until Lydian Lydian is a very kind of pretty cord. We related a lot to the major seven sonority. So remember that really pretty sound of a major seven. It's really kind of built that is built into a lot of it. Ah, that sounds so. The Lydian is closest to a major scale. So we're gonna start with major scale. The only augmentation we're going to make to it is the fourth we're gonna raise by half step. Okay. And this is what it sounds like thing. Okay, let me try a little something different this time just to give us a feel for it. Let's do, um, let's just kind of stretch these out because I want all these notes kind of bleed together to give us the sound of Lydian. And let's not use the piano. Let's use, um, dough. I have, like, a orchestra on here. I do llegado strings. Here we go. This might give us a better sense of, like the the sound, the quality of Lydian kind of prettiness. Let's slow it down even more. Let's just hear that. I just want to keep that see, going through that whole thing. I think that that actually is kind of nice. It it shows that this note is when we start to feel something going different, right? If this was normal, it would just feel like a big major scale. But with this raised, it has the different quality. So this half step here is what really kind of gives it that kind of pretty sound? Um, cool. Okay. I'm gonna go back to the piano. Well, maybe not. Let's stay here for a minute. Let's see how how it goes. I'm gonna shorten these backup, though. Okay. Um, so it's a major scale with a raised fourth scale degree. Okay, Now let's go back to our good old normal. See? Oops. Alright. I accidentally took us back Teoh piano sound, but that's OK. All right? We're back to a C major scale. Now, this is the fourth in our series, right? So that means we can start on the fourth scale degree of any scale. This is not This works for more than just see, Major, by the way I'm using. I'm doing all of these and see Major too, so you can see the pattern. But you can start on any key in this will work. Let's go up and see in C major until we get to an F. There we are. And now we have a shrink down a little bit here and now we have to do the same thing I've been doing. Here is a C major D Dorian E. Fridge in and then f Lydian. Okay, get rid of those and let's look at what our core progression is. Okay, so let's let's hear it. You know what? Let's go back to strings. What? That. Okay, let's make that go twice as long, just so that we can. If you get a better sense of it, it's almost right away. We get something different because remember the note we changed was this be? But it should be that, but it's that so and that appears waiting their second chord. Let's go through and see what we got. We have a major one. A major, too a minor three, a diminished four. So our forecourt is diminished. A major five minor six, a minor seven and then back to a major tonic. So that's Lydian. Lydian is pretty. It's the pretty one, all right. Up next is a mix of idioms of the jazz won 12. Mixolydian: Okay, up next is mixed. So, Lydian, um, this one is like a major scale. So it's tied to a major scale. We use this one in jazz a lot, because and the blues, because its relation to the dominant seventh chord Um, if you remember the way we make a dominant seventh chord is we have, ah, the three notes of a major chord. And then we put 1/7 on it, and then we lower it by one by 1/2 step that makes a dominant seventh chord, right? It's got a flat seven on it. That's very similar to what the scale is, because it is a major scale with a flat seventh, and that's it. So, um, by itself, it doesn't sound particularly jazzy or Blue Z, but it plays really well over those chords that we use a lot in jazz and blues. It was what it sounds like. You can almost hear the little kind of blues inflection right there a little bit. Um, okay, let's do our process one more time actually going to this like two more times, but, um so let's go back to a major scale and let's go. Let's keep going up to G. Okay, there's G. So now if we look at all of this, scrunch it down. Here's the thing. You are C Major or Ionian D Dorian E Fridge. Ian Uh, f Lydian. And now G mix O lydian cut because G is the fifth in this sequence, we go to the week, take any key. We go to the fifth, we use that key signature and then keep going up and we end up with a mix o lydian scale. Okay, remember, if we looked at just at G Major the'keeper's signature of G major has one. Sharpen it and it's gonna be this sharp. So if we take it down, we get an f natural. And that means we are in the mix. Lydian mode. Don't worry about key signatures. Um, I don't think we work with key signatures very much and electronic music. So it's great. Um, just remember, this is flat from where it should be. This is down 1/2 step. Let's look at our core progression. Okay, there we have all the cords in using the mix led in modes. What we've got here is G major, a minor. So the A minor to diminished three. So you'll notice that diminished chord is just moving down the scale, right? Because that's just how the pattern works as we move up the diatonic chord progression in the major scale that dominant or that diminished chord kind of moves with us. So that's just kind of sliding down. It's interesting. C major So major. Four minor five. Just somewhat interesting Minor. Six. Major seven on a major one. Let's hear it. See that these are all very slight When we look at him like this and we hear the difference . If you're thinking like I can't really hear the difference in, ah, the sequence of cords here between all these different ones, That's okay. I mean, you're not really. I shouldn't say you're not supposed to, but when laid out like this, you wouldn't that much. But when we write a whole song using this mode, it gives it a different feeling. It feels different than if you just used major miners. We're gonna look at that in the next section. But how to actually use these? I just want to get him all into your head. What they all mean. How they look and how to find the modes. So through the last couple, and then we'll be done, uh, with explaining modes. And we'll talk about working with modes after that. So up next is an easy one Alien. 13. Aeolian: Okay, two more. But this one is really easy. Alien alien is another word for our natural minor scale. So just like Ionian was, the major scale alien is the minor scale. Check this out. Let's go. Remember, this is the 6th 1 So it's gonna be based on a What happens if we build a scale on A If we just keep going up from a of all that using the same casing that your what did we just do? We just made the relative minor, so ah, it totally works. We made the relative minor, which is also the sixth mode in the sequence of Moz. So this is gonna be the natural minor. Ah, the core progression is going to be entirely predictable because we already know what the core progression in minor key is. So it's the relative minor review the relative major and minor and how that works. And also the parallel major minor. We did that in the second class in the sequence. If that's not clicking for you, you might want toe, uh, do a quick review of that. Um but otherwise, this one is totally predictable. So what's just zip right on And goto our last one, which is the craziest one low Korean 14. Locrian: all right, local re. And this is the one that everyone in my college classes gets the most excited about. Because I was talking about getting your head chopped off for playing it. I'm like, now we're gonna play it. So, um, remember that that that while true, um, that, you know, people really digging, executed for playing this mode, Um, that that was a long, long time ago. And now it's a perfectly OK mode. However, it's tricky to use because it doesn't sound very great. Um, mode built on the seventh scale degree. Lo Korean is kind of a minor scale would be closest to a minor, but it's kind of diminished scale. Um, because it's built on this which it the seventh, which is a diminished court. So let's just look at it in terms of building it from B to B and then seeing what happened . So if we go b c and we keep going up the C major scale to be, that's see, that's what's so painful. Like I stopped right there. It's that that leading tone, the last note of the scale you stop there and it's just like a painful Okay, so Let's just hear it. A XYZ No heads getting chopped off. Here we go. That's it. That's what it sounds like. I hope everyone still okay. Uh, no catastrophes there. So now, in this little sequence of notes, we have all our modes. Right, Because I essentially have almost just shy of two octaves of a C major scale and what we can see here, our major or Ionian Ah, D Dorian scale and e fridge in scale. An f lydian scale, a G mix, a Lydian scale in a alien or natural minor scale and a B lo Korean scale. Right there. They all are. OK, let's look at our cords for this one. It's going to get a little hairy. So remember what I said. This one is the least used, so we don't use this very often. And we definitely don't build cords off of it very often. But let's do it just to see what happens. Uh, okay. Um, So what we've got here is our first car right away is a diminished court. We have a be diminished chord. So that means the diminished chord is the tonic, which is crazy. Um, that's just going to sound pretty terrible all the way through. So sidebar. Why am I telling you this? Why am I telling you about a scale that's going to sound terrible? Because it does have a use? Let's say you have some section of a song there, like I just wanted some crazy here. Switch over into the Dorian mode and will sound like pretty crazy and frantic and switch out. It can be a cool trick, actually, especially from the film composing. Sometimes you just have to do that. Um, okay, let's move on. So we have a diminished one chord. Super weird. A major to cord, a minor three, a minor for a major five major sixth, a minor seven on back to our diminished. So let's hear this diatonic chord progression. And again, what's so painful about that is that it feels like it ends one shy of tonic. This is what we want to hear, right? That's the end. But that's not the This is the end, and that's just the way it goes in low green mode. Let me do our experiment again and pull up. Um ah, a string ensemble. Let's just stretch this out and try to make it all romantic. Um, it's not gonna work because it's low Korean. Just move it back a little bit, okay? And then let's take everything. Just I kind of do that. Let's see what happens. Okay, That was pretty gnarly. Let's take just the scale and do that, all right? Let's just stretch that out to be nice and romantic, and then I'll take this. Be so we've got this tonic going through the whole thing. Let's try that now. It might not sound that crazy to you right now, but if you try to write a song using this, we have B as the tonic, but the key signature of C you've got, uh, it's not going to sound great, but it can be useful. So, um, more on that when we try to use them, which we're gonna do next. So that is the end of all of the different modes. Um, in the next section, let's talk about how we can use these things to actually write some music 15. About Analysis: Okay, let's dive into using modes. Now, First thing I want to do, since this is our first kind of track that we're gonna be looking at, um, I have Teoh give a little bit of an explanation. So in the previous class, the music theory for electronic musicians, too. I added in all kinds of tracks by, ah, famous artists. And we did analysis of those, and it was great. I loved it. Um, I heard a lot of really good feedback about it. Um, but the the copyright people got on my case quite a bit about it. Um, so I'm not allowed to do that anymore. Um, apparently because I use so much of the song in the lesson, Um, that caused a lot of copyright fears. There was a lot of actually very healthy discussion about it. So, um, for better or worse, Well, it's for worse, but, um, I can't do that in this class. So what I'm going to use in this class is I'm just gonna have to make some my own songs. I know it's not as cool because it's great to see the analysis of those other tracks, but, um, I think we'll be able to get the same effect from writing music. So what I'm gonna do with throughout this class is I'm going to That's so much focus on analysis like I did in the previous class. And remember, analysis is like picking apart what someone else has written, dissecting it and figuring out what's inside. Instead, I'm going to focus on writing and producing with that technique, so we're not gonna pick someone else's thing apart. We're gonna make something new with it. So that's what we're gonna do. Um, those other tracks that I and a rise in the second class in music theory to those air still there you go back and watch those if you want. Compromise I got was, I don't have to take them down. I just can't make more like that. So we're gonna be focusing on producing with these techniques. So that being said, let's dive in and let's write a track using a mode 16. Writing With Modes: Okay, now, when we write with modes, there's a couple things to keep in mind. Um, one thing is kind of a terminology thing, but also a practicality thing is, don't confuse modes with keys, so we might be in the key of a minor. You