Music Theory for Electronic Musicians 2: Minor keys and More | Jason Allen | Skillshare

Music Theory for Electronic Musicians 2: Minor keys and More

Jason Allen, PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer

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27 Lessons (5h 8m)
    • 1. 1 WelcomeHD

      3:52
    • 2. 2 Avicii AnalysisHD

      22:02
    • 3. 3 1MinoorScalesHD

      6:03
    • 4. 3 2Relatives

      10:41
    • 5. 3 3MinorChordProgressionsHD

      11:45
    • 6. 3 4HarmonicMinorHD

      5:03
    • 7. 4 Deadmau5HD

      25:46
    • 8. 5 CircleofFifths1HD

      9:26
    • 9. 5 CircleofFifths2HD

      13:38
    • 10. 6 GetLuckyHD

      25:43
    • 11. 7 1 7th chordsHD

      16:15
    • 12. 7 2 9ths&13thsHD

      8:46
    • 13. 7 3SusChordsHD

      4:41
    • 14. 7 4 BillyJeanHD

      10:38
    • 15. 7 5ClusterChordsHD

      3:25
    • 16. 8 BoardsofCanadav2

      20:52
    • 17. 9 1MelodyFromChordsHD

      14:08
    • 18. 9 2ChordsfromMelodyHD

      13:32
    • 19. 9 3CountermelodyArpeggioHD

      12:04
    • 20. 10 SkrillexHD

      28:03
    • 21. 11 1 Basslines rootnotesHD

      12:59
    • 22. 11 2 BassRiffsHD

      8:26
    • 23. 11 3 MudHD

      2:39
    • 24. 12 AphexTwinHD

      12:21
    • 25. 13 ChromaticismHD

      3:25
    • 26. 14 ThanksAndGoodbyeHD

      0:51
    • 27. SkillshareFinalLectureV2

      0:36
15 students are watching this class

About This Class

This course is an extension of Music Theory for Electronic Musicians, in which we learned how to work with the piano roll editor in a DAW to make harmonies, melodies, and whole tracks. In this class, we expand on those ideas and work with minor keys, focus some time on melody writing and bassline writing, and talk about how different tracks work.

Extensive Analysis
The most important part of this class is an extensive analysis of tracks by Daft Punk, Avicii, Skrillex, and many more. In each of these analysis segments, we look at their tracks on the piano roll editor, and talk about why they sound the way they do, and how you can use similar techniques in your own music. Each of these segments picks apart multiple elements of the song and dissects it in an easy to understand way.

Who should take this course?
Anyone interested in producing their own tracks. This will get you up and running and give your tracks a unique sound in no time.

Structure
This course consists of video lectures, which all contain a session in Ableton Live 9. If you are using a different program (or none at all), no worries! This isn't a class on how to use Ableton Live, and the concepts can be applied to any DAW.

