Music Theory For Everyone: Reading Music, Music Education, Music Fundamentals | Shervin House | Skillshare

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Music Theory For Everyone: Reading Music, Music Education, Music Fundamentals

teacher avatar Shervin House, Top Instructor & YouTuber

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

43 Lessons (5h 45m)
    • 1. Music Theory Course..

      2:37
    • 2. What We Cover In This Course...

      2:36
    • 3. [Reading Music] - Staff & Clefs

      5:53
    • 4. [Reading Music] - Length of Notes

      12:28
    • 5. [Reading Music] - Time Stamps

      15:37
    • 6. [Reading Music] - Other Elements

      9:34
    • 7. What Are Scales? - Music Theory

      3:19
    • 8. Semitones, Whole-Tones, & Accidentals - Music Theory

      10:08
    • 9. Major Scales - Music Theory

      7:56
    • 10. Minor Scales - Music Theory

      5:13
    • 11. Follow Me For More...

      0:22
    • 12. Reviewing Accidentals & Intro to Key Signatures - Music Theory

      14:34
    • 13. Determining the Key Signature for Scales - Music Theory

      10:42
    • 14. Finding the Key of a Melody - Music Theory

      7:26
    • 15. Assignment #1 - Course Project

      17:36
    • 16. Assignment #2 - Course Project

      11:01
    • 17. Chromatic Scales - Music Theory

      4:55
    • 18. Whole Tone Scales - Music Theory

      4:54
    • 19. The Pentatonic Scales - Music Theory

      8:15
    • 20. The Blues Scales - Music Theory

      6:21
    • 21. The Octatonic Scales - Music Theory

      4:34
    • 22. Simple Time - Music Theory

      6:51
    • 23. Assignment #3 - Course Project

      11:46
    • 24. Compound Time - Music Theory

      6:01
    • 25. Assignment #4 - Course Project

      17:21
    • 26. Hybrid Meters - Music Theory

      6:13
    • 27. Assignment #5 - Course Project

      21:29
    • 28. Intervals - Music Theory

      12:50
    • 29. Major & Minor Chords - Music Theory

      8:10
    • 30. The Dominant 7th Chord - Music Theory

      7:03
    • 31. The Diminished 7th Chord - Music Theory

      3:42
    • 32. What are Cadences? - Music Theory

      3:38
    • 33. The Perfect Cadence - Music Theory

      7:21
    • 34. The Plagal Cadence - Music Theory

      4:01
    • 35. The Imperfect Cadence - Music Theory

      4:59
    • 36. What is Transposition? - Music Theory

      4:44
    • 37. Transposing to Another Clef - Music Theory

      5:02
    • 38. Transposing to Another Key - Music Theory

      6:09
    • 39. Transposing for Other Instruments - Music Theory

      8:09
    • 40. Short Score Vs Open Score - Music Theory

      8:26
    • 41. Writing Melody - Music Theory

      11:43
    • 42. Writing a Response to the Melody - Music Theory

      11:21
    • 43. Conclusion

      1:37
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About This Class

Hi there, my name is Shervin House. I am a Violin Instructor, and I am certified in the Advanced Rudiments of Music Theory & Harmony by the Royal Conservatory of Music.

Are you interested in learning about how music is constructed, delicately shaped, and communicated? In this course you will learn everything that you will need to know about Music Theory, starting from the very basics and covering everything up to the Advanced Music Theory material, as categorized by the RCM (Royal Conservatory of Music).

This course is for beginners. You don't need to know anything about Music Theory in order to follow along. In fact we even cover how to read music from the basics in the first unit in order to make sure everyone is able to keep up without any prior knowledge. Furthermore, you can learn and follow the material regardless of what instrument you play; whether you play the piano, the guitar, the violin, or any other instrument.

You will learn how elements such as the key signature and the time stamp can be used as powerful tools in writing music, and how they will set up a blueprint for our song. You will discover how to construct chords, how to write melodies, how to begin and end phrases, how to adjust your music based on the instrument you want to use or the key you wish you play in, and much more..

By the end of this course, you will have a complete understanding of the fundamentals of music theory, as well as gaining the ability to start composing songs like a pro. My aim with this course was to break down all of these complicated concepts and explain them by using visuals and piano keys, so that you will have a far easier time wrapping your head around these confusing topics; in short, I will take you by the hand and walk you through all of these fundamentals step by step.

What can you expect from this course?

  • The most in depth music theory course online

  • A complete guide for those who are beginners to music

  • All the basics covered, material such as how to read music, how rhythm works, etc.

  • All the fundamentals covered, all through beginner, intermediate, and advanced rudiments of music theory

If you don't know music theory, or if you have tried learning on your own and found it to be super confusing and difficult to understand, then let me reassure you that you have nothing to worry about; follow me, and I will be your humble tour guide into the crazy world of music.