might be using the Dorian mode. Um, but you are not in the key of a Doory. We don't I kind of don't know why that is, because effectively, you are in the key of a Dorian. It's just not something we say, Um, we don't talk about modes in terms of the names of key is very often. Sometimes we do, but it's not very often you're in a minor key or a major key, but you're using a certain mode, which means the key is altered. But, ah, we typically don't say we're in a Dorian mode or a fridge. Ian mode are sorry, a Dorian Key or a fridge in key or something like that. The word key doesn't really apply. We're using the scales, but we're in the closest minor or major key. Now, when you're writing in this and you're going to see this in the next ah video when we make a track. One thing you want to do with modes you want to keep in mind than notes or note that is altered, right? Think about what note has been changed. That makes it not just the major or minor scale. And then you want to be sure you use that note. If you right, something in a mode that, let's say it's like the, um, fridge ian mode. So it has. Ah, has a lowered to scale degree, right? So if you do that, but you never use the the lowered to scale degree if you never hit it. So let's put some notes on that. Let's say we're in the key of E fridge Ian, so you would have an f natural in there. So you have a minor scale, basically with an F natural. If you never hit that f natural. If you never use the f natural, you're just une minor. You're not in if region, um, because you have to remember the way it's gonna sound. And if the listener never hears that note, never hears that altered to. Then you're just in the minor key, right? Um, you can say you're in fridge in, but it doesn't matter because it doesn't sound like fridge in. You got to be sure and hit those notes and use them. Otherwise, you're just that in there. So keep that in mind that we want to use those notes. Ah, in our song, sometimes it's as easy as just hitting it in the melody a couple times like you'll see in this next video. But sometimes, ah, you want to get it into the core progression in the baseline and the whole thing to make it feel like that mode a bit more. Okay, that being said, let's dive in. Ah and ah, right, a track using note. 17. Example Track: Okay, so let's just start off with something Endure, Ian. Now, why are we gonna do Ionian? Because we've done it, like a 1,000,000 times, right? That's just major. That's just a fancy word for Major. Um, so let's do something enduring. Uh, now, I've set up a session here with a couple things. Um, we know Dorian is a little bit Dorian is related to a minor scale, so it's going to be a little bit darker. Um, So I've set up something that hopefully I've set up some sounds that hopefully will give us a little bit darker, Sam. So I threw this Will drum loop in here. Just kind of kind of Ah, smokey jazz kind of thing. That's cool. I just grabbed a loop because, you know, this class isn't about making beats. Although I do have another class specifically about making beats. I found two other little loops that mixing well pretty well with it that I just threw over here. We'll use them if it comes up. I really don't know what I'm gonna do here. So, um well, to see, I grabbed three cents. Uh, this one to get us a little melodic thing. Get something really spooking that might be able to much. But we'll see what happens. This'll one something really simple and melodic. And this one, uh, just to get us some. It's a more melodic stuff. I don't have a great court instrument here, but that's good. Okay, so, um, let's make let's actually start right here. Let's make ah, little loop here. Something's gonna go. Teoh inserted midi clip. Then let's put something here. So Renna, Dorian Keys. So we want to use Dorian. So what key should we use? We can use any key. Let's just keep it simple. And let's do d Dorian, because we know Dorian. So by the same logic, I'm gonna go to D. And instead of figuring out all the minor scale just going to step down one whole step se Ah, see? So all the notes I need are the notes of C major, not that zoom in a little bit here. So these are my notes. I don't need to write out the scale, but I guess I will, um and it goes up to D. So there's my d Dorian scale. So let's start off. Let's look at what we got here. Let's start off with just like a little melody. So take a d. Stretch it out fairly long. Now, you want to use tones here that are gonna accent that are really gonna show that Dorie and Ness of it. So I really wanted to feel like D. Something is kind of a lot of d, um Well, maybe a good bit of a because it's the fifth. That always kind of makes it feel like, um de ah. And then there's some other stuff here. Let's just do that. So let's just have this be my riff. Okay? Let's check it out, E actually, like those notes. But I don't like that since it's just a little too. Let's turn down, Let's turn a bunch of stuff up. Okay? Like in that? That frequency shifter that was getting me Okay, that's kind of cool. I like that. Let's pull our drums down. Just a hair, Okay. And then let's set that up to go on for a while. Okay, so here's what we've got. Okay, that's cool. Now let's add some kind of melodic idea. Let's go right here. Just so I've got another four bars Let's see what my Synthes here. I loaded up. Oh, yeah. Okay, so with this, what I was thinking of was doing some kind of arpeggio. So here's going to do. I'm gonna copy this a copy of this baseline and put it right here. And now I'm gonna build an arpeggio. Um, I'm gonna build some courts, so let's just build cords out of all of these notes. Ah, using the during and mode. So it's going to go up Third root 3rd 5th for all of these. Not even gonna pay attention. Really? To what chords they are at the moment. It's gonna build triads sticking in the key. Okay, here we go. Um, let's solo this and here. It's not gonna be terribly interesting, but I have some ideas that are going to make this more interesting, I think. Okay, cool. So let's do this. First of all, let's go up an octave. So I'm just gonna shift up Arrow. There we go. Okay. Now, let's use our inversions. Remember, we learned about inversions earlier. I'm just gonna shift some notes by inactive. So we take these two notes, put them up in active, that one up inactive thes two up, inactive, this one down, inactive. Just trying to get him in kind of a similar area here. So now you can see it's all very compressed, but it's all the same notes. Let's hear that. Okay, Nothing crazy. That would actually be a fairly decent core progression. But what I really wanted to try throwing in our Pesci ater on it. So mitt effects are Pesci ater. Remember, arpeggio Gator's gonna basically just do it, But it's gonna play one note at a time. Uh, let's let's see what does Just right out of the box. Okay, that's okay. This style up is what's making it go up all the time. I said that to just random a random other. Okay, not bad. Um, a little bit of delay. Okay. And then let's pull it down in the mix, and we might have something here. Um, let's just see how that blends with our baseline. It's kind of interesting. It's okay. I'm willing to roll with that. Um, so this court progression is cool, but it's not cool enough. The reason is it's not really very Dorian to me. The reason it's not is because it's not really taken advantage of that changed note in Dorion, which is that sixth scale degree. So the six scale degree, if D is our tonic, a six above it is going to be a B. If you count up six going to be and look at that. I don't have any bees in here. Um so in order to get that reald Dorian flavor, we need to use some bees. Eso Let's see what we can do here. So in order to get some be easier, it's hard to do with this core progression. But I'm gonna cheat one in. I'm gonna kind of sneak one in right here. X were on a C. It's gonna lower that to a B. That kind of screws up that chord, but that's OK. We'll call it an encore tone, right? That's okay, but where we're really gonna take advantage of getting some of those bees is in our melody . It's not a great melodic instrument, but let's see what we conduce with it. Um, let's take our core progression and put it there. So now we're on this melodic instrument, and here's I'm gonna do I'm just gonna kind of thin this out so that I could just make a melody with it. So let's go. I was gonna kind of randomly right a melody, and I really want to get some be in it. So there's a B scared of that out. There's another Be way up high. Let's do that. Let's see how that goes. If you look down here not to slide this over, I wanted to change this instrument, but let's just see what happens. Kind of interesting. E kind of like to see there are. There are some of those notes in there, those bees that sound quite out of key. Um, sound a little AUC's right, And that's the Dorian stuff. So let's let that let's let that rock out for a second. And then I'm just gonna eyeball a, um, musical decision. Here it is. Uh, spruce this up, put some big some big kicks in there, right there, actually, kind of liked that melody that that sound for the melody. Okay, here we go. Lets you Let's hear this whole thing as is for now. We will work on this more later. Theo 18. Example Track No. 2: All right, let's make another track. Um, I'm kind of a minor mood today. It's a bit rainy. So going to stick to one of the minor modes. Let's go with the fridge in, uh, make a fridge Ian track. So I have I have in my head and idea here. That's kind of like a kind of a massive attack sounding thing. If you're not familiar with a man Massive attack. Check them out. Um, so, uh, through in this this really simple drumbeat. Um, it's just Hi. Hi. Hat and kind of a sneer. Rim click thing. That's it. Nothing fancy. Okay, so I've got this base here, And by the way, I'm trying to use all factory presets stuff, uh, in a built in so that if you're using a Bolton Ah, you can download these patches that I'm going to post in the class these whole sessions. Three sets as able to calls it, um and you could mess around with it. So if I use the presets, then it's all stuff that you have, so I'm gonna try to use those for most of it. Okay. So I'm gonna put in a baseline here. I have this idea for this very kind of fridge. Ian. Dark thing. Um, So what I'm gonna do is let's go with the fridge in because it's easy to think about, because it's all the white notes. So what I'm gonna do is going to go like this is gonna make a few notes all the way across or am I making 16th? Now it's thinking, Making 16. Yeah. Let's get rid of every other ex. I just want eighth notes. Here. Let's copy that. Duplicate it duplicated and duplicated. Okay, let's take that down an octave. Okay? It stretches out. Okay, That's good. Just envelope on this a little bit. That's pretty good. Right? Okay with that, um, now to get that fridge and sound. Remember, Fridge in is a is a flat two in a minor mode, so I'm just gonna go cool right now. I'm using that flat to right there. That's so awesome. All right. Let's just keep that going. Uh, let's see what else I've put in here. No way we're gonna do with that. Let's arrange this a little bit. Second said that Lubitz okay. That part. Okay, now let's go to in the next part. Take all of that with me. Let's add something here. So let's copy this down. Actually, kind of interesting that for a sec. So here I put in strings for here. I want to build a nice big corporate. So let's let's try at first, uh, different. Try it here. Okay, so now I got to stop, because this is gonna take a little bit of thinking here. Um, so I'm just gonna So this is all one long cord. Really? I wouldn't want to harmonize this f with the triad because it's really quick and in passing . So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna take I'm gonna make a big e minor here. Now, I could keep doing an e minor here, but what if we did something different? So what I want to think here is what's another core that hasn't e in it? Um, what if he was the third of the cord? That would be a C major chord. And that is in the key of e minor. And it works in e frigid. Um, so we could use e We could. You see, we could also use a minor, lets you see I like. Okay, so I'm gonna go see I need a G. Okay. So I'm gonna build a C major chord on the 2nd 1 So for the harmony here, get rid. I don't want to pulse like that. Let's do that. No. Get even a little fancier with this. Let's take that. Let's extend this out. I actually want us to be a four bar loops. Now, let's take that. Now let's turn it into an a minor. That'll put the E as the fifth. So that's gonna be a C and E. That's going to be that so a c and e If we move this up in octave, we would see it as a triad with their Let's leave that down there. And then maybe let's try to do something a little different for this last chord. What if we did a who did a g E well, and then we're back to an e minor here. Let's just do that. This is like, uh, e a B. So this is ah e minor with an A in it. What I really want to do is some kind of be based things like a five, because remember, five goes back to one. So if I do be in a that kind of makes it feel like a 57 chord a little bit. So let's try that. That's kind of a made up core, but that's OK on. Let's make this whole doctor. I think Let's just hear