Transcripts

1. 1 WelcomeHD: Hey, everyone, welcome to music theory for electronic musicians. Do I just finished recording the whole class. So I skipped this video, the intro thing, and I did The whole class took me about a month. Um, and now I'm jumping back to do the intro class. So I can tell you what's in the class. Tons of awesome stuff. Um ah. Lot of improvements from the original music theory for electronic musicians. One which have since we done now. But, um, most notably, Ah, well, we talk a lot about minor keys, which is ah, big request that I got after releasing the first music three for electronic musicians video or set our class, I should say, um, so a lot of minor keys, a lot of minor chords, um, doing more extensive stuff with that. We also spend a good amount of time talking about creating melodies, creating baselines, Um, and throughout it, we talk about creating chords and harmonies for your track. So it's kind of got a ah production spin to it and a composition spin to it. But mostly we talk about, um, how to find things that sound good when you're working on. That's kind of the main thing that class is about. Um, also in this class, I've incorporated a ton of analysis section. So by analysis, that doesn't mean, like, don't freak out about analysis. What that means is that, um, we pick a tune who pick it apart, and, um, look at what chords they did in the tune. What's the core progression? What's the baseline? What's the melody? How does it all work together? Maybe. How did they come up with that? All kinds of different ideas. Ah, around each individual tune. So I think we pick apart, um, and a VT tune a dead mouse tune and affects twin tune. Um, a couple more. Um, so those were a lot of fun to make. Um, I think they'll be really useful to you. Ah, you can hear in all of those songs you'll be able to hear elements that you might want to use in your music. You might say, Oh, that that chord progression in, you know, in window licker that a fixed when tune, um, has this really cool kind of sense to it that I really like this cool feeling And so what were doing with these analysis sections is trying to pull out that feeling, trying to figure out why it sounds that way so that you can incorporate it into your music . So we cover telling the stuff in this class. Um, it's big. There's there's, ah, a lot of things in here. There's a lot of videos. Ah, lot of content. Ah, I'm really happy with it, though. I think, um, I think it'll be really useful to you. It was fun to make, and I really hope you enjoy it. So ah, get ready to dive in Ah, and learn about all these little dots on the page and or on the screen and how they work to make some cool music. So we'll see you on the inside. I way. 2. 2 Avicii AnalysisHD: Okay, Um, I think what we're going to start is we're gonna do a little analysis. So analysis is something we're gonna do a lot in this class. And all that really means is that we're gonna dissect a song, and we're gonna figure out what's going on harmonically like. And by harmonically, I mean with the cords or melody or rhythm or whatever we're working on at the time. So to get us started, um, I picked this song by a VT. The shame on me tune. Um, it's pretty popular recently last year. Mostly, Um, what we're going to look for in this tune is we're gonna analyze the core progression really of just one section so that we don't, you know, take 10 hours to do this. Um, we're gonna look at one section, and then we're going to, um, picking apart. Find the cords. This should be all be review if you took the first Ah, music theory for electronic music class. So, um, we're gonna build cords out of what's happening and try to find the core progression. So this takes Ah, a little bit of skill. There's no cheat for this. You kind of just have to use your ear for quite a lot of it. Um, there are some things we can do, some tools we can use to help us, but and we'll use some of those later in the class for this particular case. We're just going to use our here, and I'm gonna walk you through how I would figure it out. So let's hear a little bit of the track. I'll play it up into up until the ah, point where we're gonna actually analyze. - Okay . So, um, as you could probably see from my screen here, this is the part we're gonna analyze. So I'm gonna, um Let's just loop that little section s So this is two times through the same riff. So here it is. Oops. I didn't turn my loop on. Here we go. Um, OK, so when I said it's two times through the same riff, what I meant was the core progression cycles through twice. So we hear the core progression twice. The melody is only one time or maybe even 1/2 a time. I think it goes on longer later in the track. So let me explain that one more time to make sure I said that Clearly, Um, the core progression is four chords long. There's four chords that happen in that. And we heard, Let me just actually point out where they are. There they happen. Every two beats, we get a different chord, so I'll go on 234 Now it's one again. So we have four different chords and the pattern of four chords cycles through twice. Cool. So, um, when we're trying to figure something like this out the easiest way Teoh get a start on it when you're just using your ear is to focus in on the base, focusing on the lowest note. Or, if there isn't, like a really pronounced baseline, just, Ah, experiment with low notes on your keyboard or on the piano roll editor or something until one really latches on. Um, start with C. Ah, lot of songs. Aaron C. C. Major. So start with C. And if that doesn't work, start moving around until something sounds right. Now, whenever you're trying to find, figure out something by here. Here's the key. The key is you might play something or program something and then play it against the track at the same time as the track. And you might say that. I think that sounds right. That sounds kind of right. If you say that, it's probably not right. It usually, like, locks in when you're when it's right, you're like, That's it. That's totally right. So keep that in mind. Ah, as you do this, I don't expect you to be able to just do this, um, to just, you know, use your year and figure things out. But I wanted to walk you through how I would figure out a tune with practice. You'll be able to do this. No problem. Um, So, um, I skipped a step for us here and I figured out the baseline. So here's what I hear in the base. It might not sound super obvious to right away, but just bear with me here. So, um, let's hear. Just this baseline. Okay, so there it is twice. Um, let's play it at the same time as the actual tune, so you'll hear my baseline against the actual tune happening at the same time, and you'll see how it fits together a little bit better. Do that again. Okay, so you should be able to hear that that fits together. There's nothing dissonant happening. Um, those notes work against the song. So let's go in and see what we got. Because in order to figure because we haven't figured out what the cords are, all we figured out is, is what the bass notes are. And the bass notes can be a really good tell for what the cords are probably going to be, Um, but not always. Um, we're gonna talk specifically about baselines and looking at some tricks you can do to make really interesting baselines later on in this class. But for now, um, let's just see what we got. So let's zoom in a little bit here. Okay? So we have Ah, a c A d in an e. And then this g down below, and then it cycles again. Okay, so, um, remember our pattern? Right? Um whole step, whole step, half step. Whole step multiples of past up. That's the major scale pattern. So what I want to do first is see if I can get all of these notes to fall into one of those patterns. Now, this doesn't always work. Sometimes there are exceptions to this rule, like kind of often, um, but in this case, it's gonna work. So what I mean is, let's pretend D um, de is the key. Let's say it's not, but I'm doing this just to prove us wrong. So what I want to do is see if I can get a pattern of whole step, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, whole step half step to see if it's in a major key. Because if I can find that pattern, even with holes in it, But if there's no wrong notes than it should, tell us what key it's in. So here's Ah whole step right C t E is a whole step. The next hole step would be up to here. Thats f sharp and we don't have enough sharp. Um, but that's okay. Ah, there's no wrong. No, if we had an F natural way, would know that it's not D because we would have whole step half step, and that breaks the pattern so we don't have any F. So we can still assume it's possible that it's D. So we have whole step whole step. Sorry. Whole step, whole step and then half step would be here. Do we have a G anywhere? We do have a G down here. So there is a G. So the pattern is still alive. It's still working. So then we would go whole step. Do we have a anywhere we don't. So let's assume there's that there could be in a do. We have a B anywhere we don't and then hold step again Will be C sharp. Ok, now we know we're wrong about this d business, right? Because we do have a C See here this pattern leads us to a C sharp, so a C sharp happens in the pattern. If we start on DS, we know that d cannot be the key. Were in guys something over these notes. Let's try that again from sea. Okay, So whole step two d whole Step e and then half step would be to f We don't have any efs. So let's just keep going. Ah, whole step would be to G. We have a G and it is a g, not a g sharp. So that means it works. Holst up who beat 1/2 step or sorry would be to a we don't have any A's, so that's fine. Next to a B, we don't have any bees and then again gets us back to a C. So all of our pitches work. C d E N g work within C major. So we don't have any of these notes actually in the riff. When we have that one, let's get rid of that So we don't have these way have we don't have these three notes in the riff, so we're guessing that those notes will work in this key. Um, but it's pretty safe bet. Um, so I think the key is See, now there are a couple other clues that will get us to the key of C. The first biggest clue is that it's the first note of the baseline that's like the most prominent hit you over the head thing is like, See, see, see, it keeps like, pounding us. See over and over a two beginning of the phrase. That's a pretty good clue that it's in. See, another big clue we have is that it ends in G if you remember from the first class the relationship between the tonic note, which is the name of the key were in and the fifth of it. They have a really strong relationship. G is the fifth of See If We count Up c d E F G G is the fifth G. The fifth always likes to lead back to the key. So if you confined these fifth relationships, then that's a pretty good clue. OK, all that being said, we're in the key of C major pretty safe assumption. Or at least this section of the song is in the key of C major. It could change. So let's take a guess at What are cords? Could be Let's do our 1st 3rd 5th chord building, so this would be the second. This is the 3rd 4th and the fifth. So I'm just counting up every other note in C Major, starting with the first chord. I'll do the same thing for D. Here's D. Now I'm in the key of C major, so that's my 1st 1 That's my third my fourth and my fifth from D. So five away from D, not five away from sea from the root note of the court, not the key on will do the same for e E. There's the third and there's the fifth. I got to do the same for GE. There's the third and there's the fifth above G. Okay, so now I have three chords. I don't know if these are the right chords or not. Four chords. Sorry, I don't think they're right chords or not, but I think they are. Um, they're going to sound goofy because they're so low. So let's, um, let's get him in a similar register. So I'm gonna select all of them and move them up. Inactive up one more active. So I moved the whole thing up two octaves. Now I'm gonna take this g and just get it in the same range by maybe taking these bottom two notes and moving them up and active, too. So now everything's in a very similar range, and it looks pretty good. So now let's just try copying this whole thing on having it fill out the second half asses . Well, okay, so now we have the same thing twice, and let's hear that against the actual song. Well, let's hear by itself first. Okay, let's hear with the song and see if we guess right I think we did. I could analyze this more and probably get nit picky about individual notes, but, um, and like where they change and maybe it changes the quality of the court slightly, but more or less, I think we're right And knowing what chords we have here, um, now it might sound funny because we're using a piano in the middle of this track that doesn't have a piano. We could change the sound of these to be ah, synth or a pad or something. But really, what we're getting is the general essence of what is in this. So all the notes that play in this span of time are in or closely related to this cord. Remember, the core progression is like the skeleton of the peace. Um, so we're kind of slicing everything away. We're slicing the drums away, the melody is away the base away, and we're just getting it down to a very simple core progression. So ah, another way to think about it. We like the framework of your house. So if you got rid of all the crap in your house and just had, like, the two by four studs putting it together. That would be the chord progression of your house. Kind of weird analogy, but maybe it works. Um, okay, so we have our general Corps progression of this section of the tune. So let's hear it one more time and maybe I'll adjust the volume a little bit of the piano to see if we can get it. Teoh fit in. Okay. Um great. So if we were wrong, we could go back to our thing and say, Well, this core doesn't sound great. I am suspicious of that cord. To be honest, I am a little bit. So we started off with a G number. It was way down here, actually was lower than that. Um but we'll leave it there for now. We start off of the G in the baseline. Maybe a G isn't the cord that it's built on. Maybe it's built on one of the other notes that we found. So what if it was built on a be so the bass note is still a G. But Annabi works pretty well. So what if we made like a cord out of B, so that would be be and we go up to the third of B two, b d and then the third of that, which would actually be f sharp if we counted it all the way out. Well, let's do F f natural because we're going to stick in the key of C. Let's get rid of that and let's see what this sounds like. Let's see if maybe we think we might be right. We've got one rial sour note in there, right? Um, it's just not lining up. Let's try this as an f sharp just for the heck of it. Theo. It's kind of different flavor to it, but I don't think it's right. I think the G cord sounded more in line with the to. So there we have it. Oh, let's do one more thing. Let's figure out the names of these chords, right? That's kind of important. So first we need to find the root of the cord. So our first chord is in route position, right when we talked about inversions in the other class, inversion means that the root of the cord the route is the note that it's named after the route is not in the base is not the lowest note. Um, but in this case, the route is the lowest note. Um, so this is a C chord, and it's going and we're in the key of C, so it's gonna be a C major chord. This is Accord built on D. It's en route position. So in the key of C major, we know that the second chord of C major must be a minor chord because of that pattern. Major, minor, minor major, etcetera. So this must be a d minor chord. Same thing with this one is root position. So it's an e chord, and it's ah, cord built on the third scale degree of sea. So it must be minor because the pattern is major, minor, minor, cool. This one is a little different. This one is not in root position. If we were going to get it in route position, we'd have to spell it in terms of thirds. That's how we know if it's in route position. So if we counted up in thirds from D would have d, this would be to would be e here, and then f would be the third. But we have a G. So we know that D can't be the root because the 1st 3rd 5th rule doesn't work. So let's try counting up from G G and then the third. This is the second. The third would be be. And in the fifth there's the fourth. The fifth would be here if we look over here, that is a D, which we have down here. So if I shoot this note up inactive, then it's in route position now. So we know it's a G chord because it's in route Position G is at the bottom. That makes it a G court. So, um, G is the fifth scale degree, which we've already talked about, cause C D E F g. And then, ah, according to the pattern, that means it must be major. So our core progression here is C major D major D minor. Sorry, e minor and G major Two times in this particular case, that's our core progression. Ah, so now we could take that if we wanted to make a tune that had a similar sound. We know that that particular core progression works pretty well for doing this kind of a sound so we can use it last thing about this Is that you might say to yourself, while I can't just copy that core progression? Um, because that's not my tune. Actually, you can. You can't copyright a core progression. Uh, if you could copyright a chord progression everyone from the Beatles to Mozart to I don't know me would be in ah, whole bunch of hot water. Um, there are a 1,000,000 songs based on the same chord progressions, and this is a pretty common core progression C d minor e minor G. So you can use this exact core progression. You shouldn't do it and make it sound exactly like this track. Then you might be opening yourself up to a lawsuit. Um, but you cannot copyright a chord progression. So if you like the way this sounds, use it. All right. See you in the next lesson. 3. 3 1MinoorScalesHD: Okay. Ah, here we go. So we're gonna dive into minor scales now. Now, um, this is good. I'm excited that we're getting to this one, because this is one that, um from the first class, I got a lot of emails about this one saying, um, I really want to do minor scales and learn. Ah, minor keys. Because a lot of the music I listen to and that I'm interested in producing is in a minor key. Eso I want to point out One thing about that before we dive into this, is that, um just because of song uses minor chords doesn't necessarily mean it's in a minor key. Um, we saw that when we looked at even something like that last piece we analyzed, there were minor chords in it. So even though it was in a major key, So any key is an arrangement of major and minor chords and some other ones sometimes. So, um, a chord, a chord progression might sound dark, but still actually being kind of a major key Now, that being said, if it sounds really dark, that's probably in a minor key. And, um, I for the kinds of music that I think most people watching this class are interested in. Um, minor keys are important. Ah, you do want to work in minor keys. At least some of the time. Maybe not all the time. Um, so let's dive in, shall we? So what we're gonna do in this lesson? Let's talk about the minor scale. Okay, so we know the major scale, The major scale is a organization of half steps and whole steps, right? Ah, the minor scale is also so let me throw our major scale on here. So we have whole step whole step, half step, full step, whole step rink. Whole step half step. So the thing to keep in mind here, that's what it sounds like. That's maybe slow that down to touch out, moving my grid. Okay, um, thing to keep in mind here is where are the half steps? They're right here and there. Right here. Okay. So the minor scale is also an arrangement of whole steps in half steps. Um, the only difference, really, is that the half steps are in a different place. Ah, the arrangement of half steps in a minor scale. Well, the arrangement that the pattern. Let's just let's just dive in right to the pattern. So let me use Okay, So the pattern is Let's just write it down here somewhere whole half. So we have 1/2 step right away. Whole whole half. Who whole. So that's our pattern. Whole half whole whole half hole hole. So you can see that's different than let me write the major. All right? The major right above it. Full for half a whole. Oh. Oh, half. Okay, so this is major here, and this one is minor. That's right. Minor. So before we hear this, let's analyze this a little bit. Let's just have a look at it. So we still have 2/2 steps in the minor scale. They're here in here. So they're the 2nd 3rd 4th and fifth. So and if you look close at this and this isn't something we're gonna talk about right away , but we're gonna talk about real soon, like, ah, the next video or maybe two videos from now. Um, there is actually a looping pattern that happens your whole whole half whole whole whole half, right? Um, you can find that pattern in the minor scale if you start it right here for 4/2 hole hole cycle back whole half. So the major scale from here to here is the same as the minor scale, right? The same pattern happens if you started here. Now, that will be important in a minute. So just filed it away. Um, well, we'll want to remember that, but for our purposes right now, we don't exactly need it. Well, remember it. Okay, so let's organize our pitches correctly. Um, skit reading my notes here. So we have a whole to hear that hole and then half right there. So we have whole half and then whole full step and then half stab. And then from this half step, we need a whole step, which this is now bigger than a whole step whole step is two lines here. So have take that one down to their It's a whole step now and then. Ah, whole step again. So this now we have a minor scale. Now, if if you were paying attention, let me do that one more time. I'm gonna restore the major scale All we really need to do to convert a major scale to a minor scale is to take the third, go down the sixth on, go down on the seventh and go down. That is the fundamental difference between a major scale and a minor scale. It's the 3rd 6th and seventh that are lowered by 1/2. Step turns a major scale into a minor scale. So now we have a minor scale. Let's hear it. So it has a darker sound. It's a little hard to hear in this context, cause it's like this happy piano sound. Okay, this is also called the natural Minor Scale. Now, again, we're gonna look at different kinds of miners. Kalac's They're actually three different flavors of minor scales. Um, this is the standard normal minor scale. 4. 3 2Relatives: Okay, Now I want to jump back and talk about this pattern that I talked about before, where it it cycles around again. So let me explain that what that means is that we can find a major scale within a minor scale, and we confined a minor scale within a major scale. So if we took a minor scale and we started it on the third note, we would fulfill the pattern of the major scale. And likewise, if we took a minor scale and we started it or sorry, a major scale and we started it right here on the sixth note, we would end up with same pattern hole, half whole whole, half whole, whole before it cycles around again so we can find the pattern in each one. So how is that useful to us? It's very useful to us because it points out something called Relative Major and relative minor. That's like saying every major scale has a sibling. That is a minor scale eso there is. For every major scale. There is a minor scale that's composed of all the exact same notes. Um, so then you think Well, I thought major scale sounded happy and minor scale sounded sad. This is true, Um, but it really kind of depends on what you're treating is the root of the scale here we're treating, see as the root, and it's a C minor scale. But if we went so it, see, it's a minor scale. If we went to the third note and we treated that as the route, it would be a major scale. So let's actually do that. So let's get rid of this for a minute. So here's the third note D sharp. So let's treat d sharp as the root of the scale. So to do that, all I'm going to do is take thes two notes. I'm gonna flip him up, inactive and put him over here. The sea is duplicated, so let's just do that. So now I have any one more note. I didn't duplicate the route de Sharp, so now I have d sharp, F g g sharp, a sharp C, D and D sharp. Now, if any of you know anything about music theory or if any real music theory, people are evaluating this, you are stirring in your seats because of the way that this is spelled D sharps g sharp, a sharp. This should really be spelled in flats with e flat, etcetera. But I don't care. Um, we're just going to go with it as is because able to always favors Sharps, I'm not sure why? Probably because the symbol is easier to make. Um Okay, so let's see if it works. Ah, whole step. Cool. Step, half step. Whole step. Whole step. Coast up half step. That, my friends, is our pattern for a major scale. I didn't change any notes. I just I'm starting on a different one. So let's hear. It sounds just like a major scale, right? But if I take these two notes go down inactive, pulling back here Oops. I did the same thing. I take c all the way back down, and now I play that starting on a C. It's a minor scale. So that means that C minor has a relative major of D Sharper e flat. So all the same notes are in both scales. C minor and D sharp. Major have the same exact notes. Um, but it's going to sound major minor and be major reminder, actually, depending on what no we started on. Now let's take that one step further. And let's remember that seem, Major, let's go back to a C major scale here is going to raise my 3rd 6th and seventh. So now I'm on a C major scale. Okay. See, Major. Now, remember that C major scale is all the white notes of our keyboard. Uh, that C major. So if we found the relative minor of C major, it ought to be all of the white notes on the keyboard, but a minor scale. Now, I just told you that every major scale has a relative, minor sibling, a brother or a sister. That is the minor scale. And every minor scale has a brother or sister that is a major scale. So, C major, we need to find the relative minor of it. So let's go back to my pattern here. So we're on a major scale. If we start our pattern right here of the major scale, then the minor scale pattern will emerge whole half whole whole half hole hole. That's the same as this whole half whole whole half hole. So I start the minor scale on the sixth, and I get a Sorry the major scale on the sixth, which is this note of six scale degree and I get a minor scale. So 123456 It's a so a minor. Must be the relative major of or sorry, the relative minor of C major. Let me try that one more time. A minor must be the relative minor of C major. So see, Major and a minor Go hand in hand. Let's have a listen. So I'm on C major here. Let's take all these notes and leave off the A intentionally this time. Flip him up. Inactive. I'm gonna put him over, and then I'm gonna have to add the A back in. Now I have all the white notes starting on a but it's a minor scale because a minor is a relative to see Major. Now, if you don't want to deal with remembering Ah, this goofy pattern here, then all you have to remember is to find the relative minor of a major key started on the sixth scale degree. So any scale, let's say we're on d major. So I just got thrown here. Okay, here's a d. Let's get rid of all this. Let's say we're in D Major, and I want to know what the minor is. I need to go to the six scale degree, so I need to go up the pattern of the major scale whole whole half. I don't really even care what these notes. I'm just counting the pattern. Ah, whole four or half. So the pattern holds. So that's a D major scale. Now, if I go to the six killed, agree 123456 b b minor is the relative minor of D major. All the same notes in both scales. Now, if you want a shorthand way to do this, let's slide this over just to touch Still a d major scale on. We can actually just go down three, right? Cause we could start here. I will, down to 123 Let's come from from the root. So if we go down three, we get the relative minor of a major scale, uh, and move that over still d major, Let's convert this to a minor scale, so d minor have to take those three notes down now. I'm on a d minor scale. So again to confirm a major scale to a minor scale. I just lower the 3rd 6th and the seventh, which is what I just did. Now I'm on D minor. What's the relative major of D minor? Well, all I really have to do is go to the third scale degree. So when you're on a minor scale, you go up three notes, you go to the third, and that's the start of your relative major. When you're on a major scale and you want to find the minor scale, you go down three. And that will tell you the relative minor makes sense. It's a little confusing to think about, um, the up three down three. But just remember, Relative Major and Relative Minor have all the same notes, and the core progressions can be a little bit different. But, um, all the same notes emerge so f will be the relative minor scale. Sorry, the relative major scale of D minor. So we're looking at a minor scale. F is gonna be our relative a major. Okay, so now we know a relative major and relative minor are, um, supplies to scales, and it also applies to keys So when we're in a key, that means that we're using the core progression from that key we could. Sometimes it can be really ambiguous when we're analyzing a song, whether or not we're in the major or the relative minor of the song, depending on the section of the song we're looking at. So ah, song might sound like it's in C major, but then we might look at the cords for the chorus and it's all based around a minor. And then we're like, Okay, well, it's in. It's in the relative minor. So whether you call it the song C major a minor, um, in a way doesn't matter too much, depending on if you're just focusing in on one section. It could be, either. If you're looking at the whole song, usually you can find things that would make you say it's in C major or a minor. But those are things we don't care about. All we really care about is, does it? How does it sound? Doesn't sound good. So, um, whether or not we call something in C major or a minor or any relative key doesn't matter to us. What matters is does it sound good? But when you're analyzing things, this is another thing to think about. You know? Do you want to go to the relative minor? Use the relative major whatever you want to do, so keep this in mind this relative ah, scale and relative key pattern. 