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Shervin House

Top Instructor & YouTuber

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Transcripts

1. Music Theory Course..: Heavy, always aspired to become a musician. Hi, my name is Sherman, and this is my music theory course. As a violent instructor myself, I've seen students struggle with the basics and the fundamentals of music theory. On numerous occasions. Some find the material he using, some find it tough to remember, and some others are just not aware of these concepts at all. Whether you play the piano, the guitar, the violin, or whatever other instrument you play. This course is perfect for you. In fact, the majority of music instructors recommend that their students learn music theory on their own, will enable them to understand the fundamentals of music much better and perform a lot better in their own instruments. As a matter of fact, once you've been music theory, you're not only able to play your own instruments better, well, you also understand how music is constructed, layered, colorized, and formed. Not to mention that if you average act of writing your own song and playing your own song, it all starts with music theory. In this game changing course. I've taken all of these fundamentals and put them all into one comprehensive package, where I teach you the beginner, intermediate, the advanced rudiments of music theory. So you don't have to read a 300 page book. You don't have to take class in college and you can just watch me explain it all to you using visual guides and demonstrations. Throughout the course, you will have many chances to apply what you learn and to reinforce your learning. As I have designed various quizzes and assignments for you guys to enjoy it. And of course, if you're ever confused about any topic and if you ever need any help, understanding what you're learning, always have a direct line to me to ask any questions you have. I'll always respond to every single question asked them within 24 hours. And frankly, I'm always delighted to track your progress and see how you are doing in the course and of course help you the best way I can. I am so confident you will love this course. So my question to you is, what are you waiting for? Music Theory is at the heart of everything music and the time to learn is now. So follow me, sign up for the course, and I will show you how crazy music and get. 2. What We Cover In This Course...: Hello and welcome to the theory course. I'm so excited to have you guys here together. We're going to lump all the music theory that we need to know in order to play our instruments or learn more about music or whatever journey you want to pursue in the music world. Music theory is definitely the foundation of every journey, right? Whether you want to be a musician or just, you want to play your instrument, or whatever you wanna do. And if you'll live music. And in this course we covered the basic, the intermediate, and the advanced rudiments. So all the stuff that you need to know, the foundational material are covered here. Furthermore, we start from the very basics to make sure that everyone is able to use this course. So if you don't know how to read music, if you don't know the first thing about music sheets, if you don't know anything about music theory, well, do not worry because we cover all of that here. And we have actually labeled all the basic material with reading music. So that if you are 11 more of an advanced students, let's say you've been playing your instrument for a long time. You know exactly how to read music, or you at least know the very basics of music theory. Well, then you have the option to skip ahead to the point where we get into the meat and potatoes of the course. So if you are one of those people who already knows how to read music and all of that. Well then you can skip ahead until we get to the scales. So the scale of video as well, we get into the nitty-gritty of what we cover in this course as far as music theory is concerned. And we start going and exploring different types of scales. We talk about how we write music, how music is constructed. When we talk about all sorts of things like transposing music, like cadences and even the music. We talk about, the key signatures and how we use skills in producing music, and how we can use scales in order to better play the music that were planned. And a lot more where that comes from. So just and if you want to learn about all of these stuff, we didn't have a lot of great content in here, so I hope you guys enjoy it. So just make sure that if you are someone who already knows how to read music, then you can skip ahead to the point where we have already covered all of that. And if you're someone who hasn't learned how to read music, that makes sure that you watch all of the videos so that you can catch up with everyone else. And when we get into the nitty-gritty and all the real material, then you are able to follow along with us as well. So go ahead, follow your adventure and I'll see you in the next video. 3. [Reading Music] - Staff & Clefs: All right, so as we discussed earlier in the next couple of lessons, we're going to go over how to read music for those who are complete beginners and do not know how to read music. So if you are one of those people who already know how to read music, feel free to just skip ahead to the scales video we talked about scales. So just skip ahead the next couple of videos where we're just talking about how to read music in depth. But if you don't know how to read music, please pay attention because these are obviously very important and they are building blocks for everything that we teach going forward. So let's just jump right into it. We're going to start with staff and cleft. So these five lines that you see right here, that's what we call a staff. Okay? So basically these just five parallel lines where our nodes are placed either on the lines or between the lines. And we'll talk about how you exactly do that in a second, but that's basically what a staff is, okay? And a clef is this thing at the beginning. This is a treble clef. This is a specific cloth. And the cleft basically tells us what arrangement of notes we can expect on the staff. So basically, when we see a treble clef, that means that a note here and the staff is specific note for example, this is an a right. Now if you had a different clef over here, this would not be a OK, it will be something else. So let's say we had a bass clef at the beginning. This would not be a anymore. Instead, it would be C. Okay, so basically what I'm trying to get across is that this clef at the beginning is basically what we use to understand what the notes on the staff is, okay? Because these five parallel lines are always going to be five parallel lines, okay? We're not going to have more sarcomeres. You have two stuffs together and we'll talk about how we use that in a future video when it comes to the piano scores. But for a lot of instruments is just the one staff that we use. And basically we want to be able to cover a different range of notes because some instruments are high pitched instruments, some interesting points are low-pitched instruments. And it's really hard to cover all of those nodes with just these five lines, right? So the clef is what we use to identify what these five lines mean. Okay, so think of these five lines basically as a notebook or an empty board. And then this cliff tells us what everything on this board means. Okay, so think of it that way. Now let's jump into what the different clefs are that we need to go. All right, so here I've broken down basically the three main clefs that we need to know. There are some other ones, but these are the main ones. Okay, so if you know these, you are good to go. Basically, this is the treble clef that we just found out about. And basically going forward, we're mostly going to use the treble clef because most instruments use the treble clef, that there are a lot of instruments are used the B-A-S-S bass clef. Not so many, they use the alto clef, but there are some, I guess. But basically the vast majority use the treble clef, Okay, so that is the most important to know. And if you play an instrument, most of you probably play an instrument that deals with treble clef. If you play piano, you have treble clef and the bass clef. And again, we'll talk about that in a future video, how that works. But for all the other instruments you usually have just one cleft that you deal with. Sometimes you might see a second one, but mostly it's one at a time. And since the treble clef is the most common, we're just going to be using that going forward. But before we go forward, I just want to make sure that if you are someone who plays an instrument with, deals with the bass clef or the alto clef. You know what's going on with those as well. So basically here, we've broken it all down for you. So you can just see each note and what it correlates to. Now let me just quickly run through these numbers. These numbers don't really mean that much. They're just used to identify which C we're talking about. So let's say we're playing the note C, right? There are different pitches at which we can play that. And what I mean by that is basically you can see, and you can bring that a lower pitch C, right? And you can go higher but seeing, right? So there's many different pitches that you can play the same note as, as, as we only have seven nodes, which are C, D, E, F, G, a, B. What you see is that once we route is not what do we do. We have kind of a cyclical nature to music. We're after the seven notes. We kind of get the same note repeated again, but this time at a higher octave. And an octave basically just means a higher pitch. Know that hierarchy means same note at the higher pitch. All right? And the lower octave is the opposite. So for example, C4 is a lower octave of c5. Okay, so it's the same note, but at a lower pitch and the octave is basically all you're used to refer to these, these gaps between these nodes. As you see, that's eight notes, 12345678. And Okta is basically, basically, basically octa means eight. So that's where octave comes from. Now, as you can see here, the lowest note that we have on the bass clef is C2. And the highest note that we have represented here, C6. Now this doesn't mean that there aren't any higher or lower notes. Obviously there are lower nodes and there are many higher noticed than this. But this is what we need to know for right now, at least. 4. [Reading Music] - Length of Notes: All right, so in this lesson we're going to learn how long each node is supposed to last. So in the previous lesson, we learned what each node is. So for example, this right here, we know it's a. This right here is D, and so on and so forth, right? But you got to also know that every single note has another component, which is basically its rhythm, right? So if you have C, doesn't see node right here, we know that's a C because of its position. But we also know that that is supposed to be one beat long. And I'll explain what that means is just in just 1 second. But I just want to point out that that's basically there are two pieces of information that we get from each single note. We don't just get the information of what noted is what we also get the information of how long it's supposed to last. Now, what is a beat? Let's just start with that. Let's start with the basics. What is a beat? So basically, wherever you're listening to any song, sometimes you might find yourself tapping your feet to that song or clapping along with that song. That, that duration of each of your clubs or tops of your feet is what we call a beat. So that's what a book definition for it, but that's the best way for most beginners to conceptualize what a beatings, right? So it's basically every time you tap your feet to the music, or every time you clap along with the music that has one beat. So it's the smallest measure, smallest measure of time in each song. Right? Now. The way we use b is two. It's basically like a meter stick. So we have something to compare every single note to it. So let's say we have a song here where our firstNode is supposed to last twice, as long as the second note and half as long as the third note. What we can do is we can say, okay, so we'll just put the first one as one beat. The second one, which was supposed to be half as long. We'll just make that half a beat. And then the third one, which is supposed to be double the length, will make that two beats. So basically that's what we use, the beat 4. It's basically our smallest measure that we can use in order to have something to compare the notes to each other as far as how long they are. And now knowing that, let's get right into how we actually do that. So there are different types of there are different ways of writing out. So when you're writing a, if you just write it the standard way, which is a black note, it only lasts one beat. That's what the information that we're getting from that. Now. If you write white note, basically the same exact formation. It's just that instead, instead of having it filled out circle, we have an empty circle. That means it's tweets. If we get this thing right here, so it's a white circle. But it has no stem, right? So there is no stem here. There's nothing here. We don't have this thing basically is what I'm trying to say. Well, we don't have a stem. That means it lasts four beats. So these are the most important ones to know. Now, what if we want to go below on beat 1? If we want to play something that is half as long as this, this thing right here, right? So what we can do is we can add tails to the stem. So here's the note. Here's the stem, and this is what we call a tail. All right, So something that we add onto this up. So this is the stem when he showed up. At one time. That's the stem. We can add this thing called a tail. And what that does is it tells us, for every tale that you see, have the length of the nodes, right? So if you see one tail right here, so we have one tail right here, right? That means that take the one beat and then divide by 2. And you get half a beat. Right? Now if we had two tails right here, so if we had this thing, but we had a second tail right there. And so we have two tails over here. What does that mean? That means take this. Take this, which was, which would have been one meter if we didn't have a tail. And divide it by the two tails. So instead of dividing by two, we divide it by 4. So we get 1 fourth the beat. Alphago your fault, you're following along with the math. It's nothing confusing, but that's basically how it goes. So every time we add a tail, we go, we have the length of the note. So if we have three tails, that is eight feet, if we have four tails, that is a 16th of a beat, and so on and so forth. Right? Now. That's how the bits work. However, that's not how we refer to the notes. Okay, So I just wanted you to have a concept of how the beat is supposed to go. And of course, the, this black one right here is what represents one beat. However, that's how we refer to them, right? So it's very important to know that the beat is not the same as this, as the name of these notes. Okay, So we go the other way round. So let's start from the big, biggest one in naming them. These were all, all the ones that we learned and now as so on and so forth, right? So that was four beats. That was two beats. One beats. Have a beat and a quarter of a beat right? Now, in naming them, we don't name them according to their beats. We just name them according to their relation to the biggest note that we have, which is this one. Right? Now, this note is what we call a whole notes or whole-tone. One, hold on for a whole tone is the longest note that we have, and that is four beats, right? The next one? Well, this one is two beats, which is half of the original one that we have. So we call that half tone, or a half, a half note, either one. Now this next one is a quarter of our original, original one. So this one is going to be a quarter beat, or sorry, a quarter note. Again, it's really important to not give his, I just confused myself. It's very important to not confuse the beat with the note. Okay, these two names are very different. This is referring to how long the note last. This is referring to how big the note is compared to our biggest. Okay. I hope that makes sense. Now we keep this going. So in naming them, and this is the name of these nodes. These are the beat value of these notes. This next one right here is going to be again, that's half of the one beat, one that we have over here. And of course the quarter note was a quarter of this. So this one is going to be an eighth note. And of course this is 16th notes and so on and so forth. Okay? So again, I know that can be really confusing because we refer to this guy has a 16th note, but this guy is a quarter of a beat along. Alright, so the name is 16th notes, which means it's a quarter of a beat. And that can be kinda confusing because I'm not really sure why the naming is different than the beats. It would have just made more sense to just refer to them as the same as their bead value. But that's just not how we do it. So you just have to get used to it. So anytime we refer to a 16th note, that's where the nodes that lasts for a quarter of a beat. All right, and then one last thing before we move on actually is I want to introduce the concept of a dot. So if we have a dot right next to anode, alright, so let's say this one right here. What this dot is doing is it's creating a different length for us. So basically, if you notice right here, we have a one beat note. We have a two beat note, but we don't have a three-beat node, right? So where's this 3-bit? How do we represent that? Or how do we represent, let's say, right in the middle, this 70.75 V sub, right? Well, the way you can do it is with the dot. So every time you have the dot, that means take whatever value this has, add half of it to it to itself. So add half. So what does that mean? So for example, this right here, this thing would have been one beat if we didn't have the dot, but we have the dot. So that means we have to add a half of its value to itself. Half of one. One beat is just half, right? So that's one plus. We have 1.5 B. So this guy right here is a 1.5 beat note. Let me clear this up a little bit so we can write a little bit more. Well, other sky. Now, this guy, as we have the four, it was two weeks long. This is a little unclear. Let me just clear that up for you. There we go. So this was to be Zhong because it's a white one with a stem. So two beats. And we have the dot over here. So plus half of its value, which is two, which is two plus one equals three. So it's three beats long. This guy is 3 beats long. And same thing with all the other ones. So if we add, if we add a dot to the half people on, we get 0.75. If we add the dots to this guy, we get 0.25 plus 0.125, whatever that is, and so on and so forth. So every time we add a dot, we basically add half of its own value back onto itself. And that's all you need to know about how rhythms work. I know some of this might be a little confusing, so there's going to be a lot of practice that I will be including following this lecture. So I, I definitely recommend you take the time and do all of them, because this kinda looks confusing and it does get even more confusing as we go on. So it's very important that we understand exactly what's going on here from the very beginning. And if you just spend a little bit at a time, it actually clears it up quite a bit. And after a while you just kind of get used to how the structure works. It's not really as confusing as it might look at. First sight is how I would put it. So definitely do the exercises. And we're going to have some discussions about how rhythms work in general. But in order to do that, we first need to make sure we know exactly what's going on here with all these beat values. Okay? So take the time, do the exercises, and I will see you in the next lecture. 