this as is, actually, just hear this and the baseline, right as nice and dark. Let's move it up. Watch it up. I think it's actually pretty cool. Uh, let's hear our whole whole song here now. So far, we've got so far. Okay, You know what? I was gonna stop there, but now I have another idea for something cool we could do with this. I can duplicate this one more time. Um, so I want to hear that twice without looping, and then I'm gonna duplicate it one more time, and I want to do something different when I want to do Here is I want to keep this core progression. But watch this now. I want to change the base note. So what if I went Teoh de here? So I'm gonna change this base now. This doesn't make a lot of musicals. Are music theory cents. But just trust me, move that up to an e. So I'm losing that f Which gives me that fridge in sand. But just for a minute, I'm gonna lose it. Replace all of these. I think that's going to give it like a really dramatic kind of shift. Might be a little dissonant because of that D. But actually, let's take all of these ease. There's this thing that happens is kind of a sidebar aside from Fridge in. But there's this thing that happens when you've got a core progression going. You just drop it down by half or a whole step. It's a pretty cool sound, so check it out. You gotta hear it, really in context, though, So let's start from the beginning again. - So the reason I just stopped is because I wanted to go back to their instead of looping. Let's turn that loop off. So now it's back to their and that's pretty much our whole kind of intrasection. That's actually pretty cool, right? Like so let me just walk through real quick again. What I did right here I did is I took our baseline and it waas e going toe f I dropped the e down to D just to give it this whole step drop feeling and then instead of it going up 1/2 step right here because that would take us out of key. I pushed it up another note so that it goes up a whole step right there so that we're still in key. And then I kept the core progression totally the same. I didn't change the core progression except for this bottom note that wasn't e all the way through. I moved that bottom note down to deal with the cords of the same. Some now are cords are all screwed up now, right? Because we have this g b and A de So that was an e minor. Now it's a G major. Here we have a G, c and A D, which doesn't make a lot of sense as anything, but it sounds interesting. We could make sense of that as something But, um, best not to overthink things. Sometimes you have an A C and A D, which doesn't make a lot of sense, and we have an A B and A D doesn't make a lot of sense in terms of triads Thes three don't make much sense. We could. If we started calling one of those notes of 7th 7th they would all make sense. But let's not worry about that. Just think of this as I took a note that I dropped it down for in effect. Then I'm gonna go back. It's temporary. We don't need to think about it too hard. 19. Pentatonic Scales: Okay, let's leave modes behind for a minute and talk about a completely different kind of thing. Now what we're gonna talk about next pentatonic scales now, super, super important. Um, I need you to, like, really leave modes behind, because that idea of kind of shifting a key signature, um, or shifting the scale the root note of the scale to make them a different modes that does not work with pentatonic scales. In fact, that doesn't work with anything else. That's very unique. Two modes. And so we're gonna be completely leaving that behind for now. Um, a pentatonic scale is a whole other kind of scale it is based on. There are major and minor scales, our major and minor pentatonic scales, but has nothing to do with modes. So let's get modes completely out of your head. Take a breather. Uh, just let those exist as their own thing and going forward, we're gonna look at other things. So pentatonic scales. These are really great. Here's a really good way to explain pentatonic scales to me. This is how I like to think about them. We think about major scales, and we think about scales that kind of sort of have a happy sound. We think about minor scales and we think of stuff that kind disorder has a minor sound. But what if you wanted a scale That kind of didn't really have much of anything. It didn't really have much emotional quality to it. Um, what you'd want There is a panna tonic scale is really good for that. We have major and minor pentatonic scales. They exist in these two flavors of major and minor. But we use them a lot when we want kind of kind of. We want stuff to take up space, but not really mean a ton. That's not entirely fair. We can use pentatonic scales to make very happy sounding stuff. Very sad sounding stuff. And but I'm thinking specifically of in electronica music when we use pentatonic scales, that tends to be the reason, um, pentatonic scales of very rich history. They go back well that they go all over the place, but you can find them in a lot of Eastern influenced music. Also a lot of Western influence music. Um, the blues uses Tana pentatonic scales. Ah, if you know anything about playing the guitar you probably know how to play a pentatonic scale. The pan atomic scale is the the guitar scale a lot of the time because it's just so easy on a guitar. It's like two fingers. Um, so we use it a lot on guitar. You would also hear it a lot if, like, have you ever heard one of those? Like maybe like a saxophone player who just rips who just goes like but Rui Lui all day long? Um, they're just like rocking through pentatonic scales. They're not, like, happy or sad. They're just thirties fast. So that kind of like fast solo Griffey stuff. Pentatonic scales really good for those Now. One thing we don't do with pentatonic scales is we tend Teoh, not use the diatonic chord progression with them. We don't build chords on pentatonic scales. That would be weird, and you'll understand why in a minute. But these scales are. They tend to go with, uh, normal core progressions based on a major or minor key. We're gonna build a core progression in a major minor key, and then we might do some some fun stuff over top of it, either in a melody or some kind of riff or something like that with the pentatonic scale. So they work together with major or minor chord progressions. But you don't build cords just using the pentatonic scales. Usually, you could. It would be pretty weird, though, and you'll see why in just a minute. Now the word pentatonic. Let's dissect this a little bit just to get us off the ground. We know that prefix Penta from many things. Um, a pentagram, a Pentagon. Uh, I'm sure there are many other pent is, but it means five a pen to, uh, Pentagon is a five sided thing. So typically, in a scale, we have seven notes in a pentatonic scale. We have only five notes. So this is the first scale we're going to see that does not have seven notes in it. Seven notes up to the active right. This has five notes up to the octave. So it's a little different on the reason that I say that it has less kind of emotional quality is because some of those notes were leaving out some of them. We leave out some notes and those notes, uh, are some of them carry some of that emotional quality to them. So by leaving them out, we're just kind of getting us down, too. Notes that work well to kind of fill up space. Now we do still have the third in these, which is why they can be major or minor because the third still exists. We'll get into the details of them and just a 2nd 1st let me show you some typical uses of them in the next video. 20. Uses Of The Pentatonic Scale: okay. I just thought I'd take a minute here just to point out some of the various uses the pentatonic scale has, um we find it all over the world. It's really wild. And it's really kind of like, ingrained in our brain, the pentatonic scale. Um, let me just show you two quick things. And then the third thing that, uh, will kind of demonstrate this ingrained in your brain thing. Here we have this, um, blues guitar. This is where my favorite blues guitarist, Stevie Ray Vaughan, all those guitar riffs he's playing. Let's jump to the guitar all based on the pentatonic scale. Pretty cool, right? Um I mean, he's throwing some other notes, and there, here and there, as people often do with pentatonic scale. But it's all based around the pan tonic scale. And then we can go over to something like this also based on a pentatonic scale. So I guess the point I want to make here is that it's It's a skill that exists in, like, many, many, many different cultures now. Ah, third thing. Check this out. This is Bobby McFerrin. You may know that name. He's ah, Let's call him a vocalist and composer. I guess he doesn't settle audience experiment with pentatonic scale. Now what he's singing is the pentatonic scale, and we'll see how he demonstrates here, how it's just ingrained in the brains of everyone. Uh, so this is really short little thing that just it's really great to see. And I just thought it'd be fun to point out this is the pentatonic scale talking about expectations, expectations, But oh, okay. - Yeah . So what we saw there is, um Well, first of all, the notes that he was singing, improvising was all pentatonic scale. What the audience did just kind of naturally after he gave him the first few notes, was they saying all the pentatonic scale, the notes of the pentatonic scale, You jumped to a new spot and they just knew what it was. So this is ah, scale. That is just kind of a naturally occurring scale to our brains on dso We use it all the time. Okay, so let's move on And let's look at what's actually in the pentatonic scale by first looking at the notes that we've left out of it and the construction of it and then we'll look at the two different versions of it 21. Major Pentatonic Scale: Okay, let's start with the major pentatonic scale here. So just to get us in the ball park, I'm gonna make a major scale. Uh, okay, C major scale, right? Nothing funny about it. All right, Now, to make this into a pentatonic scale I'll really have to do is leave some stuff out, and what we're gonna leave out is the fourth and the seventh. Now we have a pentatonic scale. Okay, let's tighten it up. I'm just changing the rhythm here so that it sounds right. And now we have our five notes. Proactive. Right. That's it. So 12345 And then it starts over again with six C two c. Let's hear that. That's it. That's the major pentatonic scale. Now, here's a case where this might be familiar. You may have heard this old classic song. Um, that just goes up and down this scale. Let me arrange the rhythm correctly, Okay? I just changed the rhythm or we're just going up this major pentatonic scale way short lease way. That sound familiar? Is that a song? You know, this is a baseline to a very famous old classic song called My Girl Okay, so there was You might be thinking of this point, that school. But why do I care about this old classic song by the Temptations? It's by the temptations. By the way, uh, when this is a class about electronic music, I thought so. Let's get down to electronic music. True. Um, we're going to get there in just second, cause I'm going to show you this scale that I'm gonna show you the minor pentatonic scale, and then we're gonna rock out on it and make some tracks with it. So just bear with me for a minute. Um, so we take a major scale, we kick out the fourth and the seventh. Remember, The seventh is our leading tone, right? That's one of the ones that gives it really kind of its characteristic. So that's gone. We don't have a leading tone in here anymore at all. Um, now, also, you can probably see how using this scale to create cords by itself becomes a bit of a problem. What's sliding over at least those notes on? Let's make triads using just this scale doesn't really work, so I haven't e in it. Um, if I skip a note and then go to the next note E I haven't a Okay. Lets keep going. If I had taken D and I skip a note end up on a G skipping out, I end up on a C. So if I did, I'm just doing the every other note thing here. Uh, I go to e skipping out, I get a skipping note. I would get to d. Let's go to the next one of G notam on C. It's the No on E and one more skip a note. I go up to D note I go up Teoh G. Okay, so these are all cords that we weighed, but they don't make They're just chords that we would find in the major key, but, um, with some key ones left out. So what we have here is that's not a C major. That's an A minor A C and e. So that causes a bit of a problem for us because are one chord in the key of C. If we were using Pentatonix is now on a minor. It's not a see anything, so that's a little odd. Are two cord is some kind of suspended chord are three. Chord is also some kind of suspended court are. We don't have a four chord. So our five cord is actually not a G but a C major. So that's kind of our one chord. And our six chord is another suspended chord, so it doesn't really make us any good cord. Um, it doesn't work, but if we take a core progression and let's just take one, let's do let's actually do this. Let's make a new clip. And let's just make a good old fashioned core progression here. So here's a C major, and then let's go Teoh. Um, let's go to an F major and we're f isn't in this key, but that's OK. Um Then let's go to a