Music Theory Fundamentals - Beginner Part 2 | Mathew James | Skillshare

Music Theory Fundamentals - Beginner Part 2

Mathew James, Teaching Music

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11 Lessons (1h 36m)
    • 1. Intro

      2:24
    • 2. Review

      8:23
    • 3. Key Signatures

      12:07
    • 4. Circle of 5ths

      5:00
    • 5. Scales Sharp Keys

      5:30
    • 6. Scales Flat keys

      6:28
    • 7. Diatonic chords of the major scale

      12:43
    • 8. Minor scales

      8:58
    • 9. Chords of the minor scales

      12:17
    • 10. Basic harmonic part writing

      12:47
    • 11. Worksheet Answers

      9:39

About This Class

What is this class?

This class is the second course in the Music Theory Fundamentals series. It continues from where we left off in part 1 and builds on those skills, and introduces new concepts. 

It will cover the following materials

  • Review of the first class
  • Key Signatures
  • Circle of 5ths and 4ths
  • All the sharp key scales
  • All the flat key scales
  • Diatonic chords of the major scale
  • All three basic forms of the minor scale
  • Chords of the minor scales
  • Introduction to 4-part writing.
  • Work sheet with an answer video that walks through the sheet.


You will want to get MUSESCORE (which is a free notation software) which is the program I will be using when teaching. I will make all the lesson examples available for you to review and to serve as reference for concepts.

Why should you care about music theory?

I get that we don't all want to be "composers" but having a basic understanding of music theory will help you understand what you are hearing. If you write music, or produce it, having this knowledge about how to create certain impressions, or emotions, in a clear way can help raise your work to the next level.

Why do I think theory matters?

Throughout my studies I was always fascinated with music theory and its application. Since completing my post-graduate certificate in music I have been active as a performer, teacher, and arranging and composing. I use theory in all aspects of my work and teach it to all my students. 