5. [Reading Music] - Time Stamps: All right, So in the previous lessons, we learned how to read notes. So now anytime we see a note, we know exactly what it is. So we know this is a, and we also know how long it lasts. So this is one beat shrines a quarter note. And the last one beat lump. All right, so the next thing that we're going to move on and learn is how to read the key signature. So we already talked about this, right? This, this thing right here. Let me just erase this. This thing right here is what we call the treble clef. And on the treble clef, we know how to read the notes and what each node means. But there are some other stuff that happens in this area too. So it's not just a troubled cough that we see at the beginning of every line. We're also going to see some other stuff. So let's just start with the key signature. But before we get into that, let's start with some basics. So if you know what sharps and flats are, you can probably skip forward a little bit, but if you've never seen these symbols before or you don't know what they mean. Basically, anytime we haven't note, let's say, let's go with a, right? This is a. The next note, which is B. This is a whole tone separated. All right, So there is basically entire tone difference. As we go from a to B, there is one whole tone difference, right? So we go up entire tone from this sound to get this set. Okay? Now, the thing is, there is something right there in the middle. That's what we call a halftone. So this sound right there in the middle is what we can refer to as either a sharp or B flat. And it's more commonly referred to as B flat fee rarely see a sharp. And we'll talk about why that is in a second. But for now, let's just focus on what is exactly happening here. So basically a sharp means. Let's write this down here. A sharp means go up a half tone. And the flat means go down a halftone, right? So B flat is pretty much the same as B. That has gone down. The halftone, which we can also say is the same as between a and b. Right? So right down the middle. So if you want to write every single sound that we can produce here, between a and B, we have a, we have B flat, E flat, and then B. Alright, so that's every single sound that we have here. B-flat, and then we have v. And for some instances we use sharpest. That's, for example, let's say we want to see what is between c and d, right? So between these two, we have C-sharp right here. And so I get C-sharp means C gone higher. And half tone, which is the same as saying, the sound between C and D. Right? Now there is an order to sharps and flats, and that is the reason why sometimes we refer to this middle point as a flat, as sometimes referred to it as a sharp. For example, we have between C and D, we referred to a C sharp, between a and B, refer to it as B flat. A sort of referring to it as a sharp. And the reason for that is because they have a specific order that they go into. So I'll just go through the order. So the order of the sharps is F, C, G, D, a, E, B. Alright? Now, this might look a little confusing. It might be like wait, where is order coming from? So to better help you understand this, let's take a look at the notes themselves. So we have C, D, E, F, G, a, B. These are the notes, right? Well, the way it works is C, D, G, sorry, F, C, G, D, a, E, B. That's how it works. Basically, the order of sharps starts from the middle, the middle note, and the first one, and the next one, the next one. Now the next one, the next one. That's the order of the sharps. Order of the flats is the exact opposite. So if you go the other way, it's the order of the flats. B, E, a, D, G, C, F. Now I understand this might be a little confusing. You're probably wondering, what do you mean by order of the sharps and order of the flats? Well, this is basically a ranking system that we use. And this basically means how whether this, each of these nodes for leans more towards a short or leans more towards a flat. So if it leans more towards a flat, we start with from that side. So for example, if you want to find, what do we have between a and B? Well, B is in the first position as far as flatter concerned, but it's in the last position as far as sharps or so, so it has to be B flat, if that makes sense. Now, let's take a look at C, for example, which we have down here. C is in the second position here. Alright? Whereas on the flats It's one read before the end, so it's the penultimate position over here. Which means that c, between c and d, we have C-sharp out. That makes sense. Also this disorder used for something else as well. And that is for the scales. So the scales always have a specific key signature. And these key signatures usually follow these orders, or will they always follow these orders? I should add. Now, what do we mean by that? So let's say we're playing a song, I'll discuss are from very basic and then we'll get complicated as things go on. So don't worry, we'll get to the complicated stuff later on. Is that you've got all that definition down. I'm just going to clear it off. So we have room to work with. Perfect. Alright, let's say we're playing this up, right? We have whatever, right? And we notice as we're playing the song, right? Or as we write it in the song, if you will. Now we want all of our Fs to be sharp, for example, when F sharp here. So we could identify it by just putting a sharp symbol right beside it. This, then we have that. This again. All right, so instead of doing that, we could just take all of these out. Let's put a sharp at the very beginning right next to the treble clef. And that is what we referred to as the key signature. So the key signature is basically all the stuff that we have upfront that says, okay, for the entire song, we want, for example, the f to be sharp. End that when we put it at the beginning over here. That means that it is going to be sharp for the entire song, right? Until we get to a point where let's say, we say, Okay, from this point on, we don't wanna do that, right? And then there is nothing here, for example. Then from that point on, you don't have to do it. Or basically the F is no longer a sharpen. It's only natural. And it's actually, this is a good time to learn another symbol. So this was sharp, this was flat. This symbol is natural. And natural basically means it's not sharp or flat, right? It's just, it's just a normal note. Pretty simple. So the two ways that we've changed this as for example, we say it's always sharp, the f is always sharp. It's been identified the very beginning of the song. However, let's say right over here, I want to have an F-Natural, right? So in order to do that, we just put an actual cyanide next to it. Okay. And then all the other f's are sharp. It's just that this one that we have identified as a natural is natural. Okay, so that's one way to do it. Another way is to just at some point in the song, just save, okay, We no longer one df to be shown. Now we want the B2B flat from this point on, right? Now at this point on, we don't have an F sharp anymore, so no more F-sharp. Which means from this point onwards, anytime you have an F, it's an actual. Now if you want to have another sharp, you can just put a sharp sign next. I so that's I hope it does. All right. So this is a little bit confusing. I can totally understand that, but it shouldn't be that bad. It's just what we need to do is memorize the order of the sharps and flats. And again, we'll delve more into what exactly these things do later on. But for now, let's just learn the order. And again, if you ever forget, you can just write the notes down. Let's go through this one more time. Trying to write the notes down. And you just go from for the order of the sharps, you go from the middle. First next one, next one, next one, next one, next one. And for the flats you do the opposite. You go for the last one. The one before the middle, 11 before 1241, before, one before, one before. Okay? And that's how we find the order of the sharps and flats. And that is exclusively the wrong order that they're allowed to be used at the beginning of the song. So anytime we have is a key signature, Let's say we have some stuff over here, right? They can only be used in these orders. Okay, So for example, what do I mean by that? So we cannot have, let's say, the C-sharp at the beginning of a key signature. The reason for that is because if C needs to be sharp for the entire song, then f has also, does also have to be sharp for the entire song, right? That's how it works with the scales and everything. Because if C is sharp, then it just does not make sense. If f is not sharp, it's just sequentially, the notes would not work out. And again, I understand that's a little complicated and you're probably wondering why that is. Again, this we have to delve into that, allow more. So I just suggest not to worry about it for now. Just learn that that is how it works. Okay? So anytime we want to have sea and keep in mind, this is not to say you can't just have a random C in the middle of a song be shot. That's okay. But when we want to put it at the beginning of the song as a key signature that is applied throughout the song. It has to becoming in this order, because otherwise the majority of sound is going to sound awkward. And basing, those are the principles of the music and a lot of theory goes behind that. That is very complicated. So, which is why I don't want to delve into too much. So I just want you to understand the very basics of it, okay, So this is exclusively the order that they can happen. Because otherwise the sequences of the nodes and all the tones and half-tones, they just don't add up to a pleasant sound basically. So let's say we want to have a key signature that has G as a sharp, then we need to include all of that. So we need to include F, C, and G. Okay? If you want to have G, we have to have all of it before as well. And the same goes for flat. So if we want to have, let's say, a key signature that has a as a flattened there. And we have to have all of this, all of these, we have B, E, and we have a. And as you notice, that's the order it goes through just the same way where we said, Look, when you go to the notes, we go middle, boom, boom, boom, boom, boom, boom. And under that order, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7. That's how we represent the two. So let's say if you want to have all the sharps here, let's say we have a song that has all seven notes that starts the order we go to kinda looks similar to this. If you look right here, it goes F, c e, d, a. For flats, B, E, a, D, G, C, and F. So again, it kinda looks similar. Right leg goes and middle, and middle and lower, right? You can kinda see it visually. Right? So that's pretty much all you need to know about. The key signature. Again, I know it's not the easiest stuff, but it shouldn't be that bad. It should be pretty simple If you don't worry too much about how exactly this works and why exactly this ordering is happening. It's pretty simple stuff and you have to worry about any of that. You can just memorize the ordering. So I highly recommend you memorize this. Let me just write it for you one more time, a little bit more clear. The order of the sharps are F, C, G, D, a, E, B. And the order of the flats is the opposite. B, E, a, D, G, C, F. 6. [Reading Music] - Other Elements: All right. Now it's time to talk about the timestamps. So other than the key signature radio, we have something else at the very beginning and that is the timestamps and we'll, we're going to talk about that in a second. But first, let's talk about this. So when we see music, we usually have something like this. So we have, let's say some notes here. We have this. And by the way, this is also something that I wanted to mention to you. So anytime you have a note that is located on the third or line or higher, the stem is always downwards. But if the note is below the third line, this line right here, if it's below that, then the state has to be upwards. Okay, just so it doesn't look too messy. But that's beside the point. Let's go back into what we're talking about. So let's say we have this and then we usually see something like this over here, kind of like a divider. And then we have some other notes. Say that. And this, and I have another divider, right? So what does this divider thing? So this divider is basically showing us what we call a measure. Now what does it measure? A measure is basically a grouping of notes that identifies how the rhythm of the song is supposed to be sequenced, right? So it's basically the smallest sequence of nodes that you can see, a form of repetition of the song. Now, I know that sounds a little vague. That's because it is a little vague. Different people use measures differently. But as, as you play some songs, you'll, you'll kinda start to pick up on what exactly we mean by these sequences that we call measures basically. And another good thing about measure is that it's a very good way to communicate which part of song we're talking about. So for example, this is going to be the first measure, is going to be the second one. Let's say we have some other nodes here. And that's going to be the third measure. And what usually composers do is they always put the name of the first measure of each line at the beginning of the class. So because we have 123 measures here, we're going to put a small little number 4 up top. And this is always in every piece of music. And it's used to communicate exactly which part of music we're talking about. I guess that's another positive of matter. So let's say we have some other stuff here. And then blah, blah, blah, blah, blah, blah. All right. There we're going to have a seven up top, right, because we had 123456 and this will be R7. Alright? So that's what measures we use right now. What is the time signature? A time signature. Well, if you take a look and as we talked about, oxidase it, What's that? The measure is basically a sequence of nodes, right? And in order for it to be repeated, it has to be the same length. It can't be a different length every time, right? So basically as you can see here, we have four quarter notes. Quarter notes. And as we discussed earlier, each quarter note is one beat, right? So we basically have four beats in each of our measures and the same applies over here. Again, four beats. Again, we have four beats. So what that tells us is that this is a 44. All right, So with them. And 404 means that we're breaking down our, our measures four bits at a time, right? So the top, the top number here tells us how many beats there are in each measure. And the bottom number tells us how we are dividing our whole note. All right, so let's talk a little bit more specifically about what that means. Before we talk exactly what would that mean? Let's also see another example. So this is a different one. And as you can see, we have three beats in each of these. Now, I want you to try and guess what is going to be our timestep over here. You can pause the video if you want to guess. All right, so guest 34, you are correct because again, the top number is the number of beats. And the bottom number is this weird number that we don't really know what it means, but it basically is the whole notes divider. Right? So we'll talk about that a little bit. But for now, I hope you understand what exactly is happening. So anytime we see 34, that basically tells us each measure is going to have three beats in it, which is the same as saying, you know, we have three quarter notes in each measure. Now, that doesn't necessarily mean that it has to be three quarter notes. It just means that it has to be three beats in total. So it could be something like this. Alright, that is still three beats because it's a half beat over here. And the other half beats a two beat that adds up to three. Okay, so that's totally fine too. Now let's talk about the bottom number a little bit. So the bottom number is basically saying how we're dividing a whole tone. So if you remember, if you remember, we had this thing, which was the whole tone. And we divided that into four. And that was four beats, if you remember. Divide that into four quarter notes for each of them or one beat. All right? So basically our one-bit is determined by taking that biggest note that we have and breaking it down to four. Right? Now, there are some times when that's not what we're gonna do. Sometimes we're gonna take that big note and break it down to two instead. What do I mean by that? So instead of making four quarter notes and have that BS1 beat, sometimes what happens and this is not as common, so you'll have to worry about it too much. I'm just explaining it to you so you understand what are the different implications of this? Sometimes we're going to break this down into two. So we're going to have something like this. It's actually come down here. Let's bring it over here. We can have these VR1 beat. So generally does not the case. Generally the white ones are always a two beat node and they're all always a half-note. But sometimes we want our halftone to be our smallest speed. And in those cases, we put a two at the bottom, right? So for example, that's what we call cut time. A cut time as a 22. Basically means that each of these whites is considered one beat. Again, this is an exception to the rule. This is not going to always be the case. I'm just showing you a different application, right? So anytime you see a four at the bottom, what that basically is telling you is that each of these is one beat. And the 34 tells you you have three beats per measure. Alright? So it's not too important that we understand what the bottom number mean because most of the time, at least for now, it's going to be four. Okay. And it's always going to be, well, we have sometimes the future, we're going to see stuff like, let's say something like that or maybe a cut time. But for the most part it's going to be for everybody. So you'll have to worry about that too much. Now let's talk a little bit about some symbols that you might see instead of the timestamps. So remember how we talked about 44 basically means four beats per measure. Another way to represent 44 is this symbol right here. This also means 44. Okay, So basically if at the beginning of the song you see this, that is basically telling you we have a key signature that has an F sharp, but also we have a 44. Okay? So I know this might be a little confusing, but that's what I remember. We were talking about that 22, which is called a type. The symbol for that one is something similar. It's like that. So it's basically a cut for four. So instead of a 44, 44 that's been sliced into two to make 22. Okay. But again, you don't want to worry about that too much. You're not going to see 22 until much later on in your career. But for now, let's just focus on the 443 for that, those are probably the most common timestamps that you'll see for the foreseeable future. So just know what these mean. For four means. Four beats per measure. And three for three beats per measure. 