maybe ah, five chord a G major. And then let's go, Teoh, How about like, a two chord? Just be We're here. Okay. Okay, So here's my core progression. Okay, Now let's be sure we have a good baseline on here, so let's go down here. Make some good bass notes Here. I want a So here T o b just using my year here. Okay, so I got something something a little nice. Let's go back to our pentatonic stuff here. Let's just make, like, a whole flurry of pentatonic stuff, Okay? So I'm just going to start running all over the place out, even thinking about it in my pentatonic scale. Let's keep going. Same thing and active up. I'm just like, randomly creating notes in the pentatonic scales That was not in it. Keep goods go up higher. Okay, let's say that in thats huge long riff here comes. I hope so. I put it on the same track that was dumb. Ah, and let's speed it up. Oh, I totally ruined my groove here, you know? Okay, So here's just a bunch of pentatonic stuff, right? So here's my C major chord progression with all my random pentatonic stuff over it, right? It just works. You can do this pentatonic stuff over nearly any core progression as long as you're in the same key without getting in too much trouble at all. Um, this is why soloists like this a lot like guitar players, um, saxophone players, anyone that's a soloist loves pentatonic keys because it's kind of tricky to play a bad note. You can just play all day because of the bad notes, the dangerous notes. Let's column have been removed from the scale. They're not there. So you just play all day long. Um, let's even schmaltzy that up a little bit more. Let's just make this really rock out by going really fast way. Let's keep going up. I'm just shifting up. In a way, we went off the piano. We went to hot, but that's the point. The point is, we like these pentatonic scales because they're pretty easy to use, um, for filler stuff for solo stuff. We just take a normal diatonic chord progression. Any chord progression in a key. Throw the related pentatonic scale on top of it, even major reminder. Depending on what here in and then you've got stuff to rock out on for quite a while. Let's take a look at the minor key, and then let's write some tracks using it 22. Minor Pentatonic Scale: Okay, let's look at the minor pentatonic scale. What we have here is, uh let's take a minor scale. Let's do a Because we know that a minor is all the white notes. There's an a minor scale Stop everything here. Okay? Now, to make a minor pentatonic scale, what we're gonna do is we're gonna throw out the to so are be also gonna throw out six. Okay, let's tighten it up to get rid of those notes. And we have our five note pentatonic scale. Okay, The minor one is probably more used than the major one. I would venture to say, um I'm not sure why that is. Well, I kind of know why that is. In pop music, we use the minor one more. Um, I don't know if it's safe to say that for electronic music, but in pop music, the minor one is more used, and I think the reason is my theory, uhm which has no scientific basis. But my gut theory is because the minor one is just so easy to play on the guitar. It's like everyone's first scale on the guitar. So it's made its way into a lot of pop music. So, uh, let's take our same example from from just a minute ago. So now we have this core progression. See, Major, let's make this core progression in C minor. So I need all my ease to go to E flat. I need all my A's to go to a flat and I need all my bees to go to B flat. Now we have a core progression in C minor here, but something went horribly wrong. Have a flat c Oh, here's what went horribly wrong. I forgot about my bass notes. Here we go. I forgot to put those down there. Okay, Now let's take my super fast riffing around Let's take it back down to a reasonable octave here and because I'm all over the place here I got to go through in turn, convert this to see minor So all my ease are gonna go down to e flat My A's are going to go down to a flat on my bees are gonna go down to B flat and I got to do it again for the next octave Use down to e flat My is down to a flat. I don't have any bees, my sees and my D Is those air fine? He's down to e flat now. Am I actually in the pandemic scale? Where do I have any twos? Do I have any D's? Anything? That's a D Because I don't have a two in the minor pentatonic. So anything that's a d I'm gonna move. I got I got to do something other than a d. So I move those up to eat flats. Do you have any D's down here? Yes, a bunch. Let's make those flats have any D's down here. Yes, let's make those e flats. And in the other note that I don't have is the six. So that would be a Z. So I want to make sure that any A's are moved to a different note. Otherwise, I'm not in the pentatonic scale. There's no A are actually there. I moved him to a flats already, but let's moving to be flats. My A flats push those up to be flats. I think that's all of them. Is a flats No. Eight flats. Okay, so now I've thoroughly converted this to being a C minor pentatonic riff, so let's check it out Here's my corporation. Now, let's do a big, fast, crazy solo on it. Right. So I could do that all day long because most of those notes are gonna work because I'm playing a minor pentatonic scale, just riffing all over inside a minor pentatonic scale on top of a minor core progression in the same key C minor chord progression C minor pentatonic scale. 23. Example Track: Okay, let's try to make something with pentatonic scales. Um, So what I have said appears Ah, a couple things. I just have a this ah, eighties beat kind of group. I put together this lead, Theo, I'm going to use just, like, ripped through some pentatonic stuff. Uh, pass pad should be nice for a core progression. And then this baseline, I still have my my girl baseline. Here's let's get rid of that. Something like that. You know, something better in the lower octave. Okay, so, um, let's starts with our baseline, shall we? So let's do something like super pentatonic. Um, do you want to do major minor pentatonic to start? Um, let's do a minor pentatonic. Let's just get raunchy with it. So it's not something in a, because that's an easy key to work with. Um, So here are my notes of the pentatonic. Not be because there's no to, um oh. Oh, okay. Those were my notes. There's no to. So there's not gonna be a B, and there's no six. There's not gonna be and s Okay, so let's see if we conform at this into some kind of cool baseline. Uh, let's first of all, take everything down. Inactive. Oh, um let's dio um um trying to think out loud in here. So, um um um oh, um Oh, Okay. Let's see what we think of that. Go down. See how that works with our drums. Not bad. That core progression here. Going to make a big a minor course so that in way need change for that court. So let's take this whole scene duplicated. Let's do that same thing we did before. Let's put this down to a t. I think the major, though that's not so. We're on a money G, B and D super like eighties power ballad Something baseline. But that's OK, Make another soothe. That's cool. I'm digging. All right, let's take this whole thing down here. And now here, I'm gonna add some pentatonic. Rip it. It's gonna rock out on pentatonic stuff for a while here, So I want a pentatonic. Come on, 16 notes. I don't want to zoom in a little bit more. 32nd. How long d b that to make this better duplicate that right over. Oh, I didn't want to stop it way. I'm just doing Pentatonix over this I'm not even paying attention. Copy this clip. Let's just rock around a little bigger. I'm just gonna start thrown in pentatonic scale stuff. - All right, Give that one long note here. Okay? Now check this out. What we're gonna do here, put that up there way, launch our next scene. We're gonna start ripping really fast, and we're gonna have a 14 way back to the 1st 1 Here's the court change. I should be labeling these. I got I got him backward Clues it riff riff is gone here. Back to the harmony. Let's go to our fast one last one second Harmony. Let's drop off the baseline. And that will be one more scene Bring back way. But I got to bring back to Harmony Way, way number Go back to our main rip things out about our rib. Our baseline can eardrums cool. So, um, that was kind of fun. Uh, so remember, I just I just took two chords that were in a minor, a minor and G major. Ah, and then I just with with this lead, I just kind of rocked around on the on a pentatonic scale, not really paying attention to the courts and just works because that's how pentatonic scales role. They just kind of work cool. So I'm gonna give you this session in the next video or in the next little segment, and we'll do another one. 24. Example Track: Okay, This time, let's try to do something with a major pentatonic scale. And I'm gonna try to do something a little more kind of with kind of a jazz flair to it. Not my specialty, but let's try it. So I've got, um, kind of ah ah, keyboard instrument. Let's call it and then thats kind of organ thing on then. Kind of a shuffle drum. So it's not gonna be very jazzy, but we'll see what happens. So first thing I'm gonna do here is a core progression. I'm gonna try Beal rhythmic with it, so we want to do Major. So I'm just gonna do ah, core progression in C major. So let's do see, let's start with C Major. We don't have to always start with C major, but oh, and you know what? When I listen to this thing, this has ah harmony in it. I don't want that. So let's try to get rid of the harmony here. So has a harmony that might be okay. Let's try it. Okay. Cool. So that since that synth patch had, ah, harmony built into it, which I don't want, cause that's gonna make my court sound really funky. So let's go see. And then in the next measure, let's try to do this by measures. Let's do a four bar risk core progression. I should say, Let's go see. Let's maybe do. Ah, six. Let's go A a minor. I'm just gonna kind of place the cords here temporarily for a second. Um, let's do it too. Okay. And then let's do a five. So a g oops. Deep. Okay, so there's my four chords that I'm gonna use. Um, Now, instead of just sustaining these, I'm gonna try Teoh do some kind of rhythmic thing here. Something like that. Okay, let's do more or less the same. Where them Oh, okay. I have the same rhythm all the way. Now, let's try to sort out these inversions a little bit. Let's take these notes and shift him down, inactive so that it's a little smoother going between these cords. Uh, that one already looks pretty much okay. Let's take these two notes and take him down and active. There we go. That's maybe take this known open active again. Yeah, that's ok. Um, and you know what? If I want to get this little jazzy sounding. We should add seven. So let's have sevens on everything. So C E g b. What we actually want here is a flat, but let's leave it as a B. For now, this cord was a C e. So he's the top note. So we want to add a G to make it do you add the 7th 7th That's gonna be right there. Way. Have d f a. So the seventh is going to be a C on here. We have g b d. So f is gonna be the seventh. And you can put it right on the inside like that. That's totally okay. Like this one. I'm gonna move down to there. It's you that you okay? Close. Um, I don't love that sound, so let's just look at what I hav e right here. Let's do that is gonna be super bright, but e e t e e reverb fund e. Like that doesn't work with this beat. No, e Okay. Would work. Would work is if these were delayed to here. Oops. I mean, e to here e was going delay everything by an eighth note. Are these 1st 2 chords by now and then it will fit in with this. Be a little bit better. Check this out. Okay, Let's see what I got for a solo. Second solo, Simon. See, Let's get down to 16. So I want I have a sentence. I e you know, jump around a little bit, OK? But I don't. I think one rip works over the entire Just take some of this so I could do this all day. As long as I stay in, I could get away with kind of a lot here, So staying in the pact tonics see major pentatonic having go away. Actually, I'm gonna do something fun much if you're not able to in users. This might not be super interesting to you, but to me, this is, uh, a fun thing that we can do here. What I'm gonna do is set up a follow action. It basically says randomly switch between these three things. It's do any actually, every time play one of these because this is a four bar loops, and these are all one bar loops, so I'm just going to say randomly pick one. You know, like your friend randomly decided. Instant solar. That's not even farther. Three right instant solo just by having a bunch of pentatonic riffs telling the computer randomly pick one. And no matter what chord were under, So we have a 16 to five corps progression here, 16 to 5, and it's all in the key of C major. All of this pentatonic stuff is gonna work just great over it for the whole bloody thing. So that's why people love soloing with the pentatonic scales. It's very versatile. Uh, okay, great. I think that was fun. Um, not so jazzy. And I was jazzy as I was expecting. More like, kind of sort of sh multi bebop. I guess that's a new genre I'm gonna coin right now. Sh multi bebop. Um, cool. So I'll leave you this this session in the next thing, and then we're gonna move on and talk about chromatic medians coming up next. This