5. 3 3MinorChordProgressionsHD: okay, It's time to talk about diatonic chord progressions in a minor key. Not to remind you. Ah, we looked at diatonic chord progressions in a major key. All that means diatonic chord progressions. Just a fancy way to say, uh, all the chords in the key Ah, diatonic just means in key. So, um, all the chords in the key when we did it with a major ah, scale. What we did is we took all the notes and we built triads out of them. So 1st 3rd 5th 1st 3rd fifth, etcetera. So we're gonna do that same thing, and we're gonna see what pattern emerges. Now, if you remember, the major scale pattern that we had was major minor, minor, major, major, minor diminished that weird one, and then it starts over again. Those were all the cords in Ah, the major scale. So that's the major pattern of doing this. So let's do it with a minor scale and see what emerges. So I'm just gonna take each of these. So here's the next note. I'm gonna go up one. This is the second up to the third and then up to the fifth, so I'm looking at what? Scale degree? Making sure. I'm only counting notes that air in key up to the fifth. So D that's the second. That's the third. Because it's right there. And then eyes were in the skip g and go to a He is going todo third on after the next one, which is B in the key. I'm in a minor right now. By the way, If I didn't point that out, there's a, uh, half third, fifth scroll up. Just a touch here. 3rd 5th A three on a away. Up to it. Okay, so now I have my diatonic chord progression laid out. Um, let's hear. Oops. What did I do crazy there? A si Why did I do that? E e g. Okay, those first few I think I was talking and I got confused. So, 1st 3rd 5th 1st 3rd 5th 1st 3rd Okay, much better. Let's try that again. Uh, so that's our diatonic chord progression. Now, let's figure out what the pattern is because this is gonna be different than a major a key . But if you remember, we just learned about relative keys and so we're going to see the same pattern again if we just started at a different spot. So let's have a look. Okay, so in a minor key, so pretty safe to assume our first chord, the one chord, if you will, is going to be minor. So I'm gonna use a lower case M. Our second court here is going to be where the weird one pops up. So in our major scale, when we did this Ah, the seventh scale degree. When we built a court on the seven scale degree, we got that diminished chord, which is kind of like a super mind record with one we try to avoid all the time. Well, that happens here on the 2nd 1 here, so that's called a diminished chord. So let's just leave that one there for a minute. Ah, the third scale degree is going to be a major. So Capital M, the four scale degree is going to be minor. And then the fifth is gonna be minor. The six is going to be major sevenths. Gonna be major. So our pattern now is minor, diminished. Major, minor, minor, Major, major. Now let's look at what the major diatonic or progression? What So the major one is major, minor, minor, major, major, minor, diminished. So remembering our relative majors and miners. If we look at the minor chord progression and we go all the way to a certain point, will find the major pattern cycling through the easiest way to spot it is look at the diminished chords right, because it diminished chords only happened once, so they happen in the relative same spot. So in the minor chord, we're sorry. The minor chord progression. If we go to the third again and we start counting from their major minor minor major major right, that's the same as the major chord progression. Major, minor, minor major major. So we started there and this one in the major core progression. If we started here on the six again, we would get minor, diminished major minor minor. It's the same as the other one. Ah, the minor one minor, diminished major minor minor, So the core progressions work the same that they have relatives. But let's set that aside for a minute because we don't get too confusing. So let's just focus on the diatonic minor chord progression. So remember, the core progression is minor diminished, which means you might want to avoid that one. We don't use that one very often because it's ugly. Um, major Minor, minor, major major, and starts over again. That is our monarch or progression. So that means if we're in C Uh, no, I'm sorry. Let's do a Because that's what we're looking at. Now we're in a minor. Ah, a minor. If I go to the third scale degree, that's gonna be a C. That means there is a C major chord in the key of a minor. A minor has a C major in it. So, uh, how that's useful to us. We're writing a track, you're working on something and you're in the key of a minor. You know that because you've been using a lot of a you wanted to have a minor sound. Um, and you think what are my possible courts, where all the cords I could possibly use that would be perfectly in key. That doesn't mean that's the only cords you can use. That just means it's accord you can use to stay perfectly in key. When you start using chords that are out of key is when it starts to get kind of fun, But let's say you wanted to sound perfectly in key. This tells you all the cords at your disposal, it's gonna be the first ones gonna be minor. So that's gonna be an a minor chord. Second one's gonna be a diminished. So that's gonna be a be diminished symbol for Diminished as this tiny zero. Let's put that one in parentheses because we don't really want to use it. If we can avoid it, the third court is going to be based on sea because ABC, that's the third note of the scale. And that's gonna be C major. So, see, Major, the fourth is gonna be minor. And that's gonna be a d So that's gonna be Do you mind? A record Fifth is gonna e so it's gonna be an E minor Chord Six is an F. So we have an F major chord and the seventh is G s. We have a G major chord. So these are all the cords you can use in the key of a minor. Um, when you're working on a track, so if you're working on a track and maybe the core progression is like a minor d minor C or something like that. That's your corporation like? Okay, it's a sweet. Now I need a bridge. I need something different. What can I do? You can look at all of these and you can say, Well, I could go toe F. That would be different. Totally in key. It'll sound good. Nothing really, to worry about. I could go toe F and then maybe D minor and then see, that could be cool. Um, I could go to E minor. If I want to keep it kind of dark. I could stick to a minor record. It's like you go to E minor. I could go to G. I go to pretty much anything I want. That's on this list. That's gonna be stuff that's perfectly in key. It's gonna sound great. Um, now let's walk through how to figure this out one more time. Let's do a different key so that we can figure it out in a different key. Let's look at, um, going to select all these and let's move to Let's move to see minor. Sorry for that horrible sound. Here we go. Very modern. Um, okay. I just transposed everything to put us in C minor. So I didn't go to the relative. I went Teoh the parallel, so I went to from a minor to C minor. So I just had to transpose everything up. Um, so in c minor C d d Sharp or the flat sharp a sharp and then see again at the end. So we know what our pattern is. Let's find all the cords we can use in C minor. If our trackers in C minor let's just list out all our possible cords that work in C minor . So we know the pattern. The pattern is going to be minor diminished. Major, minor, minor, major. Oops. Oh, yeah, that's right. Then we start over here, so this is see again. So that's the same as our first court. I was like, Oh, I need one more court. Um, okay, so now we have Now, we just need to put names on these, see? And it's a minor chord. So see miners in the key of C minor, obviously de diminished, and we don't really want to use that one. If we can avoid it way we do use thes diminished chords. They work pretty well as passing chords. Passing chords means, like according to get between two chords really quick, Um, and we're not going to sit on it, but you don't want to sit on this. And in dance, music and most electronic music, we just avoid him altogether. Um, if you were doing another style like especially jazz, you abusing diminished courses still like that all the time. But we don't use it very often, so I'm not gonna spend too much time on him. Okay, Next D sharp. And it's a major chord, so we have D Sharp major. Next is F, and it's a minor chord, so f minor. Next is G, and it's a minor chord. So G minor g sharp that really should be a flat. But let's call it G sharp g sharp. And that's a major chord, a sharp and that's a major chord. Okay, so here are my options. If I'm in the key of C minor and I want to know what I can use, I can use a C minor chord. I can use D diminished chord, which I probably shouldn't. I can use a D sharp major chord. I can use an F minor. I can use a G minor. I can use G sharp major and I can use in a chart major. So now we know all the courts we can use in that key. So all you have to do is figure out what, Kieran, run this pattern. You don't even need Teoh do all of this business of figuring it out now. Right now we know how to just figure it out. We know this pattern. Minor, diminished major, minor, minor, Major Major. And we know the notes of the scale. Right? So we just gotta put those together and lay out all the possible cords we can use. Cool. 6. 3 4HarmonicMinorHD: Okay, So one more thing to talk about before we move on to actually using these things to make some music and listen to some music. Um, I talked about before something called a natural minor scale. That's what we've been working with. We've been working with the natural minor scale. Um, there are two other variations of the minor scale that we often used as well. Um, now, these terms, I don't really care if remember these terms. I'm not big on terms. Just remember that they're kind of exceptions to the minor scale and things that we've kind of, uh, dense. We've banged into the minor scale to make it serve. Our purpose is a little bit better. Um, the 1st 1 is called the Harmonic Minor Scales. Now, all the harmonic minor scale is is it's the minor scale. So I haven't a minor scale here. I'm gonna go to seven scale degree, the G in this case, I'm gonna raise it up by 1/2 step. Now we have a harmonic minor scale. Why would I do that? Why would I need to alter this? Um, the reason is I have a leading tone now, leading tone means a note that feels like it pushes into another note. It leads into another note, and in most cases, probably all cases it leads into the root. Ah, the name of of the scale or the quarter whatever. So when I add this g sharp when I raised the seventh, that note is gonna feel like it pushes back into a. That really helps it establish that we are in the key of a because we feel this push into a , um let's hear this harmonic minor scale. Okay, so you could feel on this note this g sharp this, like at this, like leading in to a If I stopped it right on that g sharp, you would feel very unfulfilled. You would feel like, Ah, we were going somewhere and now it just stopped. So let's let's actually try that. I'm going to stop it right on the g sharp. You you're hearing in your head the next note, right? It's like leading you into it. That's why it's called leading to. So that helps us just establish the the tonic of a minor. Whereas if we don't have that, we just have the G in the natural minor scale, then we don't have that push of a leading tone. So sometimes we do use that that leading tone push. It also gives the scale a little bit different quality, right? Like it sounds different. It's got this kind of like I don't want, like, stereotype, but it's like kind of like older Gypsy kind of sound. Um, from this this gap and the leading tone. So there's a minor third in here, and there's also a leading tone, right? So it's got that that leading tone in there, and it feels good Sometimes. There's another variation of the of the minor scale, and it's called a melodic minor scale, and all that one is is raising the sixth and the seventh. So thistles are natural minor scale to go to a melodic minor scale. We raised the six and the seventh, and that gives us kind of more of a leading tone. It also makes it so that, um, some of our cords turnout major, which is important. Ah, sometimes. So let's hear this one. So this one, if you remember what we did to make the minor scale out of the major scale, is we from a major scale. We lowered the third, the sixth and the seventh, right? So now we've raised the six in the seventh, but kept the third low. So I've sort of made this like hybrid. The first half is minor. The second half is major, but that's a melodic minor scale. It feels like it leads into to a very well, um, it it does sound like a minor scale that evolves into a major scale over the course of it. You don't hear that? Kind of, Ah, that minor third gap that I talked about a second ago. Um, it's just different. But sometimes we use these in a minor scale, especially. We're working on melodies. We'll talk more about this kind of stuff when we get into working on melodies that you know these notes, they're fine, you can. The thing to remember is that if you are working on something and you're in a minor key and you're like, man, it really sounds like that should be a g sharp. Then it's cool. You can totally do that. You're using a different kind of minor scale, but that's fine. It exists. Um, so don't ever let the theory dictate what you write. Um, you should always let your ear dictate what you write. But that being said, um, this particular theory can account for when you say, man, I really wish that was a g sharp. You can do it. Um, so that's the harmonic and the melodic minor scales. Okay, moving on. 7. 4 Deadmau5HD: All right. Welcome, folks. Um, welcome back. If you're returning to the class or, um ah, good to see you again. If you're just continuing on through the whole class and blasting through it, if so good for you, um we're gonna do now is we're gonna do another little analysis. Um, So let's talk really quick about why we do these. Um, like I said before, you can't copyright a core progression. So what we're doing in these is we're figuring out the core progressions for songs that, um, work that we like. And, ah, from there, we can both learn. Ah, what makes up the songs that we can use it. And also, we kind of get down to the skeleton of the piece of music. Um, remember, the core progression is like the skeleton of the peace. So, um, we can kind of figure out what makes it tick. It's kind of like popping open the hood and seeing what's in there. Um, you'll notice in the last analysis that we did. And in this one, I'm using a piano sound. Ah, for figuring this out. And I think that's really important, actually, um, even like in this one. It's not a piano that is in the track, but I like using a piano to figure this out because a piano tells me two things very clearly. It tells me pitches and rhythms. It tells me, Ah, is that the right note in the right place? It's got a heart attack. It's got a clear pitch. It's not distorted and or anything like that. So I like using pianos to figure this out. It tells me, Is that the right? No. At the right time. That's all I care about right now. Um, now, in this one, we are going to kind of reconstruct the track a little bit, so we will kind of turn it into, Ah, the sound of the track. Um, but for now, let's dive in. So in this one ah, we're gonna be looking at a track by dead mouse is a track called Ghosts and Stuff. So let's just here, um, the first part of the track, and then we'll dive in, okay. And so cool track. So what we're gonna do is, um, started the beginning. We're gonna figure out this section and from this section will be able to figure out the rest of what we heard so far. So this section will happen. And then in this section it's a variation of this section. So it's based around the same chords. It's a little different, but based on the same thing. And then around here we get this section straight up again. But with the added, Ah, baseline and drums and stuff And then here we get You couldn't even tell just by looking at the way for him that it's pretty much exactly the same. So let's start by figuring out this because it's gonna be kind of our Rosetta Stone to figuring out the rest of the tune. Okay, so I gotta started, just like before I figured out the baseline so you didn't have to suffer through having me sit here and go. That's right. Notice that the right note. Um, so let's have a look at that. Let's just hear it. Let's Luke, Just this section. Let's hear my baseline set to a piano. Let's hear it so low. First, um, okay, so let me clarify what I say by baseline in this case. What I don't really mean I don't mean literally the baseline because it really isn't a baseline here, right in this opening section, what I mean is the roots of the cords. That's what I'm hunting down with this. So I'm playing on my keyboard or, uh, dialing in notes on the MIDI grid and just trying to find a note that just sounds like that , is it? That is the root of the cord. Um, and it'll just sound like you nailed it once you found it. Let's hear both at the same time, mine. And okay, so sounds pretty good. Let's have a look at the notes. Now. What we can see here is we've got two. Things are actually one thing that repeats got these four notes and then these four notes exactly the same. And there's a little extra chord at the end or one note at the end. Um, this is actually pretty typical. We have, ah, pattern of four chords. What? It's going to be four chords. Once we figure out what chords ago here. Right now, we only have one note, but once we figure out what those cords are, we've got these four chords and then the same four chords again and then one extra. And if you look at the main track, that one extra cord is what just kind of like gives us a little extra boost into the next big section, So not uncommon to have one extra cord leading us into the next section like that? That's a good trip to do. Okay, so let's analyze this. Let's figure out what we got, Okay? First thing we need to know is what Chiari in most important thing right away. So, um, looking at this first thing I want to do is analyze my half steps in my whole steps. Quickest thing to do would be to look for our half steps. Based on the notes we have, we have 0/2 steps, right? No half steps. So, um, that means the best thing to do would just be to start with the guests. Let's take a guess, and then we'll confirm our guests by drawing out the pattern of the scale that we think it is. So remember what I said before. A good guess is always the first chord in the core progression. Pretty logical. Um, this one, it happens twice. It happens right at the beginning so it's nice and strong. Um, let's take a guess that its that so a sharp. So let's build a scale on a sharp Let's try a sharp major. Let's just see what happens. So I'm gonna build the scale on a short major. So remember, the pattern is whole step, whole step, half step. Whole step, whole step. Whole step half step There is are a sharp major. Now let's see if that works. So our first note that we have is a sharp Is there in a sharp in a sharp major? Yes, indeed there is. Next one we have is g sharp. Is there a G sharp in here? Oh, there is not. There should be a g sharp right here. There's no g sharp, so it can't be Jewish. It can't be a sharp major because there's no g sharp in it. It doesn't work. Um, let's check the rest of these just to be fun f sharp. There is no f sharp in it, either. D sharp, there is a d sharpen it. Okay, so we're close. Ah, these two notes are not in this key. So, um, I'm not gonna leave a sharp behind because I'm still pretty convinced that that's the right key were in were just in the wrong kind of key. Let's try a sharp minor. So to convert this to a minor, we take the third down 1/2 step. We take the sixth down 1/2 step. We take the seventh down 1/2 step. Um, now let's try it out. G sharp. G sharp is right there. It's in our scale of sharp. Have sharper's right there. It's in our scale d sharp De Sharp is right there. So this does work in a sharp minor now. It's also a safe assumption because we just talked in the last couple of lessons about minor ah, scale. So it's pretty logical that I'm going to give you a minor one, right? Ah, cool. So we are in a sharp major or minor. Sorry. A sharp minor. So I'm gonna take these notes. I want to leave the pattern visible. Something's gonna put it on, and I'll put it right there for a minute. Um, so now that I know what key I'm in, I need to build the cords and see if they work. So I'm just gonna do my root 3rd 5th pattern and see what emerges. So a sharp that's the route I go up there is the second. There's the third. There's the fourth. There's the fifth is gonna do that on all four of these, there's the G Sharp is the route that would be the second. That's the third. That's the fourth. That's the fifth f sharp. That's the second. That's the third. I'm gonna take these guys and just moving over a little bit. That's the fourth. That's the fifth. And then this D sharp all the way down here. I can't see these, but I can see these. So they'll tell me what I need. And I'm actually missing one here. So what's right under F sharp? There's an f natural in between D Sharp and F means this note right here is in key. So that's gonna be my second. And then the third is right there and in fourth and fifth. Okay, so there's my chords. I'm gonna get rid of this pattern and let's just hear it and we'll see if it works. Oh, let's hear it at same time is the original attack. No, I take that back Let's hear it by itself first. Okay, It sounds pretty good to me. It's got the right flavor to it. But something's not quite right. It's all dark and dreary, and that's just cause it's too low. Um, so let's take these out of root position all these chords. Aaron root position if you remember from the first class, not the first. Ah, lesson in this class. But the music theory for electronic musicians One I talked about inversions. Inversions just means the root note is not in the base. So let's change these. So I'm gonna move this G sharp up, inactive. I'm gonna move this f sharp up. Inactive. I'm gonna move both this D sharp and f sharp up inductive. All right, let's hear that. It's better. But let's take the whole thing and move it up. Inactive If you're using able to, by the way, Ah, the shift key And in the up arrow. Texas up. Inactive. Okay, so now I moved everything up, inactive all the exact same notes. Just different octaves. Okay, that sounds pretty good to me. Let's hear it against the original. Uh, okay, pretty good. Nothing jumps out at me. Is like, Ooh, that's a wrong note. Which means all those notes are probably there, so pretty good. Okay, let's do the second half now That over here. So this stuff is gonna be all the same. So I'm just gonna rebuild this stuff. I'll just do it again so you can see me do it again. So first, I'm gonna rebuild my minor scale. So, Holst, up half step, whole step, whole step, half step, whole step. And then we get back to our octave. So there's my minor scale. Um, I'm gonna take that scroll up. Just a touch. Gonna shrink it down and not that much road over here. I just want to use it as reference because I want to be sure that my root 3rd 5th business is notes that are in the scale so I can see it there. There's my third. There's my fourth. There's my fifth g sharp. There's my second. There's my third. There's my fourth. There's my fifth. There's my second. There's my third. There's my fourth. There's my fifth here, remember, There is my second. That's not there, but its OK, there's my third is my fourth, and there's my fifth. Now I have this G sharp laying out here. Let's make a court out of it. Now, the odds are that the cord is the same as this one that we built out of a g sharp. So which happens to be rude position. So let's take that and that. So I'm just making this same chord. Get rid of my reference scale here. I'm gonna do the same thing I did to the other one's gonna move that up, inactive with that up in active. And we're both these notes up inactive and of that a productive so that this last chord matches that chord. Cool. Now I'm gonna take the whole shebang and move it up and active so that it's the same as the previous one. All right, let's hear that. Cool. Wonderful. Okay, so the next thing we got to do is figure out the names of these courts. Um, so first, Ah, let's refresh our brain a little bit on the diatonic chord progression of of a minor key. Right? So we need to know what chords naturally occur in the minor key. And they are Let me just write him. Let's right here. right here. So our first chord is minor. Our second is diminishes what we learned in the last lesson. Our third is major. Our fourth is minor. Our fifth is minor. Our sixth is major and our seventh his major. So that's the pattern. So now we just have to connect the dots and it's piece of cake. So we just need the roots of our cords and figure out what number they are and that will tell us if it's major minor. So our first chord is a sharp, and that's the key. So that's the 1st 1 So it's minor. So our first chord is a sharp. My our second chord here is Remember what the root is. The route is not see. I flipped the route up here, so the route is G sharp. So where is G sharp on our scale? It's actually if you counted up the scale. If you went back and drew out all the notes of the scale, G