7. What Are Scales? - Music Theory: In this video, we're gonna talk about scales. Now. The scale is a sequence of notes that starts on a specific note and keeps going until we get to the same note at a higher register. Now, the note that we start off, which is going to be our permanent origin, is what we call a tonic. All right? And in each scale, we start on a specific note which we call the tonic. We go all the way up until we get to that same note at a higher register. And then once we get there, we come back all the way down to the original note. Now the pattern of which we go up and in comes out, meaning which nodes we play in between and which nodes are included in the sequence and which are not is different depending on watched, which type of scale we're plank, right? So let's say if I'm playing a major scale, the pattern is a specific way. If appoint a minor scale, the pattern is a little bit different, right? So depending on what type of skill it is, the pattern is different, depending on what our tonic is. Our point of origin is different. And that by combining these two, we create different scales. So for example, if we have a C major scale, that means that we have a scale which the sequence of notes that starts on C. Because as we just said, C major means our tonic is C, source of C. And the pattern is the pattern of a major scale. Now we're going to talk about what the patterns and the different ways different scales work are. We're going to talk about all of that in depth in the upcoming videos. But for now we're just going to break down so we can have an understanding of what scales are and how they operate in general, right? So that's basically how they operate. They have a tonic and they have a pattern. And depending on those, we have different types of scales that start from different places, go up to that same notes in the high register and in-between, we implement that pattern to determine which notes we play in between and which nodes we do not play in between. All right, so I'm hoping that all makes sense so far. Furthermore, I just want to add that we do have a lot of different skills. But the main two scales that you're going to encounter a lot and more often than any other scale and music are the major and the minor scale, right? Hey, I want to talk about what these are in a second, but just know that the major and the minor scale are the main ones. Now there are obviously a lot of different scales. There was a chromatic scale, there's a blue scale, which is the foundation of jazz. There is the whole tone scale. There is a lot of different ones, right? And we're going to cover all the important ones so that you know exactly what each of them are, depending on what you wanted to do with your music. And you've gotta be able to have all the knowledge they need to K4, alright, so all the important stuff are covered in the score so you have absolutely nothing to worry about. All right, so that's what a scale is. And I just wanted to give you an introduction so you are aware of what we're talking about when we go and take a deep dive into each of these scales, talking about their patterns, talks about the way their work. And you just kinda are able to follow along knowing what we're talking about. So that's what skills are. Now, let's go ahead and move on to the next video. 8. Semitones, Whole-Tones, & Accidentals - Music Theory: Alright, in this video we're gonna talk about all towns, semitones and accidentals. Alright, so let's start first with the whole time the semitone. Now, a semitone is the smallest division and the smallest gap that we can have between two different tones, right? A whole tone is the second smallest. And the whole town is obviously double the size of a semitone, because the semitone is basically kind of like a half difference between two different nodes. Whereas a whole tone, as the name suggests, it's like a one full stop between two different nodes, right? So for example, let's say we have the C note, see, the notes D is a whole tone apart from C. What that means is that d is two semitones away from C. Alright? So you might be wondering, well, I don't understand what's going on here. Why is a two semitones away? Like if the semitone is the smallest margin that we haven't music. Well, seeing the, there are two nodes right next to each other. It shouldn't be, shouldn't that be the smallest margin? Well, it turns out there is something right in there between C and D, and that is what we call either a C or a D flat. Now, sharps and flats are basically an indication of being a semitone above or a semitone below a specific note. For example, if we have C-sharp, what that means is that we are a semitone above C, but we're still a semitone before D, If that makes sense, right? So many notes, not every single one I will get out, but then a second, but many of the notes between the two of them, there is a whole tone gap, which means that there is something right there in between that if you want to play when he to also identify as something else. And the way we do that is by using the sharps and flats. Alright, so anyhow we have a sharp, we're going a half step above our note. And anytime you have a flat, we're going to half-step below our notes. So for example, B-flat. B-flat means, is that we're actually not quite at B. We're somewhere between a and B, were halfway between a and B, right? Because a is the node prior to be, right? And well, once we have B flat, that means go a half step before that specific node, which is B in this case, right? So hopefully this makes sense. That's how we use sharps and flats. Now, let's go on the paper so I can show you exactly how this works. And I'm also going to use some piano keyboards to drive it home even further. So let's go on the paper so I can explain it to you a little bit easier. All right. So as we were just discussing, usually between two notes, we have something else in between. So let's just take a look at C over here, D over here. Alright? So we have a C-natural, we have a D natural. Now, between these two, There's actually another node right in the middle. We call C-sharp. Now we can write C-sharp just like that. This is the sign for sharp, which means add. Half to the note. So at a semitone to the note, and this is flat, which means subtract half or a semitone from the node. Right? So another way we could write C-sharp is D flat. So just so we're clear, D flat and C sharp are the same thing. Okay? They're referred to going half a step above C are coming half a step below D. Okay. So either way is correct, they're both the same thing and they're right in the middle between C and D. All right, now, let's go on piano keys so I can show this to you a little bit better. So first of all, let's learn how we can read music on piano keys and how piano keys actually worked, because we're going to be using piano keys to visually show what's going on a lot throughout this course because it's just really easy to see all the intervals and all the differences between the notes. How far apart notes are? Which notes are a whole tone apart? Which notes are semitone apart? And where we have accidentals, Right? So piano keys are actually a very good visual for that. So let's learn how piano keys work right now. And as you can see, there are a couple of these black bars. Now what the black bars are? These are accidentals. And all the white keys that you see, these are natural notes. Right? So all the white keys are the natural ones. All the black keys are the accidentals. Now, the way we can find out which node is, which is by looking at how these bars are organized. So as you can see, we have a group of two, two bars over here. And we have a group of three bars over here, right? And this pattern is repeated over and over again, right? Now. Over here, where we have two bars, denote prior to that first bar. So this one right here, not prior to those set of two bars is C. Okay? This happens every time, every time you see two bars. This node prior to it is C. Okay? So this is a scene. This is a C at a higher hair bitch, right? It's the next octave basically. And this just works for four. All right? Anytime you see two bars, you immediately know that out the node before that is a C. Right? Now, as we just discovered, all of these white keys or the natural notes. So it goes C, D, E, F, G, a, B, and C. One more time. All right. So hopefully you're following me just fine so far. Now, we also just mentioned that all the black keys are the accidentals. And as you can see, we have C over here, we have D over here. And between them we have this black bar, which indicates a semitone above C and a semitone below D. So this would be just our C, C-sharp, basically. Or D flat. Either one is correct. All right, let's take a look at the next one. We have D and we have E. So the black bar in there would indicate D-sharp, which is the same as E flat. All right, now, here's something really interesting over here. So between e and f, as you can see, there's no bar in here. So what's going on here? Well, as I mentioned, not every single note is a whole tone apart from the one beforehand. There are two exceptions. E and F are actually only a semitone apart. Now, I know that sounds weird, but that's just the way it is. E and F are a semitone apart. They are not a whole ton of port, and as a result, there is no accidental between them, right? So if you produce E sharp and you will just end up getting the natural f. If you produce F flat, if you will, you will end up just getting a natural e, right? So there's really no E sharp or a flat. There's no accidental on the mill, right? So just be aware of that. And obviously you can see this very visually here on the piano keys. And the other exception is between B and C. Again, there is no accidental between them. B and C are also only a semitone apart. And these are the only two instances where two nodes, two adjacent nodes are only a semitone apart. All the other notes are a whole ton of Part C to D, D to E whole-tone, F to G, G to a whole-tone, a to b. Hold on. And you can see that it's a whole tone because there's an accidental between these two nodes, right? But these two are the only exceptions. E and F, and B and C, right? And as you can see, this gets repeated again. We have E and F over here one more time. We have b here. As you can see, there is no accidental here. So the C After that would not have, would just be a semitone apart, basically is what I'm saying. And same thing over here. We don't have an accidental right before this C, right? So hopefully you can see the differences. And you can see that sometimes we are only a semitone apart. Our nodes are only semitone apart and there's no accidental in between them. Alright? Hopefully this all makes sense so far. And again, at anytime that we do have an accidental, you either denoted by saying the sharp of the previous node. So for example, over here, we can say the sharp E, F, F sharp, or the flat version of the next note, which would be G flat, right? So hopefully this all makes sense. If you have any questions, feel free to ask me because it's really important that we understand this fully right now. And as this will be the building block for everything and we're going to learn from here forward. All right, so if there's any confusion whatsoever, feel free to reach out and ask for clarification. But if you feel like you have a good understanding, then feel free to move on to the next videos as we're going to use all the stuff that we just learned together to basically take a deep dive into how music works, how it's constructed, and how we basically go about producing all these amazing songs that we do create together. So hopefully this all makes sense so far, and I'll see you in the next video. 9. Major Scales - Music Theory: Alright, in this video we're going to go over the major scales. Now, as we discussed earlier, there are two main types of scales, the major and the minor. And I'll spit in this video, we're going to cover the major. So basically the major is a scale where we started a specific note. Let's say we start on C. We go until we get to that specific node, again at a hierarchy. And in-between would play every single note. We play it according to this pattern. Okay? So the pattern that we go with is whole-tone, whole tone, semitone. Hold on, hold on, hold tone semitone. Okay, and we're going to discuss exactly what that means in a second. But let's start with a scale that is easy to remember. That's the C major scale. And the reason for that is because in the C major scale, we play every single note that doesn't have an accidental. And we don't play any of the nodes that have an accidental. So basically in the C major scale, the key signature is all natural, right? There is no accidentals. At the key signature. There are no sharps and no flats, okay? Which basically means for the C major replay, C-natural, B-natural, B-natural, F natural, G-natural, a natural, B-natural, C-natural. And then we come back down, right? At least if we're playing just one OK there we could play multiple octaves to, we could just keep going until, let's say you were playing two octaves, we can keep playing, but every single note until we get to the next C and then come back down. That's possible too. But just for the sake of simplicity, we're just going to stick to a one octave scale for now. Okay? So basically in the C major would play every single note and every single node as a natural. Now remember this is just for the C major. Let's say if we're playing the D major sum, we're going to have some nodes that have accidentals. Okay, so just be aware of that would just specifically talking about the C major for now. And let's see if this pattern actually holds up in the C major. Now, the first distance has to be whole-tone from C to D. We have a whole tone because that's a half right there, and that's another half right here. So we have an entire whole time. Okay. The second one needs to also be whole-tone. Again. Yep. D to D-sharp, and then the sharp to D. Alright, so that's another whole time. Now the next one has to be a semitone. Right? Now let's see what happens here. Once we go from E to F. Look at here, there is nothing in between. And we talked about this earlier. Between some notes. We don't really have any accidentals because there's only a halftone of distance apart, right? So E and F are only a half torn apart. And as you see right here, the next one has to be a semitone. And that's exactly what we have. We have a semi-tone difference between F and G. We again have a whole tone difference as the pattern indicates, because we have this guy right here between G and a, we have another whole tone. Because we have this guy right here, a and B, we have another whole tone because we have this guy here. But then again, remember the last one is also a semitone, which is exactly what we have because there is no accidental between the a, the B and the C. They only, they only a semitone apart. Now, this pattern applies to every single major scale. The only thing is that for no other major scale, it's going to pan out so nicely that every single note is going to be a natural note, right? So for example, if we were doing a D-major, if we were to keep this pattern going, we're going to end up with a couple of the notes being on these black bars and sort of being on the white keys. Okay, so let's try out the D major and see how that goes. All right, so in the D major, we're going to start on D. We're going to go all the way until we get to the next day and we're gonna come back down. And the pattern that we go with is the same as above, right? So we go a whole tone. So we play E, Then we go another hotel. Now, pay attention here. We cannot play the F natural because a whole tone would bring those to F sharp. So we're going to actually play F sharp right here. That's the next one that we're going to play. The next pattern is a semitone. So we can just come from F sharp to G, played a G. The next one is a whole tone, so you can just play the a. All good here. Next one. Next one is also a whole term. Again, we'll just go and play the B. Now, the next one also needs to be a whole tone, which means we cannot place see because this is only a semitone apart. So what we need to do is we need to go from B all the way to C sharp. And then the last one, that's only semi, so we go from C-sharp to D. And so as you notice here, for the D major, we play D, E, F sharp, and sort of F, G, a, B, C-sharp instead of C and D. So hopefully that makes sense. This is basically the patent for the majors. And we're going to talk about how we figure out which nodes are going to be a sharp without even having to go through the pattern in an upcoming video. But for now, just know that this is how we find the major scale, okay? This is the pattern that gives us the specific sound that we're looking for. And the major scale is a happy skip. We're gonna talk, when we go to the minor scale, we're going to talk a little bit more about the differences between the two. And the best way to identify the major scale versus the minor scale is that the major skip it as a happy sounding scale. Whereas the minor scale is sad sounding scale. And the reason for that is because of this pattern. The way this pattern works is that the notes in relation to each other, they sound happy. Whereas when we talk about the minor in an upcoming video, and we'll go through this specific pattern that a minor scale has. The notes in relation to each other produce a sad sound. And this is basically how we find it. And again, we'll dive deeper into how to find the key signature for scale, which basically means which nodes have accidentals. For example, D major has F and C as the nodes that had accidentals. We're going to talk about that in the future. But for now, just learned that this is the pattern for the major. And basically, the best way to know this pattern is to know that C major has no accidentals, Right? So if you ever need to, so you don't really need to memorize the pattern is what I'm trying to say. If you ever need to figure out what the pattern is, you can just imagine playing C major and look at the patterns, right? So this will be a whole tone, tone, semitone, tone, whole-tone, whole tone, semitone, right? So if you just look at the piano keys and imagine C-Major, you can just see the pattern. And that pattern is the same for every single major scale that we play. Whether we played the E-major, The F-Major, whatever, it's going to be the same. Okay. So hopefully that makes sense. I'll see you in the next video. 