is some fun stuff 25. Chromatic Mediants: okay up next, we're going to talk about something called chromatic medians. Now, this isn't something that you would come across until kind of leader in a traditional music theory course. Um, this is like third semester stuff, but it's something that I hear producers using an electronic music a lot. Um, in fact, I've got a couple questions in some my other music theory for electronic musicians classes where people have said, What is this core progression and asked me to figure something out, and it turned out it was using something called chromatic medians. And so I I hear it a lot in tracks. It's a cool sound. Um, that's very hip right now, and people like using it. So, um, I thought we definitely should include it in this class about, uh, more harmonic ideas. So what it is, uh, two words, Chromatic median. Let's focus on the median part first. So the median is a fancy way to say our third scale degree in the diatonic chord progressions. So let's super quick look at our diatonic chord progression will stick to see Major. Oops. Okay, Okay. Here is our diatonic chord progression and C major So we have a c major chord are to cord is gonna be a d minor are three chord is gonna be an e minor, etcetera. So, median, it is a fancy name for this court. The 3rd 1 Um, now, in the context of this chromatic median, it can also mean another court. Because what it what we're really looking at when we talk about chromatic medians is altering the cords that are three away from our tonic. Okay, so this is our may. Our tonic for the name of our key were in C major. Okay, so three away would be this'll won our 3rd 1 But we can also go the other way. We can go three down, so let's use This is our top three down equals this one six. So the sixth chord, uh, is also affected in this scheme of chromatic medians. Okay, so when we're talking about chromatic medians, what we're really talking about is working with is altering these two chords the third and the six. Okay, so that's where the word immediate plays into this chromatic medians thing. We talk about chromatic. What we're talking about is altering them and some kind of out of key way, right? Cause chromatic just means not in any key. So let's focus on the third for just a second. Here. What we have here in key in the key of C major, our third is minor. This is an e minor court. Okay, But when we're using this idea of chromatic medians, what that means is that what if our three was major Now our threes major, it's chromatic. We pulled it out of the key. It's not in key anymore, but who cares? It sounds pretty neat to do it. Actually, it sounds pretty cool. So what if our e was major or minor? So when we use a chromatic media and all that really means is we've altered the third or six and some goofy way, but it sounds kind of good. So here is a major three court, right. There's actually three different ways we could alter this. We could turn our e minor chord into an e major court, which is what we just did. We could also change the root of it down to an e flat and then build a major chord on that . So that would be e G B flat. So now we have a flat third, the third scale The third chord in our scale is gonna be flat and we build a We built a major chord on app And the third thing weaken Dio is keep this flat and build a minor chord on it. So what we're saying now is that instead of our the third chord in a diatonic chord progression instead of the third corps just being minor like it's supposed to be an interesting way to alter it would be to change it to a major, to change the root of it down 1/2 step and then build a major court on that or third way is put the route and 1/2 step lower and build a minor chord on that. Let me show you an example where we would do that and everything I just said goes for the six. Korda's well, we can do that with six court. In fact, let's do it with the six court in this example. So let me take the C major chord throw it up on Let's get rid of that and that. So now I just have my six that's pulled us out. Okay, so here is my tonic chord, C major. And then, Ah, minor. Six chord. It's an a minor chord. Totally in key. Okay, that's the way they're supposed to sound. Um, What's do? Let's just finish off this core progression My pudding. That's put a five p after it. So I have a g should have a B and A D. Ok, five. And then let's put a one after that. Okay, So here's our core progression. We have won 651 Uh, okay, Cool. Nothing fancy. Let's start messing with the six a little bit. So what if we made this six major instead of minor? So instead of going to an e minor chord, as expected, we went to an e major court. Let's just hear what that sounds like first. Uh, okay. A little different, right? Bear with me here. One cool thing that results from that is you have this chromatic line inside and then a step. So there is this. You can make use of this line inside. That's kind of fun, but Okay, let's go back to minor with that. Let's get it back. Okay. Now, let's altered another way. Let's take it down 1/2 step. So now we've taken it down to an a flat. So I've built a minor or a major chord on top of it. So I now having a flat six chord, right? So it's a little out of the key, actually, kind of a lot of the key, But let's feel how that leads into this five court. It might be kind of cool. Yeah, it's a different feeling, but it's kind of a cool one. Let's make that a minor chord. Uh, right. I like Oh, that cord leads into that court Now, you know they have a common tone, a tone in between them. That is the same, which is a nice touch. Let's do something else with this, though. Let's take this back to a major. It's get rid of this five chord. Take our six chord, nudge it over and now, in between those two, let's put a seven chord in a minor key. So let's switch over to a minor key. So now I'm on C minor. My seven court is gonna be B flat D, and now I have in a flat C E flat And that's in key, actually. What if I wanted to make that a minor chord? Okay, Now let's take the stop. No, down. Inactive. Check this out. This is the core progression I hear in electronic music all the time. Not so much that ending. I forgot to make that minor. Ah, I need to find my e here. But there needs to be minor. Okay, that's here. Now, I think it sounds a little goofy out of context like this, but I do hear this a lot. And electronic music. I hear this kind of C B flat a flat and then back down to C with a G in the bottom step. Makes a nice baseline. Makes a nice core progression. So this one in a way, is kind of the opposite of the pentatonic stuff. We were talking about a second ago because the chromatic mediaite thing is Onley about making core progressions. So basically, what we've done here is we're just looking at different ways that we can alter the three and the six to make him sound a little cooler. Ah, and not so as stale. So we take some a couple notes, and we alter them just to recap real quick for in a major key. We have three different ways. We can alter that cord, that minor court order, the three chord and that is it's a minor chord. Naturally, in key. It's minor, so we can dio we can make it a major court. That's one way we can lower it by 1/2 step and make a minor court on it. That's another way we can lower it by half stuff to make a major court on it. That's 1/3 way. If we're in a minor key, the natural sound of it is gonna be major eso. If we're in the key of a minor, you're gonna end up with a C major chord as your three. So the three things you can do that one are. You could make it minor so you couldn't take your E major and converted to E minor. The other thing you could do is you could actually raise it by 1/2 step, and that would make it a C sharp major chord. Uh, and then from that, you could make that a minor, according have a C sharp, minor chord kind of wild. Now remember, this does take stuff out of key. You're going out of key when you do this. But remember, if everything was always just in key, then it's just boring. We do stuff like this to jazz it up to make it sound cooler. So it's not just playing chord after chord all the time, right? All right, so let's do this some of this in context. Let's work on some tracks using this idea. 26. Track Example: Okay, here we go again. So I queued up Just a fun little beat Hoops. How'd my tempo is? Totally crazy. Let's go about one with six. Okay, Cool. Dig it. Um, Now it's like a chord progression. I've still just got a normal old piano here, so let's start with that. So let's just do, um let's do a full, full bar. The corporation. You're so see Yeah. G changed my loop to four. I'm gonna make this a whole bar long. Here we go. Okay. So let's go to see, let's do something with Third. So let's make are three chord in key. Looks like that. So it's gonna be e g b coming e minor chord. That's just something real funky with it. Let's go in e flat. Let's just throw that in there. An e flat that makes that a major and we'll go B flat. So now we have an e flat. Major Triad has no business being a key of C major, right? None. But let's see if we can Let's see if we can make it work. What if next we went to a d? Ah, Now we're back in key. This is my second chord, so I'm not gonna mess with it d f a And then let's go to five Chord, I guess back in key Perfectly natural. So a five chord is gonna be g B I put it be at the bottom and I D so g b d it's gonna be my five chord. Okay, let's check out my inversions here. See if I can tighten it up a little bit. Maybe that maybe that I put this. I am. Okay. Cool. Uh, let's see what we've got. All right? Kind of interesting. You can hear that. Mind that e flat chord right there. Really? Just livens it up. It just makes it feel so much cooler to me. Um, okay, let's make this little musically interesting. So my first idea that when I just heard that was to make these kind of quarter notes Oops. I wanted to dio I'm just gonna do that with trying to sound here. Um, just looking for presets so that I can send them to you guys something with a good attack to it. That might work, actually. Okay, let's see, Let's throw in a little base here, dirty Not that Ah. Um, wait, that's kind of fun. I'll see if I can make a wobble bass working here. I don't think I will, but let's try it. Just toe. Make things weird. Okay, So I want based on here. So what I'm gonna do is copy this core progression down. No, this is not what I want for a baseline. So you never want to put chords in your base, but, um, it's kind of a shorthand way to do this. Let's see how that feels for a baseline way. Let's play with this a little bit more. Let's just kind of go kind of crazy with it here, okay? I'm just trying toe create some different notes. A little meandering pattern with it. I'm just using the key of e of C. Major accepted this note right here because we're leading into this e flat chord through the leaf flat in right there. Just like a little bit before it. We're not actually really hearing this. We are hearing it. But not that Because of its eighth note, we're only hearing eighth notes with the pulse, but so I'm just kind of go around and see Major a little bit here. Let's just do I don't know. - Yeah , Theo. So the only thing I just changed right there is this note. This wasn't e natural. Pulled it down e flat because we are using that chromatic median. Even though this is our five chord and that e flat isn't in it, we're still it helps to give us just kind of a sense of the e flat of that chromatic median A little. It's a little more colorful if I sneak a couple of the flats into this baseline right there and there, Um, I don't have to. It'll sound just fine without him, but it makes a little more, I don't know, colorful. If I can just kind of sneak him in there. So let's maybe do a little bit more with this track. Um, legal drum intro. Let's have that baseline enter, and then we'll just keep that going. We'll do that a couple times. Let's do it right here. Maybe switch things up a little bit now. That's not It's called good. I was going to throw a six in there and altered six, but I think we'll do that in the next video. Let's just do that. I've got a pretty cool little track. Let's hear it 27. Example Track: Okay, let's try something using an altered six still running with our chromatic medians idea. So let me make a one core step to see Major. Okay, here's our one. I'm gonna make another four bar loops so I can really get the court Russian for I've got a Rudes keyboard here. Electric piano. Let's go up. Inactive. But okay, let's go. Let's check out what are six would be. So our sixth is gonna be an A. You mean a minor court A c E. Now what we could do with that? Alter the six. We could do a major sixth, so let's just hear what we've got. We could do that to make it a major six. Okay, it's a little bright sounding. Let's try lowering our tonic and we have to lower fifth to actually after or lower a lot. So if I lower this two and a flat, I now need a c a C e flat, a flat C e flat. And now I have a major six built on a flat. Six killed Rio. Okay, the other thing I could do is make the spider of those that what I'm feeling right now is making a major flat. Six. So we've got Accord built on are lowered six scale degree and a major court built on it. Let's maybe not. Go right into it, though. Let's go over