sharp would be the seventh, so that would be here. Or if you want to take a quick little shortcut, you can go from the one down and, like cycle backwards. Oops, cycle backwards, and that will get you to the seventh. So either way, it's the seventh. So that means it must be major because their seventh is major. So the second cord is G sharp Major, Our third chord. What is the root here? The roof is f sharp where I flipped that one up too. So f sharp is going to be the sixth. So that is right before the seventh, obviously because six comes before seven. Ah, and that's major. So that means our third court is F sharp major, and then our fourth chord here, the route is D sharp. So where is D sharpen our scale? If we counted up d sharp, that would actually get us to the four. It's the fourth scale degree in the key of a sharp minor. So 1234 So that makes that minor because for his minor. So this cord is d sharp minor. So our core progression for this passage is a sharp minor G sharp, major, F sharp major and G sharp minor. Okay, now that we know what our core progression is and we know that this works, let's put it into action and see where else we can use it. So let's go back to our track here. Okay? So this works. Let's just refresh our memory a little bit. Ah, Uh, okay, cool. Let's make it sound like the track. At least a little bit. I'm gonna throw this organ sound on here and get rid of my piano. Now that I know all my note, I have all the right notes in all the right spot. Let's just throw a piano on it and see our organ on it and see what happens. So, um, here I have a really dirty organ sound, so let's just hear it, Theo. Okay, this one's a little dirtier than the one he's using, but I kind of like it. It's kind of a cool sound just in Oregon. Preset enable tonight described lets him at same time. Okay, um, now let's see if we can figure out this next chunk, so let's just hear it first. Okay, So focus your ear in on that organ sound. That's what I'm going after right now, so I can hear the first chord is happening here. In fact, let's just take this as is this opening thing and paste it in right there on. Let's just hear what happens when we play them on top of each other. It's a good starting point because we know that this core progression is in the right key. Ah, and it's very likely that whatever he's doing here is using a lot of the same material. So let's just playing at the same time. And then we'll figure out when it goes off of this core progression. Okay, right away we can hear this court was right. The first chord of this section is the first quart of that section. Cool. This was not. Let's get rid of that and we'll see if that all record comes in here. Let me zoom in a little bit more. Okay, cool Down. Stops there. Try it again. Okay. There's a cord right here. That's not the cord. So let's take a guess. I'm my guess is that it is one of these cords. Is it this one? Let's try. Gotta zoom in a little bit more to get right on that. Try putting that one there. I think that was right. I'm gonna give him more. Yeah, I think that was it. It's chopped that off here, see if I can get, um I need another chord here. It sounded like it was just underneath that one. Let's take a guess. Let's try this cord. So let's see what we got. Okay, once again, get rid of those ones. This all sounds correct. Okay, That's not right. So let's take that back and see here. Okay? There's that first court again. Let's go back and take it from here. So all he's really doing is just really playing around with this core progression. Just chopping it up here. I hear maybe maybe this court again. It's definitely one of the chords we've got. We know that. Um Okay, let's try. That one wasn't right. So let's try this cord. That was it there, I think. Yeah. Great. Okay, so all we did here was take this, that we figured out, and then we put it here. We chopped it up. This is probably exactly what he did when he is making the track. Ah, he may be converted this toe audio first and then chopped it up. It's a little easier to do. Um, but now we have two sections of the song Let's go on to this next chunk and see what happens. Okay? That's the same thing. It's go on to the next chunk. Oops. All right, this is straight up. Exactly the same. So let's grab this exact thing. Put it there, and it should work. Exactly. Yes. Okay. Great. Gonna do two more sections. I think this is the same as the previous. Okay, so that's the same as this chunk of stuff here. And then here. Justice again. Uh, cool. So we just got about halfway through that track just by figuring out this opening chord progression, chopping it up a little bit. This is a repeat of that. This is the exact opening. This is a repeat of this again, and this is the exact opening. So we found a lot of that track just by doing that opening thing. And now we can kind of really see what he's doing. Um, we know what he likes to do. He likes to take a core progression. He likes to use it a lot. He likes to chop it up, play around with it, add some bass lines at some other stuff. We're gonna look at baselines in the near future. Um, I don't want to dig real deep into every little detail of what he's doing here, because I'm really just looking for the skeleton of the song, remember? That's what we're getting here. Cool. Okay, so we we've thoroughly dissected this track and we know what the skeleton of it looks like . Um, let's move on to some new material. See you in the next lesson. 8. 5 CircleofFifths1HD: Welcome back. Um, so next we're gonna talk about this thing called the Circle of Fifths. So you might have seen this before. Um, if you took any kind of music lesson or anything like that Ah, and you might have seen it and just said that just looks like a crazy symbol. And I don't know why. Um, that weird little diagram has anything to do with my life. Um, it's like these stereotypical image toe hanging in your fourth grade music room. Um, if you had one. So it gets kind of a bad rap, but I want to show you why that's important to us as we get into some of the compositional things about music theory. So let's talk about that for just second. So what we've done so far and from, ah, music theory for electronic musicians one and music theory. Electronic musicians, too. Ah, we've talked about cords, how to figure out chords, how to figure out the key, how to assemble cords once you know the key and what each chord does. So we have major chords, we have minor chords. We have minor keys. We've got all the different chords within the key. Um, and all the different patterns for figuring out the keys. Ah, and the cords. So the next kind of big topic, while actually the rest of this class, more or less, we're going to be working on, um, how to, ah, couple things you can do to create ah, music. So when you're creating how you can use theory to help you create, so we're gonna be talking about a lot of different kinds of stuff, But a lot of these techniques are gonna be aimed at creating We're still gonna do a bunch more analysis because from what I heard from the first class, that was something that a lot of people wanted. Ah, you know, the joy of an online classes that if you don't want to want to look at those analysis things, if those aren't interesting to you, then you skip right past him. I'm not gonna grade you, so it doesn't matter if you don't like a skip past. Okay, Um but I do think they're valuable toe. Look at how different songs work and sort of see this stuff in practice. Okay, so, um, let's look at this thing called the Circle of fifths. So here it is. Let me get it nice and big for us. Okay? So if you just Google around, you'll find a whole bunch of different versions of this. Um So what I'm gonna do first, just explain what it is, and then ah, well, cut to the next video and we'll show how you can use it when you're writing a track. Um, there's a bunch of different things we see in here. Um, this shows us several things very efficiently. Ah, the first thing that shows us is the relationship of the relative major and minor. So we can see here that it's outlining all of the major keys and major chords along the outer circle and the relative minor on the inner circle so we can look at sea, and we know that. See, the relative minor of See is a minor from in the key of a minor. The relative major is seat. It goes both ways. So, um, that's a hand. It's a handy diagram to see all those really fast. So if you're in the key of E, we can tell that the key of E the relative minor is gonna B c sharp minor. So if we have the circle of fifths hanging around, we can just see that really fast. Based on this diagram, Um, that being said, I don't expect you to print this out and hanging up in your studio. I've never gone into a recording studio that had of a poster of the circle. If it's on the wall, um, I don't know what I would think if I did walk into one, but regardless, it's good to know, Um, you can also figure these things out for yourself. You know how to figure out the relative minor of all these keys? Ah, based off the scale and the pattern going around while seeming random is just counting up by five for every note. That's why we call it Circle of Fifth. So see, in the key of C, that's important if we count up five. Remember, sees all the white notes so see the e f g. So ah, fifth away from CSG. If we're in the key of G and we count up five, it's going to be G A B C D. That gets us to D in the key of D. If we kind of five. We get to a in the key of a when we kind of five, we get to e and so on through all the notes we count up. Five will always end up at the next note in this circle until we get all the way to F. And then we count up five when we get back to see so it goes all the way around in a circle . Hence circle of fifths. No. Sometimes you'll come across this and will be called the circle of fourths. Um, why would it be called this trickle of force because of fifth upside down is 1/4. So if we go backwards so this way it's fifths. If we go this way around, it's actually a circle of fourths. So see Teoh F C D E f. That the fourth so 1/4 away from C is an f f to B flat is F G a. The flash. Probably that with these fingers, F g A B flat is 1/4 away from F. So that's the second thing it tells us is. It tells us fifth relationships going around. It tells us fourth relationships going around and it tells us our relative major and minor going around. Um, there's one other thing it shows us. Actually, there's two other things that shows us. But there's one more than gonna look at right now, and that is it Very quickly shows us the try tone now the tri tone. I don't think I've mentioned the tri tone yet, but, um, it's sometimes called a diminished fifth. Doesn't matter what it is, is. It's the ugliest note, ugliest harmony we've got and what you can find it by going directly across the farthest thing away. So D flat to G is the tri tone. Those are the ugliest two notes. You could play together, so see down across to G flat. Those are the ugliest notes. So if you just go straight across the thing e flat goes to A or C to F sharp actually will be the same. Um, So if you go straight across, you find the try. Tell now this the tri tone is this weird? Um, oops. Ah, this weird sounding interval. It doesn't sound good. Um, let's make one. So there's a C. If we go see directly down, we get a G flat or in F sharp. Same note. There's one. So let's do like this. It's making long. We'll hear him one after the other. Okay, now we're gonna alternate between CNF Sharp. This is the tri tone interval. It's the halfway point on the circle of fifths. It doesn't sound very good. Ah, sounds a bit like a British siren. Um, let's hear him at the same time. So that tri tone sound is generally considered one of the most distant things. Weaken Dio. Other than a minor second, you know, doing that the two notes right up on top of each other, but very close to it would be the tribe. There are ways to make the tri tone sound good. Eso that's Ah, the third thing that we find in the circle of Fifths. Now, the fourth thing is the thing that's the most useful to us as creators of music, either producers or songwriters or whatever you actually are. Um, and that four thing. I'm gonna leave as a surprise and push us over into the next video where we're going to deal with just that four thing. Um, so circle of fifths, the three things that we talked about seeing in it are the relative, ah, majors and the relative miners through these connections, the pattern of fifths all the way around. Pattern of fourths all the way around and the tri tone relationship by cutting straight across. So try tone is ugly, but sometimes useful to know. Okay, see in the next video. 9. 5 CircleofFifths2HD: Okay. Welcome back. Here we go. So this mysterious last thing in the circle of Fifths that I want you to show you is probably the most valuable thing that this shows us and what it is is ah, something called closely related keys. Or sometimes we call him modulation keys. What that means is the keys with the most in common to each other. Um, and the circle of fifths shows us that if we are in the key of C, there are two keys that we could go to in which we would only really have to change one note, and that would be the one on either side of it. So it would be G or F. Those are only one note different. And you might say what weight wouldn't d. B the most logical cause? It's like right above it, um, or even see sharp because it's just above it. Um, and you'll be wrong. Actually, the closest related key to see is G or F. Now let me explain why. And let's look at our piano grid to explain why. So let's make this nice and big and let's draw out. Let's draw out C major scale. So the pattern I don't really need to count out the pattern because it's the C major scale is just the white notes. But let's count out the pattern anyway, because we're gonna need it in a minute. So whole step. Whole step, half step. Whole step, whole step full stop half step. Lovely sound there. Let's do that. Okay, so there is our c major scale, all the notes of scheme C major scale. Now, let's do what we might think is gonna be the closest related key, and we'll actually let me jump back. I think I skipped something that I wanted to say. That's important. And that is why do we care about closely closely related keys? The reason we care is because if we're making a track and we're in the key of C major and we're like, Okay, this is cool. We've got all our cords laid out using the diatonic chord progression. Ah, and we say these are the cords that work in this key, but none of them work for what we're really hearing. What we really want to do is something different. We say none of those seem major key key chords work great. Where else can I go? Could I go out of key a little bit? Could I borrow from another key? Your best bet would be to use one of the neighboring keys. So if we're in the key of C and we say, Well, all of those cords air boring, they're not the one I really want. Then try the chords in the key of G or the chords in the key of F. If you're in the key of a try, the chords in the key of D or the key of E gets you more possibilities. If you want to just modulate to a new key. If you want to go, totally do a new key going from something like If we're in the key of G and we want to modulate to a new key, going to see won't be very extreme. It'll be like, OK, that makes sense. That's a cool key change. Ah, it's not like whoa like hitting you over the head. Extreme key change. An extreme key change would be going all the way across D sharp. You know, we're sorry D flat. That's an extreme key change because the amount of notes in common are almost none. Um, so we wanted to find the cords with keys with common notes. So let Z duplicate this. And let's say what if we looked at C sharp? So I'm gonna nudge everything up 1/2 step. Okay. What notes? How Maney notes in Common do these keys have key of C and the key of C Sharp? They have that note in common f and they have see in common. That's it. So even though it's only 1/2 step away, it's the closest possible key. When it comes to the root of the key. It's actually quite far away because it only has two notes in common with the actual key. But let's go to the key of G. Hold on for this sound for a second, Okay? Now, in the key of G, now, I'm gonna take these notes on, and I'm going to flip him up, inactive so that they're in line with our C. Actually, no, that because that's just a little bit more confusing. So let me just put a space in between there so weaken separate out. What is R. C and what is RG. Let's just make this nice and big here so we can see all of it. Perfect. Okay, let's see how many notes these have in common eyes. They're a C. Yes. Is there a D? Yes. Is there a e? Yes. Is there a F? No. So f is not in common. And is there an f sharp and see? No, there's not. So the f is different. So that's one note different. Is there a G? Yes. Is there a yes eyes? Their A B? Yes. And is there a C? We are determined that yes, there is a sea. So that's the only no different. It's just one note different the F in order to get from three key of C to the key of G all , we have to dio eyes that now we're the key of G. So it's just one note different. What about the key of F? Okay, now in the key of F here in the key of C here, how many notes are in common? There's a C. There's a d. There's an e f. There's a G. Is there an A? Yes, eyes their a B. No, There's an A sharp instead of a B. And then is there a C? Yes, we've already determined that. So for the see through the key of C to turn into the key of F, this B has to go down to an A sharp. But that's it. So there's only one note that has to change for those to turn into each other. Eso That's why these air closely related keys when you're looking at all of your possible cords, we could borrow one from the, uh, neighboring keys on the circle of fifths. So that's why this is important if you want to do an extreme court or a key change in a song than go far away from where you are in the circle of Fifths. If you want to do a subtle key change state close to where you are in the circle. If it's ah, sometimes we can even go to away, and it's not all that weird. So from C to B Flat or two D, let's compare C to D. How about that before we compared, See? Okay, here we go. Plug your ears for a second way. Go actually kind of love that sound in a weird way. So let's compare these. Um so is there a C? Nope. There's no sea in the key of D. There's a C sharp, though. Okay, so let's remember that for a minute. Because that's one There is a d. There's an E. Is there an f? No, But there is enough sharps. That's too. Is there a g? Yes. Is there in a Yes. And is there a B or is there a way this That should be a B. Remember, we changed that too, in a sharp in the previous one. So that should be a B for the key of C. So, yes, there is a big So in order to get a C corps Ah, the key of C into the key of D. What we need to do is take the sea and raise it up 1/2. Step two of them here. So I'm gonna do that, and we need to raise the f up 1/2 step now. It's all the same notes, so that has to notes different in that one. So it's still kind of closely related. Um, and you can kind of follow that pattern every step away that you get will be one more. No different. So to go from C to G, you're going to add one note and it's gonna be one note has to go sharp. And it's an F in this case, Um, if you go to D, you're gonna have to make two notes sharp. If you go to a three notes, we'll have to be raised. And if you go to E, take a guess. Say it out loud. Four notes. You got it. So four notes have to go up. If we want to go to F. One note has to go down. So one note has to be flatted. If you want to go to B flat to notes, have to be flatted three notes or to e flat. Three notes have to be flatted, etcetera as we go down. So that is why the Circle of fifths is important. It tells us when we're writing good places to go and not so good places to go. Which doesn't mean it's necessarily a bad place to go and buy Go. I mean transition to in the next part of the song, like you're in your track, you're getting to the bridge and the bridge. You're like, I want to just be totally weird here. I want this to sound like we've just jumped into a whole new world. And if that's what you want and you're in the key of G, you're gonna say, OK, I'm gonna go to B flat Minor. That's just a sfar away as I can get, that's gonna be have, like, almost no notes in common. And it's just gonna sound weird. Ah, it's going to sound like we jumped to a different planet and that's totally cool. You can totally do that if that's the sound you want. If you get to another section of the song, you're like, I want to do a key change here. I want to switch to something. But I wanted to be, um not like a hit you over the head kind of key change, but just kind of ah ah, shift. Then you're gonna say Okay, while I'm in the key of G, Let's go to D maybe a tryout. A see how that sounds, Maybe see, and maybe f These ones are safe. They're going to sound good. F is going to sound a little uh, different, but it's still not not too far away. A maybe even E. That gets pretty far away from G, but you could make it work. Um, that one's trickier. Once you get that far away, you start getting into the this is gonna sound weird territory. Um, but that is the most valuable thing to the circle if it's to us as producers is both coming up with new cords to use in a core progression that or maybe outside of the key and also coming up with a key change if we want to do a complete key change. Okay, so that's it for the circle Fifth. Um, for now, we're going to next Look at an analysis where we have to use one of these borrowed cords from another, uh, key eso I'll see you in the next little analysis. Hey, everyone. I know, I know. I said we were We were done with this video, but I just rewatched that video, um, to make sure that I I said everything I needed to say. And I realize there's one thing I forgot to say that's important. And, um, I couldn't find a good place that displays it in. Some is controlled at the end here, Um and it's really short. Uh, and what it is is don't forget about minor keys. If we're in the key of G, a good place to modulate would be D, But also, B minor would be just as good as D because remember, these are relatives. So, um this to get from a g chord to a D accord are sorry, the key of G to the key of D. We only have to add one sharp from where we are in G. So that's only one note away, cause it's right next to each other. So is B minor. Only one note that we have to change to get to it, right, because these two our relatives, which means no notes, have to change their right on top of each other. But going from G to a minor means only one note has to change. So don't forget that minor chords are a good place to go to. So if we're in the key of C, and we want to change to another key, uh, the most subtle places we could go would be f de miner and Let's not forget about a minor. That's the most subtle change we could make. E minor and G. Those are our happiest places to go because they make a smiley face, sort of kind of sort of. OK, don't forget about the minor chords on to the next lesson. 10. 6 GetLuckyHD: All right. Welcome to the next analysis video. Um, so leading up to this in the previous few videos, we've looked at minor keys. We spent a lot of time looking at minor cues. Minor chord progressions. Ah, like good stuff. We've looked at the circle of fifths and closely related keys and borrowing cords from another key. Um, meaning if we're writing a tune and we can't find just the right chord, maybe we go to one of the neighbouring keys on the circle of fifths, and we see what chords they have to offer. So in this next tune that we're gonna look at in this lesson, we're going to see one of those borrowed chords. So we're gonna look at get lucky by daft punk right now. Um, structurally, the song is really easy with the core progression. Ah, it's pretty much four to the floor. There's, ah, one chord per bar. Nothing really fancy. All right, let's just listen to Ah, a little bit of the song and then we'll dive in the way things ends with way. Okay, Um, so let's figure it out. So, um, again, I gave us the advantage of the baseline so to find the baseline, I just kind of went through and played around with the cords, found what really worked. Um, and I just experimented a little bit, and I eventually ended up on these four notes as what I think are the roots of the cords. So let's hear these at the same time as this opening progression. I'm just gonna loop these 1st 4 bars because we're going to spend the majority of our time on this 1st 4 bars. And then we're gonna go through the whole rest of the tune and see how we can get these 1st 4 bars toe work throughout it. It's pretty much these 1st 4 bars for almost the whole team. Um, okay, so I'm gonna turn the track down. Just a touch. So we hear my notes come out, be a little bit more, and let's just hear these 1st 4 bars. Okay? So those sound really good to me. Those sound like I'm pretty sure those air the roots of the cords if they're not the root of the cords. Ah, one of those notes is in each chord. I mean, they sound like they fit really well. and I'm just gonna tell you they are there to the court. Um, okay, so we know the process here, Right? First of all, we need to figure out what? Say it out loud. I hope you said what key were in because that's what um, we need to figure out first. Um Okay, so let's look through these these notes. So we need to find the pattern of whole steps and half steps, and right away, I don't see any half steps, so we're gonna have to guess some of the notes. I only have four notes, so that's not enough to really tell me what scale I'm in. So Ah, I just need to start with the guests and a really good guests. Like we found out in one of the previous analyses would be Ah, what is the first note? Um, so the first chord is a B. So let's take a stab at to be and, ah, she was take a stab at B major or minor. Let's try. Be minor, actually. So what is the pattern for minor? So the pattern is whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, half step, whole step and hold step gets us back to the start. Okay? Now let's see if these notes are in this pattern. So do we have a D in the scale? So we're seeing the scale here. Do we have a D? Yes, we have a deep. Do we have enough? Sharp? Yes. We have enough sharp. Do we have an E? Yes, we have any. So I think we have a winner. If it's not a winner, it's a darn good candidate. So let's stick with that for a minute. I'm gonna take my scale on. I'm gonna leave it available to us. It was going to set it just outside over here so that I can refer to it when I need to. That way I don't have to draw it every time. You don't have to do that if you don't want to you. But I find it handy sometimes. Um okay, so now we have a pretty good guess at what are key is Ah, it's probably be minor. That's what we just figured out. So next let's figure out the courts. So let's just build chords on each of these notes and, um, see how that sounds so First, 2nd 3rd fourth, fifth, 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 1st 2nd 3rd fourth and first, 2nd 3rd fourth and fifth. Okay. Ah, let's hear those cords just like that against the track and see how it sounds. OK? Something strange happened there, right? This last chord got a little funky. Something doesn't sound right there, so that chord isn't totally right. But before we deal with it, let's make this whole thing sound a little more like the track. So I'm gonna move everything up and active A shift up. If you're in a Bolton now, I'm gonna do the voice leading thing that we looked at before. So I'm gonna take this be and just move that up. Inactive. So now I'm moving around where my roots are. So, um, that will change the flavor of it. And I just want to get these a little bit tighter. I might move both of these up. Maybe this one up too. Now we're going down. Okay, so now I have these in in like, ah, way that they flow into each other quite well. There's a minimal amount of motion. That's what we tend to like in these kinds of court. So let's hear it now. We're also open, Octave. Remember, way went up too high. Let's go back down. Inactive. Okay, that sounds spot on to me for these 1st 3 chords, so Ah, we have to deal with that force fourth chord, which is not right. Um, but remember, the root of the cord, the root of the court we liked, Right. Um, so the root of that fourth chord is e. I still haven't root position here, so that's good. Um, that'll make it all the easier to pick apart. So let's set that aside for just a second and figure out what we can call these cords. So maybe just to simplify everything, I'll put them back in route position. Uh, this one needs to go down to Okay, so now I'm back to root position. So my original baseline is these four notes. Okay, so let's figure out what we can call these notes. It's like my screen a little bit bigger here, So this is a chord based on B, and we're in the key of B minor. So we need to remember what our pattern of major and minor chords is for a minor key. So let's take a stab at it. Okay? So let's write down what our pattern is for the minor diatonic or progressions. Just one more time. So I'm just gonna put it up here. So our first chord is minor. Our second chord is that funky diminished chord. Our third chord is major, so it gets a capital M and then we have minor minor major maker. 