Transcripts

1. Intro: I want to thank you for taking a moment to watch this video and to think about taking this class, and I encourage you to take this class in this class. I'll be teaching you the basics of music theory. You'll then use these skills to create and enhance your own work and understanding. So first I think it's important to understand who I am, since I will be the person teaching you the mind is Matthew James. I'm a professional musician in Calgary, and I serve is the artistic director and solo horn for Time Point Ensemble. Formerly I served as fourth Horn with be Saskatoon Symphony and around town here I performed professionally with groups such as the Calgary Philharmonic in the Edmonton Symphony Theatre, Calgary, the Banff Centre and more but beyond performance. I spend a great deal of my time as an educator, working with students from various backgrounds and skills that make up music. I completed my training at DePaul University in Chicago, where I did a postgraduate certificate and performance in the Masters and music with distinction, and I did my undergraduate work at the University of Calgary. My passion is new music and I also love to teach and share the skills and abilities that we need to understand music. So now, back to this course specifically so this classes for beginners. You don't need any prior musical experience, though, if you do have experienced, this is a complete review of the elements that make up the basics of music theory. If you feel like you have that well under control, maybe consider a more advanced class. But this is also a great review. So this class is great for anyone who wants to develop their understanding of music, whether it's producers or players, or if you just want to be able to connect with your favorite songs and music that you listen to. This class can help facilitate that by giving you the skills to understand and communicate about. So you can use these skills in a lot of different ways, whether it's song writing, music, listening or just improving your ability to share and collaborate with others. By the end of this class, you'll be able to read music. You understand the various key elements that make it up in how those elements impact the experience. The listener. There's a breakdown of what this class covers below as well as the video titles. So take a quick look through them. Make sure this is what you're looking for again. Thank you for considering. And if you go for this course, congratulations on starting to build a more complex understanding of music. 2. Review: so welcome to the second course in this theory fundamental program. If you haven't gone through the 1st 1 and you're totally new to music and you're starting from the I'd recommend going and taking the first course and then come back to this one. If perhaps you have some basic understanding and the scales and intervals sort of learning the note names. So the first thing we're gonna look at that was just a scale review. And then we're gonna move on to introducing key signatures harmony as models, starting to build relationships between the two scales. So the first thing we're gonna dio is entering our C major scale. And remember, I'm using new score for this. It's a free program. You can get online. That's the notations programmer using you don't need going by Sibelius or finale. You are such there's a 31 It's quite good. I use new score to just because that's the one I know. So first things first, let's introduce our good old C major scale. All right, so there's no scale starting from middle C right here and actually what I want to do, we're going to turn on the piano keyboard. See, this first note here is that middle seat when we play the scale So there's R C major scale starting from middle C what we're gonna do, we're gonna look at this keyboard up here. And remember, in the first course, we talked about the intervals from ah, semi tone and a whole tone and we can remember in our major scale and we can see it right up here from a C to a D is a whole tone. Dio e is a whole tone into an F we see is just a semi tone and we continue that pattern to the F g a in the B of being whole tones that we reached the top and we see another semi toe . You can remember back to the first course all of our major scales and any keys. We'll get into what the different keys are later. But right now all you need to know is remembers that oh, major scales fall the formula whole whole semi hole. So it's a whole tone, the whole tone, semi tone, the whole tone. The whole tone of every major scale follows that formula regardless of the first note you started. So if you memorize whole whole half hole hole hole, you could find any scale from any starting, though. So that was our major scale. And let's just listen to it really quick. So we have in our year, all right? The next thing we want to do is we want to introduce or we wanna review the minor scale. One thing we're gonna cover in this section, of course, is the different forms of the minor scale. Right now, we're just gonna review the natural minor. All right, so now we have our c minor scale or natural minor scale. What this scale is is the relative minor scale to E flat major. I'm gonna explain that more later, but I'm just sort of as we review, we're starting to learn where we're gonna go. So the natural minor scale and their other forms of the minor scale with the harmonic minor and the melodic minor will also learn those later. What's important to know in this review as we review major and minor scales, is where those semi tones come into play at all times. So let's quickly listen to our C minor scale are seen natural minor scale. So much to see that one more time. All right, So what we have right there is the natural minor scale compared to the major scale. All right, so when we look at the minor scale, what we look at is where the semi tones happen. In the minor scale, we get our whole tones in 17 different places. So from a C to a D, we have a whole time, same as the major scale. And now we get our first difference. The semi tone then happens between the D and the E flat. So we have a whole half. Remember the major scale? It was whole whole how miners nail asshole half hole from the F. We have a whole tone, a whole tone, and then we have another semi toe to the B flat, and then it finishes with the whole time. So the formula for a minor scale asshole, half whole whole whole half hole compared to the major scale, which is whole whole half whole whole whole half. So that's the difference. What I would recommend committing to memory is two different formulas for major and minor. Then you have that locked up. The last part of this review is gonna be reviewing the basic written devices. So it's a visa Rhythms recovered at the very end of the 1st 1 and what they are is we're just gonna work with 44 We're gonna break it down with the basic building blocks. What we have first, the first thing we have is the whole note What you could remember it. The whole note is that the whole note has four beats in it. So it's one entire measure again. You can we can look over at our time signature. And we know that 4/4 notes in a measure of for the next piece we have is half notes and 1/2 note. There's 2/4 notes, half notes equals four beats, which is the whole notes. After that, we moved into quarter notes in a measure. There's 4/4 notes each quarter Nuggets lung beat. This is the thing. In the first course, I was referred to you as sort of the pulse in most music. When you listen a lot of music, if you know something about your head to the quarter note. It's the breakdown of the beat we can then break those quarter notes down again into eighth notes, so you can see if those angels there's eighth notes in a measure. Eight notes. Each eighth notes is half of a corner. Notes to eight notes make recording. After that, we moved to 16th. Notes for 16th notes. Make 1/4 note to 16th notes. Making eighth notes Rhythm is easiest understanding for four. If you ever get lust, you can sort of start thinking about this measure, right thes thes quarter notes. And it serves as our pivot of division, right? If we're thinking and quarter note pulse because of the 44 time as we move to the right into eighths and 16th time gets fast has moved to the right. The notes become faster because we're dividing. Quarter note down. As we look left into these measures, the note frequency becomes longer because we're combining the quarter notes. That's in my mind, sort of where we start thinking about rhythm and a slightly more complicated way. The breakdown of the quarter notes or the addition to the quarter note, which changes how we perceive time. That's how it works and what will do quick just so again, that's important. To hear this, we're just gonna play this. It's on the piano. Wanna see right in all of its many glory? That's the basic of rhythm. So this just served as a basic review. If any of this is confusing, where doesn't make a lessons? I would recommend taking the first course. There's a lot more detail in the first course we gettinto things like the chromatic scale and little Maurin toe Howard measures broken down right different times three to 34 cetera . But you'll need to have an understanding of these basic building blocks to continue to grow and understand how music works. As we go forward on this course as well, What I'm gonna try to do is sort of like a little side micro music appreciation. Thank um, my goal is to sort of have a few of those along the way, which is just gonna help us a little more context into what we're learning. Now. They're getting to more complicated things. If you're choosing to this course, thank you, and I hope you learn a lot follow. Reach out. Review leaves and comments. Talk to your friends, peers, colleagues all those things into the next lesson 3. Key Signatures: All right. So the first thing we're gonna look at is key signatures and key signatures are important because it gives us the information. We need to know what scale to play. And we think to our major scales, right. The sequence of notes Whole whole half hole hole hole for half that creates a major scale. The key signature, which is this right here I'm highlighting gives us the information of what note needs to be altered so that that Siris of photos and half tones happens properly. So see, Major, right here we can look and see. There's no sharps or flats. So as we know from the review in the last course, C major scale has no sharps or flats in it. So there's no information, our first notes, a seat as we move forward and we're just gonna go up one accidental time. We got a G major. This symbol right here is our sharp sign. It tells us to raise a note, and when we look at our collapse, we have trouble in base. We see that the f sharp has been raised. What we also know from G Major and from just this signature that the first note is gonna be achieved, right? So let's just go ahead and add that G energy. So those are our first notes. Now, the next question is, how do we know that the scale starts on the G when all we have in the key signature is an f sharp. So there's a trick to this when you're in sharp keys. If you look at the accidental, the furthest right accident. Also, if we just sort of look ahead to the major, we see there's two. So when I say the furthest right accidental, our last accidental, it means the c sharp here. Right? So we