10. Minor Scales - Music Theory: All right, Now it's time to learn the minor scale. Now, as we just discussed, the major scale is the happy sounding on, and the minor scale is the sad sounding one. Right? Now the pattern for the minor is a little bit different. It goes, Whoa, semitone, whole-tone, whole tone, semitone, whole-tone, Holton. And again, you don't need to memorize this pattern. I will just discuss how you can best remember this using the piano keyboards, basically. Now let's go over to the keyboards. And we're just going to start with the a minor. Now remember this is a, B, C, D, E, F, G, a. And again, remember, because this is supposed to be C, because it's read before these two, right? We have a set of two and we have a set of three black keys. The note prior to the set of two is a C, okay, and then from the sea we can figure out everything else. All right? The a minor is the one minor scale that has no accidental. So remember how in the majors we had C-Major was the one that had no accidentals and it was all natural. Same thing here. In the minors. We have a minor. All right. So when you start from a, the way the pattern works out is that every single note ends up being unnatural. Let's check it out together. So the first one is supposed to be whole-tone. There we go. Hold on from a to b. X was 3 semi-tone. It's a semitone from B2C because there is no, nothing in between. There is no B-sharp or C flat. Whole tone. It's a whole tone from CTD. Another whole tone, another whole tone from D to E again, because we have the D-sharp E-flat. And then after that we have a semitone, which remember between E and F, We don't have anything in between them. We don't have E sharp or flat or anything like that. So it's only semitone. At last two are both whole tones, as we see right here. That's a whole tone and that's another whole term, right? And again, you can tell if it's all tone by, if there is a black key in the middle, if there is a black key in the middle, that the distance between these two is a whole tone because obviously we're going to have here and a half here. Okay? Hopefully this all makes sense. All right. Now, this is how the pattern works out for a minor. So basically what this means is that anytime you want to remember what the pattern is, all you need to do is distract a minor on the keyboard and just look at all the nodes or the natural notes from a to the next day, right? And from that you can see the pattern just by seeing if there's a black hole in the middle or not. So the first one, the second one was a black key. So the first one has to be whole tone as we see right there. Second one, no black key. So it has to be a semitone and urea, right? So you don't need to memorize the pattern. What you can do is just look at the keyboard and figure out what the pattern is from using. The knowledge that we have, the a minor has no accidentals. Every single notes in the a minor is natural. Right? Now, if you try out the minor on the piano, it sounds sad as we just mentioned, because the minor is the set x1, y1. And that's basically the key difference between the major and the minor. And what you'll notice is that let's say we wanted to play the major. Let's say we want to play C major, right? You wouldn't start from here. And played every node tool there right? Now. And let me put B here as well. All right, now, take a look at this. So this, playing all these notes from C to C would give us a major. Thank all these nodes from eight and makes a would give us a minor. Now what that means is that the minor, if it's, has the same key signature as the major, meaning the same number of accidentals and everything. It has to start three semitones before the major, right? So that's one semitone. That's the second semitone. That's the third semitone. All right, and again, we'll talk about this more in depth in our upcoming video, but just be aware of this when we talk about it in the future, okay, that the a that we started with that has the same key signature as the c, has to be three semitones before to see, right? So basically saying, anytime we play a major scale, in order to preserve that same number of accidentals in a minor key, we have to move down three semitones to see what our starting notice for the minor scale. Again, we'll talk about this in the future. So just be familiar that this is how the minor goes. And that's all we need to know for now about the microscale. 11. Follow Me For More...: All right guys, hopefully you're enjoying the course so far. I just wanted to quickly mention that if you're interested in checking out my other material, you can find my YouTube channel, youtube.com, slash shirts and house, where I have a lot of free videos they can check out. As well as that you can follow me on social media, on Instagram and Twitter at Chevron house. So go ahead and do that and I will see you over there. 12. Reviewing Accidentals & Intro to Key Signatures - Music Theory: All right, So in the previous lessons, we learned how to read notes. So now anytime we see a note, we know exactly what it is. So we know this is a, and we also know how long it lasts. So this is one beat, right? It's a quarter note. And the last one beat lump, right? So the next thing that we're going to move on and learn is how to read the key signature. So we already talked about this, right? This, this thing right here. Let me just erase this. This thing right here is what we call the treble clef. And bass. On the treble clef, we know how to read the notes and what each node means. But there are some other stuff that happens in this area too. So it's not just the trouble cough that we see at the beginning of every line. We're also going to see some other stuff. So let's just start with the key signature. But before we get into that, let's start with some basics. Basically, anytime we have a note, Let's say, let's go with a, right? This is a. The next note, which is B. This is a whole tone separated, right? So there is basically entire tone difference. As we go from a to B. There is something right there in the middle. That's what we call halftone. So this sound right there in the middle is, while we can refer to as either a sharp or B flat, and it's more commonly referred to as B flat. We rarely see a sharp, and we'll talk about why that is in a second. But for now, let's just focus on what is exactly happening here. So basically a sharp means. Let's write this down here. A sharp means go up a half tone, and the flat means go down a half tone. All right, so B flat is pretty much the same as B. That has gone down. The halftime, which you could also say is the same as between a and b. Right? So right down the middle. So if you want to write every single sound that we can produce here, between a and B, we have a, we have B flat, E flat, and then B. Alright, so that's every single sound that we have here. We have B flat and now I have v. And for some instances we use sharpest. That's, for example, let's say we want to see what is between c and d, right? So between these two, we have C-sharp right here. And so again, C-sharp means C gone higher. And half tone. Which is the same as saying, the sound between C and D. Right? Now there's an order to sharps and flats, and that is the reason why sometimes we refer to this middle point as a flat, sometimes referred to it as a sharp. For example, we have between C and D, we refer to as C-Sharp. Between a and B, refer to it as B flat a sort of referring to it as a sharp. And the reason for that is because they have a specific order that they go into. So I'll just go through the order. So the order of the sharps is F, C, G, D, a, E, B. Alright? Now, this might look a little confusing. It might be like Wait, whereas disorder coming from. So to better help you understand this, let's take a look at the notes themselves. So we have C, D, E, F, G, a, B. These are the notes, right? Well, the way it works is C, D, G, sorry, F, C, G, D, a, E, B. That's how it works. Basically, the order of sharps starts with the middle, the middle note, and the first node, and the next one, the next one. Now the next one, the next one. That's the order of the sharps. The order of the flats is the exact opposite. So if you go the other way, it's the order of the flats. B, E, a, D, G, C, F. Now I understand this might be a little confusing. You're probably wondering, what do you mean by order of the sharps and flats? Well, this is basically a ranking system that we use. And this basically means how, whether this, each of these notes leans more towards the short or leans more towards a flat. So if it leans more towards a flat, we start with from that side. So for example, if you want to find, what do we have between a and B? Well, B is in the first position as far as flats are concerned, but it's in the last position as far as shops or so, so it has to be B flat, if that makes sense. Now, let's take a look at C, for example, which we have down here. C is in the second position here, alright? Whereas on the flats, It's one Right before the n, So it's the penultimate position over here. Which means that c, between c and d, we have C-sharp out. That makes sense. Also this, this order used for something else as well. And that is for the scales. So the scales always have a specific key signature. And these key signatures usually follow these orders, or they always follow these orders, I should add. Now, what do we mean by that? So let's say we're playing a song I will discuss are from very basic and then we'll get complicated. As things go on. So don't worry, we'll get to the complicated stuff later on. Sorry, stats to do. You got all that definition down. I'm just going to clear it off. So we have room to work with. Perfect. Alright. Let's say we're playing it, stopping, right? We have whatever, right? And we notice as we're playing the song, right? Whereas we write it in the song, if you will. We want all of our Fs to be sharp. For example, write an F sharp here so we could identify it by just putting a sharp symbol right beside it. This, then we have that. This again. All right, so instead of doing that, we could just take all of these out. Just put a sharp at the very beginning right next to the treble clef. And that is what we referred to as the key signature. So the key signature is basically all the stuff that we have up front that says, okay, for the entire song, we want, for example, the f to be sharp. End that when we put it at the beginning over here. That means that it is going to be sharp for the entire song, right? Until we get to a point where let's say, we say, Okay, from this point on, we don't wanna do that, right? And then there's nothing here, for example. Then from that point on, you don't have to do it. Or basically the F is no longer a sharpen. It's only natural. And it's actually, this is a good time to learn another symbol. So this was sharp, this was flat. This symbol is natural. And natural basically means it's not sharp or flat, right? It's just, it's just a normal note. Reasonable. So the two ways that we could change this as for example, we say it's always sharp, the f is always sharp because it's been identified the very beginning of the song. However, let's say right over here, I want to have an F-Natural, right? So in order to do that, we just put a national center next to it. Okay. And then all the other f's are sharp. It's just that this one that we have identified as a natural. It's natural. Okay, so that's one way to do it. Another way is to just at some point in the song to say, okay, we no longer one, they have to be shown. Now we want the B to B flat from this point on. From this point on, we don't have an F sharp anymore, so no more F-sharp. Which means from this point onwards, anytime you have an F, it's an actual. Now if you want to have another sharp, you can just put a sharp sign next. So that's, I hope it does. All right. So this is a little bit confusing. I can totally understand that, but it shouldn't be that bad. It's just what we need to do is memorize the order of the sharps and flats. And again, we'll delve more into what exactly these things do later on. But for now, let's just learn the order. And again, if you ever forget, you can just write the notes down. Let's go through this one more time. Trying to write the notes down. And you just go from for the order of the sharps, you go from the middle. First next one, next one, next one, next one, next one. And for the flats you do the opposite. You go for the last one. The one before the middle, 11 before 1241, before, one before, one before. Okay? And that's how we find the order of the sharps and flats. And that is exclusively on order that they're allowed to be used at the beginning of the song. So anytime we have a key signature, Let's say we have some stuff over here, right? They can only be used in these orders. Okay, So for example, what do I mean by that? So we cannot have, let's say, just the C-sharp at the beginning of a key signature. The reason for that is because if C needs to be sharp for the entire song, then f has also, does also have to be sharp for the entire song, right? That's how it works with the scales and everything. Because if C is sharp, then it just does not make sense. If f is not sharp, it's just sequentially, the notes would not work out. And again, I understand that's a little complicated and you're probably wondering why that is. Again, this we have to delve into that, allow more. So I just suggest not to worry about it for now. Just learned that that is how it works. Okay? So anytime we want to have sea and keep in mind, this is not to say you can't just have a random C in the middle of a song. Be sharp, that's okay. But when we want to put it at the beginning of the song as a key signature that is applied throughout the song. It has to be coming in this order because otherwise, the majority of Song is going to sound awkward. And basing those are the principles of the music and a lot of theory goes behind that. That is very complicated. So, which is why I don't want to delve into too much. So I just want you to understand the very basics of it, okay, So this is exclusively the order that they can happen. Because otherwise the sequences of the nodes and all the tones, that half-tones, they just don't add up to a pleasant sound basically. So let's say we want to have a key signature that has G as a sharp, then we need to include all of that. So we need to include F, C, and G. Okay? If you want to have G, we have to have all of it before as well. And the same goes for flat. So if we wanted to have, let's say, a key signature that has a, as a flat end there. And we have to have all of this, all of these. We have b, we have e, and we have a. And as you notice, that's the order. It goes to just the same way where we said, Look, when you go through the notes, we go middle, boom, boom, boom, boom, boom, boom. Number that order. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7. That's how we represent the two. So let's say if you want to have all the sharps here, let's say we have a song that has all seven notes that starts the order we go to kinda looks similar to this. If you look right here, it goes F, c e d. And for fats goes B, E, a, D, G, C, F. So again, it kinda looks similar. Right leg goes and middle, and middle and middle, right? You can kinda see it visually. Alright, so that's pretty much all you need to know about. The key signature. Again, I know it's not the easiest stuff, but it shouldn't be that bad. It should be pretty simple If you don't worry too much about how exactly this works and why exactly this ordering is happening. It's pretty simple stuff and you'll have to worry about any of that. You can just memorize the ordering, so I highly recommend you may arise this. Let me just write it for you one more time, a little bit more clear. So the order of the sharps, F, C, G, D, a, E, B, and the order of the flats is the opposite. B, E, a, D, G, C, F. 13. Determining the Key Signature for Scales - Music Theory: All right, Now that we learned how key signatures work, it's time to see how we can determine the key signature based on what scale we are in. Okay, so we're gonna start with majors first and then we're gonna go attack the miners. So as far as the majors are concerned, the best way to figure out what the key signature is is by doing what I'm about to tell you. So if it's a natural scale, so let's say C-natural major, or G natural major or D natural major. What we do is we basically go one note prior to our major scale. So for example, if you have a G-major right here, as you can see, we go one before G, one before g is f, right? That's the note prior to G. And what we do is we produce sharps in the order of the sharps all the way up to that note, which is an F, right? So we end up with only one sharp because f is the first and the orders helps remember the order of the sharps is F, C, G, D, a, E, B. Alright? So since the nose prior to g is f, we basically only do it all the way to F right? Now let's take a look at D major, for example, the note prior to D is C. So we need to make sure we have all the sharps at the e-signature all the way up to c. So we have F and C, right? The first two in the line. Next one, Let's take a look at a major, though not prior to a, is what it's G. Which means that we have all the sharps all the way up to G. And the same applies for the other ones, right? Prior to E is D. So we have F, C, G, D, notes prior to be as a. So we have F, C, G, D, a. And that's basically how we do it, right? So four, the major scales, when we have a natural major scale, what we do is we go one note prior to what the point of origin is for the scale. So if it's G-Major, we go one prior to G, and we cover all the sharps until that point right? Now, there are two exceptions to this. Obviously for C major, we are talking about this. For C major, we have none, we have no sharps, we have nothing at the key signature, right? And the reason for that is because, well, note before C is B, which would mean that we would just have everything as sharp. So instead of that, we just don't have anything, right? So