1234567 Cool. OK, so that's our pattern. So this cord is built on B, it's built on the one and this is the one, the first note. So this must be a B minor court, which is also our keep. Next one is is de. That's the third note of the scale. If we go to our scale, remember that there's a be down here as the root. So now we have the full scale. If we count up to D, there's the third note of the scale. So that means that this is a D. And our third scale by the pattern is major. So this is major. This was be minor D major f sharp. If we count up the F sharp up from B minor up to F sharp. Counting up in the scale, we will get a five court and five his minor in a minor key. So this is an f sharp minor. Now we get to our weird chord here. So in the key of B minor Ah, cord built on e which is what this one is, should be a minor chord because the fourth scale degree should be should produce a minor court, which is what we have here. We have a minor chord. So we have an e minor here, OK, But that's not right. And we know it's not right because it sounds just dissonant sounds just not right When we played against the track, that is definitely not the court. So what could that court be Instead, we know that this e note is correct because when we play it without the cord, it sounds good. It sounds right. So this e is good. That note we like by itself. It's one of these other two notes that doesn't work very well for me. So these ones are all good. We're happy with those. Something strange is going on with this e chord this this e minor chord. So let's look at what it could be. So I'm going Teoh, jump over and look at my circle of fifths for a minute to see if maybe, uh when they were coming up with this core progression, they thought, and the e minor chord kind of works, But let's borrow from a different key. So let's look at the circle of fifths. Okay, so here's our circle of fifths that we know. And this is like one of those Ah ah, maps that says like, you are here, and we are here. This is where we are right now. We're in B minor, right? So we need to figure out, um, what where the cells record came from. Now, Really, What we could do is we could just goof around with those those notes that we know that don't work and, ah, you know, move him up and down by 1/2 step and eventually we'll find the answer just by listening to it. Ah, and that's probably a good way to do it. But I'm kind of taking the long road of like going into the circle of fists and pointing all this out just so you can see. Um, why it sounds good. Even though it's out of key, because this court is out of key. What they've done here is out of key. Um, but I think they borrowed from a very closely related key, which is why it still sounds good. Do I think they were sitting in the studio and and said, Yeah, let's like, Ah, this this be minor chord progression. Sounds great. How about we, ah, get rid of that e minor chord? Because that's boring. And someone pull out a circle of fifths so we can, like, find our other options. No, I don't think they did that. Um, but what I think they did is they used their ear and they said, Oh, this other court sounds good. What I'm doing now is trying to explain to you why it sounds good so that when you're writing, you could say, Well, let's do something different here. What will sound good. And you could either plowed circle of fifths and figure out what sounds good. Or you could just use your ear. But I'm gonna tell you why you will want to hear certain things. Why it will sound good. And that's the whole job of music theory is to tell you why something sounds good or not. Good. So, um, let's look at one of our closely related keys. Now, remember, our we have several options here we have E minor is close. It's right next door F sharp Minor is close. It's right next Door D is the absolute closest because these have all the same notes in them. These have one note different on either side. We know it's not D because there's got to be one note different. So it's not gonna be deemed major G is an option, and A is an option. I'm gonna stick with a minor key. So my best two options to look at first would be E minor and F sharp minor. Let's take a look at F sharp minor and see how that stacks out. So let me go back to a built in here, so let's take Here's our notes. I'm gonna highlight all of these. I was going to duplicate this because this is a minor key. I'm gonna push this up to F sharp. Okay, so now here is all the notes of B minor. And here's all the notes of F Sharp minor. So let's find so we know this is an e chord. It's some kind of e chord. It's not any mind record, though. So could they have found a different kind of e chord in this? And what are kinds of chords? The main kinds? Of course. We know our major and minor, so I'm kind of looking for any major here. I know that, Um, but let's see if it's in here, because that might explain everything for us. So here's the E. So if we build a cord so this is 1234567 the seven scale degree. If we build accord on the seven scale degree of a minor key, we know from the pattern that that's a major chord. So the the cord built on E in the key of F sharp minor is major, So E is going to be a major chord. So this is major in the key of F sharp in the key of B minor. This is minor. This e is minor. So he is minor is a minor chord in the key of B minor, but in the key of F Sharp Minor, which is a closely related cord because the circle of fifths either right next door he is major. So could they have borrowed the E major from F Sharp Minor and used that? Because it's only one note apart to make a court That sounds good, Let's find out. So let's look at what the notes would be. Oops. So I'm gonna pull this e out, and I need to figure out what the notes are of this e cord. So I'm gonna do the 1st 3rd 5th So here's Here's the second scale degree above it, and the third would be here and let me move this whole thing down. Inactive. There we go. So here's the fourth and here's the fifth. So if I'm treating this is the Route E. The second would be have sharp. 3rd 4th would be a and fit to be be so here all the notes of my record and now this is an e major chord, so I have a g sharp in it, and if I look at my actual song, I have a G natural or a normal G, not a g sharp. So let's try bumping that up to a G sharp, turning that into an e major chord Now, and let's see how that sounds against the track. Here we go. Okay, that sounds pretty good. Let me get everything back up into the right inversions. Um, or at least better inversion so that I can hear this. Okay, This is where I had it before, I think. Yeah. So let's have a listen to this now that we're better. Okay. I think we got it. I think we solved the question. So this e chord is not in our key. It is out of key by only one note. And it's a note that is right next door in the f sharp minor, um, key. So it's It's the closest possible key. Weaken be in. Um, and we didn't do a key change here. I want to be sure we're clear about that. A key changes a little bit different thing. Ah, kee. Change would be like if we went to this cord and then we stayed in that key. We did everything else in that key which we didn't do. We We loop this back around so we were firmly in B minor, but they just borrow this one chord from their neighbor. Um, and they're using it in the tune. So it's good, Scott. One note that's out of key. And it's that g sharp. And it's totally cool because it sounds good. We like it. Ah, who are we to second guess what they did? But that is why it sounds good is because it's from a closely related key. Okay, Now let's pick this tune apart a little bit more. So now that we know what our cords are, I'm gonna get rid of all this business because this is all we're gonna need for now. And kind of thinking maybe I should move that note. Let's hear that. Yeah, I liked it better down. Okay, let's leave that there. Okay, let's see how much more of the song we can figure out. So I'm just gonna start pasting this in as we go through the song and see if I can keep up like a legend that way. Okay. So far, it's been the exact same core progression for the whole song. So far. Everything works. Now we get into this part where the vocal is changing a little bit. Let's see if the court progression keeps working way. Okay, here's the chorus. Let's see if they change the core progression and just keep going with it. She's like to get so she's fun. Like Thanks again. Thanks again. Like to get fun. Like to get in to get working way. Give way. What is this way? Wait, wait, wait. Okay. Something changed here. Ah, the court didn't change, but, um, the cord I think the court is going away. Let me just here this way. No, it's still going. Everything thins out here, but we still have the same core progression to get way like to get back were fun. Like to get lucky were fun Like to get lucky were fun Like to get lucky We're on, like Mexican, Mexican, Mexican Thanks, Love Mexican, Mexican, Mexican way Wait, It gets thanks again. Like to get thanks to get way to get the best way to get lucky with Booth. Piano solo. Okay, so, um, the core progression for the songs is the same all the way through. It starts. Doesn't change at all. Great. Easy for us. Ah, we just analyzed the entire song. Um, which Okay, so you might say, Well, that's weird that they didn't change Core progresses for the whole song. It's actually not that weird. Um, songs with that a lot. Ah, it's four chords all the way through. Sometimes it's all you need. Uh, it's more common that the core progression changes somewhat in a chorus or maybe a bridge than it would go for the whole song completely. Um, but it's not unheard of, um, and doesn't make it a bad song. Actually, sometimes it's harder to keep a song energetic and lively without changing the core progression. So it's in a way, kind of a testament to them for having enough sound design chops and arrangement chops to keep it lively with all the extraneous stuff, while the core progression is just continuing on, like just took a train just going without stopping or changing. Okay, so that's it. Um, let's get lucky by daft punk. Um, so it's in the key B minor. It has one chord borrowed from F sharp minor. Ah, it's just an e major chord when we would expect an e minor chord in the key of B minor. There you go off to the next lesson 11. 7 1 7th chordsHD: Okay, so in this next couple of lessons, we're gonna be talking about cord extensions. Um, so in the first class, we talked about seventh chords. Now, if you remember, let's do a quick little review of what? 1/7 chord Waas so means Zoom in here. Let's make a C major chord. Uh, okay, so Route third, fifth K C major court sounds happy. Sounds cool. Now, the seventh was taking it one step further. So we did the route. The third, the fifth on and then the seventh, right? This'll be the six. This'll be the seventh. So now remember, there we looked at two different kinds of seventh chords, the major seventh chord. Which would be where this note the seventh is just normal as it appears in the key. It has this kind of pretty sound to it. Let's hear that a little bit longer. Okay? And then we had a dominant seventh chord where we took this down 1/2 step and that gives us the seventh chord. Um, that's used in a lot. I mean, e I don't want to say it's more common, but it's equally as common. Um, to do this kind of 1/7 chord where we take the seven down 1/2 step. This is called a dominant seventh chord. Has a little bit more of a distant sound. Um, now those same seventh chords exist in a minor key. So if we were on a C minor scale, that would be taking the third down 1/2 step. So to convert a major Sorry, a minor chord. So to convert a major chord to a minor chord, all you need to do is take the third of the cord and go down. Um, if you want to convert this scale from major to minor, you need the third, the six and the seventh, right? But if it's just the cord, the triad Ah, then you take the third and go down because we don't have the sixth or the seventh in the key. If it's just the triad, right, cause the Triad is just the route the third and fifth, Um, so now, in a minor key, the this would be my seventh chord. It would be a minor triad with this flat seven. But this this seventh tone is not flat anymore, because in a minor key, this is where it it is it because remember, the seventh is down in a minor key. So this is the naturally occurring Ah, seventh chord in a minor key based on the route. So this is a C in the key of C minor. We get a C minor seven Ah, and typically, how we would write that would be like this. It we would do a see and then lower case m seven. That's how we write these out. So that's what this is. A C minor chord with 1/7 we also see written si seven. That's what we were on before. A C major chord with a flat seven. This is kind of shorthand. The flat is implied, which means the seventh is 1/2 step lower than it should be. We don't write this flat. We just write c seven, and it's implied that that's what we're doing. The first way that we looked at it was a C major chord with a major seventh, where the seventh was a be in our case, the one that occurs naturally in the scale and that we write as C major seventh. I mean the C major with a major seventh. It's kind of weird the way we've developed this shorthand, but that's just the way it works. Sometimes in like older music, it's not used as much anymore. But sometimes you'll see this symbol, a triangle that means seem major. Seven. This triangle just kind of developed for a while as a shorthand way of saying Major Seventh to use this triangle. But you don't see it very much anymore. Um, okay, so in a minor key, we have ah C minor seven is what we're looking at here. So a C minor chord with 1/7 and this is the seventh that occurs naturally in the key. It happens to be a minor seventh. Ah, let's hear. What of C minor chord with the seven. Sounds like this is a C minor seven. It's got kind of a pretty sound to it. It's it's used. I don't know. It's used all over the place for all kinds of different stuff. Um, and you will encounter these in, um, dance music songs. It's not uncommon to throw the seventh in two to accord. Now the more of these extensions, the extensions air like the numbers after the more of them. You throw in and you can throw in more and more and more. You can go up higher than go to 7th 9th 13th and we'll look at those in the next lesson. But the more of those you add, the more kind of, and this is like a really, really general term. But the more kind of jazz it sounds. So if you want to sound really jazzy, you want to go up to, like the 13th. Have 1/13 in there that gets to sound like kind of jazz. Seventh, it's pretty common. We kind of expect that in a lot of stuff. And we'll look at some tunes with the seventh in, um, in the next analysis that we do. So this is a C minor seventh chord. Okay, so now that we've looked at the C minor seventh, let's just let's build another minor seventh chords. Just Teoh kind of reinforce this. Let's get rid of that. Let's say we're in the key of I don't know what's something we haven't worked in much yet about e minor. Okay, so I'm gonna make a e. I'll put that right there, cause first I'm just gonna draw out the e minor scale. So remember our pattern. You're so sick of hearing me say this pattern at this point, but I'm going to keep saying it because you need to remember it. It's super crucially important. So it's full step, half step whole step. Whole step half step. Oops, Whole step. So there is our e minor scale. Okay, All the notes of the e minor, the key of e minor. So now to build a chord on E minor, since it is the key of E minor, I'm gonna need the route. There's a second. There's the third. There's the fourth. There's the fifth. I need the root third and fifth. Now if I want to go on step higher and add the seventh, this'll be the six. There's the seventh eso That is the e minor seventh chord. Now what if I want to go through my diatonic chord progressions? Right? We know those so I could build a chord based on D or sorry, the next note up the second scale degree of the chord in F sharp eso. Let's put this over here. That's our one chord. So if I built a chord on F sharp. It's gonna be f sharp, a see? And then the seventh would be There's the six. There's the seventh. So it all works the same to put that over there, extend out a little bit. And now what kind of a core do we have here? We have f sharp A C. And if you remember the pattern of diatonic chord progressions, this is our diminished court. So this is the weird one that we don't really like. Um, so here we have a diminished seventh chord, which is even stranger than what we've looked at. This is going to sound really kind of. It's gonna have a fair amount of distance to it. Let's let that ring out a little bit more, so we can really hear it. So it's ah less useful to us in any kind of dance music, but it still has its place. Let's do one more. Let's do the third. So if I build Accord based on the third scale degree in E minor is gonna be G, there's a second. There's the third, the fourth. There's the fifth G B D. That makes a major chord because remember, from our pattern, it goes minor, diminished, major, etcetera. So this is gonna be a G major chord. Now, if I want to add the seventh, here's the sixth, and then I have to circle around again. So e is e f sharp is the next note. So I have to go up the f sharp. That's going to be the seventh. And now I have a major chord. Oops. I don't want that Ian there Right now, I have a major chord with 1/7 on it. So this ends up being a major seventh. The the natural, um, seventh that occurs, the kind of really pretty one. Oops. We always use the word pretty to describe this court. So, um, that's the one that occurs naturally in, um, the minor scale on the third scale degree. Okay, so ah, seventh chords still apply in the same way as they did when we talked about seventh chords a while ago. We just go up one more step and we get to seven chord and you'll end up with minor seventh chords are Sometimes you'll end up with major seventh chords. Um, which is the same, actually, as how it worked when we looked at seventh chords. Initially, there are a couple of minor seventh chords, a couple of major seventh chords. And there's that one dominant seventh chord. That's the one with the flatted. Ah, seventh that occurs naturally in the key. Um, more on that soon. Ah, Next we're gonna talk about some more extensions if you want to add more notes to the cord in the next lesson. Hey, guys, just another little add on to that last lesson. Um, after reviewing it, I thought, I know I shouldnt actually explain this one little thing a little bit better. Um, So what I want to explain is that just like we have the diatonic chord progression that in a major key Orwell in a major or a minor key alternates between major chords and minor chords. Um, for what naturally occurs in the key the seventh quarter through the same thing. Whether or not we get that major seventh or that minor seventh, those are just kind of dependent on the key. Which one we get, Right. So let me demonstrate that really quick. Um, here I have the diatonic chord progression in e minor. So all the cords any minor. And the pattern is minor, diminished. Major, minor, minor, major, major and then minor. I put in parentheses here because it's a e again. So these two chords are the same. They're both in e minor court. I just repeated it again at the end. So, um, this is just our normal core progression. Built out of thirds in the key of e minor when we get the pattern totally what we would expect. Let's hear that really quick just to get it in our heads. Oops. OK, now let's look at the seventh, okay? Now we're looking at all of the cords. Diatonic chord progression just as normal. But I've added the seventh for each chord. And so what we get is the first chord ends up being a minor seventh chords. So that was the normal. What we would expect. So this is a C minor seven. I'm gonna tell you in a minute. By the end of this section of it, I'm going to show you why I care about how we write these because I want you to be able to spot them. If you're doing a project when someone hands you a sheet of courts, which is more common than you would think, especially for remixes. Um, okay, so our 2nd 1 is a diminished seventh. So that's our diminished chord with the seventh. Our 3rd 1 is a major seventh. That's the pretty one that happens here on her third chord. The 4th 1 is a minor seventh. Again like the 1st 1 Our fifth court is a minor seventh again like the 1st 1 Our sixth is a major seventh again, the pretty one. Our seventh is the weird one that is gonna be that dominant seventh. So it's a major chord with a minor seven. So it's got that flatted seventh. But it's not flatted technically, because in key, it is already flatted in this key. If we build a court on the seven scale degree, it gives us this. Ah, it gives us essentially a D seven chord, which, remember, is the shorthand of saying it's got It's not that major pretty sound. It's got that slight dissonance to it, and then we start over again. Here we have a minor seventh on E. Again. So let's hear this one and then we'll hear him back to back. Okay, Now, let's hear. Let's hear these back to back. So I'm gonna drag all these over. So listen, for the way these chords sound just the triads as different from from the Triads with the seventh in them. So these will sound. They'll still sound all in key. Nothing will strike you as like, Wow, that sounds totally out of key. But, um, the cords are a little bit thicker, right? Cause they've got four notes as opposed to three to hear the triads and then the seventh, the seventh. So sometimes we use the word color, and we say that these cords have a little bit more color to them. Because of the seventh note, it gives them a little more. You know, it gives them this extra kind of like prettiness in the major seventh chords. Because, um, it's a little bit darker tinge on the minor seventh chords. Just the seventh in these cases. Just kind of emphasized authority there. So the major chords are even more major. They have this like, super like prettiness to them. I guess I got stopped saying pretty. Um, the minor chords are a little bit darker yet So So the pattern of major and minor seventh alternates in the same way that the cord alternates. Ah, you don't need to remember the pattern. I wouldn't say the way I'm like forcing the alternation of major and minor chords in the diatonic chord progressions enforcing to remember that by saying it over and over. Um, I wouldn't worry about memorizing the seventh chords because they just sort of happened, and you know how to figure them out. So don't clutter your brain with memorizing yet another pattern. Um, but just know how to find them when you need him, that's all. 12. 7 2 9ths&13thsHD: okay. Just a ah, short less. And I think this time Ah, I want to tell you about mawr extensions we can use. We've looked at the seventh, but I want to look at ninth and 13th. Now, these are things that don't come up a ton for us to be totally honest. Um, but I want you to be aware that they exist. Ah, and that you can use them if you want to. Um, but I don't want to spend a lot of time on him because it will be less useful to you than some of the other stuff that we're gonna work on soon. So we've looked at seventh. Let's zoom in on this here a little bit. Okay, so we're still in e minor. And these are This is our diatonic chord progression. So all our records that exist naturally in the key of e minor with the seventh in them. Okay, so that was going route 3rd 5th 7th So we skip a note. We skipped the second we go to the third. We skipped the fourth. We go to the fifth who skipped the sixth. We go to the seventh, right? We can keep going. We can go. We can skip eight and go to nine. Right? So you might say to yourself, but there's only eight notes in the scale. If we repeat the route, let's go back to our scale and look at it. Here's our scale. So if we go root third, fifth, seventh were out of notes, right? Not exactly. We have to do is go up another octave. So I'm gonna copy this. Lovely. Um, so now we're going E t E t e. So we have a way. Have two full octaves. That's an active, including that note, and that's an active. We have two octaves now and keep going up higher. So we have root. 3rd 5th seventh. There's the root again on the ninth. So now we would call that the ninth. Now, you might be saying, Wait, the ninth is the same as the second. Why don't we call it a second? Well, the seconds kind of a different thing. Um, we'll look at seconds in a bit. Um, but more importantly, we call it the ninth because we're going to try to put it on the top. When we spell the cord. We're gonna put it on the top above all of the other notes that makes it. And ninth, um, so let's do it. So here we have seventh, we're gonna keep on going. So here would be the eighth on here Would be the ninth, 8th 9th I'm just going up to scale. 8th 9th eighth, ninth. Its ninth. Its ninth. It's 9th 8th night. Okay, now we have nine cords. We would call these everything works the same. 1/7 chords. Except we have five notes now. And these are called ninth chords. Let's hear what our ninth chord sound like. No. So you can hear how we're getting closer and closer to jazz Sound right? Are Cords are getting thicker and thicker, and that makes them less, um, simple. And in most dance music and electronic music in general. Um, pop music In general, we like our courts to be relatively simple. We'll have seven in there, um, nineths. Less so much. But even less so than that would be 13th. 13th are come up a lot. So let's go. Back toe are scales. We have route. 3rd 5th 7th 9th 21st. We do do 11th. Ah, but more common than 11th. Oddly enough is 13th. Um, because an 11th would be 1/4 if we went down inactive in the same way that 1/9 was a second . So 11th happened. We do use 11th cords, but much more common is 1/13 chords. So let's keep going. 