always look at this, You know, if you look at C Sharp major, we were looking for where that last accidental is. So look at the last instant domesticate the f sharpest sharp. If we go up one note from that, we find the first note of that scale. So we have an f sharp. We go up One note. It's a Jeep that we got some g major the next he really learned about his d major, and this is all related to how we build the scales against the whole, whole whole or will have secrets If we look ahead and we ignore that, it says D major, we go. We know the f sharp in the C sharp are raised. And then if we go to our last sharp we see it's a C sharp, which means all right, the first night of our scale has to be a deep, and that's the first note of the skip. If we look at a major, we look and we see we have three sharp. So we know the F sharp c sharp in the G Sharper, all raised if we had to the g sharp When we go up One note which maybe is easier to visualize down here in the base last rites RG you go up when it's in a So we take what we know. We look at the last sharp. We go up one notes first. Now it's gonna be in a and we could do the same thing to all these keys E b f sharp in c sharp. So I'm going to just quickly fill these in sharp. We have to go up to the next note means our first No, it's gonna be an e for the major scale. Same thing we see the a Sharp was the last sharp. So that tells us first, let's get a B A B but are being our staff. Now let's take a second. And look at these last two views of short major and C sharp major. So we use what we know. We say, Okay, he sharp is the last sharp sign. And I go up one to an F Uh huh. But if we look back in the key signature, we see f sharp a sharp. So that means that the first note of that scale is gonna be an f sharp. And then same thing with C sharp pregnancy be sharp and a b sharp. We go up one to a C. Looking at our key signature, we are all the way to their that not right there we see up. Look, Arcia sharp. That must neighbor in the key of C sharp major. So you really quick I'm just gonna play these first notes. Um, and there's a reason for this later. Once we learned the flat keys, um, we learned about what's called the circle of bets, but let's Just listen before I talk and what we just heard Waas a cycling through all of those keys. What you notice is that the keys sort of It never sounded jarring. When you move from a key to keep how we organize music any and don't worry about this now, every information is we organized things and what's called the circle of bits for back in the last course, we talked about the intervals in a scale, right. If we go up 1/5 from our first note in the scale, let's look over here. We don't Cabin C major. If I go up 1/5 which will be the best scale degree we end up at G. Jeez, next scale. Same thing if we go back from g b d o a B c d. We land on the major. We've gone up a feather at the next scale. Do you do in a as 1/5 a two and ease of fifth, etcetera, etcetera to go through. We move through scales moving through the fifths or what we call the dominant scale. Degree five creates the dominant chord of a scale. Will learn more about that the next step it is. We're gonna move on to the flat keys, okay? And were bad. So we just learned about the sharpies. Now we have to learn about the flat keys just quickly reviewing some markers right here. What we see that little bee ish looking guy is the flat sign. So when you look in the key, Santer's like B flat, the B just means it's flat. Um, e flat would be a better example about, like, e flat major when we write it up. So what? We know, we know. See, Major starts on the seat, you know, f major, some of free fill into their and then we're gonna move for it. So there's a little bit of memorization that has to happen. And for that one, it's sort of C major in f major. I always say the question now of How do we find out that this is the first notes? So, like sharp keys, there's a way we can learn to find the first note of the scandal beyond just raw memorization. Memorization is important, but actually, knowing how it works helps. So the way I learned to identify flat keys is if you look at. There's two ways one of them has a little memorization. The second is just using theory. So the 1st 1 I'll demonstrate it on F Major and then I'll demonstrate the other one starting on the flats. One F major If we look at our last flat sign much like a Sharps, remember? So in Sharps, who looked at the last sharp and went up a step. If we look at the last flat B flat, we can go up 1/5 2 F, and that's how we find the first note. So if we go over to R B Flat major, we look at me, see? Okay, there's an E flat. Is our last flat up 1/5 for me flat just on beef. That's one way to do it. The second way to do flat keys is if you just go back one flat in the key signature, you find out the first let's so I'll explain that with quite major. So e flat major, we look, we see there's an a flat. If we go back one flats, it's an e flat. Okay, Personal is an e flat. So I'm gonna explain both as we go there. Both useful to know if there was when I would say to know it would be using the theory. Right. So we look at a flat major, we can either go back a flat to say, Okay, we're in a flat or we look at our last flat, which is D flats. Go up 1/5. So D E f g a You know, it's an A and there's a flat in the key center making it a flat. Same thing. Here we go. G foot jump back. We see a defect in the key signature, or we look at the G. We think up a G upper fifth pushes on D flat. Same thing with G flat and C flat Major confined it. Either way, getting look back one flat or look at your final flat and go up a bit so g flat and C flat back where we started with a semi tone away. So what we're gonna be first, we're just gonna listen to the first note of each key. When we looked at the sharp keys, we found out if you go up 1/5 you find your next shot. And remember middle C. There's a reason I've had it in both so middle C and we're sort of we're getting ready for our next lesson, which is the circle offense. The she is our pivot, right? So now let's look at how the flat relate to the circle of pets. When we looked at the sharp case, we would go C to G g d. Deep A right, we would ascend 1/5 and we would be able to find the next key. If we look at the flat keys and we go up 1/5 from C, we go to G and we realize, OK, so I can't go up 1/5 go through the flats. That is where the circle of fifths comes in handy. The circle of fifths starts with no sharps, and you make your way up through the sharp keys. And when you make it to be major, being major is actually the same scale as C flat. Because if you go down a semi tone from C, we're gonna look up here, you see the mouse at the piano. You can see if you go down a semi tone to see flat. That's actually a B natural that's called and harmonic. We'll talk about that more a little bit, but what it basically means. It's the same notes written out differently. So a C flat isn't be natural. This will make more sense in the circle offense. So what we actually dio is we then descend through the flat keys. We can continue. Our are thinking through the fits right, so far, etc. Flat and we go up 1/5. Lucy flat. We get Teoh G Flat major up a bit from G flat Major is D flat, major D flat up 1/5 is a flat major, so you can see that the fifth relationship still exists. But we're returning to see Major where we started. So if that doesn't make a lot of sense, that's okay. We're a boat to get into it with a circle of fits. What's important, though, is the order of flats. Um, so much like the the sharp keys. Worries aren't f sharp. The order of flats is always the same. It's B flat, e flat, a flat D flat, G flat. See flat F. Let when you write your key signatures. That's the order of the flats appearance you couldn't have the e flat and then the beef. How the keys relate to That's where we're going. It's just not I want to take a moment to look at it since in sharp keys we introduced this ascending of 1/5 and I want to make sure that we understand that the flat keys we actually descend during those relationships. But we are still moving through bets. It's just kind of going backwards as we removed key signatures. All right, so that's that's the wrap up for those. So what? What I'm gonna do with this course since things get more complicated, all of these files were working from are gonna be in a zip drive in the resource section, and I'm gonna do it by sort of lesson. So we'll have the key signatures. And just to be these two, your score files, you can open up and look at them, play around with, um, the next one's going to the circle of bets, which is just gonna help us start to understand how to organize thes, and we're going to start looking at what different scales sound like 4. Circle of 5ths: So now we're back with circle. If it's so, I'm gonna So we're gonna slowly start revealing this circle. I'm gonna include this completed circle in the, uh, zip folder. But what the circle of fixes for is a way for us to move around it right now. Ignore this green stuff. Now, let's just do this. All right, There. Now it's got We don't see it. Everyone. So we're just looking at this major side, right? This is what we've already talked about. So you remember our last lesson? We learned about the sharp keys, right? G sharp. Go up the semi. Right. As we see the f sharp, we move up one tone to a G. We know where do sharpeners one sharp d sharp. You see the C sharp? D major? You see the c sharp, we move up One note we know it's a d. The major has two sharps That goes all the way around. Remember I mentioned See flat. So now we see. See flat over here. See, Flat has seven flats. That's the unhappy. Um, we would generally always spell it is be major dessert called and harmonic equivalents. Which means all of the notes and see flat for the exact same notes is being made. You may want to start a glossary. I sort of your own appendix of words the 1st 1 and harmonic. Look, that word up know what it means. It's gonna be important as we move forward, knowing that notes are and harmonic and again and then harmonic note is just a note spelled differently. That sounds the same. The example renews last time was See flat and be natural. This is our circle of bits, right? We go through our Sharps all the way up to seven Sharps, which we know was C Sharp Major. See short majors the harmonic of deep flat and remember, bring the circle of fifths. So if we continue moving in fifths D flat up 1/5 from D Flat is a flat. A flat up fifth becomes e flat. She won't be fun and have him or back at the beginning. This circle becomes useful information when we want to modulate, and it lets us know how to move two keys. For example, getting from C major to G majors incredibly easy because they're just one step away from each other And if you go to the fifth scale degree of C major, which is G major and build a court on it, G, B and D. That's the first court of G major G B D. So there's a lot of ways we can move through the circle. You don't need to memorize the circle per se if you understand how it works, which is just moving up fifth and we come back down and fifths to gain the seat. You may also hear of a thing called the Circle of Ports. The circle of fourths is this identical circle, but it's how we move left. So if we go through the flat keys first, see the F if you count up C d E f, that's four notes. That's