that's where we have C-sharp major is where we have all the Sharks, Okay, and we'll talk about that in just a second. But first, let's just focus on the exceptions. So the first exception is C major, where instead of having seven sharps, you just have no sharps. And then the second one is already here. F-major. F-major is the second exception where we only have B-flat. Okay, so these two, just remember these two, okay, these two are the exceptions. For C major, we have nothing, and for F-major we have one flat. The first file, remember the order of the flats is the opposite of the order of the sharps. So it goes B, E, a, D, G, C, F. All right. So again, remember, these are the two exceptions that we need to know about. Now let's discuss what happens if we have a flat major scale, right? That's where we have an over here. If we have a flat major scale, what we do is we do all the flats up until our region note plus another one. Okay, So for example, for B flat major, we do all the fats until B flat, and then one more after that too. Okay, So we do B-flat and E-flat. E-flat, for example. We do all of them until E-flat, and then one more after that. So we have B flat, E flat, and a flat. Same thing for a flat major. Do all of them all the way up to a in the flat order. And then we add one after that. And that's how we do it for the flat meter. So we basically learned, anytime we have major scale, if it's a natural note, we go one prior all the sharps until that note. If it's a flat major scale, what we do is we do all the flats up until that note, and then one extra after that as well. Okay? Now there are two sharp major scales as well. And these are the only ones you need to know. F-sharp major and C sharp major, right? And these two, again, it's just best to remember these because there's really no pattern for these ones. For F, F sharp major, we have six sharps, so the first six sharps, and for C sharp major, we have all the sharps. Alright, so if you really are not sure how you can reminisce, a best way to remember it is that F sharp major and C sharp major are basically complementary to their natural counterparts. So for example, remember in C major, we had 0 sharps. That means a C-sharp major. We have all the sharps. For F. F, the F natural major, we had one fat. So the counterpart to that would be in F sharp major to have six sharps, right, instead of just one. All right, so that's how you remember that and that's all the major scales. Now, once we learn how to do the major skills, how do we implement the minor scales? Well, we already alluded to this beforehand, but I'm just gonna go over one more time. Every single minor scale has the same key signature as a major scale that has three semitones above it. Okay, so I'm just gonna write that down here. So minor key signature is the same as plus three semitones. Major key signature. Alright, so what does that mean? For example, a minor, if we go three semitones above a minor, a minor, so just a plus three semitones. We end up with C. All right, and as you can see, a minor in C-Major have the exact same key signature. And this applies for everything. So for E minor, right? If you go three semitones above E, you get g, which is why G major and a minor have the exact same key signature. And you can apply so everything right. If it's hard for you to go three semitones above a certain note, you can always use the piano keyboards and just go on there and just basically jumped three keys up, including the black and white keys. You just go three keys up and see where you end up, right? And the best way to remember what the keys for the miners, for the minor scales art is to just remember which major scale they're associated with. In which major scale it has the equivalent key signature so that you can just bring that over, right? So for example, let's say I want to know C minor, okay? Let's say I want to know what the key seconds for, for to see miners. Well, what I first do is I say, okay, C plus three semitones. What does that? So we have C-sharp, that's one semitone, D, That's two semitones. And then D-sharp, which is the same as E-flat, that's 375, so we have E-flat. All right, just a little bit better. So if you go three semitones above CBF, E flat, which means that the C minor is going to have the same key signature as E-flat major, right? As we just talked about for, in order to find out what the key signature for E-flat major is, we add all the flats up until E-flat, and then we add one more after it. So number the order. We add b, e and then one after it. So we end up with B flat, E flat, a flat, okay? And this applies to all the minor scales, okay, so just to review one more time together to make sure that we got all of this for the minor, for the major, sorry, scales. If it's natural, we dropped down one from the main notes. We dropped down one. And we basically add all the sharps until that note. If it's a flat major scale, we add all the flats up until that note, and then we add one more after it. And for the F-sharp and C-sharp, there were just a counterparts to their natural ones. So for F sharp, we had six sharps at the key signature. For the C-Sharp, we had seven sharps at e-signature. And then for all the minor scales, what we did was we just add three semitones to the main note to see what major scale is. Basically the same key signature as the minor scale that we're looking for. And we basically just take that same key signature and bring it over. All right, So by doing so, you can figure out all the key signatures for every single scale that there is major or minor. All right, so I know this was a lot of information. This might be a little confusing. Feel free to rewind the video and watch it one more time. Hopefully you've been taking notes because these are very important things to learn from the beginning, okay? Identifying key signatures are not only important music theory, but there are also important later on when you just play music on your own instrument, right? So these are very important things to know. So hopefully you've been taking notes, hopefully you understanding what's going on. As always, if there's any confusion, please do not hesitate to reach out and ask me these are very important things that we need to make sure we understand, Okay? So if you're confused at all, by all means, reach out or watch the video again. And hopefully all your concerns were will be answered. Alright, so that is basically how we find out the heat signature for every single major and minor scale in a nutshell. And I'll see you in the next video. 14. Finding the Key of a Melody - Music Theory: Alright, now that we know how to find the key signature for any scale, Let's go ahead and apply that to find the key for a melody. And specifically finding out which scale we are in when we're playing whichever song, right? So let's just go over this once together. So most music is written in a specific cure tonality. I think that's pretty understood generally, any type of music that we encounter with has to have some sort of a basis. So it has to be written in some kind of scale or key or tonality. Now, of course, if there is a key signature already there, for example, right here you can see there's a key signature, there is an F-sharp and C-sharp. It is fairly easy to determine the key. The key signature tells us that the music can be one of two keys, a major key, or its relative minor. All right? So basically anytime you have a key signature here, that means that our music has to be in either a major key or a minor key. If it was in another key, then what we would have done instead is to just include accidentals instead of having a key signature at the top. Right. Now, let's jump in here and see, for example, if we can find out what key we're in when we have this melody handed to us right? Now, as you noticed, we have F-sharp and C-sharp. And we just learned together in a previous video that anytime we want to find out the key signature of any scale, what we do is if it was a natural major scale, what we did was write down a one note and then we played all the, all the sharps until that note, right? Or I should say, we included it in the key signature up until it not all the sharps. So what we can do here is just do the opposite, right? So the last sharp that we have in our key signature is C-sharp, which means that the original note that we went down on one was the right. So think about it this way. If we had D major and we wanted to find out the key, we would have gone down one, so we've got C, and then we would have included all the sharps until C, right? So we're just doing the opposite here. Hopefully that makes us. Now what this means is that this has to be either D-major or remember the relative minor of each major is, if you take the notes of the major and you go down three semitones, right? So if you go down three semitones from D, what do you end up with? You end up with b. You can look at it on the piano keys and just go down three keys from D and C where you end up with, you end up on B. B minor. All right, so this could be either D-major or B minor. Now, how do we determine which one does? Well, we're gonna get into that in just a second. Let's look at this next one. This one right here. Right? We have two flats. And where it should immediately go is the rule that we had about the flat majors, right? Anytime we have a flat major, what we do is we include all the flats and then one more extra. Alright, so here we have B-flat and we have E-Flat. Right? Now. If we assume the E flat is the one extra, that means that we have B flat major or over here, or it's relative minor. B flat major. Or let's go down three semitones from B-flat. What do we end up with? We end up with g. G, right? So this has to be a B flat major, G minor. So how do we tell the difference? Well, here's the thing. Look at this guy right here. We have an accidental. And it's not just on any of the tongue Neff, it's on the notes prior to G, right? So this is a telltale sign. Sometimes in the minor. When we're basically creating music in a minor key, we use accidental specifically on the notes prior to the origin, which is the gene, the tonic key. Right? We usually use this a lot. So if you see that in any piece of music that's a telltale sign that this is not a major that we're dealing with here. It's actually the minor, right? So that's how we can figure out its G minor over here. And as you can see, it's being said here as well. That F sharp is what gives it away, right? If we didn't have that here, Let's say we had this line of music and that thing wasn't here, then it could have easily been a B-flat major. But because we have that over here, we know that this has to be G minor, okay? This is usually the accidental in a minor key is usually on the note prior to the tonic, which is g in this instance. Okay, now let's go back to the original one. Over here. We didn't have any accidentals. So it's probably the case that we're doing with D-major and we're not dealing with the minor. Because the accidental, we'll give it the extra flavor to make it sound a little bit more Saturn and a little bit more different compared to just the happy sounding measure, right? So this is likely a D-major. Not it'd be minor just because we don't have any accidentals in our, in our melody, if that makes sense. Right? But of course, it's not only that, no noted prior to the tonic that can be altered. It's also the two notes prior to the tonic. So let's take a look over here. We have B flat, which you should immediately think F-major, or its relative minor, which is due to a threat that a little bit better. F major, or its relative minor, which is, again, Let's go down three semitones together. Where do we end up? We end up with D minor. Right? So let's take a look over here. Do we see any signs indicating whether we're dealing with F major, D minor? Well, I can immediately see the note prior to D, which is C, has an accidental, and also to notes prior to D, which in this case would be B, also has an accidental, right? I know it's a natural here and it's not a sharp. But given that the key signature says It had all the bees have to be flat. Aa, BB. Natural means that we're putting an accidental on it. Alright, so in this case, both the note prior to the tonic and the second note prior to tonic have been raised with an accidental. So this is definitely the minor. No questions about this cannot be F-major, right? If this was F-major, we would not have all of these accidentals running around all over the place. Okay? So hopefully that makes sense. That is how we identify what key we're in when we have a melody or a song there were playing by basically looking at the key signature, identifying the possible major and the minor. And then by looking throughout their music and seeing if we can find accidentals in the music, we can determine whether we're dealing with the minor or the major. Alright, so hopefully that all made sense and I'll see you in the next video. 15. Assignment #1 - Course Project: All right, So hopefully you've had a chance to take a look at assignment number one so far. If you haven't, go ahead and download the PDF, I've included all these PDFs in the course. Go ahead and download the first assignments and finish it. You could either just work on it electronically if you have an iPad or if you want to just do it on your laptop, that's fine too, whatever works for you. Or if you wanted to, you could also print it out and just work on it with pen and paper. Whatever is easiest for you. The important thing is that we actually get this done. Now, I want to give you one last chance. If you haven't done it so far. Go ahead and do it, and then come back because in this video we're going to go over all the answers and how I basically get to all the answers, right? Walk you through my thought process so you know exactly what is going on, right? So if you haven't done it yet, it's very important that you go and do it first before you watch this, right? If I do it, then there's no point in you doing it. So go ahead and do it and then come back and check your answers with me. And if you ever get confused or get stuck on any of them, you can come here and see how I do it. I'll try to walk you through my thought process as clearly as possible so you can see what's going on here. All right. So if you haven't, go ahead and do it and come back, right, let's get down to business. First of all, I just like to write the order of the sharps here as a good reference. All right? And is off the order of the sharps. And this is just good to have here. It's gonna make it a lot easier for us to write it over here. Now, let's start with the imager. So the first, first question is asking us to write the key signature is for all of these, all of these skills that we are going through. Well, for the Imager, let's think about how we approach finding the key signature for each of these, each of these scales. Remember we talked about if it's a major and its natural, which it is right here, it's a natural major. What we do is we take that note, we go one before that, well, before e we have d. And we write all the sharps until we get to the right. So if you look at the order of the sharps right here, which is why I wrote this here. So it's a lot easier for us to see what's going on. We have F, C, G, D before we get to D. So that's what we're gonna do. We're gonna put a sharp for F sharp, a, C. We're going to have a sharp for G, and then a sharp for D. Hopefully that makes sense. And on the bass clef, what you do is you just shift all of those down 11 line, right? So instead of here, F over here, c goes there. And the same thing, okay? All right, so that's how we go about doing the key signature for the treble clef and the bass clef. Once you write it for the treble clef, just take the same thing and you just pump it down one line right now. Make sure I'm not saying one position, one line, so that's basically two positions. They go down, right? So instead of, for example, for f as sort of being on the fifth line, we go to the fourth line. And that applies for every single notes that we are covering. All right, let's take a look at G-Major. Now what is the node before G? We have F, right? So we need to write all the sharps until we get to F. Well, that's pretty easy because f is the first one. So there we have it. And that's G major. Pretty simple. That C major, we already know C-major. There is nothing at the key signature for C major, so we've already good D-major. What's before D? It is C. That is correct. So how do we go about this one? Well, again, let's take a look at the order of the sharps. F and C are the first two. So that's all that we need here. F and C. All right, hopefully this is making sense so far. And I'm for a major war council for a GI tract. And let's take a look at the order one more time. G is a third one, so we write all of them until we get to g. Looks like that. And then for the bass clef, we just drop it down by one line. All right, pretty simple so far. Now, here, and it gets a little bit more interesting. Now we have a flat major. So what do we do about the fact managers? Remember we talked about for the five major. Now let me write the order of the flats actually. So we have that as a reference here. I guess it's very good if you notice, if you haven't memorized the order of the sharps and flats, you can just memorize the order of sharps and then just reverse that for the flats, right? It's exact opposite. So go ahead and do that if you haven't. Now, for the flats majors, what we did is we took that flat note, for example, in this one, e flat, E flat over here. And we write all the fats until one after that. So one after that would be a in this instance. So what we do is basically put three flats at the beginning. We go B, we go E, and then we go up here. Let me just rewrite this so it's a little more clear. So what you want to do is you want to make sure this white part of the flat symbol falls on the place that you are meaning it too, right? So for example, if I want to indicate b, I want to make sure that white part covers B. Right? Now again, for the bass clef, we just drop it all down by one line. That's not the right one. There we go, the reality. And there we have the key signature for E-flat. All right, what about f? Well, remember this one. This is the only non flat major scale that has a flat key signature and that's just the first flat. Just one be pretty simple that one, teenager. Well, this is not a flatline. So how does this one go? Number d? One before the sea. So how we go about that one? Pretty simple. We go F and C. A-flat Major. Well, again, we go on the order of the flats is right here, and we have to go onto one after that, which is D. So basically we need four flats for this one. It's really important that we get this right. There we go. Because if you don't put the white part over the node that you're meaning to go for. It might