11. This would be 12 and 13 so that would be a C. So if we take that all the way down, that's gonna be 1/6. If it was low. So we're gonna add in 1/6 1 of the notes we skipped over, just like the second. So we like to add in these six. This is when we start to get real jazzy. So let's do it. Remember, I need to go up to scale degrees to get this. So, uh, sorry to chord tones to get this because I'm going to skip over the 11th for now. Um, so we left off on the ninth. Here's 10 11 12 13 10 11 12 13. And then I'm just gonna put these in for us. That's the 13th 13th 13th 13th 13th and 13th. Now you might think to yourself, How did I just figure those out so fast. Um, the reason is, once I did this 1st 1 then I can pretty much just count up the e minor scale right from here. And all my notes will be right as long as I keep the pattern in mind. So I was able to remember that there's only one sharp here, and it's this one. The rest are all white notes. So I just had to keep that in mind while I was growing up here and make sure that I got that note as the sharp. And that's for white nuts. So then I just counted up to scale starting on C but counting the e minor scale and that got in my 13th chords. Okay, so let's hear these. No. Excellent. Let's hear the same thing down. So I think I'm losing some notes in the upper register there, just from my samples. Cool. So now we're starting to get really jazzy, right? Um, now we can modify these as well a lot of the time. Like in like a jazz tune. You'll see like you'll see ah cord written, and then it says flat 13. That means like you're gonna add a 13 but it wants a flat 13. Swot wants, like instead of a normal 13 flat 13. Pull it down 1/2 step. That's what that means when you see flat and then a number, it means pull that down. So these are just more court options. Weaken Dio We could flat all of these 13th and then we make a whole string of flat 13 chords on. It's gonna sound pretty weird. I would be surprised if you had to use for this trick, but I'm gonna show it to you anyway. Here we go. There are some good cords in there, especially this 1st 1 I really liked that would be e minor nine with a flat 13 is what we would call it. I wouldn't call it E 13 because it doesn't have a full 13th in it. It has a flat 13th so it's a e minor nine with a flat 13th. So what that would look like. Ah, if you came across, that is, it will be written this way E minor nine and then in parentheses, flat 13. So the more numbers you see here, it's telling you degrees above this, so it wants 1/9 which is nine scale degrees above E. And the 13th is 13 scale degrees above E. But it wants you to flat it by 1/2 step. So that's ninth and 13th. Um, you won't come across him too much, but I think in this next thing we're going to do ah, it will be useful to us to know how to figure out these chords. So off to the next one. 13. 7 3SusChordsHD: height. So before we jump into a practical example of of using these chords that we've been talking about, I wanted to throw one more court at you were more kind of court at you. While we're on the topic of it, these are called suspended chords. Suspended chords is when you add a two. So the second scale degree into the cord. Now we just did nineths, and we know that if we count up the scale to 1/9 that ends up at the same pitch as a to So let's look here. Way count. 123456789 That ends me on an F sharp, which, if I start over over from the one and I go to the two, it's also enough sharp. So if we put it on the top, were more likely to call it in ninth. If we put it in at the bottom or in side of the cords, the notes that we already have, we would call it a two. And for twos, we call them suspensions. Um, the reason they're called suspensions. They have this quality of It's sort of like being suspended, uh, it has a unstable quality like it's just kind of hanging. There is a good way to put it, um, much more common to use these on major chords. Eso Here's a minor, diminished major. Let's throw one on here so it's gonna be a too. So I'm gonna add the two. So I have the route the second, the third on the fifth here. So let's add it. Also, let's see, these two are minor. Let's add it here to be to this major chord and this is a major chord. Okay, so on all the major chords, I've added the suspended, too. And what we call that are the way we write that is like this. So let's see here. Um, for this cord, we would take the name of the cord is G. So we would call it G suss to to g suss for suspended to Jesus, too. I mean, it's a major chord with the two in it. So here's how the whole thing sounds with just those major chords. I've added a two to him, so let me focus, Justin, see if I can play just one of these. So it's it has this like unfulfilled feeling to it, but yet kind of in a in a major way, Which is why we like him more on major chords, suspended twos. Um, you have to be careful with suspended twos and suspended force. Any suspended chord? Um, it can sound like kind of new age really fast if you listen to, like, a nature CD or like a yoga CD, whether just like playing this like schmaltzy music and blah, blah, blah, nothing against it if that's what you're into. But it's a lot of just things like suspended chords going on forever and ever and ever so that they always sound really happy and unfulfilled, like they just keep moving forward. Um, so be leery of using likes all these suspended chords all the time. Let's do a suspended four. So I'm gonna take this away. I'm gonna add the fourth scale degree, and I'll do that same thing here and the same thing here. Let's hear those. So that has a little bit more dissonance to it, but it's still that same kind of like, um, the court is a little bit like throwing a ball up in the air and then waiting like it's got that feeling of like, Ah, it's gonna come down or what? Um, so if we use those over and over and over, we get this kind of ah, waiting feeling. Um, but those were suspended courts. So if you want to throw a two or a four, we've called them suspended chords, and that's how they work. 14. 7 4 BillyJeanHD: Okay, um, here's we're going to do now. This is a little different. Um, this is not gonna be the analysis thing like we've been doing in the past. We're going to talk about how to read a lead sheet. Um, in a way that I hope is useful to you. So we're looking at a lead sheet now for Ah, Billie Jean by Michael Jackson. Um, there's notes here, and you're thinking this is nonsense. I can't read. Ah, these notes. Maybe you don't know how to read the dots on the lines and all that stuff, but that's fine. I don't care about that. We're still gonna be able to dial in the song in our sequencer. Um, just by using ah, couple tricks to tricks, actually, that we already know. Um, how did you so we can read this thing? We can make music out of this piece of paper. Ah, based off what we already know how to do. So let's do it. Um, the first thing I'm gonna look at is just like the other tunes. I need to figure out what key it's in. So, um, there's a clue when you look at sheet music and it's right here. It's this thing right there. Now you might say, OK, there's a sharp symbol. We know that that is a symbol for a sharp. It's one of these things or hash tag, if you will. Um, don't call it a hashtag college A sharp because we're talking about music, not Twitter. Um, so this is a sharp and there's one of them right there. Ah, sometimes you'll see more of them. You might see 34 of them here, and you might see flats here. I don't really care where they are. What notes there on? Doesn't matter. All I need to do is count. How many there are. There are one. Okay, Are there is one? There are one. There is one. Doesn't matter. Ah, one sharp here. So let's go to our circle of fifths. We know this thing. And what will this tell us about that one sharp. It's actually gonna tell us what key were in because if there was nothing there, if there was nothing in that spot, we would be in the key of C. If we go this way, we get sharps. And if we go this way, we get flats. So if there's one sharp, we would be here if there's here or here one of these two. If there were two Sharps, we would be here. Three Sharps. We would be here and so on. If there was one flat there, we would be here or here. Sorry. If there were two flats, we would be here. Three flats. We would be here. So there is one sharp, which means we must be here. So I'm either in the key of G or the key of a minor. That's just what that symbol is telling me. So let's figure it out. How do we know if we're in the key of G or e minor? Well, are really good Clue would be if our first chord was one of those two. Things are first chord is an e minor. So pretty darn safe bet. But we're in the key of e minor. So let's assume we're in the key of the minor and hey, that's the key. We've just been in for, like, the last, like, two or three videos. So that's convenient because it's fresh in our head. So we're in the key of a minor. Now it's telling us the names of the cords. These guys Ah e minor F sharp Minor overeat. Now this over e thing we haven't looked at yet, but we will. That's an easy one. So we're gonna look at that over east, so let's just ignore it for just a second. We'll come back to it. So are two chords are e minor and F Sharp Minor were in the key of a minor. So our first court is gonna be an e minor chord, and we know e minor in the key of e minor is just a chord based on eat. So let's put that together, Do it right here. So I e minor is gonna be our 1st 3rd and fifth. There's R E minor court. Great. So there's our first chord. An e minor in the key of the minor is a one chord. We know how to do that. Our next chord is an f sharp, and we're gonna forget about that over E for just a minute. We'll do that next. So in F Sharp is based on two, but we have a little bit of a problem here, So let's build our F sharp board. So roots. 2nd 3rd fourth and fifth. Now what is the two chord? The second chord in our in a minor key is that major minor or the funky one that diminished it's diminished. So this doesn't want in. F sharp minor chord are sorry enough sharp, diminished chord. It wants enough start minor chord, and we can see by looking at the, um, the notes here. We don't need to know how to read this, these notes, but we see there's another sharp here, which means there's one note that's out of key that they want us to fix. That's what they're telling us with that. So we need to convert our diminished chord to a minor chord. And in order to do that, all we really need to do is raise this note. So to get a diminished chord to a minor chord, we're going to raise the fifth of the chord. So that's just something you might want to remember or, uh, deal with when you encounter it. So now we have an F sharp, minor chord and in e minor chord okay, so e minor chord after a minor chord. Now let's deal with this over e all that over e means is, if another way to write this that would make it look a little more clearer is if we wrote it kind of stacked, which sometimes you see him written this way, so f sharp, minor over e. It looks like a fraction, right? It's not a fraction. It's literally the way I just said it f sharp minor over E. All that means is they want an F sharp, minor chord, but they want an E in the bottom of it, so they want an E in the bass. They're just telling us what the baseline is by saying that, so it doesn't affect the court at all. It's still in F sharp, minor chord, but we're gonna add an E to the bottom of it. Sometimes those notes and the bottom will be notes that her in the court, and sometimes they won't be in the court. This note is not in the cord, but that's fine. So here's our F sharp minor chord on, and they want us to put an E in the bottom, so that changes the quality of the court a little bit. But not much. And they wrote the music. And that's what they want us to dio. That's what they told us to do based on the names of those chords. So that's what we're gonna do. Okay, so there's our first bar. I'm gonna put this into rhythm a little bit. Here, let me see here. Hoops going awfully fast. It should be about They're trying to remember how the song goes and just kind of roughly dialling the rhythm. Okay, uh, I'm gonna get rid of my scale. I left the scale here of E minor, but it's gonna trip up my rhythm. And I want this to really sound like the song. So, um, I want to start it on beat one. Okay. Okay. Um, So now let's do the next bar and exports slightly different. That would be here, so e minor. Now they want 1/7 and then the same f sharp minor. So remember that whenever we have these seven, if I just played an e minor and didn't put the seventh on it, I would be playing zero wrong notes, right? I would just not be playing all of the notes that it's asking you to do so. If I leave off the seventh and just do any minor, I have all the right notes. There's just one more note that I could put in there. So leaving it off doesn't create any wrong notes. It just doesn't have enough notes. So we could leave that off. What? We're gonna put it in. So let's go to the first thing because it's so similar. I'm gonna copy that and paste it here so e minor. But now they want 1/7. So there's the seventh of you minor, and then that f sharp over e is the same. Okay, and then that's what they want for pretty much all the rest of this section. So this bar is the same as the first bar E minor toe f sharp minor over e. And then this one is e minor seven with f sharp minor overeat. The same is that one. So that's the pattern going back and forth. And I don't want to analyze this entire sung, so I'm just gonna take thes two bars and let's just repeat him four times and I've cued up . Let's get this over here somewhere. Here we go. have queued up a little beat. That will kind of sound like it a little bit, just kind of roughly. Okay, so now we have the beginnings of Billie Jean that we figured out just based off the sheet music when when we didn't really know how to read notes at all. And we didn't have to deal with the notes, all we had to do was figure out the key and look at the names of the cords and then figure out how to make those cords, which we know how to do. Even we don't even need to deal with individual notes. We just need to recognize those chord symbols and be able to put it together. - Excellent . You can read sheet music now. 15. 7 5ClusterChordsHD: Okay, One more thing about cords before we move on. Ah, and do another analysis. And then we look at, um applying some of these things We're gonna do some some just production exercises on and and actually write some music and look at baselines and melodies in particular. Since we've spent the majority of our time so far on chords, um, chords will still be a major part of baselines and melodies going forward. But, um, we'll be applying them a little bit different. So the last thing I wanted to talk about was, ah, what happens when you have a cord that doesn't really fit into any of the rules? Uh, sometimes you might just like, ah, slap your hands down on a keyboard and say that was a cool sound, but it doesn't fit into any route. 3rd 5th pattern, right? So I could say, OK, this is cool. Um, just kind of randomly throwing notes around. Okay, here we owe you're like, OK, that's a cool sound. It's it's sounds a little dissonant and terrible, but, um, let's say for the sake of argument that you love that sound, um, we could analyze this and stare at it all day long and say, How does that fit into our route? 3rd 5th What's the key? What's what's the route? That's gonna be a losing man's game? Uh, because it's not gonna fit into those. And when we have cords that just don't fit into any pattern, we really kind of just call them cluster records. Ah, cluster cord means it's got a whole bunch of everything. It's kind of our default name for stuff, so ah, it's a cluster cord. It doesn't fall into the route through fifth. Ah, pattern. Um, it probably could. I mean, we could analyse it and find a good name for it if we really wanted to. And if this was like hardcore music theory, we would do that. We would analyze it until we found something that would work as a name for it. But we don't care about that. Were not like trying. Teoh get our master's degree in music theory here. We're just trying to write some cool stuff, so let's just call him cluster chords. Once things start getting ah past the rules that we've talked about so far to us, they're just gonna be close records we don't really care about him. Um, after that, if that being said you decide to go get a master's degree in music theory, you will find names for these things and there are more names for them, but nothing that really concerns us. Maybe someday we'll do, Ah, a ah music theory for electronic musicians, a tonal version in which we talk about complete like Chromatis ism. Like anything goes. I doubt that would have any practical use for any of you, so we'll probably never do that. But if you really want to see it right in the comments of of this class and and we'll see, maybe maybe it will be worth doing. I don't know. Um so cluster chords, big groupings and notes that don't have a easy name that we can put on them. There you go. 16. 8 BoardsofCanadav2: all right in this one, we're going to Ah, pick apart and look at the cords. For boards of Canada's. Everything you do is a balloon. So this track, um, is a little tricky, actually, because, um and because it's got some a little bit dense records, which is obvious, because that's what we're talking about right now. Um, it also, uh, Well, one of the reasons I like boards of Canada is because they do do some more some dense records. So, um, let's just dive in. Let's have a little listen to some of the track, and then we will, um ah, pick apart Ah, section of it. Okay, so I looped that last part a couple times because I wanted you to get in your head. Um, it's pretty much the same core progression. I think I haven't figured out this whole song yet. Um, from the whole song. And you can hear as you listen to this song, it's got this kind of like churning core progression that just kind of keep cycling through . And if you listen close, you'll hear that it's not our typical cords. It's not 100%. Of course you would expect? Um, there's something a little denser going on. Um, now we know that when we hear something that sounds a little denser, the obvious thing would be that there's more than three notes in those chords. There's probably four, maybe even five. Who knows? Um, so let's have a look at what they are Now this one is a little tricky. So here's the baseline that I here and you know this is so this is a little bit subjective because when you listen to a song like this, especially something that's got chords like that where there, there they cycle through and there's no really clear baseline. There's no like thing that steps along, at least not in this part. Um, so the baseline could be, ah, interpreted multiple ways. So this is the way I hear it, Um, and let's actually chop away this. Let's just focus on this because it's just too cycles through the same thing. So let's just do this there, Um, because two cycles exacts in chords, so this is the way I hear it lets your mind against theirs. So here's a piano playing the bass notes. Okay, Um, so I have figured out. I'm just going to kind of tell you 11 of the key crucial things from from this track. Um, I figured out that were in the key of G minor, but we do not get a G minor chord. Now, that seems a little strange. Like if we're in the key of G minor with everything we've seen so far, we ought tohave Ah, g minor chord. Probably as the first chord. Um, but that doesn't happen here. Um, you could call this a couple of different keys, actually, um, it's a little bit debatable, actually, as a lot of music theory is, um, you can argue and people write whole books about You know what? This court is in that key and all this other nonsense. I don't care about that. Um, I'm going to just try this in g minor and see how it goes. So, um, let's go over here outside of our loop here on Let's just right out of G minor scale. So here we go again. Whole step half step. Whole groups will step whole step, half step, whole step host that G minor. Um, now, if I go here so my first root note that I heard is a G Sounds good. Um, if we try to build a chord on G minor here, it's not gonna sound right. So let's do it just so I can prove to you how not right it's going to sound. Um, okay, so there's my third. There's my fifth, so let's just hear that. Let's do a little bit of a leading here. It's not quite right. It's something kind of like sits funny, like it doesn't quite feel right, so I don't think it's d minor. I think this is actually the second chord in the key with an elusive bass note. So it's one of those chords over a note right that we saw before. So what I hear actually here is an a minor chord. So I'm going to start a cord and build it on A. I'll explain this genius second, but let's build it on a So there's the route. There's the third. There's the fifth, and I hear this note in the base. So we have this, um, the way we could write this cord if we wanted to give it a name would be a minor That's what this is that much of it is an a minor chord over G. Right? We've seen this before. Um, so there's a G in the base and an a minor chord is our main court. But there's a gene. That base now, uh, is a minor in the key of G. Yes, it is. It's our two chord, right? So, uh, a C and we don't actually have an e cause. Remember, the two cord is are diminished one. So because the of the diminished thing they've done kind of the trick here of using the harmonic minor scale. So that makes when if you remember the harmonic scale, we can raise our sixth and our seventh up one. So let's do that here. And that makes for a little bit nicer records, especially on this to cord. So they raised the e. So they're using the harmonic minor scale. So this one's already starting off a little weird because we have an a minor chord over a G , and we're using not the minor key, but the harmonic minor key. Weird. But, um, it makes sense. Now let's try to explain this G a little more if you remember what I said before when we looked at these cord over like these fraction looking cords? Um, that look, that fraction thing where there's a note in the base that's different. It could be in the cord, but it also might not be in the court. In this case, it doesn't look like it's in the cord because we have a minor over G. But let's think about it a little bit more. Maybe that is in the cord. If we go, if we say is our route, here's our third. Here's our fifth. What would our seventh B it would be? Theirs are sixth. There's our seventh. It would be a G. So this is an a minor seventh chord with the seventh tone G in the base so we could write that as we could write it just as a minor seventh. That explains all the notes that are happening right here because it says the notes that are happening are a, C, E and G. Ah, but the G is in the base, so we might still write it over G if we wanted to, just to be really clear. But, um, a minor seventh explains the whole court. So let's hear that now. And we'll see if that how that sounds. I'm gonna turn, um, the volume of the piano down just a little bit. So it's not so we still hear the track a little bit. Let's get a little bit. Okay, that sounds pretty good to me. That's it. So, um, what we have here is an A minor seven. That's the second chord in the key of G. Um, using the harmonic minor scale, um, to explain the two. Now, once again, I'm gonna point out, Did they sit in the studio and say, Hey, guys, let's do something in the harmonic minor scale. Let's get rid of that diminished chord and let's do this. No, that's probably almost for sure, not what they did. Um, what they probably did was sit at a keyboard or a piano or guitars or something, and they figured out a cool sounding core progression. They don't care that it's a raised sixth scale degree, so they're using the harmonic minor and they're putting the seventh in the base. They don't care about that. And neither should you when you're writing. But when you're trying to figure these out and you're you're looking at what other people did. It is handy to be able to say, OK, that's how they did that. So that when you're writing, you can you can think that way and you can think OK, maybe if I put the seventh in the base that will do, like a different kind of feel. So we're just explaining what they did. So let's move on to the second court, See? So let's try this building a minor chord or accord Ah, on C So in the key of G minor, let's see, I'm looking over here and trying to compare. So there's our second. There's our third. There's are forth and there's our fifth. Okay, so let's see what we have here. Let's see if this works. Possibly let me hear that again. It's not quite right. It's close. I actually think there you doing ah, seem minor chord here. So we're taking that down 1/2 step. Let's hear that fits a little bit better, right? Um So how do we explain this minor chord? Well, we could say we could go back here and say they ditched the alterations to the minor scale , and now they're back here. That would explain the minor chord just perfectly. So for the first chord, they bumped it up. Do you get rid of that? Diminished the second court. They bumped it down. They really only dealt with this note because we don't have the F in there, but typically they go together. So now we're back to the natural minor scale, and that's totally fine. But there's still one thing missing from this cord. If you listen close, there's more to the track in the track. There's the court is a little bit denser, so I'm going to try to add the seventh. I'm going to see if if it works, so G is the my route of my key. So if I go up to the seventh because I can't go up here anymore and was gonna cycle back around, start there and it would be here a flat or sorry, a sharp or a B flat. So let's see how that sounds pretty good. Okay, Um, so I'm pretty happy with that, and I'm pretty happily happy with the way it's It's arranged because I hear this as the as the base note. So I'm gonna leave it just like that. Okay? Now we have another G chord. Is it or G root sounding? Is it the same as this court? Let's find out. Let's put these notes over here and just listen to it and see what happens. Definitely not right. That sounded all kinds of wrong. So let's get rid of that. So it sounded so wrong, in fact, that I'm just gonna get out of the hole chord because it's not just one note Wrong. That was just the wrong court. Okay, so that geek or doesn't sound quite right, let's just try. I'm gonna take a hypothesis here that it's the C minor seven chord again, but rearranged a little bit. So let's just hear this. Okay, that's not bad. Here's what I think they did, though. I think we've got a C minor seven chord, which we had here. I think we have that again, but it's over, G. So let's rearrange it a little bit. Let's take the seventh, which is this a sharp here? Let's move it down and active and this G, let's get rid of because we have it down here against we have all the same notes. I just moved him around a little bit. Okay, that sounds pretty good to me. Let's figure out this last chord. So it's an A. Now remember, we had a minor seven here, but now I hear the route kind of as a so let's try just building an A minor seven on it and see if maybe it's just that court again. So there's my fifth. There's my seventh. So let's try it again. I think that's it. What we have here is that it kind of finally giving us the A as the base note, and this again is debatable. I could hear it that way with this G in the base for this whole thing. Um, that's very possible that it is. I mean, this is just like a very tight mesh of a pretty dirty sound. It's really hard to pick out these pitches, Um, but I think that's what we've got. So, um, let's have a look. Let's walk through this whole thing. So what I think we're in here is this first chord is an a minor seven and we'll say over G , we don't really have to say that because it's all the same notes. But let's say it so that we're clear that G is the low note. That's the way it's arranged. Then we have a C minor seven. We don't need to say over anything cause there's a C on the bottom of it and that's assumed , um, next we have a C minor seven again, but this time over G and again we wouldn't have to say G necessarily because there's a G in the cord. But ah, it makes it a little bit more clear. We're not saying any wrong notes if we don't say G over G. So it's there and then last. We haven't a minor seven, and we don't need to say over a because A is in the base unless we do what I just did here . In which case we want to say over G. So if I leave a in the base, I don't need this. If I put the G in the base, I should say that over G. But I don't have to um yeah, so that's ah, boards of Canada. Um, it's a little bit of a tricky one. Ah, these dense records are hard to hear, especially when there's, like, this kind of distorted sound. Eso, uh, enjoy everyone. One quick correction to that video that you just finished watching. Ah, when we're talking about alterations to the minor scale, I called it harmonic. Ah, when I should have called it melodic minor. And so I'm very sorry about that. Hopefully, you're you're paying attention. You caught it. And you're like, Wait, he's wrong. Um, but if you remember, the harmonic is when we raise just the seven scale degree. And the melodic is when we raise the six and the seventh scale degrees. We were looking at the melodic when we raised both six and seventh. We didn't really have to deal with the seventh very much, but ah, we had to deal with six. And there's no version of the scale where you just raise the sixth in this case there might be actually in the near future. But, um, actually, there will be in a very near lesson. We'll talk about a scale where you do raise the sixth. Um, but for now, in the minor scale, that's what I should have said. So brief correction. Thanks 17. 