enough. OK, if we go up for notes from a F, we get to be flat. Four notes up from a B flat is an E flat, so the circle of bets is moving through. The Sharps circle of fourths is moving through the flats. This is a lot of information. I understand that, Um, maybe take a second here posit in review it in your glossary. Now, if you're building it and I encourage you to. You should have three headings and harmonic circle of fifths Circle of fourths. And I'm just gonna review the really quickly for you. And harmonic is a note, which is sounds the same. We just spelled differently again. If we use our big picture right here, we can look, see flats and be natural are and harmonic notes. They sound the exact same, but they're spelled differently. If you imagine that on the keyboard, you can see that it will see that in a little bit. Women with scales That's number one second circle offense. Circle of fifths in right this out. However, it'll make sense to you. It's moving in fifths through the Cirque through key signatures going through the sharps circular fourths is moving through the circle in fourths, starting with flights. Digest that press pause, review it to stare at the picture a lot. Do something to sort of have that makes sense. What we're gonna do next is we're actually gonna go through these scales, what we're gonna do, we're just gonna we're gonna build all these scales and we're gonna listen to them through the baths and then We'll listen to them through the fourths and we'll start to get some sound in this and not just words again. Review this. What you may want to do is just write this out yourself. Yeah, I'm just throwing out a lot of different ideas for how weaken learn in this, and this is a little bit of the raw memorization. But again, if you know the theory behind it, which is 15 the force, it will help you learn it and understand it. In a practical sense, not just books. Let's look at scales. 5. Scales Sharp Keys: All right, So we're over here musically and what we're gonna do now we're gonna learn all of our scales. 12 major scales. I'm sure you're doing some quick math and you're going 367 was 14 15 with C Major. But we jump over to this circle. We can actually see there is actually 12 because there's a whole bunch of and harmonic scales writes. We get 12345689 10 11 12 Love major scales of minor scales and all this and harmonic stuff because it's doubled their sort of the same steps, right? They sound the exact same to the ear back to me to score. And let's start building these major scales right back here in our key. Sanders, what we're gonna do, we're gonna build the scale in the left hand and in the right hand, we're just gonna have along them. Make's eighth notes a thumbs in scale. 8/8 notes in a measure works up magically, right? Some c major, we don't see major. Right? C major. We got from a c, we go up whole tone de hold on to an e. A semi tone to it f whole town, we'll tone well, tone, semi tongue. So there is C major Now we're gonna build G major. And this is gonna go really quick because we know how it works now. Sweet g, we have a and be those. There are three whole steps, right? B to a C as you go on here. Look back T b to a C. That's our semi tone Look about my nascar's there is. And now we go whole town, whole tone in our the even you go up another halt home sharp. And then we finish with our semi tone because it's a major scale our major keep So now, same thing for D major, right, B C d. We go up here so we have a d next. Ready? Let's go to it. And now we go. Hey, I need a whole time up to a nap. Sharp. Now we need a semi tone to a G whole tone whole tone, another whole tone. Sam Ito. So I'm gonna just really quick it again. You can either follow on staff. You could follow the cursor up here as like, I'm instant clicking over the piano or go back and you can watch them both place right and ready to walk through it. So it's a to be me is a whole tone. B two c sharp is a whole tone. Now open the black Keys. Right. So now we go up a semi tone, the whole tone. We need another whole tone in there, right? So those are sharp, another whole tone and then we finish with our seven. Now we jump to the major start on E. We go up the whole tone to f sharp whole tone g sharp up a semi tone to a whole time to be whole time to see sharp fall tone to D Sharp. Finished with the semi tough. The manager starts on the B and as you see as we get further into the sharp, he is worth more on the black keys of the piano. So b two c sharp is a whole tone sharp to be sharps on hold. I got four semi toe. Now we have to go back up our whole tone to are sharp hoping g sharp whole tone to a sharp go up semi tome to be natural. We made it up shirt So we start on the sharp key, the whole tone, Paul Tone all time, Semi toe, Well tome ball tone Paul Tone, seven tons. So I went We were gonna freeze, were you? There are more times we go when we look at this scale we see right, Here's our email our e right there. But the is sharp in the key signature moving it up a semi tone. So e sharp is another and harmonic notes and e sharp is actually in. When you look at the ski signature of a sharp major reasons e sharp, um, when we get into these, really, it's a complicated keys. Keys that have a lot of accidental zin them in the key signature. We get more and more and harmonic notes. So we look at C sharp major, we start on C sharp, we go up a whole tone d sharp and then we go up to a e sharp for ah, hold on. Right. Which is our F and how we got our semi John F sharp. We have a e sharp and an f sharp. Jim Sharp. We haven't a sharp and now we even have a B sharp which is actually sounded as a C. And then we finish on the seat sharp. When you look at C sharp, we have an e. Sharper sounds is an f. We have a B sharp, which sounds a seat. And those air important to know I've sort of highlighted them right there because when you're performing airplane, we don't see the Sharps and B sharps very off them. So it's a bit of a curveball. What we're going to do now is we're actually just gonna listen. Jollity scales. Christina. What? They sound like Theo Theo. Now we've heard all the scales of the sharp G and you can hear because of the circle of this, it actually doesn't Sounds like that how we move through it. Next, we're gonna look at all scales of the flat keys. 6. Scales Flat keys: It's very our flag is we already know C major. No, it really well. And now we have to look at f major and like last time, we're gonna do this using the piano up talk just so we can sort of visualized these whole tones in semi tone, so bring a little quicker. Two f. We have three whole tones in her right after g g t a. Then we get our first semi tone. Then get a hold on people to see. Then I got a d b m e ends with the f. It's along the way. We saw that b flat and low and behold the beef. Let's in the key signature remembering As we ascend through the flat keys, the key relationship is up 1/4. This is our circle of flights, so we start from the B flat, which is 1/4 away from happen. You can see the scale reached a 1234 B flat. Four notes. There's 1/4 we go B flat. We need a whole tone, which is the seat. We need another hole. Too much is a D, and we reach our for a semi tone. He fled to F is our whole We have a whole We have our whole when we've finished with half now up 1/4. Let's count on this scale we go before the C C d deed flat. There's are forth up, Mama. Hold Next keys E flat Major whom you flat hold Tom Cole toe for semi tone to a flat. We go up the whole time from a flat, we get a B flat. Hold come from before that We back to our C. We have our d and finished with semi tone to the E flat. So you can see as I'm just quickly going through this. How important knowing the whole whole scam structure works, right? The whole world will half state. Yeah, review the scale structure. No, it So we get a flat to be flat. Well, that's a whole time. We'd like to see the whole time go up a semi tone to deep, let a whole tone up whole tone, the whole tone business with that semi told a flat. So we go up 1/4 from a B flat, C D flat screen on execute Must be D flat major. So now we're at deflects started Deflect. We got the whole tone to e flat and hold on to f Nothing crazy yet up a semi down to G flat Whole time to be for hold on a flat, Full time to be flat, whole tone to see natural of a semi tone To do what now we get to G flat and see flat Remember, these are our where are key Start getting kind of working, right? So we're going to start over here on G flat and you already see months in f sharp. So in music we're used to seeing certain notes more than others. G flat is one of them. The reason you don't see a lot of G flats is often you would see this is F sharp, major. Right? If you go back to our circle, you can open that document up. You can see that G flat major, an f sharp major, the exact same keys and harmonically re spelled. So musicians aren't used to seeing G flats as often as an f sharp, which is very common cause if you think in our sharp keys f sharps the very first sharp we encounter. So we're either talking about like the fifth black we encounter or the first shot So you can understand and see why we would see the f sharp more energy but using our scale knowledge, you know, f sharp Verjee flat in this case up a whole tone is a flat up. The whole tone is B flat. Then we gotta be natural. Be natural up. A whole tone is deflect You go up the whole town e flats and then we dio two f and we finish on the flat. Here's the fun one s o c e flat major, remember, this is the one You'll never see it because we'd always be major. You will never see it incredibly unlikely to see it if you look at the keyboard has been following It starts on a C flat and right away you go That's a beat but it is a c flat. It's another harmonically spelt note. We go up a whole tone deflects up whole tone to e flat and then we go to f flat and I'm hoping as you see me click this e you go that that was an eat. It was actually an F flat So look at scale down here. Right? See? Flat d flat, e flat, f flat up a whole tone, Chief. What? The whole tone. A flight up, a whole tone, B flat finishing with semi tone to see flat. So so you can see sort with that last key. How and harmonics work and why they're important. Because B flat major is a lot easier to read than see made. So we're gonna finish by just listening to what the flight key sound like as they ascent up the circle of fourths. And there you have it. You now know every single major Sharps off flats. And as I went through it, and the reason I want to do it along and not just sort of give you the keys that are labeled as I want you to see the process of how quick it was the findings keys using that whole. You know, whole whole happel horrible will happen. So that's really important. Learned this. There's me some exercises, just a bunch of Blakey signatures to help find the scales. I encourage you to do those without using the new score files. Um, the completed ones right there, just gonna be empty scales to fill out the answer. Keys for them are just these two documents, the Black Keys and sharpies because it just has the scales so you can review them there. Spend some time review the scales, learn the scales, yet review them in the next video is actually we're going to start looking at some basic harmony using the major keys. But up next after you review the key signatures and your scales and you sort of start to understand them and you feel confident, then we'll move on Teoh Just some basic harmony using Pinkie Sanchez. Now, um, this might have felt like a lot, So please take time, process it, do some exercises, and we'll go from there. 