here and let's put maybe a five. Oops. Five chord G G v. So it's unaltered, Mr Five. Then flat six. Okay, You know what? On second thought, let's make the second Quarter four chord. That's gonna sound a little bit smoother to me. And then let's go to of five. Court at the end. So here will go Teoh a G. Okay, so what I have here now? 14 this'll weird. Flat six. And then a five. Okay, um, let's do some, uh, octave transposition is just to make the voice leading a little bit better. Take that down. Take these two down and active Needs to. Okay, let's see what we got. Okay, cool. See this one? It's a little weird because of this note. Let's throw something fun in there. I have a little bit cute up. Uh, let's go with throwing orchestra, But I'm gonna take a couple before I put in this working out. Thin it out a little bit it's actually get rid of the middle notes. I just Let's move. This note could spread there. Sometimes an orchestra. This sounds good. And then these three notes, No doubt I'm gonna get weird with like this, right? A little too back line. So what I did here is I added this chromatic line still using notes from the cord, just ah, connecting them together using this note that's not in key this cord. That's not in key, technically, to make this chromatic line connecting them right. It's pretty cool sound and note that I did that. This chromatic line on the orchestra part, not on my keyboard part that's still going by itself. You know, I could do if I wanted to get weird. Let's make this eight bars long. Let's take in the score progression again. Watch this. Okay, I'm putting this core progression in here just as a reference. I want this line to keep going up, So if I take this note and raise it up by an active, it's the next chromatic notes, so that's gonna keep it going up. It's cool. Let's plays this note by an active That's the same note for the next one. That's a big leap. Okay, so what I can do here is just stretch this note out, and I know it's gonna work. Like that note is in the court that notice the same note again. I want to get off that if I can. You can do a leap there. I'm just transposing these notes to find ones that are gonna work. Now, I'm just gonna forget that baseline for a minute. Actually, I could just duplicate it. That'll work. So now I've got my chromatic line going up and up and up. It goes down a little bit there, but let's just hear what that sounds like. It's kind of fun. - So there you go. Chromatic medians. They can give your track a lot of really cool color. Make it sound like it's not just playing through core progressions. It's actually doing something a little meteor. There's a little there's more, ah, color to the core progression that you're making. So play around with those Superfund 28. Too Many Options: Okay, so But you might be thinking at this point is, you know, the basics of how theory works. And now you have all these crazy ideas for ways to bend theory to make it more interesting . But we don't long we no longer I need to just use the diatonic chord progression, right? We can use that when we want things to sound nice and cool. But when we're not things to sound a little, a little more colorful, more interesting, Just a little kind of off the beaten path. We have all these different techniques we can use. We can use a mode weaken, do something with a pentatonic we can use a chromatic median on. There's more of those and we'll get to more of these and hopefully in the future class. Um, and there's mawr yet that I'm gonna cover in this class a ton of them, actually, in the next big section, we're gonna go over all kinds of scales. But before we get to that, I wanted to insert this section on just what we do with all this, right? Like we have all of these ideas. We have all these concepts, different things we can do. How do we use them? So when this part of the class I'm gonna give you to kind of ideas for different ways that I think about this stuff when I'm writing a track. Um, when do I decided to use a chromatic medium? When do I decide to use a pentatonic scale? When did you decide to use a mode? And when do I just decided to use a plain old major scale? These are all options we have. So I hope you don't feel too daunted by it. But if you do feel daunted by all the different possibilities, then uh, that's okay. That's how people usually feel when they're in the your shoes right now. So this section I'm gonna try to make that feel less daunting and show you how I would use thes uh, practically so I've got these two techniques that I use just to kind of think through things while I'm working. The first up is this kind of working backwards idea. So let's dive into that right now. 29. Work Backwards: Okay, So here's my kind of working backwards idea. Um, the basic idea is don't think about theory. Don't think about harmony. Don't think about anything. Just write notes that you think sound good together. So let's try it. Let's do I'm just gonna kind of randomly put a couple of notes down E F Sharp, G. Uh, okay. I have a couple of notes. Let's hear it. Okay. Lets maybe try to make us more interesting. Let's extend this loop to four bars. Um, that's maybe you shuffle the rhythm a little bit. The idea here is I'm not gonna worry about anything with theory for a minute. I'm just going to kind of throw random notes around here, but that there, let's put that there. Okay. So I just kind of threw some notes together. Jeff. Whatever. Let's put a little some kind of pulse on that. No bottom. Okay. It's cool that they're OK. So I got a little melody here and I was sort of paying attention. I'm mostly using e major here. We're sorry. E minor here could also be g major. There might be some stuff out of the key. Not really paying attention I don't care. Okay, I'm gonna make another track. Um, and I'm actually gonna copy this track into a new clips law grid instead of making another track change your mind. So I'm gonna do here, is I'm gonna start adding a harmony. I'm not. I'm still not going to think about theory as much as I can. I mean, I know a bit of theory now, So, um, I'm just gonna add some bass notes to Okay, so I know G is gonna kind of work, so let's just start okay? From here on out, I'm not thinking I started with a g is gonna go this, Okay? I just added a baseline to it. Now, this may or may not sound good, because I wasn't thinking, but that's okay. That's my point. Now I'm gonna kick it around. I'm gonna see get rid of some stuff that's not working particularly well to me. Really quick. - Okay , Now I'm my core progression is now starting to come into focus, have a melody, and I have a baseline that I think are kind of interesting together. Now it's time to use some theory, so let's take that through that over here. So now I'm on a new track. It's still just a piano sound, but I want to look at what chords I've made here, right? So now I'm going to start using theory. Before, I was just going based on my ear. So now let's see what we've got. So here we have a G and E, so that could be an e minor chord that would make the most sense. So let's fill in a B, which is what we would need to finish our, uh, be minor e minor chord. So now I have an e minor chord there. Let's stretch that out to be the full length of the baseline. Okay, this is just gonna call a passing tone. Gonna kind of ignore it. Sure. I haven't e and G. That could be still in the minor court. Right? There's a G. There's the e call that a voice exchange that's happening right there. But it doesn't matter. Let's not get too fancy. It's just still calling in e minor chord e minor chords Gonna work over that whole bit here . My based on is a B. I haven't e and f sharp in a Dean What do we want to call that? The question here is, which of these two notes is our cord? We could go either way, but I'm gonna do be kind of weird with it and say f sharp. With that, I could call it a B minor chord B D f sharp. So let's try it. At least for this first half. That kind of works here. Let's stick to it. Let's just get weird. Let's ignore that bass note. We'll see if it works. Okay, Now I have a G A a g. So that could be these two notes are, ah, whole step apart. Which means we could explain that with the seventh, we could say it's a C e g with the seventh. Or we could just call this down a passing tone and call it still yet another G minor. Now I'm willing to call it a G minor because that makes our G major sorry, because that makes sense. But we just had we want something a little more interesting. So we have a whole bunch of G's here. What's a more interesting chord that has a G in it? Um, actually, we had e minor over here so we could call this a G major. So if we build something on B, which we've already done here, we could use a chromatic medium. We could make this a chromatic media by making it a major. That could be fun. Let's try that. Let's try leaving that major that's using chromatic medians. And then here let's try calling this a G major chord. So we have just gvt. Okay, we'll get rid of all of this. Here we have a bunch of a in an F sharp what we call that f a C. So it's called that an F sharp chord f c way have a d and me and and a Let's ignore that e for now. And let's just say a D and A that makes a d major chord sharp A. On this last one. E g d p. It's called a e minor chord, so let's get rid of that in that and just go, Okay, now I want to look at what I've got. So now if I'm in the key of e minor, I have a one and then I have a major three. So that's that's using chromatic medians. But now remember the Ruiz and I landed here. The reason I ended with it ended up with a chromatic immediate right here isn't because I sat down and said, I want a chromatic media. That's gonna be cool. I did it because I came over the melody that I came up with the baseline and then I came up with a core progression and it just kind of had one in it. And thats okay, so I'm just reinforcing what I just kind of discovered through using my ear. Right, So here I have eso if we're in the key of Okay, So in order for this to be a chromatic median, this has to be a G major, not a e minor. So just a slight correction on that. I had an e minor here, and B is not the chromatic media. So if I change this to a GI, that's what I've been. That's what I meant to do. So now we have a G, and then we have a chromatic media on that a major three. I have another G and f sharp. A see, that's kind of a weird core. It's a diminished chord. That's a seven diminished seven. I don't love that, but let's see what happens then. If I'm in the key of G. I have a five here and then e g B and E minor here, which is a six case. Let's do a little voice leading magic and just do some trance positions. Get everything kind of the same area passing down. Okay, let's just hear our core progression as is right now. See if it fits melody. Everything except that note to be sharp. That's cool. Check this out. Boom. Cool. Let's try this one. I got a movie star. Okay, so now I found a really interesting core progression and actually happens to use a chromatic immediate. But the way I found it was through just some exploration and then seeing what came out of it. And eventually I landed on this core progression that happened. Have a chromatic media. Now, if you were working on a track, that last thing I would want you to do is to sit here and look at your core progression and say, Well, this doesn't make sense in G Major because that note doesn't work, So that needs to be a D, but that's that's gonna tame it. You know, it's gonna make it so much less interesting, right? Let's just here that chord progression without the chromatic meeting. Let's get rid of that. It's going to sound really dissonant now, right? It's okay. But if we jazz it up by doing this, it's just it just adds a little something. So, uh, so what I did here is that kind of works backwards. I thought of a melody. I played around with it and I ended up at this cool core progression. Um, so that's one technique for using some of these different harmonic ideas. OK, in the next video, we'll dump out this track that I just made so you can download it and play with it if you like. 30. Key Mapping Scales: Okay, The next tip. I want to give you on just kind of ways of thinking about all these different kinds of, like, techniques that we have is to I kind of do the opposite of what I just said a minute ago. So these are just different ways. You can approach it, um, and limit yourself to one of scales or the modes or the harmonic progressions and just kind of explore it a little bit. I'm gonna show you a technique for doing that. If you're in able 10. If you're in logic or fl studio or pro tools, there might be similar ways to do this. I don't know those programs as well, but just check it out. Um, some is gonna make a C major scale here. Yeah, I got C major scale. Now I'm just gonna loop that. Okay, let's have a c major scale looping. No habits affecting here under MIDI effects can go to scale what this is gonna do that it's going to take all the notes I've written, and it's just gonna map them to whatever scale I have here. So if I go to here's a Dorian mode, OK, so Let's play. It s so I'm still in the major scale through this on its way. Okay. Notes stay the same in my piano roll editor. What's happening is if I look at the effect right here, it's