9 1MelodyFromChordsHD: So next, Um, I want to look at putting chords and melodies together, so we're going to talk a little bit about melodic writing like writing melodies. Now, we couldn't to ah, whole separate class just on how to write a good melody. So we're not gonna focus in on, um, really like the arc of the melody and the whole melody in and of itself because that's a little out of the scope of this class. Maybe we'll do another class. Ah, that that focuses on that. What we're going to focus on here is, um, how to take a core progression and find a melody that works on that core progression. And we'll do it both ways. Will also do I have a melody. How do I figure out what chords to put on there so we'll do kind of the chicken and the egg thing. Uh, we don't care which comes first. Um, now, nothing said for me. How I like to work is I like to start with the core progression and then find the melody inside of it. You know, like the cords kind of set up the whole feel of the song to me. are of the track. And then, as I I start to work with the cords, usually a melody just kind of floats to the top. I'm a little weird in that way. I don't think that's normal, but that's how I work. Um, it makes it makes it sowed. The melodies in my tracks are a little more simple. The cords might be more dense, but the melodies air all pretty closely tied to the courts. You could do it the other way, though. You could have a core progression. And you just figure out our sorry a melody and you just figure out what? What chords work with it. So, however you like to work, there's no standard thing. People do it both ways. People do it other ways. Um, but let's talk about a couple of ways. So let's start. Let's start with the chord progression. A. So we need that. So let's say let's make an a minor chord. So let's say I'm in the key of a minor, so let's do an a minor chord. Maybe we'll go to the seven someone go down. The seventh is major, Um, and that's the court. We would end up on it would be a G major. And now let's go. Maybe two. I don't want to do that, too, of a minor. That would be be if I build a core based on B. That's that diminished one. I want to deal with that. Ah, let's go. Maybe to the fore that would be D. It's to that. So let's do it A d chord. I'll just build a triad there. And I know the notes in my core progression earn my key of a minor. Because remember, the key of a minor is the relative minor to C major. So it's all the white notes, so I don't need to draw out all of the scale because I kind of concede it on my piano. Great. Here, let's do one more cord. Um, let's say something that leads us back to a so that we can loop it around. Maybe the five chord would be good. We know that usually works well. That's an E, Um, but I don't go 4 to 5. That's not really what I'm feeling right now, so let's maybe do ah, about a three a c major chord, so that would be based off the third scale degree. That might sound cool. Let's do that. Okay, So here's my core progression. I haven't a minor a g major, a d minor, and then a c major. Okay, I'm gonna get this sounding a little bit better. I'm just going to use our inversions trick that we learned before. Maybe I'm gonna take this note up an octave. No, I take that back and then take them back down and take this one this note down and active. And let's take this note down, Inductive. Now, we've got a cool base thing going back and forth. Okay? So let's hear this. Okay, so it's pretty normal chord progression. Nothing weird about that. Um, let's I'm gonna throw a drumbeat on it. So give me a second while I find some drums just to get us in the feeling of this tune that will help us come up with a good melody for it. Okay. Through the magic of pausing and un pausing my video I have a drum beat now. Um, so I just grabbed it. Just kind of an old loop I had, um So let's hear what I have. Okay. Great. uh, super simple, but that's okay. So now I want to find a melody that works on top of this. Now, the way I'm going to do that is basically I'm gonna take each chord. I'm gonna like we've aligned through them. So I have another sound set up here something that has a little bit more sustained to it. So this is how I usually start. You can do this however you want, but this is how I like to do it. I'm gonna take this clip and copy it down there. Now, this is my melody Instruments. So I don't want my melody instrument just to, like, play these chords. Um, I wanted to play one core one note at a time, but now I'm looking at my core progression on the melody instrument. So I need to thin this out. So the easiest, most obvious thing to do would be to get rid of everything except the top notes. That always makes a pretty handy melody because these notes work. So maybe we'll start with that. Actually, some is going to get rid of these. Okay, so now I'm left with a melody on top of my core progression. It's not gonna be the most interesting melody in the world. So let's hear it. And then we'll see if we could make it a little more interesting. Okay, so first thing I want to do is I'm gonna take it up. Inactive. Okay, so we have four notes that work. Each of these notes works within the cord that's happening at the time. So remember, one of the tricks here is making it sound interesting, making the melody sound interesting horizontally like as it goes across this way over time . But also it has to work vertically, right? It has to work with all the notes happening at the same time. So all the notes in the cord would be vertically right. Ah, all the melody as a whole be horizontally. So this works both ways because we just pulled these notes right out of the court. Right. Um, let's see if we could do something little more interesting with them. Let's try to connect the dots a little bit. So for this, I need my scale and maybe just for the sake of argument, not the sake of argument, because you can't argue because you're there and I'm here. Um, but I'm gonna draw out our scale. Is this the a minor scale? Because I want us just to be able to see it for reference, because now we're really going to need it now. Um, Okay, So let's try to connect these dots. What can I do to get in between these two notes? I don't want to go to this note. You know, a d sharp in between because that's not in the key. I want to stay in the key. Um, I could go out of the key to make a melody, notes, but that gets really dangerous. So for this melody, I wanted to sound nice and fairly simple, so I don't want to go out of the key. Um, let's see what we can do to get between these two notes. Let's think this note a little shorter. Maybe just that much. And then we'll add in another note here. Now this note. I wanted to move so I don't want to stay right there, but it's got to be in the key, so let's go. We could go up. We could go from here to here to here this notice in key. Now, this note is not in the court. Right? So for our ah, horizontally, vertically sorry vertically. It's not lining up because this note is not in the cord. And the court happens through this whole bar, right? Or this whole chunk right here. So this no close out of the court, that's okay. Um, we would call that just a passing tone. It's not in the cord, but it's in key. It's going to push us into the next one. You can't have everything be in the court all the time. It will just be boring if you do it that way. So sometimes you go out of the court in order to make a more interesting melody. So let's hear what? This this note ads for us. Okay, um, it sounds pretty good. Another thing I could do if I wanted to is instead of that and step back. Here we go. Another good trick is to do what's called an anticipation. You don't need to remember these technical terms, but basically could go to this d early. So I'm going to the next chord and a telling that works on next. Corbyn gonna do it early. This can sometimes be a cool trick. It's not even cooler. If I did it again there, right, so that can really work. Let's maybe leave this one here. But I'm gonna take this one back because I did kind of like that f there. So I'm gonna go. So this is a chord tone. This is not a cord tone, but it's OK. It's just passing. This is a chord tone and then let's pull it back and then we'll go to this f early and then let's do something different here. Let's say maybe, well, this f let's leave. Let's have this f go a little bit longer. And then well, we got to fill out the rest of it. Yeah, and let's go to We could do in anticipation of this e. And that could work. Um, but let's try maybe another. Excuse me. Another note in the court. We could do that too, so we could have passing tones. We can also have other notes in the cord are at our disposal as well. So I've now forgotten what this court was. Um we did a G. I think it was a d minor. So the notes in a d minor r D f in a so I could go down to a d here. So now I've gone between two chord tones and that works and then up to an e. So let's let's hear that. Okay, that works. But you know what? My imagination kind of inserted here was this note like that. So I went Boom, um, bum. So I went, like, down and up. And then we land on the Let's hear that? Cool. What's getting somewhere? Now I want to hear this note change. And I think now I want to go down to a d. Okay, not bad. And so to summarize all of this, this is a core tone. This is a non cord tone, we would call it. This is a core tone. This is not a cord tone here, but it becomes a cord tone here. Once we crossed this line, it is a core tone. This is a core tone, but this is not 1/4 tone. It's a non core tone. This is a chord tone, and this is not 1/4 tone. So I've added, But all of the notes are in the key, right? They all work here. Um, but they're not all in the cord. That's happening horizontally. Kind of connected the dots that kind of weaved a little line through the cords. Ah, and when you do that, some of them are not gonna be in the courts. If the melody you make has notes that are Onley in the cord, you're either going to be using a really awesome core progression or you're gonna have a really boring Millie. So don't be afraid to experiment with these non chord tones. Just go outside of the cords. Just try different stuff. Just look at what notes are in the key and say, Okay, I could go to these notes. They're not in the core, but they're in the key. Give it a shot. Went up. Um, I could do a lot more with this, but I think that that ah clarifies what I wanted to cover for this element of it. Um, next, I want to take a melody and see if we can figure out what chords will work against it. So we'll do that now. 18. 9 2ChordsfromMelodyHD: All right. Next up. Um, let's talk about building, ah, core progression from a melody. So if you're one of those people that likes to read a melody first, like, ah, lot of people like I might venture to say most people like to write a melody first, but I don't know that for a fact. Um, how do you figure out what chords to put on the melody? So good to figure this out? First thing is, we need a melody. So let's stick to a minor. Um, and I'm just going to kind of read a random melody that's in a minor. Um, maybe I'll do half notes, mostly, so I'll start on A. It doesn't have to start in a melodies. Don't have to start in a I don't have to start in the root of the key. Um, they could start whenever they want. Um, but let's start this one on a So let's go a BC The those two quick notes don't go down to be and hold that, Then I'll do, ah to make a leap here toe, maybe e and then f I'm being kind of his random as I can hear down to see to g and T e. Well, hold that out. OK, so here's my super random melody. It's not entirely random causes selling key, but, um, I didn't really think all that much about that. Okay? So I'm still using this, like, super dark weird since patch. Ah, and these drums. So it's already got kind of this dark, uh, almost trip hop feel to it. Um, but that's cool. It's also in a minor key, so it's got that going for it. So let's look at what chords we could use. So I'm going to do the opposite of what I did last time. Let's get rid of that. So this is my piano track up here. Someone's gonna copy my melody into the piano track so that I can leave the melody on the melody track, but ah, pull apart the piano part. So we're gonna figure out what chords could work on this. And let's say I want one chord per bar, just like we did in the last, uh, the last track. So what I'm gonna do here is I'm gonna figure out I'm gonna look for these, like, kind of third relationships. Um, so I haven't in this bar gonna go bar by bar. So in this bar, I have a B and C. So if I was to look at my hole diatonic chord progression, I would find. So here's my key right here. Let's build an a minor chord the 1st 3rd 5th And actually I'll build a couple of these. Here's my two Chord and Minor, which is that Diminished remembers. We probably will avoid that one, but who knows? Build a couple more of these. Therefore, cord or five chord will just do that money. Okay, so looking back here a, B and C Let's see how many of those notes I can get to fit into a single cord. So, of my chords does any of them have an A A B and to see if they have all three, then Hey, that's a great court to use now. Always remember, we have a couple options here if we only have one note. Ah, there are three or four options. At least three or four obvious options. Um, but we'll get to that in a minute. For now, we have thes three notes, and I already know that well, I know because I'm just gonna tell you to. We can find accord where two of those notes will work A, B and C. One of them is gonna be a passing note, and it's gonna be this Be so we can see here A and C in our one chord in an a minor chord. Do we have an A and to see in any other chords? Um, not in anything we've drawn out here. If we keep going, we'll get well, actually, if we go, one more quarter will get one. So if we go here to the six chord F A and C so F would work as would a C and e So two different chords The one chord in the six chord, um, ones a major chord in one's a minor chord so we could use whatever we want. Let's use an a minor chord here. We'll keep it simple. So I'm going to stretch this out. I'm gonna turn this into just a cord. So there's my a minor chord. Now, my second bar has just one more melody note. So that means I have three or maybe four options. Like I just said a minute ago. So I need to look at all my cords that have this one note in it. Now you're gonna have If you're just looking at triads, you have three options because this note could be the root of our court. It could be the third of our cord. Or it could be the fifth of our cord. Or if we want to get fancy, we could even say it could be the seventh of our court. So let's look for a B in here. So here's a B on our two chords. So if it's the route, it's our to cord. Remember, that's a diminished chord. We don't really like that one. So let's cancel that one out. We're not going to use that one. What are our other options we could use? Here It is as the fifth, and that is the e chord T E minor chord. That's a good option. Um, so that's a good option. If we kept going up one more cord, that's what they should just drawn out this whole thing from the get go. But that's OK. We get up to the seven chord, the seventh chord in the key we get the one that has the third in it, and it's a G chord. It's a gene major court. So are good options here. The two chord. Not such a good option. Ah, the good options are the e chord, which is the fifth and the G chord, which is the seventh. So we can decide which one you want. I mean, we're kind of in composition mode here, so both of these cords are gonna work just great. Um, one of the things you might consider is that one of them is a major chord, and one of them's a minor chord. So you might think Do you want a major sound or a minor sound here? Um, I'm gonna go with I'm gonna go with the G Chord will be a little weirder. Let's look at what our other options could be. What if it that b was the seventh? So let's go off one more scale degree on all of these. Okay? There's I could keep going, but this is the one I want. If I did it as a C, it would give me that seventh. Um, I don't think I want to do that. I think that's going to be a little too intense for this kind of dark trip poppy sound that I want. So I'm gonna go with the G chord. Okay, so let's turn this into a G chord. I need a G. And there's my third and my fifth will be a d here. Okay, so now that melody note works in there Just great. Now, here. I haven't e and f was there half steps apart. So they're not gonna be found in any single chord. There's not gonna be a chord that has an e in it and indefinite x. Well, I take that back. Ah, we will have one. Ah, this cord, the sixth chord. If we added a seven to it, we would have both of those. But I don't think that's what we really want. That's not quite the right sound. Um, it's gonna be a little to remember This is that major seventh chord. That sounds really pretty. I kept saying it sounded pretty, um, so we could put that in this tune, But what we have going so far, we haven't really dark sound. And if we put this really pretty something, coordinate we're gonna get ourselves in a little bit of trouble. It's gonna start to sound really confused. So let's not do that. Since this F is shorter, let's treat it as a passing tone. So let's say ease the court own. So my options are here. The one chord again. The three chord, which is major. There's the E. And then there's gonna be one chord. There's gonna be Accord. Sorry where it's it's the route. So here it is, as the fifth. Here it is as the third, and here it is as the root. So an e minor chord are five chord. So in this case, maybe I'll think about where I've coming from. I have a a a G. And this is a minor chord. And this is a major chord. Let's be sure we get another minor according there, so that we keep this sound of the ah, um the darkness of the sound. I could go back to that one chord. That's awfully appealing. Um, let's do that. Sums could copy this over, so I'm gonna use the one chord again here. So now we've got one chord. The e fits in the cord and then it goes to an F. That's OK. So that f that's the melody. So I'm gonna get rid of that here cause I don't want it right in the cord, necessarily. I'm just gonna stretch that out so that the cord takes up the whole measure. Okay, here, I've got three chords. I've gotta see a G and E. And as luck would have it, I swear I didn't plan that. We do have a cord that has all three of those notes C, E and G right there. So our three chord has all three of those. But there's actually one more record that has all three of those two. Um, let's find it. It's gonna be It's actually going to be our one chord with a seven c e and G, with the G being the seventh. So it could be our one chord again. Ah, it would be with the seventh. It would be a minor seventh court. Uh, but I'm not going to use that only because I'm coming from my one chord and I want to be sure I go to a different court. So let's use that three chord C, E G and I've got everything I need right here. I don't need to do anything. Okay, So I just kind of grouped notes together and found notes that fit that are passing tones in it. That's the way it's gonna be. That makes for an interesting melody. Remember, if you don't have any passing tones or any notes that are not in the cord Ah, for long periods of time, you're gonna end up sounding pretty boring. So, um, don't be afraid to just throw those extra notes that air in key, but not in the cord. Just throw him around and see what happens. Um, okay, Last thing before we hear this is I'm gonna do a little bit of inverting. So I'm gonna take this G, since it's it's the highest note move down inactive. That actually gets me all pretty tight where I'm not moving around too much. So let's hear what we've got. Move this down and active. - I want to hear this. No, I'm gonna add this d here, Theo. That d just gives us a little flavor of its Ah, it's the only note that's not in this chord in the melody. And it also just kind of helps us push us back to this. A. So, um just kind of gives it a nice feeling for when it's looping. Okay, so there you go. So just remember, when you're when you have a melody and trying to find court for it, just try to find groups of cords are sorry groups of notes in the melody and see what chords you can make most of the notes work in and then put it together. There's a lot of ah option here. Ah, and this is why this is kind of what separates music theory from, like actual, like composition and producing, like now we're like, creating stuff, so we don't want to always follow the rules. 100% gotta break him to do interesting stuff. Alright, onward. 19. 9 3CountermelodyArpeggioHD: So the next thing I want to talk about, kind of the last chunk of the last section of this chunk of stuff, um, is adding a counter melody. Now, this is something that we don't think about as much because it's not as it's not as, um in your face as a melody and chord progression. Those are things that everyone kind of knows goes into a track. Um, but a counter melody is kind of important, and there's some really easy ways to make them since we're on the topic I thought I'd throw it out of. So I'm going to start with just this track that we have here. So let's hear it again. Okay, so what we want for a counter melodious something with some rhythm that ah is like another melody. But it's secondary to the main melody. So we have the main melody, and then we have this other one that's like basically serves as supporting role. It's kind of like best supporting actor of the melody world, where the melody is ah, best actor. I guess it was a weird analogy, but I think it might work. Um, so we want something that complements this melody that we've got. Ah, it still has to work. It still has to follow everything that we've already talked about. It has to work both horizontally and vertically, but, um, it's gonna be in the background. So in a way, ah, the horizontal elements of it are not as crucial because it's not gonna be the thing that people walk away humming. Um, that's the melody. So the counter melody is a little bit different. So the the trick, I'm going to show you now, too. To use these is some something called Justin Arpeggio. So I'm gonna just going to duplicate this track. So I have two pianos Now I'm gonna take this and I'm gonna arpeggio hate this. So you've probably seen, in effect called arpeggio ation. Um, it's in any dog. It's built into a lot of synthesizers. Um, I have it here in a Bolton, right here's appreciator and a bunch of settings. So I'm gonna tell you what AARP educator actually does and how we can use it in this setting. I'm not gonna put the effect onyx. I'm going to do an arpeggio Yater manually. I'm just gonna, like do it and then maybe I'll through the effect on leaders, show that it's doing the same thing. Um, what AARP educator does is it plays a chord, but, um, note by note. So instead of this sounding like bam, here's the cord. It's gonna go bum bum bum and is gonna play the three different notes of the court in whatever pattern we tell it. So it only actually plays one note at a time, but it goes, it are kind of around in a circle. So I'm gonna make these short that I was gonna move them and then we'll put this one here. So now goes up and down. Let's do that with all them. So now these cords are Pesci ated arpeggio comes from I think it comes from something do with a harp. Ah, like you know how Ah Harp plays accord. Maybe you don't. But when a heart place like, ah, lot of notes, it goes rather than playing all of these notes, I want So, um, I think that's where it comes from. I could be wrong. Don't quote me on that. So I'm just going up and down and up and down these cords this is gonna be a very basic usage of it. There are more interesting things you can do, but okay, so let's hear just this arpeggio hated version of the core progression. Pretty boring. But it adds a nice little element toe our track. So let's hear in context. So it's kind of making the whole track a little bit denser, and it's It's a melodic line. There's only one note happening at once, so it's It's moving in the same kind of way. It fits 100% horizontally. Um, sorry Vertically man vertically. It fits 100% horizontally. It's not extremely interesting because it's just going up and down, but it's only there to complement eso. I like talking about these counter melodies at the same time is Melody. Let's make this do something a little more interesting, so I'm gonna get rid of this, and I'm gonna take our original core progression again. Just a start over. So here's our core progression. Now I'm gonna appreciate this. Let's take the are Pesci ater tool, and if you're not using a Bolton, you're our Pesci. Ater might look a little different than this, but here's mine so whatever yours looks like, you have all the same tools there. There's only a couple setting ons here settings on here that are important. And I'm sure yours has them somewhere. They might look different, but you have the same settings. So style is it going to go up, down, up, then down, up and down. Uh, random. I kind of like random. Let's say random, but the heck rate is how fast it's going to go. So it's set to be an eighth note. Now let's scale that back to be 1/16 note that will be twice as fast. That will be twice as fast as what we just were doing, actually, four times as fast. Um, those are actually the most important things, like the order that it's gonna play notes in and the speed. Let's hear just that. Oops, wrong track. No way. Okay, so my are appreciate is playing random. Ah, I could have it do one of these other patterns up and down, so it's just going up and down. But it's repeating the top note in the bottom note as it gets up there. Um, let's leave it on random, and let's give it more notes to use. So right now, it only has these notes to choose from. I could make it more interesting by giving it more notes, which would just be copy this whole thing to the octave. Now it's got two octaves of the same chords to work with. Now it will have a much wider range. Okay, so we're just using a piano in this. But if you really wanted to make put this into your track, adding this to a synthesizer can add a lot of depth to your track. It could make it really kind of feel a lot more dense. Um, bring out the melody if you do it just right. If you're really working on a track, I wouldn't recommend doing something random. I just do that as kind of a starting point sometimes. But maybe if we did, the only problem with random is that its different every time you play it. Um, so if I really wanted that random sound, I would draw it out so that I would manually do it so that, um, it was the same every time. Um I don't like, really not know what's gonna happen in my track. So here it is doing doing that up. Another thing we could do here if we really wanted this to sound, give it a little more colors. We could add a non cord tone into this. I like to take one note and add it. Feel like the whole thing. So let's take this a and make sure every chord has an A in both actives. So the first and third cords here haven't a the second and fourth don't. So I'm adding a non core tone in. I think that's gonna give it a little bit more color. Okay, so it's it adds a little bit more, A little more. Um, I don't know, color to the to the core progression. So I didn't add that a in my actual piano part up here. Ah, and that's fine. Um, I just added it in the AARP educator so that it had more notes to chew on for to generate the counter melody material. The secondary melody. So it's all about counter melody. Just want to point out the AARP educator and how we can use that when we are working with chords and melodies. It's kind of Ah ah, Something that exists in between a chord and melody, Right, cause it kind of generates melody like material out of courts. Um, And it it's a great tool to use for this, um, idea of a counter melody. Hey, guys. 11 little addendum to that. Um, I just rewatched it. And I thought I'm imagining someone sitting watching this video and saying, Ah, do I need a counter melody? And the answer is no. Ah, I'm glad you imaginary person asked me that. Um, no. If you're working on a track and you don't want or have a good idea four or just otherwise don't need a counter melody, leave it off. You don't You totally don't need one. This is just another kind of idea that I like to, um, explain, because it it it shows the connection between melody and chords. Really? Well, I think eso if you don't want to do anything like that in your music, don't do it. You don't have to have it. It's not a requirement for a track. Um, in fact, if you're focusing on dance music, cause I know a lot of people watching this video are it's less likely to have something like this. So, um, if you're more focused on, like, trance, you might have something. Ah, that works as a counter melody, but, um but don't worry about it. It's just a idea. Just something to throw out there. You totally do not need a counter melody, okay? 20. 