7. Diatonic chords of the major scale: today, we're going to be looking at diatonic chords of a major scale. All right, so the lesson for today we're gonna look at this example up here, and then we're gonna jump down to here, and we're gonna complete it together. Ah, few little things you're gonna want to know. Three. All command. All 2248 will give you this little circle which will learn about in a minute. Looking at our example here, the first thing I want to do is walk you through. What on earth you're looking at? So in the base, what we have in the bases just are standard C major scale. Right. We look over at key signature. We see no sharp snow. Platts, what we've learned about key signatures means we're in C major. So you see a sea there? What you expect we go to a B natural. We land on the seventh salary in the left hand, re see one voice. This one right here, right? You see, that voice is the scale, this book, but it's just in the left hand because it's letting us build this court. And then the other part we see I'm gonna high like this and you can see them. The green notes. Those are the notes that construct the cord that were on what I want to first before we do anything is just Have you listened to this? So you have it in your ear, and then we'll go from that. So now we've heard that What I hope you heard was this scale crawling up, then these chords that went on top of it. So let's quickly deconstruct these courts and also these Roman numerals. So we introduced the Roman numerals last lesson, and I just told you what they are and we moved on. So we're gonna break them down the first thing to look at. We're gonna look at all of the capital Roman numerals when you're doing harmony and harmonic analysis. Major chords are identified with a capital letter. That's the same thing in the charts. Upper case ends in lower case. Evans would be major minor. So with that knowledge, we know these lower case numbers a minor courts. So we have our major chords and your 14 and five the minor chords, which are 236 Then we have this one right here with this little circle that also 248 Refusing all events is what we call Diminish court diminished chord, definitely something they cover in another class later. Really, just what it is is their self seventh chord, and it's diminished. And that just has to deal with the interval relationships between the notes. So we'll get more into that later. Right now, because we're doing with just diatonic chords of the major scale. We don't need to worry about the difference between diminished an a minor chord yet because we're just using the scale to our advantage now, using the scale, we see the Roman numerals. We know we have major courts buying records in the diminished court. Let's go about building them. We're going to review a few, and then we're gonna do the exercise below. So let's look right here at our first court. I do not have the keyboard extended today, and that's on purpose. I want you to either use a keyboard yourself, visualize a keyboard or sort of use the paper so much little a couple tricks along the way . But the more different ways we can think about this, the better. We're gonna learn. So the first thing we have seen, major port starts on the sea has 1/3 and fifth. So they think so. That keyboard in your mind or you look down and see it or we're gonna count scale steps. So we see a seat, we need 1/3. So we go up three scale steps and you're always gonna count the first notes you're on. So we have one, 23 We go. Okay, that's an e. We look up here. Oh, there's our eat. Same thing for the G five stale sets. We'll see ings. 1234 five g g. That's our C major chord C e and G scale steps 13 And by now let's jump up to the to again . We see DF in a That's That's your court. It's a minor chord of D indefinite eight. So how we find that again, you can either use the piano and build that court into your hands or you can use scale. Accepts a B. C. D is the first scale step off the route. Let me go up three d e f f becomes the up over and then we're at 345 Yet a a goes up. That's a decline. Now I want to jump ahead. Let's go to this five quart This dominant five court, remembering our dominant sub dominant and tonic functioning from last bus by the dominant chord with dominant function. So it's a G B in a deep. One more way you could do this when you're dealing with just learning your rudimentary cords and not doing within virgins in other ways. And they, like the court, is actually using the musical staff. The staff, as we know, was laid out F A C e e g b d f. And if you go through this, we realize, hey, spaces air 1/3 away from each other lines or third away. So seen the first notes of G. If we go up to the next line and then the next line we go, Hey, that's my G major court G B and deep. That's another way to do it. I would encourage you to not rely on it, because when you started burning cords, it could become less clear. Um, I won't get into that. I just It's a cautionary word to say this works for rudimentary cords if you're just trying to memorize them. The scale method works really well. So it is using the piano, thinking around in your brain against the Mormons. You do it, the better. You're gonna understand it. Which means you'll do it quicker. Theory is a lot about grilling. Yeah, you want you want to memorize it, but you want to hear behind it. Okay, So I think we've covered enough here that I want toe jump on down to hear to B Flat, major. So the first thing we need to do is we tie, take from here, delete before. All right. So we're gonna jump down here, and we need to build our scale. First thing we need to dio looking are key signature. Remember back to when we determined he centers. What key or Rio number? There's two ways to do it. We can look at the last flat sign and go up 1/5 or we just look at the key signature and moved back one flat. With that information, I'm going to count down five seconds in my head. Just five seconds of silence for you to say that we're in the key of That's right. B flat, major. I hope you said B flat. Uh, if not, remember if e flat g b let's or back one flat to be blood. So let's build, Let's go. And for the purposes of what we're doing, we're gonna build it the same way as exercise of bucks that we're gonna go be up the whole step. So be flat up a whole set to see up the whole set to be up a semi tone to e flat about the whole stepped f big up. Another whole step to G up another holds up to a and we would finish the scale with a semi tone to be flat. Perfect. Okay, The next thing I want to do before we populate the cords above Let's do our Roman numerals . I'm gonna fill 113 There we go. So pause the video, um, and fill in the rest and then I'll do it and you'll feel compare your answers. So go ahead and pause that right now and then. And three, 21 here we go with the answers. So first thing we want to do, let's label all of our major courts we have one. Now let's add are four, which we know is Major and we know at five is major. Now let's go ahead and add on minor courts, which we know minor chords are too three. So six is a minor court and then we finish with our seven, which is our diminished court. Remember, 248 So we have our Roman numerals done. So now what we want to do in the right hand is we want to populate all of the courts. So here's what's gonna happen. Um, we are going to do this in half notes, so we're gonna go have not rest Sonic. So we're here for every measure. So go ahead using staff paper or using new store, whatever you're doing to fall along, go ahead. And so on that scale. So there we go. We've transferred the bottom notes up. Go ahead. And what I want to do is on your own. We're going to try to populate these first before you hit Pause. Let's do the b flat major together, and we're gonna use the scale below to help us find the notes. So we're looking at this, and we know we have B flat. Find the third we need to go up. Cering scale degrees from the root. The root counts is the first. So 1st 2nd 3rd Now we go from the roots. 12345 to our f So there's our court. Now pause the video finish filling this out yourself. Even if you're following along on a sheet of paper, literally. Just write it out like B Flat D. That's another way you can do it. So we're gonna pause, and then we're gonna populated together. All right. 321 We're back. Let's go ahead. So what is our? Next we'll see is our next chord. 1/3 up from C is our flat and RG. As we build here, we're gonna bust from the desktop audio back. So now we see a d We can go up D E t f And then 12345 gives us a name. Right? So now we're on our forecourt. You see the four starts on the e flat? Let's use the line system. That's that. So we know we can go e flat. Next, Linus G next lines B flat. It's our court. Let's do the same thing with our dominant chord, which falls on five by the court of the dominant, which is the fifth scale degree. We haven't f next Spacey A next spaces a seat and move on to sex. And let's let's scale countless. One writes. We have a G, even a. Our next note in the scale would be down here a B flat. So let's sort of b flat on. And then 123 we have a deep in the last one. Try to do it by visualizing the keyboard. Right? So you see in a to go up to that scene using me. Okay, so hopefully this is what you got. Now, let's just take a listen really quick and all right, so I hope that's what you got. Yes, not just go back and review it. Make sure you understand how to build cords because now you could go on, builds every single court on a major Gail from all 12 scales, and you've even to the end harmonic spellings and do even more right. You could be like 15 scales if you wanted to be there. Are you having 12 major scales? You can now build cords and all 12 of them. You could also, if you remember how to build a minor scale, you could just do this on all of the natural minor scales. With that being said, the Nicene recovers all three versions of the minor scale, and that should be the next lesson. But this one's wrapped. We now have all of our diatonic chords of the major scale. One thing that we just sort of got into today is this process of putting the problem up and then having haven't we all try to solve it and I give the answer there is gonna be. The next lesson is gonna be a review of everything we've done. It is going to use that format. They're will be building some scales, identifying key signatures, building some chords. It isn't something. I'll put the question on the screen, you deposit, answer it and then see the answer. So instead of me giving you a worksheet and then another sheet, um, I thought this could just be a different way to do it. So we're gonna go to try, uh, if you don't like that, you know, let me know, and we can try to find something that works for everybody. All right. So until the next last 8. Minor scales: we're coming to. What's gonna be the third final lesson of this level? Of course. We're gonna look at minor scales now in all three forms of them remembering when we looked earlier, I mentioned three forms the natural minor, which we already know from the last class in the review the harmonic