kind of taking all of the notes that don't fit into during in and switching them, right? So it's it's kind of forcing it into Dorian mode. So we here, Dorian. But we still see major here so we could do that all day long. Just chained to a minor. Dio it's fine. Another mode is Lydian. Oops. Now I've got a problem here. Wait. Familiar fridge in some other ones. Okay, So a couple things about this The reason I point this out is that sometimes just doing this . What this is going to do is it's not gonna let you play a note outside of whatever mode or scale we have set up here. So right now I'm saying every single note that comes in force it to be fridge in. So what I can do now is I could just play my piano and I can know that every single note I play is going to get forced into this fridge Ian thing, and then I can just explore it, right? Like I could just kind of see what's there. Get a feel for the sound, find something I like, and then use that as a starting point for assault. Um, so it's kind of backwards from what we were just talking about in the previous one. But sometimes this is useful. I find this technique more useful for when I'm doing something like a film. Um, score where what I need to do is I've got a scene, and I know the scene needs this kind of like, creepy sound. So maybe I'll load up our fridge and sound, because I would just look at it. And I think, Oh, a fridge in sound would work well there. So that could work, um, for that particular scene. So I might just know that that mode is gonna work well for that scene. Now, Um, the essence of what I'm saying here is just kind of explore the sounds of these and generate your idea from that and then apply all the other techniques and see where it goes . Now, there's something worth pointing out here. When we go to this scale. Plug in. Here we see these scales. We got a lot more skills and I talked about All right. We've got all kinds of crazy, weird stuff here. Let's explore a few of these Gypsy diminished Prometheus hopes doing this thing again from Theus. Tension. It's meant try to down scale. I don't know that inverted useless. That sounds like I made up one. Yeah, kind of. So all of these are slight variations Now, Um, like I said, be at the beginning of this whole segment, there are tons of scales. There are tons of variations of the major and minor scales. Um, tons of them. So, uh, we're gonna talk about ah whole bunch of these in the next section. But first, I want to kind of introduce the topic in the next video. So let's jump over to that, and then we're going to go into not all of these, but a ton of different ones, The kind of most important ones, in my opinion, 31. The Essence Of Scales: Okay, The last kind of tip I want to talk about in this section on kind of How do you use all this stuff? Is to learn what I call like the essence of the scale. In the previous section, I was talking about exploring the sounds of the scale or the harmony and finding stuff. But what's really useful as you start working with, Like I was saying before film, video games, anything where there's, like an image that you you kind of just recall the essence of certain scales and buy essence. I mean, like, Ah, this one sounds creepy. This one sounds pretty. This one sent, and there's that. There's, like, a whole spectrum there, Right? So what we typically do is we talk about what are called exotic scales. These are not modes, not major scales, not minor scales. They're just all these weird ones here and in this list, there's some just kind of goofy ones. But ah, lot of the exotic ones air in here. Um, So what we're gonna do now is we're gonna jump over to a section we're gonna just, like, run through a bunch of these exotic sales. Not all of them because there are thousands. But I just want to talk about some of the most prominent one, some of those interesting ones to me. So let's jump over and talk about exotic scales. 32. Exotic Scales: Okay, everyone. So we reached our exotic scales. I love this from exotic. It makes him sound just like forbidden. And some of them probably were in a way. Um, the reason we call them exotic scales. I don't know if there's a technical reason we use this term exotic. It's a very kind of Western term because a lot of these scales air not exotic, depending on where you live. So what I mean by that is that a lot of these scales are kind of nationalistic and historic , so they might be scales based around folk music of a certain area, a certain nationality, something like that. So So a lot of them you can pin down to either a period in history or a culture of people, which makes him really interesting. You know, it's just a series of notes that can really bring to mind different kinds of different cultures, right? It's it's wild, and it's kind of amazing. Um, So I'm just gonna go through a bunch of these here and what I'm gonna do. Well, I do. It is I'm gonna build this, uh, live set that's gonna have I'm gonna make a midi clip of each scale for you. And then at the end, I'll give you this session so that you've got, like, a bunch of different clips that have all the different scales in it so you can explore them on your own, so I'll build that as we go. Another thing I would like to point out about these is that if you are unable to user, you can find a lot of them here. But I'm not going to use this stuff this scale. I'm just gonna write him and so that I can kind of walk us through them. And if you are unable to push user, that's the hardware interface for a built in that they have out now. Or the push to you can dial in different scales to kind of map the pads to work on different scales. Ah, lot of these scales that we're gonna talk about you're gonna find in those settings. So hopefully, if you've seen that setting in here like, what are all these goofy scales? Some of this will make sense to you, um, because you could just dial them in and then map the whole able to push controller to these different scales. Last thing I want to say is that I can't explain some of these scales without talking about different cultures and a little bit of history. And I don't know all of these cultures. Obviously, I'm not a historian, our anthropologists or anything like that. So I just want to preface this by saying, Please forgive me if I accidentally say anything, uh, insensitive to any any of these particular cultures. It's no disrespect needed. It's just pure ignorance on my part, So let's dive in. 33. Algerian Scale: okay, I think we're gonna I have my list here of the ones I want to go through. And so let's start with the Algerian scale. The Algerian scale. I'm, uh it's found often North African music. Um, it has a lot of minor thirds that we associate with Morrish Music. So let's take a look at it. So I'm going to all of these and see So So we're gonna start with C that we have whole step half step, and then we have a minor third leap right there and then 1/2 step and then another half step and then another half step oops than a minor third and then 1/2 step and then a minor third and then a minor third. Now, this one is really interesting because and you'll find this in some of these that you can see here We went more than an octave, and some scales do this. The reason we went more than an octopus is because in this particular scale, we have this f sharp in the lower octave winning when you play this scale, what you're supposed to do is in the lower active you do an F sharp to give this minor third right here and in the upper active. You do an f natural to not give that minor thirds really interesting. Uh, let me queue up a piano here so we can hear this thing right? Kind of wild. Let's loop it. Interesting. All right. So I'm gonna rename this Algerian scale. So that's our 1st 1 the Algerian scale. 34. Arabian Scale: okay. Up next, we're gonna talk about an Arabian scale. You can probably guess where this one comes from. This is also sometimes called the diminished scale because it kind of build around a diminished triad. So we have a whole step half step, so we're already looking at some kind of minor. We'll stay half step, pull, step, half step. That's where it gets weird. Okay, step half step. Now, check this out. 12345678 So we have eight notes to the active here, right? Normally, we have seven. And our eighth note is the active. In this case, the ninth note is the active. So that's where things get a little, Um, so that's different than then. The scales that we've looked at so far. So that makes this one fall into the what we call exotic terms. Oops. You know, it might help to hear these. Let's just try something out way Put a big bass note under here, see if that just kind of strengthens the feeling of that scale. I think that does a little bit. So I'm gonna start putting in those those low bass notes just so that we have one. I'm gonna go back to our Algerian scale and put that in. I think it helps feel it. You can take that out if you like. So here's the Algerian scale with the bass notes. And here's our Arabia's Theo. Cool, right? All right, moving on. 35. Major Arabian Scale: all right. Next, we're gonna do another Arabian scale. But this one is a major Arabian scale. So only slightly different. This one we also see sometimes called a major low Crean scale. So remember, a locally and scale is that is a mode and it's that super weird One built on B are built on the seven scale degree. Not always be, but on the seventh. So it it has that really kind of That's the, you know, chop your head off one. Um, but if we made a major version of low Korean, that's what this is sometimes also called. So check it out. So C d. And now we have an e natural than 1/2 step. Another half step, Full step, whole step whole stuff. So now, in this case, we're back down to seven notes to the active. It's kind of interesting. Let's hear it when we put our base note on there. Uh, let's hear. It almost sounds just like a normal old major scale for here. But then the second half things just kind of go wild. So that one we're gonna call Arabian scale Major, maybe stretch this out so we can see those nice and good. Okay, moving on 36. Japanese Hon Kumoi: okay, up next. We have some Japanese scales. Now, the next two are called Japanese scales. But they the 1st 1 the one we're gonna talk about right now is has a more correct name, which I'm gonna butcher trying to say. But I'll just read it on the screen here, Um, so this is called the Japanese scale. But more correctly, uh, that's what it's called on. These Japanese scales are really similar. Or we could say they're based on pentatonic scales. Um, so they're close to pentatonic scales, so it's like what we've got here. That's it. So five notes to the active so very pentatonic like, um, the thing about pentatonic scales, the normal pentatonic scales to us is that pentatonic scales don't have any half steps. Uh, in these scales, we have to have steps, right? So it's a little bit different than a pentatonic scale, but still kind of using a similar framework. That bass note in Interesting. Right? Okay, let's look at the other one 37. Japanese: Okay, So here's the other Japanese one. And this one, as far as I know, doesn't have another name. This is just we just call this the Japanese scale. Um, if anyone is watching this and knows more about Japanese music than me, which is very likely, please let me know. Okay. And that's it. Um, so another five note scale, five notes to the active way have 1/2 step. So the difference between these two is really this this? No. Right here. I was down there before. Now it's raised up, so let's check that out. Oops. I forgot to living for us, but that bass note in Okay, very interesting. You know, it's kind of hard to hear the kind of Japanese quality in this. Um, but I think if you used it and in contact, you could find it in a bunch of music. So if you did some analysis of Japanese music, hopefully you would find these kinds of scales or variations of these kinds of scales. 38. Balinese Pelog Scale: all right, up next, we're gonna do the Balinese scale. Um, this one sometimes called the Balinese scale, sometimes called the P log scale. Um, believe P log is a word that means, like, beautiful or something like that. Um, you find this scale used in gamble on music? Often it's very popular. One that Gamma Lan are like these. They're an instrument. Um, hard to explain. A gamble on Look up a gamble on ensemble. It's really beautiful music. Um, let's take it out. So we start with 1/2 step whole step all the way up 1/4 half step, and that's it. So another five note scale. Let's hear it. Interesting. Right? So this one we call the Balinese or PII log scale. 