look like you're trying to indicates something else, right? So even I have to sometimes just erase and draw it again just to make sure I get it right. There we go. There, we have it. All right. And then B-flat major. Second look at the order one more time. B5 is the first one. And we need to cover on to one more, so we get to E. All right, so that was the first one. Now for the second one, it says, identify the following key signatures. Now again, let me write the order of the sharps when we're done. So this was the order of the flats. Or sharps is the exact opposite. Let's take a look over here. So we see that we've covered all the sharps until C. So what that means is that the next one would have been the major scale that would have led us to do this, right? So what I mean by that is think of it this way. If I had a D, I would have gone back one to get to C, which would have given us this key signature, right? Because we've covered all the sharps until C. So the way to find what scalars is to take that last note, basically reverse psychology the method right? And then go one after, which is the max that's hopefully does. So this will be the key of D major. Same method here, we are covering until f and one after F is G. So this is the key of G-Major over here, over covering everything until G. And I went up to G is a. So this is the key of a major. And this one, we're covering everything until D. One after d is, you guessed it, it is e. So this is the key of E major. All right, hopefully you're following along so far. Now for the flats. Now this one, I remember it was a little bit different. So first of all, let's just go through this one because we know this one, this is F major is the only non-fat major that has a flat key, right? So we already know that one. But let's take a look at the other ones, right. So remember we talked about again, have to keep writing the order just because it's a lot easier to see it when you have the order right in front of you. Remember, for the flat keys, the way we did it was whatever we had over here. Let's say we had let's say a flat or whatever, whatever, just there's just an example. If you had a flat, what we do is we would cover all the flats plus one more, right? So that's what we do over here. Let's take a look at all of these. We don't look at the last one because that's the plus one more, right? We want to take a look at the one before that. That's what led us to choose plus 11, which is a, so this a father I was mentioning is actually the same thing over here. We don't look at the last one. We look at the one before that, B. So this is a B flat major. And make sure we don't confuse this with B major. If it's a flat key and has more than one, it has to be a B flat major or an a flat major. Okay, Very important not to confuse the two. For this one. Again, we're looking at not the last one, the one before that. And that is e. So this is the key of E flat major. All right, hopefully you're following along so far. Now on to the last one that we need to do together. So write the following scales, ascending and descending, using key signatures, label the tonic, which is number one, subdominant, which is number four, and dominant Number five. There we have it. All right, let's take a look at all of the scale. So first of all, we need to do is to make sure we have the right key signature at the top. So let's take a look. How do we determine the key signature for a. Let me just write that order one more time. So for a while we do is we go back to the previous node, which is g, and we cover all the sharps, F, C, G, right? And we start on a. And then we just go until we get to the next day. There we have it, and then we just come back down. And so we have to identify the tonic, which is the first one. So that's tonic subdominant, which is the fourth one, and the dominance which is the fifth one. Alright, let's take a look at the next one, D major. We go back one we get to see. So we need to cover all the sharps until we get to see. And then we start from D to get to an XD and then we come back down. Super easy. Get the first one is tonic, fourth one is subdominant, and the fifth one is dominant. For g, we go back and we get to F, so we need to cover all the sharps until we get to F. And I will just write the scale. First one is the tonic, fourth one subdominant, and the fifth one is the doughnut. For E major, we go back one, we get to D. So we need to cover all of them until we get to D, which is the fourth one. There we go, there's our key signature, and then we write E until we get to the next E. First one tonic, fourth one subdominant. And the fifth one is dominant. Very nice. F-major, remember it is only natural major that has a fats in front of it. Oops, let's try that one more time. There we go. Come back all the way down. Now of course, first one, tonic, subdominant, dominant, E flat major. Remember we need to go cover all the fats until one more. So we need to cover three flats here and here. Be careful, this is bass clef, so we need to drop down one line as well. So a sort of putting b over on the third one. We have to put on the second line. Like that, That's the key signature. And then E also starts from one lawyer. So I sort of starting from the first line, we start from down here. We have the first one, tonic, subdominant, and a five major. Again, we need to cover all the flats until we get to a and m plus one bar. So that means for flux. And now we start with a. First one, tonic. Fourth one, solve dominant, fifth one, dominant, B, five major. Amf to fats, first b and then plus one, which would be E. And then we again top-down one line and we go for it. Tonic, subdominant, dominant. Last but not least, we have C major, which means there's nothing in the key signature. So we leave the key signature be the way it is. And I will just write the scale tonic subdominant. And so that was our first assignment. How did you do? Hopefully you did pretty well. If you had any confusions, hopefully I was able to address them and make it a little bit easier to understand for you in this video. If you are still confused by anything, you can always just send me a question and ask for more clarification. I'm always happy to get back to you and help you out. But that's pretty much it for this assignments. And what's move onto the next one. 16. Assignment #2 - Course Project: All right, it's time to go over assignment number 2. Hopefully you've had a chance to go over this one. If long, just go ahead and download the PDF and work on it yourself. And then once you're done working on it, come over here so we can check our answers together and I can walk you through how all the answers work basically. So if you are confused on any of the questions, you can find out how you can get the answer. Right. So we have some information on top here about how anytime you want to go from a minor key to a major key, we need to go three semitones to find the relative minor, major key. We talked about this in class. Basically, a relative key means that, that has the same key signature at the top, right? So every major key has a relative minor key, meaning that they have the same key signature. And the way you find it is by moving three semitones up and down from the major, you go three semitones down from the minor you go three semitones up. So let's go over this first one, which is basically exploring the same idea. And it's asking us to find the relative minor key for all of these major keys. Now, if it's hard for you to go three semitones up or down in your own head. You can always use those piano key handouts that I gave you earlier in the course. You can just look at, just look at piano keys in general. And that should help you allow, that should help you a lot with just going up three semitones because you can see all the keys, you can see all the black keys and everything. And you can just go up and down three semitones. Alright, so if you struggle with this, you can use that resource for sure. So let's go over them. D-major, we go down three semitones, and we get to B minor. A major, we go down three semitones, and we get to F sharp minor, E-flat major. We go down three semitones, and we get to C minor, F major. We go down three semitones, and we get to D minor, E major. We go down three semitones, and we get to C sharp minor, E-flat major. We go down three semitones, and we get to F minor, G major. We go down three semitones, and we get to E minor, B flat major. We go down three semitones. We get to G minor, C major. We have this one already, it's a minor. These are the two that have nothing at the key signature. Pretty simple so far. Now name the major and the minor keys for the following key signatures, right? So we already know how to find all the major keys. And then what we can do is once we find the major key, we can use that to find its relative minor. All right, so just put that over there. Nice and clean for you. Very nice. Let's go ahead and find the major key. So for the flat keys, first of all, remember this one. If we only have one, it's F-major, goes just get rid of our home right now. And the relative key for f, Obviously we go down three semitones from f and we get to D minor. Right? Now for all the other ones, the way we do it is remember we don't look at the last one, we'll look at the one before that. We had this in assignment one, right? The one before that determines what key we're in. So the one before that is a flat. So this isn't a flat major. And as we just discussed in the previous question, a five major, the relative key is F minor. We go down three semitones and we get to F minor. Over here again, we'd look at the one before the last, we have B flat, B flat major. And of course, the relative minor for B flat is G minor. For this one, again, we're looking at the one before the last E-flat, E-flat major. And the relative key is C minor. Very nice. Now, again, these organs are the sharp ones. And for the sharp ones, what you do is you look at the last one. And then whatever that is. For example, this one to see, you go to one after it, you get to D, and that is the key. So this is D major. And the relative minor for D major is B minor. Secondary, this one plus one is d, which means you're in E major. And the relative minor for E major is C sharp minor. S1 loss was F. So we go one after F, we get g. So this is G major. And the relative minor for G major is E minor. The last one over here is G. So the one after G is a. This is a major. And the relative minor for a major is F sharp minor, right? Hopefully everything makes sense so far. Now let's go over here where we are going to write these scales. So again, we start with making sure we find out what the key signature is. So we have E minor. What we do is we first go three semitones up to get the relative major. The relative major is G major, and we just write down the key signature for G major. Alright, so for G major, we go one down, we get to F and read all the sharps until f. So that's the key signature or GMHC or E minor. And then we just write e in quarter notes, right? As it says over here. Now, one tip over here is that anytime you go above the third line, you put all the tails upside down just to make it look nicer. Alright, so that's E minor, right there. B minor. Again, we find the relative key for that one. We go up three semitones, we get to D major. And a key for D major. Again, let's go through how we do it. We come one down, we get to see, and we write all the sharps until C. But remember this is a bass clef. So we need to also write one line below what we would do in a treble clef, some FFC. And then we just write B minor. And again, remember B is over here and we're writing it in half note. So let me just erase that and write it and a half note. There we go. Across the third line, so we read it upside down. And there we have it. There is B minor and half minutes. Next one is D minor in whole notes. So first, let's find the relative major. D minor. We go up three semitones and we get to F major, which means we have one flat. And we're doing in hotels. So we just write it like that. There is no tail for whole notes. And there's D-minor. And the last but not least, we have G minor in eighth notes. And again, G minor, we go up three semitones. We get to B flat major. B flat major for the flats would go all the fats plus one more. It is a bass clef. So we put B right here and then plus one more, which is e to the right there. All right, so that's G minor and then we do an eight volts. And of course g starts from here. And we're doing it an eighth notes. And it's a good idea to group H dots together to make beats. So basically we're covering, we're combining these 2 eighth notes together and each of the combinations represents one beats. We're crossing the third line, so we'll put it upside down. Just like that. All right, and there we have our G minor in eight-thirds. So that was all we had an assignment to. Hopefully that made sense. So if you have any questions, you can always just ask me directly if you need any clarification with these, but hopefully we're understanding how we can find the relative minor key, the relative major key, and how they have the same key signature and how we implement that when we're writing for a minor key. And we just find the key of the relative major. B should be pretty comfortable doing that. But by this point, because we've learned it, we've done it in assignment number one and now done assignment number 2. So hopefully you are comfortable with doing that. And hopefully you're getting more comfortable with finding the relative keys as well. Again, if you ever struggle with going up and down in semitones, you can always just use the picture of the piano keys, right? That just always helps because you can see all the white and black keys and it's very clear. Alright, so go ahead, make sure you have your understanding all of this stuff and move onto the next video. 17. Chromatic Scales - Music Theory: All right, In this lesson we're going to learn what a chromatic scale is. Now a chromatic scale is a scale where we basically recover all 12 tones that we can possibly play between two notes that are the same note. So what do I mean by that? Let's go over on the keyboard so I can show it to you a little bit more visually. So as you can see, first of all, the pattern is all semi-serious. You just semi, semi, semi, semi, just Sammy's all around right? Now, what does that mean? Well, that basically means is let's say we start on C, which means we finish on a scene. So basically at chromatic C-scale, what that basically means is that we cover every single tone possible between these two, whether that's the white keys or the black keys, right? So we start on C. Then we play the C sharp, which is the black key over here, by D, D sharp, E, F, F sharp, G, G sharp, a, a sharp, B, C. And we come back down, right? So as you noticed, we played everything that we have between these two nodes. We played every single white key and every single black key and all in order, right? Whether ascending order or descending order. So a chromatic scale is basically the very most fundamental scale possible, right? It's a scale that covers everything. And it covers everything in order, right? Obviously, it has the most amount of notes in any scale because basically covers everything. There's no notes that is not used in the scale. All the black keys and all the white keys are used. And it has a very strange quality to it because every single step is a semitone. So you can kind of see the gradual buildup in the gradual coming down when you play the scale. So let's go on the piano and hear how this actually sounds. So we kinda get a better idea of what a chromatic scale is. Alright, so I'm just going to start on this C right here, and finish on this C right here. So this is how a chromatic scale sounds. As you notice, it has a very weird sound to it. Now let's play a little bit faster. So you can kind of get it a little bit better grasp of the weight sounds. And that is what a chromatic scale sounds like. All right, so what do we use a chromatic scale for? Well, the chromatic scale is basically the fundamental scale. And this one is mostly just used for practicing reasons. It really is not used that much in composition because it's not a scale where we omit everything or anything I should say. It's a scalar replay everything, right? So that's not really useful in any composition because we always want to make choices anytime we're making a song, we want to make sure that we're committing to a certain number of notes and we're omitting some others. Now, obviously there are some flexibility that comes with that it's not always super strict. But just saying that you can use any notes. It doesn't really paint any sort of a picture. It's very general and as you can see here, this scale, it doesn't really have any identity, right? Because we're basically playing everything. We're playing every single tone that is available to us. And therefore, we don't really get to hear anything unique if that makes sense. So the chromatic scale is something that you're going to encounter a lot. What, whatever instrument you play, you're eventually going to have chromatic scales that you have to play. And mostly that's to make sure that we learn every single tone and we learn everything to that we need to be able to play. But as far as using it for composition or for understanding music, the chromatic scale is not really use them that census, if you will. It's mostly just for practical reasons. We're going to encounter some other skills that are used a lot more in composition or just read music or playing music. But the chromatic scale is not one of them. So let's go on to note because we're going to encounter it a lot. And whatever instrument you play, you're going to encounter chromatic scales and you're gonna be required to play chromatic scales. But that's all we need to know about it. It's nothing complicated. It's just every single pitch that you can play between two nodes, right? So that's the chromatic scale. And I'll see you in the next video. 