minor on the melodic minor. We also need to look at how these scales relate to other scales. And by that, what I mean is, how does a minor scandal the late to a major scale? So now that we know about key signatures in the circle of Fifths, we sort of have the knowledge and place where we can learn about these associations. So the very first thing we're gonna do in here is we're just gonna put our good favorite C major scale. All right, so there we go, C major scale. We're just gonna label it. He's in capital for the major, as we've talked about. Right. So we have we're gonna have labeled it, and we've We've added the capital like we talked about. What I want to do is it's gonna drop a double bar line in right there, so major scales and minor scales are related to each other. What that means is when you have a major scale, it has a relative minor to it now to do a little more into that. What it means is that the key signature of C major will be shared with its relative minor scale. So to find the relative minor scale, what we need to dio is start by looking at the tonic of the scale, which is C since he right, see right there and what we wanted you to find. The relative minor is go down 1/3 or to scale degrees six. So let let's look both ways. So we know C 123456 which is a or you could go down for Macedonia and go down a minor. We're gonna put it another double bar. And now what we're gonna do is we're gonna plug in, are a minor skin. So we know that the A minor scale is the relative minor to see Major and then remembering the review, we talked about the relative minor, correct. So we go a to B, which is a whole tone, and then we go up a semi tone the seat from seeing me, then go up the whole tone to de the whole tone to e. And we hope a semi tone f Well, time to G and a whole times a And there we have the a minor scale. What I want to do is we're just gonna knock it down the octave. We're gonna label it the unseen now because we're talking a minor is lower. All right, let me move my page break. There's the first month. So the a minor scale has no altered tones to it, which we talked about. So it seems we're gonna label this one natural. Okay? The next scale we need to do and we're going to keep working in C major. See, majors are nice friendly scale. So we're in C major. We want to go to the relative minor, which we know is a minor which starts on scale. Degree 6123456 is are a bug in the name put down the Arctic. So now we're gonna look at what's called the harmonic minor scales, and it follows the same formula beginning to go up the whole time to be sent me come to see the whole time to de whole time to e semi tone f and now we reach scale degrees seven. So in the natural minor, the scale degree seven is a whole tone away from the tonic in the harmonic minor scale. We raise scale degrees seven to become the leading tone. To put that in context, there's no put this little bar in if we look at the intervals in our major scale. So we're looking up here at C Major and we'll look between a BSC. We see it's a semi same thing here in natural minor. We look, we see it's a whole top. So the harmonic minor scale maintains that semi tone lead up to the tonic. So that's that right there. That's our a minor scale, and then we label it. This is our a harmonic minor. It's the same going up as it is going down, which leads us to our next scale, which is the melodic minor scale. So as we know and see, we're at C Major, we want to move to our relative minor, which we know is built on scale Degree six, which is the A So it starts on the A and then we go up the whole tone to be semi tone to see the whole tone to d Let me go up our semi tone to e and then we land on scale degrees six of the minor scale On the ascending pattern we raise that up a semi tone. We then go up whole tone to the G sharp, which lands on a so that's the ascending section of the melodic minor scale. So the melodic minor scale on the way up actually maintains both aspects of the natural. In the minor scale, we have the semi tone resolution between the G and the A. But then we also maintain the relationship between scale, degree six and scale. That you're seven is being a whole tone where f to a G sharp is a tone and 1/2. So it maintains that that relationship in these Final Three notes, which gives it a lot of motion that makes him you know what, we'd same ally. Now, on the way down, the G is lowered back to G natural. So for the time being, now what we're gonna do is open upper. I sandals pain and put a G natural on it. We then go down to the F, which is lowered. So I'm gonna stop right here, and we're just gonna look at those notes. Zoo man. Really tight there. You just for this, Mona. So we're only looking at these and notes. So it's a scale degree. Six scale, agree seven and a tonic in the melodic minor scale. As we ascend, we raise scale degrees six and seven here and on the way down. We have the same notes as the natural minor scale, so we can just go and we can coffee The notes there was We know your e d a c a b. Then we land back on the roots, Which is that A for us. Let's just put in another page, brake line, break and what's enable this. All right, so these are the three forms of the scales. So in the natural minor, nothing is often it's just based off the same key singer in the harmonic minor. We have scaled every seven being raised in the melodic minor. We have those notes being raised on the way up and they're lowered on the way down. This is all really important stuff. What we're going to do now is we're just gonna listen to it so you can hear the major scale . You'll hear it descends so that a so scale degree six. Then we'll hear the natural minor. The harmonic minor with the raised seven, The melodic minor which has a race six and seven on the way up in a lowered six and seven on the way down. Let's take a quick listen, Theo. And there you have it there. These are all the relationships you need to know. So the important part is toe really have this nailed down in your mind, which we talked about for this. This was all a part of the review of the first course. Now what you need to add to it is the harmonic minor in the melodic minor again is raising scale degree seven in the harmonic raising six and seven on the way up and lowering them on the way down in the melodic where that you can figure out any scale from any king. And now not only do you know the major and minor scale, you have the relationship. How does the major relate to the minor scale. There's gonna be two more parts of this course. There's the minor scales harmonized. And then there's the just a basic little part writing thing toe sort of start giving you some contacts of how these things work. 9. Chords of the minor scales: the versions of the minor scale much like wouldn't major keys were using the same sheet we used when we created our minor scales were just taking the tags off everything. So the first thing we would do is look up here at our natural minor scale, and we're just gonna build the harmony on it. So here we go. So when we remember back to making the major scales we learned, we just put third in the fifth about each note, and we can do the same thing here. So what we're going to do really quickly is add them just to the first. Great. So a minor. So maybe we're going to turn our desktop. We're gonna Adam to a minor. Then you can hear the court in the minor scale. If you can imagine. We start on a minor chord on, like the major scale where we started on a major court. And as we learned, we identified that with Lower Kiss. So let's look up to the next chord here, and we see it's a beat. You know, we have to go up the third and the fifth so we can use our keyboard if we want to go here to be and staying within the scale of a natural minor. We would go on 123 de and then 123 No, and remembering that we haven't really gotten into the breakdown in construction of major, a minor chords diminished have diminished. Yet it we're just getting using the natural parts of the scale instead of what is sort of a more traditional theory approach, which is based on a lot of drilling, which would be the first introduced. The intervals of the scales being major thirds minor thirds, perfect fifths and drilling those a lot and then applying that to court construction approach I want to take this course was to take advantage of the diatonic scales in the diatonic harmony that we have in those scales. And you just gives you a little bit something to start with. Um, the course I'm gonna make after this, the third course in the Siri's. We're going to get into a little more of that traditional theory approach where we actually break down all the intervals and learn all of the different chords in ah, structural sense. Cornell's move on. See, we've seen before we no see, Major, Right, CJ And what you're going to notice is that all of the cords in the natural minor scale are the same chords we would have in C major except me start on scale degrees six. So that information, we know what we learned before. I'm just quickly popular. If that went fast for you, and you were like, sort of like Wait, wait, wait. I don't actually remember that you can review the major scale, but from earlier because again, it's the exact same system because we remember the natural minor scale starts on scale degrees sick. And that's the difference. It's There's no altered note. So let's just listen really quickly to what sounds like there you and we can go ahead and label this. We know that two in this instance is to is gonna be great. The minutest. And how do we know that us? What? We know that because this cord B d. F is the same court that we had in the major scale on seven on when we go to three and in a minor key three is major. You know, this is formally scary Woman. Now we see the scale to be six. And taking that knowledge we know that four is going to be a minus. Five is gonna be minor. So we have a minor five of major six that we know. This will be a minor seven Gord e. We finish with our line. All right, so So what we have here, all of those courts now all populated and we can sort of see if we imagine from the sea we have the same function, right? We have Major Major Major, which would be the same as Major Major Major, the same minors with two diminished. So now this sort of answers a question. Why don't tend to use the natural minor scale as much as the harmonic minor scales? So when we were talking before we talked about nominate function and what you can see right away when we look up here is this Five court is a minor and and minor chords tend to not have the same dominant function. So we don't have the same sort of sensation of arrival that we get with a major five to a one of any form to be major five, minor one, and then you also have seven. We're thinking of our other dominant functioning cord. That seven resolving upwards we don't have. And we learned about that in those parts of the scales right where we can regain that leading tone. So this is useful to know in a very conceptual level. And what you're gonna find really quickly is that we more often or not, follow into this area right here, so over to do, we're gonna harmonize the harmonic scale. And then we won't do the natural minor scale because it is literally the harmonic scale on the way up with this sharp. And that f sharp creates a lot of interesting harmonies that we're gonna leave out because