39. Egyptian Scale: okay, up next. We're going to talk about an Egyptian scale. No, this is one And like many of these. But this is one that, um if you look up, what are the notes of an Egyptian scale? You might find several different interpretations. Um, it's hard to say. There's not, like, universal agreement on what makes up an Egyptian scale. So the version I'm going to use here is one that is, uh, quite common if you look it up. I've seen this one around a lot as one of the popular versions of it, and that's it. So no half steps, right? Very similar to our normal pentatonic scale that's here. 40. Whole Tone Scale: All right. Up next is whole tone scale that this is one that I do have quite a bit of experience with . We do use this one, uh, in western music all the time. Um, in fact, there are some composers who kind of built their career on the whole tone scale, notably WC and a lot of the French romantic composers WC rebel, that kind of thing. Whole tone scale is very, very popular with them. Uh, it's an easy scale to remember because it's literally all whole steps. Mm. That's it. So no half steps, no minor thirds. Just whole steps all the way up. So this is gonna sound like it. It's gonna be normal major triad for here. And that's kind of a different, normal major triad for here. Um, so it's kind of like two different major triads, uh, kind of cut in half and taped together. It's called the whole tune scale. Right. Um, let's do our typical looping thing and put a big bass note on it so we can really get the character of it. Has a very mysterious quality when you want to do something mysterious. Used the whole tone scale 41. Spanish Gypsy Scale: are these? Next couple scales fall into this category of scales that we call gypsy scales. Um, now, I've been a metal tauron on this word. Gypsy scales. I've been told that this term gypsy is not in okay term that it's, ah, kind of offensive term. I think the other option is Romani or something like that. Have something like Romani Scales. Um, but commonly, if you are gonna look these up, you are going to find them called Gypsy Scales. So I think that's what I have to call them here. So the 1st 1 of this set there are a bunch of gypsy scales. They're all really cool. So the 1st 1 is called a Spanish Gypsy scale. So let's do it. So we start off with half step thin, a minor third, another half step on a whole step and 1/2 step full step, and then we're back to see. So this is a seven note scale. Tha can't There we have the Spanish Gypsy scale 42. Hungarian Scale: okay, up next, the next one in our kind of family of gypsy scales. This one we sometimes just call Hungarian. You see this listed as the Hungarian scale. Sometimes you see it listed as a Hungarian major, going to Hungarian minor after this one, Um, but if it doesn't say major or minor, it's probably this one, which is Hungarian major. So take a look. See D Sharp. That's kind of unique. We haven't seen one start with a minor third right off the bat quite yet on 1/2 step, whole step, half step, the whole step half step and then back to see pretty interesting goal. Let's loop it. Oops, Bass note really kept pretty interesting, so that one supposedly is linked to Hungarian music. I would love to know more about that, but I have not formally studied Hungarian music. I would love to do that someday that it's really beautiful music. Okay, let's move on. The Hungarian minor 43. Hungarian Gypsy: Okay. This one, like many, has two names. I just said this one's gonna be a Hungarian minor. We also sometimes call this the Hungarian gypsy. So Hungarian Gypsy, also Hungarian minor. So there's are minor third that we saw in the other one. But now we have a ah noted between a major second in between. We have minor third up here, half step, another half step, another minor, third and then back to see things like difference theories, the Hungarian nature that we're looking at. Still hearing another one. Let's put our base note in the's scales in a way, are kind of a lesson in stereotyping. This is what kind of bothers me about them a little bit because you can think like, oh, I want to sound like this is like Hungarian Gypsy music. And I just used that Hungarian gypsy scale. Um, it's almost like, too easy. Um, like all their music. Sounds like that. But these were just the names of the scales. These are not my name's of the scales. Uh, that's what people call him. So that's what I call him, even if I don't like it. 44. Persian Hungarian Gypsy: Okay. Another slight variation on these gypsy scales. This one we call the Persian Hungarian Gypsy is also sometimes called a double harmonic scale or even a Byzantine scale. If you want to go back, uh, to the Byzantine, the Byzantine Empire is not what it. Anyway, I should not even, like, try to talk about history unless it's like, strictly music history. Uh, okay, so minor third there than 1/2 step. A whole step half step minor third. And then we're back to see under seven Note scale. That's ridiculous thing. Okay, interesting. If these air all starting to sound the same to you, uh, then you're not alone. That's kind of how they work. Once you hear all of these in order, they start to kind of sound the same to me. Anyway, um, that's okay. I think the point is there such subtle differences between a lot of these that we will want to study them. And if you really want to invoke these kinds of sounds, you'll have to study them a little bit more. But then you can really kind of take advantage of those kind of weird placed minor thirds and minor seconds and things like that. The half steps. I don't think you'll really get the feel for it, just kind of introducing all of them. Now let's move on to another one. 45. Persian: Okay, this one, we just call the Persian scale, have a minor scale with a flat two and a major third. So it's kind of like one another one. That's kind of split in half, where it's kind of major in the first half and totally minor in the second half. Once we get past this, major third were all minor. Okay, let's hear. Loop it. And at a base note, no one has these three semi tones in the middle that we've seen that before in some of the other scales, these three semi tones in the middle to half steps, Um, sometimes it makes kind of a blues sound. If this was shifted up by 1/2 step, it would give us that blues sound. But where it is right there kind of misses the blues and gives us that I don't know. I guess that Persian sound, because that's what this one is called version 46. Chinese: Okay, that's the end of the kind of gypsy scales. In fact, maybe I will even take these gypsy scales and change their color a little bit just to kind of separate them. So up next, we're gonna be looking at some Chinese scales and some more eastern scales. Um, 1st 1 we just call Chinese scale. There's not a better name for it. And a lot of these ones are really going to be pentatonic centric, so related to the pentatonic scale, although not exactly pentatonic. Eso five note scale, couple half steps in there. I guess it's Oh, yeah, to half steps in there. So that makes it different than our pentatonic scale. Because our plan attacks sales of any half steps. This one does. Um, we saw some of this in the Japanese ones earlier. These ones are slightly different. Um, let's check it out. Ah, oops. 47. Oriental: right next one's called an Oriental scale dissident calling Oriental half step minor third half step, another half steps with 3/2 steps in a row. They're interesting B flat, a c and then a bunch of whole steps. So a bunch of half steps, that much whole steps. So just the Oriental scale. It seems like I should have a modifier after it, like the Oriental something scale, but just called the Oriental scale. 48. Neopolitan: okay. Up next. We have, uh, one called the Neopolitan Scale on this one has a, um it is interesting to us. So we have actually something calling Neopolitan chord that we haven't looked at yet. Um, what it is is it's a flat two. It's a cord built on that note. So the Neopolitan scale will look at the neopolitan cord, hopefully in a near future class. But we know the Neopolitan scale is gonna have that note in it because it's got that flat, too Sonority around it. Um, from there, we have some whole steps. Half that and I admire third when we go, this one, um, is used a lot. This scale, surprisingly, is used a lot in, like, metal. When when people doing like metal guitar shred stuff want to sound, uh, kind of like, uh, eastern and that kind of spooky eastern way, I guess they use the Neopolitan scale a lot of the time. It also works really well with power cords. Um, so this is kind of like a if someone's, like, rocking out with, like, power chords on the guitar, the scale works out quite well. Way Call that one. The Neopolitan scale. Keep your eye out for this word. Neopolitan. Uh, it is more than just ice cream. It comes up in music quite a bit. So hang on to that word for a while. 49. Hindu Scale: Okay. These last three are based on Indian music. So, um, a lot of them have to do with rajas. But we'll get to those. Secondly, this 1st 1 eyes just called Hindu scale. Let's check it out. Have a whole step. Full step, half step. Whole step, half step. The whole step half step. You're a Hindu scale. 50. Raga Hanumatodi: Okay. Next we're gonna talk about thes thes two last ones are Indian based scales, and they're both ragas now. Raga is a I don't know what, Tom about this. So if anyone, um, wants to correct me on this, please do. But my understanding is that ah, Aragua is kind of like both a scale and a kind of rhythmic idea that is tied to the scale. Um, and it's a pattern that gets played in music over and over for the purpose of dance or just a song or whatever. So it has a lot of uses, but it's kind of like a scale that has an associated rhythm tied to it. I think that's how rockets work. Don't quote me on that. I am not an expert on Raja's, although I wish I was. I want to get this 1st 1 There are a bunch of different Raja's kind of parallel to our modes. This one has a tricky to pronounce name, so I'm just gonna put it up here on the screen. Here we go. Uh, let's hear it. One thing that might be worth pointing out here Is that a lot of these scales there tuning system is slightly different and a lot of Indian music. So they might be doing some of these notes what will sound like, slightly out of tune tow us? And that's what gives that really kind of like raga like Indian music kind of sound, Um, is having a B for lack of a better term, out of tune in our system. So you get that. So if you're really trying to hunt down that sounds, that makes it sound like really Indian sounding, Um, look into that into like D tuning some notes that might get you what you're looking for. Let's look at another one. 51. Raga Todi: Okay, one more on This is another Rog, I remember. Like I said, there's a ton of different rock patterns. This one is Raga Todi. I think it's pronounced e o D I Minor. Third, and this one is kind of not unlike our our harmonic and melodic minor scales. If you remember back to those and that it's different, coming down slightly different. So let's do it going down. Have this G in it that we didn't have going the other way. Uh huh. So everything is the same going up and down, except this G is in it when it's descending, not so much when it's us ending. So if you remember our when we did the melodic, harmonic minor scales, there were differences for when one of them was ascending and descending. So it's kind of like that. Let's hear it at our base notes. Okay, that's it. So that's just a tone of scales, Remember? Like I said, there are hundreds of thousands of them that exists, especially once you start getting into scales that are not using the same kind of tuning like this one and the previous one. The tuning is slightly different, so the scales could be all over the place. There are some scale that don't line up at the active. So that opens like a whole new can of worms there, tons of different scales that can happen once you take away those limitations. So keep your eye off for those. If you're interested in this dig around the Internet, you could find books of thousands of scales there. They're pretty interesting. 52. Thanks Bye: All right, everyone. That brings us to the end of music theory for electronic musicians. Part three. I've had a good time. I love making these classes. Um, and I love seeing the feedback and the questions posted from all of you. So please post questions, um, to send me links to your tracks. Post those links in this session in the question area of the class. I love seeing those just post a soundcloud link or whatever you've got for whatever you're working on and I will check it out. That is super fun for me to see. And if you want, I can even offer feedback. I really do appreciate you spending your time in a couple bucks to hang out with me in this class. I hope you learned something I hopefully will be making a part for. In order to do that, though, I need to know what you want me to cover. This class was largely made up from people asking me to cover more stuff. I got a lot of questions asking for how to figure out new melodic and harmonic ideas. So that's why I put together this class the way I did If you have other things you want me to cover, please send me a message. Post comment to whatever you want to do to let me know, and I will add it to the list for the next class in this iteration of music theory for electronic musicians. So I think that's it. I got one more thing after this just giving you a bunch of discounts to some other stuff. Uh, a mailing list. Things you could do to keep in touch with me, which will be Superfund. Other than that. Thanks for hanging out. Hope to see you in the next class. Cheers. 53. SkillshareFinalLectureV2: Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out on this site. I post a lot of stuff there and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me and one of those two places or both, and we'll see you there.