10 SkrillexHD: Hi. So here we are. We're going to analyze. Ah, Skrillex scary monsters and nice brights. Um, so we're looking at melodies now, eyes what we just talked about in the last lesson. So and this one, we're going to find the core progression. And we're also going to look at how the melody that he uses here fits in with the core progression. So let's have a listen to a little bit of it. And, um, the part we're gonna analyzes pretty much this this recurring melody core progression thing that happens. And this track basically two sections and some other stuff, but the sections are this nice, actually. Really kind of happy melody, um, with the core progression and then this big, gnarly based stuff. So we're not gonna focus on the big, gnarly based stuff, but I am going to talk about it for just a touch. So let's listen Teoh way . Okay, So, um, let's dive in by talking about that section we just heard last where we've got this big, huge basis. So in terms of what we're talking about, um, we're talking about chords and melodies. So when we look at sections like this uh, were What is the cord is the first question we would ask ourselves. And for this kind of music in this kind of section, we might just label it as no cord is the way we say it, um, we don't really hear ah harmony happening in that section, we hear Ah, baseline And the baseline is moving between notes so we could figure out a chord. Um, but it's not. There's not really a cord sounding eso. Ah, lot of the time he would just say no cord in this section. Ah, and then we might just figure out what the notes of the baseline are because they are notes and it isn't a key. Ah, he is sticking to a key when he plays those baselines. Um, but it doesn't really have to fit against the cord because it's, ah, it's just this kind of big gnarly sound. And there's no riel, vertical aligning of of chords. So he's just kind of playing notes that work in a particular keep. Now we're not going in the next lesson. We're going to look at baselines a little bit. We're not going to get into sound design on like how to make those those big, like dub steps kind of, um, baselines That gets into sound design, which is which is way out of the scope of this class. So I would love to do a whole another class just on sound design. Maybe I will. Um, but for now, we're just talking about notes and courts. So let's get back to this other part that's a little bit easier to wrap our head around eso in this. We have a court, this part we have a core progression, and we have a melody. So let's hear it one more time. Theo. So listening for the cords? The cords here are actually pretty easy because, um, they're all really They're all they all sound to me like the root position. So I figured out let's do this will turn off that one. For now, Um, I figured out what I hear as the roots of the cords. We basically have this d sharp or e flat, and then these two notes go by really quick and in passing so they could be ah, whole cord. We could build chords on these, or we could just say they're passing bass notes, just like we had passing. Melody notes, Um, just melody notes that weren't in the cord. We could say these air passing based notes, and that's okay. Um, that's a lot. Why not? Um, or we could decide that they record. So we'll figure that out when we get there. Let's just here, um, my baseline and the track pull the volume of the track down to touch. Let's hear the two of them together. Okay, So we need to figure out the key. I'm going to try a little bit different experiment to show you another way to think about the key. Because the key that we're gonna be working in is not the first note here. Remember, that was one of the things that that wasn't a tell to tell us. If that was, in fact, the key. But that was one clue. We had to figure out what key it was. We could figure out the whole scale, but let's try one other thing. This one's a little harder to do, but, um, it can be useful. It requires you to listen really close. So what we're gonna listen for is imagine that for every chord we hear something is lifting up, and then for some chords, it settles down on the ground. So we're going up and down. And now which chords sound like we've gone down and we're like, comfortable and sitting down? So some chords feel like we're lifting up and some feel like we're just, like, settled in and comfortable the ones that feel like we're settling and comfortable. Those are probably the key. So think about it while I play it one more time. Now it's a little tricky here to use that analogy, because the baseline is actually moving up between these three notes. But this one, this G does feel like like a settling down. Even though the pitch is going up, it feels like comfortable like we could stop on that Theo end of song bum and it's and it stops. We could stop on that cord and it would feel fine. That's a good indication of the key. If you could just stop there, Um, and it doesn't feel like you're like hanging in the air, right? If we stopped on like this F, for example, it has a little bit of suspense to it. You're like you didn't quite stop on the right note like I need to hear it. Resolve is what we would call that. So let's go into the assumption that G is our key. So using that as a starting point, Aiken draw out all the notes that I need. Let's take this down and active. Make it nice and short. I'm just gonna draw my scale half whole whole half hole. Lovely. There's all my possible notes now am I N ki? Let's find out. Do I have all the notes in the baseline that fit into this? So here is a D sharp, but there's a D sharp. Good. There's an F There's an F There's a G, Obviously, G fits. There's another f There's a G and an F So all these notes fit. So it's a good candidate That's not a slam dunk, but it's pretty good candidate. So let's go with G minor. Um and I'm gonna guess minor because oh, I draw out a minor scale. Ah, If it was a major scale, it's converted to a major scale. I'm gonna raise the 3rd 6th and seventh, And now ref doesn't work. We could say, Well, it could be a harmonic or melodic minor, and we could adjust those, Um, Rd Sharp doesn't work either. What about that third that B doesn't show up anywhere, but I think it's more likely that it's a minor scale. So let's stick with that. Um, Okay, now let's build our courts. So I'm just gonna see if these are all the roots of our courts. I'm just gonna build triads right on him. I don't hear any sevenths. So Route third and then the Beth. So this cord is this d sharp chord or e flat? It's not our route cord, right? It's or six chord because 12345 six So we don't start on the route. That's different, but fine school. Um, now, here's what I was saying earlier We could build cords out of these, or we could just say the cord goes all the way through there. This G happens again. So it's really only the F that's not in the cord. So we could do that, or we could build cords at all of them. Let's try building core, done all them and see what happens. F a C D. B flat D Now the f chord here is gonna be my route. Then cycling around again third and fifth Now my G minor chord, my tonic The tonic is the word we used to talk about the the one chord the the ah, cord that the key is named after. Now we have another G so it's gonna be the same and then an f Samos here. Okay, get rid of my scale here, okay? And let's hear that how that sounds. Okay, that sounds pretty good. I'm not convinced on this business. He might be doing it, and he might not, But let's try it without let's get rid of those notes. And let's just stretch this here and this here and well, imagine that this move this note moves down to the F and then up to the G. So that's its own little interline. Let's hear like that. You know, I could hear it both ways. Ah, it's hard to tell with that distorted since sound that he's using. Um, but let's leave it like this. Let's go with this simpler explanation welcomes Razor. The simplest answer is always true. Um, okay, so we have our cords. Let's look at what they are. So we are in the key of G minor. So this is going to be how are one chord or let's do it in terms of ah, Nick chord names So g minor. This one is also a gene minor. Now we have a chord based on f here. So in the key of g, remember our pattern of our diatonic chord progression in minor? Let's write it out one more time. Minor, diminished major, minor, minor Major Major. That's awfully sloppy. Minor diminished Major, minor, minor major major Depends Kind of going crazy here. So, uh, f is the seventh scale degree in the key of G. We have to go all the way up through it to get toe f. So that's going to make it here, which is gonna be major. So this is an f major. So this right half this one is d sharp. That's going to be in the key of G. We have to go g. And then if we counted up the scale, we would count a B c. The so it would be the sixth, I guess already said that earlier. So 123456 So that's a major. Also. Think it's just there. So this is gonna be D sharp, major, or we could call it more accurately. We would call it E Flat Major. Same thing, two different names. So we have an e flat major, an F major, a g minor. And then over here, we have enough again. So those are our cords for this section of the song. Okay, let's look at the melody. So I figured out the melody for us, just the actual pitches. And this melody is really fun because it it jumps around really wildly. You don't normally see that no melody, but this kind of like really kind of frantic sound. Ah, good way to get that sound is the take a melody and go like over an octave. So this one, you know, it starts here right away. It goes up an octave to another G, and then it goes up even higher. So it's got this, like the's huge leaps like this that makes for this really kind of ah, almost comical melody. These like really big leaps. So let's hear just the melody. Let's hear the melody and the cords without the tracks on immune to track on Meet the melody and let's hope this works. Okay, Um so let's see how these notes fit with the courts. So I'm gonna jump back and forth a little bit here. So let's look at our first chord here. This is in e flat or a D sharp major. Right? So let's look at what happens in this first bar. So here, all of these notes are happening during the E flat, major. So what are the notes of the E flat? Major? I'm just gonna put him down here. So D sharp. There's my 23 five without drawing the whole key. I'm gonna look back and make sure did that, right? De sharp G and a Sharp de Sharp G and H r. There we go. Okay, so these are actually my notes in the cord. So let's see what works and what doesn't work. So the first night we have is a G. It's in the court. Exactly. The second note is a G. It's in the cord right there. Our third note is an F That's not in the cord, and that's just fine. Here we have one of those cool passing tones that we talked about in the last lesson, because it goes quarter tone, quarter tone, non cord tone. But then right back to accord tone. So this little dip in the melody takes us away from the cord for just a really brief little eighth note. Really quick, second and then back. The next note is in a sharp that's in our cord. Then we have another G that's in our cord. Then we have a d. A. D is not in our cord, interestingly enough, but another passing tone. This one might be kind of an anticipation for the next chord, because it leads us into this riff, but it's an encore tone, but most of these notes are in our cord, and that's great. So let's look at the next court. The next court is F A C and F major, and that's happening here. So let's say let's just draw it strong right here. F a c K. So there's our cord. So going up here, there's a C. So this D was kind of leading us into that sea, which is accord tone, having a sharp which is not accord tone and on this big leap down toe f. So we have this little melody up here having a chord tones in it and then leaving the court tone and then an F and then we hold on to that for a second. Then we haven't a sharp leading down to a nay, so this we would more accurately call it B flat leading into an A. So this is another passing tone that's just kind of on the road to this this pitch and then an F, which we have here and then a d Sharp again, this note probably anticipating going into the next chord to lead us down into D. So there's kind of this, ah, stringing together of chords with the melody. So, like the last note of the melody pushes us into the next chord. It's kind of what he's doing. Let's look at what our third court is. So this is our G minor G a sharp or B flat and D. So let's build that right here. So there's our cord. This actually notice Here you do this so it's not confusing. Well, let's just leave it there, okay? So just like before this note does lead into the cord, and that leads us into the fifth note of our tonic. Then we have a C non core tone passing on its way to a sharp. Then we have an F not accord tone, but then back to in a sharp, which is in our cord and then a G and in a sharp So right here, we're just outlining the cord. Actually, here to these four notes are doing nothing but arpeggio hating, which we just learned in our last lesson. The court. They're just playing the notes of the chord in order like that. See, that's all the melodies doing. It's just arpeggio hating quote. Let's get rid of those two notes and let's look at our last court. Actually, we have two chords here. First, it's the G minor chord again for the first half of this bar. So if we look at it, we have these two big things here, and this one is just outlining the G minor chord. G D. A sharp G. That is exactly the G minor chord. Just playing the notes are Pesci eight ing. The note's going down, so that one is just outlining the court known encore tones in the second half of the measure is this f chord, So f a C and we look over here. We have an F a sharp g f. That one's got a little kind of funkiness to it, Um, but this kind of makes sense. We start an end on a core tone. Thes two notes are not chord tones, but they're the same as we just did. So we kind of repeated these these two notes, but changed the the top and bottom of the pattern going down like that. So they're non core tones. But that's okay. Ah, the rest of Mark or Jones. So the melody here is mostly chord tones, and in a couple spots it's just straight up our Pesci ating the, uh, courts exactly as they are. And another thing we learned in this tune is that when you have a melody that has the's huge leaps like that, it gives this this Ah ah, this this sound that I'm having a hard time articulating. Um, it's a sound that is kind of crazy. Like it like a crazy person type sound. Ah, scary monster sound, if you will um, Or maybe a nice Sprite sound, if you will. I think this is actually the nice Sprite section of the song. So this, um, this really happy kind of sound. So let's hear everything put together here. Okay? Um, and this chunk of song actually probably works here in here. Um, and let's do what I did in in one of the other analysis. And let's see where this court progression works. It probably works from most of the song when that baseline isn't happening. So let's listen to let's get rid of the melody for a minute and to see where this core progression fits in. Well, - way really what we're known for. Come on. So it comes back. Where does that right there way. - This part probably still has it. Way, - Way . Okay, great. And we can actually here at the very end here. I heard this earlier in the tomb. I didn't want to stop to point it out, but it's even more obvious here is that there's he hasn't AARP educator going just on this court progression. So if you listen right here, you can hear ah Corp on our pressure Gator just outlining the court that kind of cool. So he's got our pressure going. Just add a little counter melody, another line happening in there to kind of picking it up. So this whole tune is just this core progression with this melody and with intermittent kind of no cord sections where he just goes ballistic with his with his big, huge base in these kind of no cord sections. But other than that, it's just a score progression over and over. Okay, they're real Skrillex, scary monsters, nice bites. 21. 11 1 Basslines rootnotesHD: Okay. Next, we're gonna talk about baselines. So remember what I said in the last one. Ah, sound design is a lot of the scopes we're not going to talk about, um, constructing like a really sweet sounding base. Although I am going to talk a little bit about sound design in the third video of this, uh, unit, Um, when we talk about just kind of general frequency things to be thinking about, um, so ah, a couple of short lessons on baselines just to some general things to be thinking about, Um, first, Ah, in this video, I want to cover finding a good baseline, given a core progression. So we have a core progression that we like, and we want to find what the best baseline would be for that. So I've created a core progression here when the key of a minor and this isn't from a song or anything. This is just something I just kind of spit out. Um, so here I have an a minor seven ward, a minor seven, and then I go to the seventh scale degree. So this is a major chord. This is a G major with 1/7 And this is the weird one that has the minor or the major chord with a minor seventh. This is the dominant chord like that. And then I go to the three. The three. The third chord of the key, which is C because ABC and I just have a c major the third chord, and then I go to the fifth scale agree, and I havent e minor. Okay, so let's hear it. Okay, so So this is route position on. I want you to see it in route position, because our notes the route notes are A G C on e. So let's remember that for a minute, and I'm gonna take it out of root position. So I'm gonna take this note a productive. Maybe this no down inactive. So now they're nice and tight, and I'm gonna take the whole thing active to make it sound a little better. Let's hear it again. Okay. And let's set that up to loop. Okay, so now we have a nice, simple core progression. Um, So when it comes to putting a baseline on a chord progression, the easiest and most obvious thing to do is have your base be the roots of the courts. Easy. It will work 100% of the time. So let's just do that. I'm gonna copy this down to another track where I also have a piano set up. Ah, and I'm going to get my roots back. So remember the route was a G c ah e right. A D c. Yeah. So now I'm going to get rid of everything else. You hear that? Get rid of that or that and get rid of that K a G c E. Now I have to think, Do I want this e to go up or down? So let's have it go up. So same note, I just moved it up. Inactive cash. And I'm gonna take this whole baseline and move it down and active so that its base and let's hear just the baseline. Okay. Um, so that will always work. All I did was the roots of the cords in my baseline. So it's here together. I'm gonna turn the bass line up louder than the core progression. So the base is just playing the roots of the court. So when you're working on something, if you want to create a baseline. The roots of the cords always works 100% of the time. Another thing we could do. If we don't want to use the roots of the cords, let's say Okay, that works, But it's a little boring. Um, let's do something more interesting. So let's get rid of that baseline. Let's go back to my core progression and I'm gonna copy it down again to my base. So other things we could do is we could just weave our way through here and pick some notes that work. Any of these notes are fair game. Um, I would stay away from doing the seventh, so these two chords have 1/7. Putting. The seventh in the base is a little dangerous. It's worth trying because sometimes it sounds good, depending on the context. But, um, let's avoid it. For now, let's have our baseline b a and then let's go up to be cause that'll be a nice step motion . Just going a to be. So even though here my route is G, I'm gonna do be is my baseline here, my roots. See, Let's leave it as C because that makes a nice motion here and now I could go down to be, even though he is my route, I could go down to be Let's do that. So now I have this lot baseline that makes a little bit more sense. It doesn't jump around as much. It kind of walks up and then down a little bit. So it was up here and then down a little bit, so that has a nice shape to it. So let's hear how that sounds cause it's not using the roots. So it'll be a little less, um, easy, I guess. Let's hear what it sounds like. Oops, Oops, Let's move it down. Inactive So it sounds like a baseline so you can hear this be here and also here, but especially here, it sounds a little crunchy, but that's okay. It's still a right note. It's still in the cord. But when you put a note in the base, it has such influence over the court that it can really change the feeling of the whole court. So you really kind of want to be careful about what you put there so any note in the cord will work. Some will work better than others. The route will always work. Great. Um, let's do a little experiment. Let's take this one step further and let's take Let's start fresh, my core progression. And let's go back to using the route. So I'm gonna get rid of the extra notes and just use the root of the cord. And let's see if we can use the roots and just jazz this up a little bit. It's go down an octave. So one thing I could do is I could just put a rhythm on it. I could just make this quarter notes. So now it's gonna doom. Doom. Doom, Doom. Okay, I could spruced up that rhythm by getting rid of some notes. Okay, let's give me that one note back. Let's do that little anticipation trick that we did with the, um, melodies. So I'm gonna go. I'm gonna have the baseline move to the next chord. Ah, beat early. So I'm gonna take this A that I'm on now here and with that down to a G. So this is gonna transfer to the G a note early. This one's going to transfer to the C and O early. This one's going transfer to the, you know, early and then we'll have it cycle around. So the E goes back up to the A and utterly. Let's hear that sounds Okay. That's cool. What if I I could live in this up a little bit more by flipping some of these up inactive. So let's take when I have three notes in a row like this, let's throw one of them up. Inactive. Let's see what that sounds like. Okay, that's cool. What if these were all down and active, So I put him underneath the melody. Except for this one. Let's hear that. Ah, that's a little low for my taste. So let's put them back up. Inactive. I did kind of like it where these were up. Okay, so that's an option that can work. Um, if you do this too much, you you turn into disco. So be careful about having if you have a baseline that just goes between the active, like do Dad. You Dad, You Dad, you Dad, you Dad, do you, Dad? Dude, that's kind of like disco 101 So if you want a disco sound, that's the way to do it. Um uh Okay, let's go back. Teoh having everything in the same active, okay? And I'm gonna get rid of my anticipation. Here you go back to just playing the roots of the cords. But in this rhythm, another thing you can do is throw a non core tone in there we saw in the Skrillex tune. Ah, passing bass note. Um, so we note that wasn't in the baseline. Uh, that wasn't in the cord. That was just passing. And you can put those in the base note to remember what I just said, though, that the base has a lot of influence over the court so it can change the quality of the courts. You need to be a little more careful when you do this in bass notes than when you do it in Melody Melody, you can get away with a little bit more with dissonance. Um, but here you have to be a little bit more careful, but let's try it. So let's say this a let's have it go up to ah be that's gonna go down, Dun Dun, Dun Dun and it's gonna go up to the B, then down to the G. Let's have this G Ah, fill in the gap here. So let's go up to an A. Actually, let's go up to a B and then I have the note before I go from a So we're gonna hear two G's . And then the G will walk up this scale to the next chord. And let's have this one walked down the scale to the next chord. Too big of a gap here. So let's go a G. Let's do that. Some kind of splitting the difference in this gap here. Let's hear the sound. Let's have this. You walk back up to the A F. G. So it lands on the A. Okay, cool. Let's maybe take this has three notes in a row. It's the only spot we have. The three of the same note narrow. So it's maybe try moving it down to a non core tone to the G. So goes a g A and back up. Okay, See, that works pretty well. It all depends on what kind of sound you want. This has this very meandering sound where it's moving around a lot. And the other ways we did it was staying really study and then just went to the court tones , but we can have non core tones and baselines. You just need to be a little careful about it. Um, but even this where we're going out of the cord. Ah, lot. Uh, sounds good. So, um, I think that's all I wanted to say about that. Um, the key to this lesson is remember that when you're figuring out a baseline the roots of the cord always good, uh, non core tones also good with danger. Uh, and anticipations usually good to ah, couple ideas for you while you're creating baselines. But just remember, no matter what you do, stay in key. You've got to stay in the key If you go outside of the key. Ah, you run into more problems. You can have passing notes that are not in the key. But, uh, you're less likely to find something that just works right out of the box. You're gonna have to experiment if you do that and find out what works. Well, Okay. One word 27. SkillshareFinalLectureV2: Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out on this site. I post a lot of stuff there and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me and one of those two places or both, and we'll see you there.