often you'll melodically use the scale, but not harmonically So first, let's harmonize the harmonic minor. See, suddenly that name starts to make more sense, right? You about melodic functioning scale. You have a harmonically functioning scale. We can copy the majority of the information from up here. What we need to do is any time in accord we see a g sharp, we need to add it. So we're gonna go about this a little quick. Once again, I was gonna pre populate everything that g sharp. It's writing myself. So those are the same chords as the natural minor. When this is why I like this approach to theory is you don't have to learn a whole new scale you for three new courts. That's it. And we already have the knowledge to do this without getting bogged down in Texas. So let's populate the notes. We know in these courts we know the ease natural. We know the fifth via de So really What we have to do is we have to add three notes notes, right. We have to have this g sharp here of the air. You sharp. We have now harmonized. We can add all of the Roman numerals without evening having for many. So we don't one, you know, this is gonna be too. So maybe we're gonna have all of the ones to the notes that don't change. All right, so now we need to look at these new quartz. This is now unavoidable. We're gonna have to talk a little bit about court structure. What we can do really quick is right here. Eads g sharp would be natural. The minor chords up here it's The spy will just become major because we raise this third and in the difference. So you know, between a major and a minor chord is the interval between the roots and the third in a minor chord. The route to the third is a minor third and in a major court group to the third is a major . That's the difference, since in our natural harmonic, since in our natural minor scale we ascend from an E to a G, which is a minor third, which we've identified with this Roman numeral we know if we just raise that G sharp up Sammy tone, a major there emerges and so long reminded Third so he can just label this major fight. For now, we have this dominant function back on our fifth, which is really important. We talked about before having a strong five court, and now we're left with two new courts. Look at we never really explains this diminished chord, Um, or when it falls on the B natural in major scale, so a diminished chord. A fully diminished court has a minor third, but a minor third stacked on top of each other 1/2 diminished chord is a major third and then a minor. If this part you're going whoa, Too much I don't care. Absorbed this knowledge and you'll be sonically have it if this party American. Now we're getting interesting that this is the next course. Geo A B is a major Third a B to a D is a minor third. You could go back to the scales we built, and you can find it up. We know now that this here is a 7/2 diminished court. So the difference between how we label fully diminished and 1/2 diminished is that slash um , that slash tells us it's half diminished. The full circle tells us its fully diminished again. The difference between 1/2 diminished, fully diminished thirds that occur within it. Now we go down here, we see C and E, which is major, and then you see an E and G sharp, which is an augmented. So we know that in a minor key, we have been augmented there. Of course, um, we market augment 1/3 with this little three quest. Um, yeah, but again, minor keys are a little more complicated, So we're now we're gonna listen to the natural minor, which uses no altered notes. And then we're gonna get down here into the harmonic minor, which has that alter g sharp. And you start to see where Chromatis isn't. Comes from when we start altering notes in the scale to create new notes in a scale and it creates more complexities of army. So we're just gonna listen through here to here, and then we've sort of reached the end of this journey. There's one more part writing one after this to disorder introduced. But let's just take a listen, right? So those air the examples and we can start to hear complexities building and just hearing and scale form isn't as strong is when you actually continues some harmonies built on it. And then you have some rules, right? You can avoid the augmented third chord and use the major third chord in its place, but still keep that G sharp being raised on your five into seven court in this part of it to keep that motion. Then the next one of this is just a really short part writing thing doing with major keys. Major keys are a little more straightforward, harmonically, and yet that the next course of the old more with breaking down of intervals and developing theory that way and sort of more into things like bigger base and in actual writing. Now that we have all the tools to start to understand these things and you're just doing this to learn the theory, hopefully also opens the door to sort of hearing music in a different way, a little more context to what you're hearing, enjoy the last part of the class and 10. Basic harmonic part writing: Okay, we're back all rights. Now what we're gonna do is we're gonna look at some very basic progressions. Um, for now, we're going to basic form chord progressions, and we're going to start by filling in the base. You can look here, and you can see we have no sharps or flats, so that means we must be in C major. So we know our first note in the base is going to be seen, right? So we're looking at just root position quartz. Now, I want you to grab your glossary we're working with, and I want you to have root position. Sometimes. In theory, you'll have some people say the route. What the root means is the root is the lowest core tone or notes in the court. We're gonna add a couple, Mr Glass. Right? So the roots again is the lowest court tone in a court. And now you see the next 1/4 tone I want you had court tone to your glossary, its core tone. What that means is a core tone is a note that occurs in the court. You'll sometimes hear they referred to is like root 3rd 5th 3rd of the court and the court . Those who just court tones So back to what we're working on here. We've got our glossary. We know the route is going to be in the base. It's nearly the lowest note in the court were in C Major and we're going to start on Teutonic Court. Platonic Functioning Court. We'll start on the tonic. So our seat, then what we need to do Remember your formula. We need to go to our sub dominant court. One of the most basic chord progressions goes from scale degree one the tonic to scale degree four and now we're at our sub dominant. We need to move to a dominant function in court. I'm with the right parts. We look at leaps and look at steps. We can move up one step to the G. And we know the G is the dominant and it needs a result. One thing that's really weren't when you're writing voicing is if you can approach by a step, it could be really dramatic to leave by elite, right? So we left up to the F, we stepped up to the G, and then we leap back down to the sea. So what I want to do rid quickly is listen to just the base points. Let's take a listen to this. The next thing we're gonna do is we're gonna write our melody or are soprano boys in this case right now, what we're doing, this called s a TV choir, our s a t v writing So that when the verses we're gonna add the top voice and what we're gonna do is we're going to start our soprano on a G here they were moved in next door, which is an f So if we look at the F as the tonic of our cord or the root we're looking at F and a in the sea when you write parts, it's nice to have the melody movie much steps when you can. Okay, so we look to our next court built on a G, which is the dominant chords we've reached Our fifth members Miyagi up 1/3 is a B and up 1/3 is a deep. Then we go what we can just put to be right there g b d and there's our third And then we resolved to see that's the nice little scale in the upper voice. G A B c really simple part writing. We have some strong writing where the base moves up a step and then results down elite. This is a very common thing to hear in the base where it goes up and down. So the next thing we're gonna want to do is listen to this. So we're gonna listen to what? This sounds like a really quick right Now, what we need to do is we need to harmonize. So we have our melody and our baseline. We're gonna have populate the third in the fifth. So any chord has a route 1/3 in effect, which already said, and you're gonna want to add this to your glossary. The route is the lowest note in a court. Sometimes you hear people call the tonic. This is different than when we talk about the tonic of the scale. It's just platonic of the court. We'll call it the route. Just just sometimes you'll hear you know you'll have peace and see Major and no B I. You know, of course, Carnegie and people say, Look, Aggies tonic was that the G is the tonic up cord or the root for our purposes again will call the route So the roots for your glossary is the lowest melt on the court. You also then have 1/3 in a fit. It's 1/3 is 1/3 above the route. The fifth is 1/5 above the route. It's not related to the tonic of the key. It's related to the root of the court. Let's start building courts. What we have here are outer voices. This is also worth writing down. Your other voices are your soprano and your face. You often hear me call sing soprano alto tenor bass or S A. T. V. This is basic choral writing, four part harmony stuff. So for our purposes, this upper voices are soprano This lower voices aren't base now we need to populate. So we know this court is on the scene, Major, remember, Everything we're doing is in route position. So we go up 1/3 from see? You can use the keyboard up here or even counted on your fingers using on the scale we know from a sea view. Go up 123 that's an e. And if we go 5112345 is a G. So third in the path of seeing energy, we have R, G and R. C. So we need to put a E somewhere where I would put the e right there, keep the soprano on the auto close together, and then we know we have a C any energy. We have a full court, and now you're left to say, What do we do with the tenor? Well, what we usually want to do is we want to double the roots when possible. There's an order for doubling. It goes route 5th 3rd You rarely want to double the third and four part writing. You're generally going to be looking to double the tonic for the fifth wherever you can, Um, in this life a lot because you're writing for voices in three courts. So the next one we have f even a minnow doesn't get. See now remember, these were the other voices, the inner voices being the alto tenor. We want to try to keep the alto and tenor for the inner voices. Moving as sort of basic is possible. If you ever have an opportunity to leave a tenor and alto on the same note. Do it. And we have that here. Right? We have a seat. We now have her full court. We have FAA ensued every now we know. Okay. We need toe double something. We look, Do we have the tonic? Yeah, and it's a step. So the Altos motion is pretty limited, you know, it goes by step, so it's easy to sing, and the tenor doesn't even have to change notes. Now we go back to our next court r g court. So we look at the G is the roots when we go up three scale degrees from it G A B. So the B is the third quarter tone, and if we go up five scale degrees from the G, we get G A B C D s with G B in a deep. We have our gene. We have our be Now we need to place a d and B. So now we have some options. So the tenor can either go up to the B no, up to the D or down to the B, and then the alto can move up to double G. So we look first okay. Knowing that we don't want to double the B, we should put the auto on the G. They were keeping this really close writing for the upper voices, which is nice and sell stepwise. And now we know. Okay, we need we have a G a beer immunity. So just two d, again Keeping the tenor voice a simple as we can. And now we resolved It's great to have notes go down when you result So let's make that do you go down to a C double the octaves and now we go Okay, we an energy Let's leave the alto on a G And now we've just rounds One problem we don't haven't. So instead of having the tenor descend, um remember when when he wrote the base price is really strong toe have downwards motion to the final the tonic chord at the end. So when we hear part writing, we hear the owner voice is very strong. So what we can get away with is actually moving an inner voice upwards in the yet. So we're not gonna here because of the house strong. This downwards heart is we're not We're not really gonna notice that the tender steps up to fill the court. And then there's one other thing I want to outline that I did what we wrote This progression. So you can see we started with an octave in all of the voices. They never moved in his 1st 3 chords. Looking at these three, um, here. Never do the voices get away from each other by more than a doctor told the final court. Then we see that because we moved to eat up, we actually created a distance of more than a knocked up in S A T v writing. You can have more than an active between your base in your tenor. Would you really want to keep your upper three voices as close as you can without more than an octave? So this is a strong writing. Um, I'll just take a listen to it. Okay, So there's our basics and what I want to do to finish this, and we're gonna label So we have tonic, then we have sub dominant action. So which make this tonic function? We have a dominant function that finishes okay on its function. Okay, One more thing we do is we actually label our courts. So we're gonna insert just some, uh, bigger base here. So we know this is one we know this is built on scale degree for it's four. We know this is our five senses are one again is we won't get too much into this year. Um, what's important are these court symbols 145 and one because that's the first, the 4th 5th in the first. When we look at the base notes, these are all capitalized because these their own major courts we're gonna introduce to and three and seven, which are all a little different a little later. But right now, get used to this progression. And I want you to write out of view of these practice this, um, and label it like, maybe go through this in label What the tonic is, what the third is and what the fitness make. Those notes start to understand this and we'll go from there. One thing I want to do is I want to contextualize this a little bit because it's an online course. It's easy to kind of to cram it. Let's say we were doing this course is a one on one lessons. We just got to the basic progression. We've done all the scales. All the key signatures circle 1/4 circle of fifths and some basic part rating that would take in private lessons about a month, maybe three weeks, depending how fast you picked it up because there's time to drill it, time to let it sink in. So so don't rush through review things practice. And again, I'm going to try to have a lot of exercise and things in the course tools to help you do that. Um, let things that don't just keep rushing ahead. So next time, since I sort of thrown you into this year, um, we're gonna actually go, and we're gonna look at all of the cords on a major scale, and we're gonna assign them their Roman numerals, and then there'll be some work on that. So that's the next step. Before we jump into more part writing. I just wanted Teoh take you through these basics and start laying some ideas in your mind. Style responds easy to conceptualize. To get some of this stuff is confusing. That's fine. We are gonna build clarity as we go. Um I think part of it is directing our ear towards what are I is going toe learn. So the next thing we do, we're gonna go through major keys and learn all of the cords of a major scale, and them will come back to basic part writing and go from there. 11. Worksheet Answers: All right. So what? I said I was going to this time, and we're gonna do it now. Is I mentioned we're going to sort of the class of work sheets actually together. So this is in pdf and new score. If you notice these air great out. It's so that when you print the pdf, you don't visits empty messes. Um, you score, you can still see them. So here's what we're going to do. I'm going to basically fill out this sheet and you can bubble along as an answer. I'm gonna explain what I'm doing as I go. Just so if you get it right, you can just scrub board. If you got it wrong, you'll have the answer explained here. So let's jump into this. So first part completing the major scales for each key signature, right? Here we go. So, taking a look at the left we see no Sharps and the flats, which tells us this is going to be C major. We go seeing full step Well, step half step, Full step. Full step ball step. There we go. That was my C major scale. Next we see one sharp. We can go up a second from that sharp to do it, G. So we have RG there and we know same formula. These are major scales Dogg. A whole step, Whole step, semi tone, Full step. Both step. Well, step Cybiko. All right, You know flat, Keats, There's two ways we confined our route. We can look at the last flat, which is a deep flats and go up 1/5 to a flats. Or we can go back. One flattened key signature to in a flat. Getting major scaled. Same formula hole full half hole or or yes, all right. Three Sharps. When you figure out what sharp key this is and then we see a G sharp is the final sharpened key signature. We can go up a second to a tells us we are in a major. It's a major key while the same formula. Full step. Full step C sharp, right? Nazi natural living about semi tone. Well, step no. All right. We see one B flat in the key signature. There's not a flat to go back from, so we go to 1/5 to an f. You know, we're in F Major. Major has one flat Paul, Stop! G boss up to a semi tone to be flat up. A whole tone to see. Yeah, we have three flats in key signature. We go up this from the last What? Or back of flight And the keys. Danger to see an e flat and build a scale. Bergen goes really quick. Average lie by because you've been taking formula. There's a scale. Okay, Next one we see an age sharp is the last. Which tells us we go up a second to a B being, amigo, being C sharp beats dish a. Okay, Gosh, that's a lot of flats. But blacks, nothing changes. Built the fifth from a G flat to a D flat or go back one of the key signature D flat. So same thing. Just pump open up. There's just now we have two flats in the key signature quick recognition. We know, Boom. That's a B flat major, using either of our methods. I hope you found those pretty quick. Um, can you just drill this? Look at key centres, Add more. Okay, so next section add the court to each note. All right, so we know we're in C major. It's part of exercise, right? C major. No. Sharps flats in the key signature. Cesar Perez notes. Um, your finale reading up If you're in your store. Read. No time to grab 1/2 note. Um, we're gonna have the fifth burst. You don't see Eugene I g 1/5 above a G is gonna be a D weaken. Let's use our line method. You're right. Line in line, Mir. Space and space. And we're going to use the mental piano in our head F scale degree for by six 67 eight. Same thing here. We know the natural scale. Degree seven. So then we need to have scaled. Agreed to scaled scale degree for that f e. So scale degree three, Scarily good. Five and scale degree seven. Same Gord displaced down an octave. Copy that information. So we see a d Now, um, certain scale agree to, Which means we're gonna want accord on scale, Degree four and six. Same thing up in October and then finishes on our see again. Again. So scaled, everyone. Scale degree, three scale, degree five. All right. So identify the relative. He identify the relative minor for each key and write the harmonic minor scales. We look, we see f So if you think back to how do we find the relative minor when we go down 1/3 or to scale degree six. Right, So is one G to a 34 c. Spied be a six and I gotta write are minor harmonic minor. So we remember harmonic minor. We raise scale, degree seven. That's right. So But now we reached Allegri seven. You raise it beautiful and we've landed on D coincidence. So we're at M U Z two sharp. So we go. Okay. This is right. We are the major. So we go scale degree six of the major right, which is a bee scale degree. Six. Not that there. So we know that we must be in B minor, So B c sharp d e f g A which used to be raised in the harmonic minor land on B government. Okay. Looking at the last one of the instructions changed after melodic minor sneaky. We're gonna do this and eighth notes to go up and down. But first things first. We look at the key signature and we realize I made a mistake. Oops. What? Entering this. That's it. Um, so we see you hear, I'll blade and computer too much for skilled revives the scale agree six. Which is a c sharp. 123466 sharp. And now, just to make this working eight notes. See, we get to it a just scale degree. Six of C. Raise it be Raise it anything it's on C. Talk it over now Remember, on the way down, going to be natural in a natural. There we go. Let's. Since this is the answer being that looks terrible. Let's turn on a page break, right, Right. So those are the answers to the worksheet. Zoom out little bits. See it, check work against that. We've explained all the solutions compact mistake, which will be fixed in your part, just following along, and you see that the other is different. So that's the answer to the worksheets. Um, do you can just drove us anywhere? There's lots of answers, so it may be if people let me know enough that they want Mawr worksheets. Maybe we can record some or at a later point, just as long as the demands there to do it Well, do it, and we could happily add it to this course at the end. We can have a whole bunch more of this stuff again. Thank you for doing this class. Uh, the next one's gonna deal a lot more with the the actual breakdown of chords. What are the intervals? Working. Identifying intervals, trying to augment them. Figured bass writing, which is where you get the bass note and you write the public's above it. So these 1st 2 courses air the beginner courses. This may feel like a lot, or it may felt really easy. Um, but since it is really just learning the building blocks, that's why we're calling a beginner. Uh, then again, where the next one's gonna be, I guess beginner plus your intermediate minus, however you want to name it where we're just actually gonna start gain into basic part writing using diatonic harmony so that let me let me know if people want more worksheet like things these air easy enough to do. So we can We can add a few more. Just help people learn this stuff. Um, yo, please follow lever of you. Those things help a lot, very much