18. Whole Tone Scales - Music Theory: Hi. In this video we're going to learn what a whole tone scale is. Now, as the name suggests, a whole tone scale is a scale where we basically cover every single whole tone difference, right? So what do we mean by that? Basically, whatever note we start with, we play a whole tone after that, another whole tone after that, another whole tone after that, another whole tone after that, another whole tone and another whole term, right? So we just only play homes. Now, as you can see, let me just show you on the keyboard right here. Let's say we start on the CMA official, the see, so we have a whole tone scale. So what that means is that once we start on C, we play a whole tough it out. So we have to avoid C-Sharp, the black one right here and just jump straight in the one after that. So we have to avoid the sharp end, jump to another hotel. Avoid f. We jump straight to F sharp. A whole tone after that, which means we avoid je, jump straight to G-sharp. Another host one after that, which means we avoid a and we start jump straight to a sharp. And then the last but not least, we avoid B because we have to go another Holton, we avoid BMI, jump straight to see, right? So That's how we play a whole tone. In the case of playing C, we just basically put gold, C, D, E, F sharp, G sharp, a sharp, C, right? Now, obviously, it's going to be different depending on which note you start with. But it's always going to be, the nodes are always going to be a whole torn apart. And the best way to remember the skill is just by remembering that every single gap is a whole tone, right? Because there is no specific pattern, There's no specific skill where every single note ends up being natural or anything like that, because it has such a strict gap to it, right? Every single gap is a whole term. So the best way to remember whole-tone scale is just by remembering that every single gap as a whole don't. Whatever you start with, just make sure that you go a whole tone and you put a gap of all time between each of the notes that you play. All right, now let's go on the piano and hear how a whole tone scale would sound like. All right, so we're going to start on the scene. And we're going to end and a C over here. Alright, let's spend all my time a little bit faster so you get a better grasp of how it actually sounds. And there we have the whole tone scale. Now a whole-tone scale, similar to the semitone scale, which was the chromatic scale. Basically is one of those scales that is very, very unique in a way. Let me just put it that way. It's very static. The gaps are all the same. So it has, again, a kind of a weird quality to it. Now, unlike the chromatic scale, the whole tone scale is actually making a choice when it comes to selecting notes. Which is why this is actually something that is used in producing music or in composition, but it's very rarely used, right? So this is not one of the skills that you need to know for sure. You're not going to encounter it that often. A whole-tone scale is one that it's good to know, but you're not going to be dealing with it too much, even less than chromatic scale, because I don't believe most instruments will require you to learn every single whole-tone scale, but it's a very good, very good tool for practicing and learning all the different gaps and notes on your instrument. Now, what you can probably notice about the whole-tone scale is because of the fact that all the gaps are whole tones. We only have six notes right? Now. Obviously we have C over here, but that's the same as the first one night, so we don't count that again. We have six unique notes in this scale, unlike the major and the minor, which both had seven. And remember chromatic at 12 because used everything, the whole-tone scale only has six nodes, right? So that's another thing to know about the whole-tone scale. But other than that, it's pretty straightforward. The gaps are always a hole torn apart, and that's the best way to learn how to play the whole tone scale. Alright, so hopefully that all makes sense. And that's pretty much all we need to know about the whole-tone scale. So let's move on to the next one. 19. The Pentatonic Scales - Music Theory: Alright, in this video, we're going to learn what a pentatonic scale is. Now, the pentatonic scale is referred to as pentatonic because we use five unique notes in this scale, if that makes sense. So the pattern goes something like this. It's a whole tone, 1.5. Then other molto, not Ableton and a 1.5 at the end. Right? Now, the best way to remember this pattern is actually on the keyboard. So I'm going to show you how you can best remember this. But first let's talk about how the pentatonic scale is used. Now, the pentatonic scale is mostly used in Asian music. And once we actually listen to how the scale sounds, you might recognize the sound of it, and it might sound a little bit like Asian music to you. And that's the reason for that is because it just a little bit of a cultural background thing. In the Asian culture. At least traditionally this was the case in their music. They tried to avoid certain notes depending on what scale that we're in. And the reason. Basically by omitting those notes, they created the pentatonic scale. And again, we'll see how that plays out in a second. So let's go on the keyboard and see how this pattern goes. So the first one, Let's say we started to see more federal see, so we have a pentatonic scale. All right. Now we started to see our first gap is one whole-tone, so we jump over C Sharp, we go straight to D. Or next gap is 1.5, so it's not a whole-tone, it's 1.5. So we jump over, D-sharp would jump over e, and we go to F, right? So we avoided e here, as you noticed, when you write in a different color for you, we avoided E over here, right? So keep that in mind. We're going to come back to that. All right. The next one is from F. Two, again would go a whole tone to the next node. So we go, we jump over F sharp. We go to G. And our next one is another whole tone. So we go from G, we skip over G-sharp, we go straight to a. Now our last gap is another 1.5. So we jump over and let me just change the color. We jump over a sharp, we jump over b so we don't play B at all. And then we jump over to C. Right? So this is our pentatonics guy right here. Now, as you noticed, we have omitted the two notes. That if we hadn't here, we would have had basically the C major scale, right? So if we put back the E and the B, we are, we end up with a C major scale, as you see, all the natural nail plate and everything like that. So what's happening here? Well, basically in the Asian culture back in the day, they, for some reason they believe that the third in the major scale, which would be this one, this is the third and the seventh, which is this one. These were notes that were not wholly right. So in order to make sure their music reflects their ideology, they decided to remove these from. Major scale, and that's how we end up with the pentatonic scale. And again, once we listen to it on the piano, you will see exactly how this sounds so different from an age or skill and actually sounds like Asian music. So let's go on the piano and check it out. And then we'll talk a little bit more about the best way to remember this scale. All right, Hopefully you can hear the resemblance to Asian music and we'll try one more time, but this one a little bit more, little bit faster. All right. We're also going to try another variation enough. This is something that again, I'm going to show you over on the notepad. But first I'm going to show you so you can hear it yourself. Another way to play the pentatonic scale is to start from C-sharp. And basically every black key until you get to C sharp again, right? So something like this, right, as you can here, it has the same sound because the gaps are all the same. The gaps actually worked out exactly to this. And I know that sounds kind of weird. It sounds kind of random, but it just works out that way. And this is actually the best way to remember the pattern of the pentatonic scale is just to look at the way, just look at the black. He's in the piano, starting with C sharp, which is, and if you don't know, the C-sharp is basically how there's a group of two. Group of three for the black to black is here. The black is. The first one in the group of two, is C-sharp, right? Right there. So the best way to remember the pattern for the pentatonic scale is to start from C-sharp and play every single black key until you get a C sharp again. And that is the pattern, right? So from C-sharp, D-sharp, that's a whole tone from D-sharp to F sharp. That's 1.5, from F-sharp, G-sharp. That's one, from G sharp to a sharp. That's another one. And then from a sharp to C sharp, the next one, that is 1.5. And then we'll just go that up and we come back down. All right, Now let's go back and keep out so we can see this visually look in there. All right, so let's try that one out. So if we start over here, we see that we have a gap of a whole tone. Remember, the pattern was 1.51111. So that's a one, that's a 1.5. That's a one. There's another one, and this is a 1.51 over here, right? So the best way to remember the pentatonic scale and the pattern is to look at the black keys on the keyboard. And obviously this applies to everything. Once you find out the pattern, you can just apply to any node. Let's say we want to start on the g, for example, right here. Well, would have the pattern because we can just look at the black keys and figure out what the pattern is. And I would supply it from there, right? So we just go from here, go 1.551111. And that's how you figure out the pentatonic scale. Now the pentatonic scale is a very useful scale, but in some areas, if that makes sense because it's mostly used in Asian music and it's not really used that much in Western music. Whenever you encounter any Asian music that you're playing on your instrument, you might actually end up dealing with depends on the scale. But other than that, you probably won't see it that often. So it's one that you must know. I'm pretty much every musician should know, at least know off the pentatonic scale. But obviously it's not going to be, It's not going to be coming into use in every single scenario, right? So we mostly see this in Asian music and not really that much in Western music. All right, so that's the pentatonic scale. I think a good practice is to try to remember the pattern, but just looking at the black keys on a keyboard. So after this video is over, I would encourage you to just look at the keys on a piano and try to remember the pentatonic scale, the pattern for the pentatonic scale on your own just by looking at the piano keys. Okay, So just remember, we start on the C-sharp and then we look at all the bat black keys and the gap between each of those black keys. All right, so that's a pentatonic skill. And let's move on to the next one. 20. The Blues Scales - Music Theory: All right, Now it's time to learn the Blues scale. Now the blue scale, as the name suggests, is a scale that we use for jazz music. So if you're someone who likes jazz music, this is for you. Or if you play jazz instrument, even if you're a piano player, this is definitely a scale that you're going to be using a lot going forward. So pay attention. Pay very careful attention here. So the blue scale has a very interesting pattern. The pattern goes 1.5, whole tone, semitone, semitone, 1.5 halter. Now that sounds like a really random pattern. And I believe the way that this pattern was found was just through sheer experimentation. And it just seems to be this golden pattern that creates this beautiful jazz, jazz melody, right? So that's, this is the foundation of jazz, this blue scale. And once we play it on the piano, you'll hopefully hear how jazzy it sounds, right? But first let's go through the pattern together to see what's going on here. So let's say we're starting on C and we're going to finish on C. Just like all the other skills that we did. That will be the blues scale. Right? Now the way this would go is obviously our first gap is a 1.5. So we skip over C Sharp, we skip over d, we jump straight to D-sharp. Alright, so that's our 1.5 right there. Next one is a one. So we have to skip over e and we jump straight to F. We didn't play in there. Our next one is just the 0.5, only a semitone. So we have to go cover F sharp. The next one is another semitone. So he jumped in G. Then we have a 1.5, which means we skip over G-sharp, we skip over eight, we go straight to a sharp. Really weird, I know. And then we skip a saint, we go a whole tone for the last one. So we skip over B and we go straight to see, right? And that's the blue scale. If, oop, if you're playing starting from C and finishing on the C, looks really weird. It looks really random. But it's just this weird pattern that produces this beautiful jazzy sound. Right? Now let's go on the piano so we can hear it together and see how jazzy time. So we're going to start from S0 and finish on an xy. And this is how the blues scale goes. Hopefully you can hear the resemblance to jazz music. I'm going to play one more time, this time a little bit faster. So it really just feels like jazz. And obviously we can play this with starting on any note as long as we just keep up this pattern. However, it is one of those patterns that it's really hard to remember. And let's go back on the notepad so I can talk a little bit more about how we can best remember the jazz Pat. All right, so what do we do about this pattern here? Right? So there is no, there is a known starting note that is going to give us all of these on just natural notes. It's just impossible, right? Especially given the fact that we have two semitones after each other. That means that there's always going to be at least some notes with accidentals no matter where we started, right? So what that means is we just have to memorize this. There is no other way to remember this one, but that's okay because this is really the only scale that we're learning together that really there's no easy way to memorize. So you know what? You can memorize this one, it'll be fine. Just remember 1.5551.511, right? One thing that I would point out to you is the first two is the same as last two. That's the best pattern and I can give you There's not much else going on. So just remember we have 1.512 half's and then repeat the first two One-half 1 again, right? That's the best way that you can remember. That's how I remembered. It. Just go Y a 1.5 and we have two semitones, 1.51 again. Okay? And that's the jazz scale. And no matter where we start, obviously the same pattern of flies and it always sounds jazzy, right? So again, like I mentioned before, the blue scale is a very important skill. It might not be for you if you're, let's say a violin player, you're probably not gonna be playing jazz music all that often. But if you have a jazz instrument, whether you play saxophone or a trombone, or if you play the piano or something like that, then obviously the glue scale is a very important skill to learn. And I believe that pretty much all of those instruments to cover the blue scale quite a bit. And you have to learn how to play it. And you've gotta be dealing with a lot of songs that are based around the blue scale. Alright, so just remember this pattern that we have over here, right? 1.5551.511. And that's how we get the blue scale out of it. Okay, So I'll practice this one a couple of times. A good practice is to just try to remember the pattern, just like sit on front of a piano, tried to remember it. If you have a piano at home, maybe, maybe try playing on it just from memory, just try it out, see if you can lay down the pattern. That way. We talked about again, number the pattern is right here, 1.5551.511. Okay, and if you forget it, you can just come back to this video and look at the pattern one more time, okay? And try to remember this, okay, so practice with a couple of times so that you can get a good grasp of what the pattern is, okay, because it's a very important skill to learn and there's no easy way to learn it. That's pretty much it about the blue scale. And now let's move on to our next. 21. The Octatonic Scales - Music Theory: Alright, in this video we're going to learn the octet tonic scale. And the architectonic scale is a scale that is quite easy to remember because the pattern goes semitone, whole tone, semitone, whole tone, semitone. Hold on, so we don't want, so we're basically alternating between semitones and whole tones. So semitone, whole-tone. And we just keep alternating. So that's the pattern right there. And that's obviously pretty easy to remember. And the architectonic scale is also a skill that is used quite a lot in composition and producing music, but by specific composers more than all, I put two of the names right here, Stravinsky and Bartok. These are the ones that are most famous for using the atomic scale a lot in your compositions, but are definitely other composers who use it as well. It's not the most used scale of alzheimer or anything like that, but it definitely is one that we need to know because we're probably going to encounter some architectonic skills at some point when we play our instruments. So let's go on the keyboard and look at how the pattern plays out. Let's try the same thing we've been trying with all the skills they're just trying to see. So that would be on the tonic C. And the way it goes is that we start from the sea. First one has to be semitones, so we go to C sharp, put this over here. C, C-sharp. Next one has to be whole tone. So next it was a D-sharp. The next one has to be a semitone. So that gives us the IEP, and we'll alternate again to a whole tone. We jump over F, we go straight to F sharp. The next R has to be a semitone, so we jump to G, the end, we all turn it to a whole tone. So we jumped over G-sharp and go straight to a, rather I should here. And then the next one is a semitone. So we go over here on a sharp. And of course the last one is a whole tones. We jump over B and we go straight to see. And there we have our OCT atomic scale. And as you notice, we have eight unique notes for the architectonic scale, hence the name architectonic. As you guys know, Okta is a prefix, which means eight. And that's why the scales got like ketonic because we have eight different notes in the scale. Now, let's go on the piano and hear how the architectonic skill sounds like. All right, so we're going to start from S0 and end on an xy. I'm going to play one more time. This time little bit slower or faster, I should say. And there we have the architectonic scale. Now again, the atomic scale is best as it's easiest to remember their timescale by just memorizing this pattern that we have, the semitone, the whole tone, all trading. And just keep in mind that the first one has to be a semitone, okay, so it's not the whole tones and semitones reading it's the semitone and hold to an alternating. Okay? So this is a common mistake that people make in trying to remember the octet on Excel. They think, Oh, the first one has to be a whole tone, so they go from C to D or something. And then the next one is a semitone. Know, it's not like that. The first one is a semitone. And you can just remember, if you start a scene next, all B, C-sharp, right? So that'll help you remember at the semitone. And then the second one is a whole tone, and then we keep alternating for the rest of it. Okay? So that's the pattern of Young's tonic scale. It's a good idea to also tried to see if you can just recall this from memory. Specifically recalling that the first one is a semitone, not a voltage. Okay? So just take a look at some piano keys, see if you can replicate this scale on it. And that's pretty much it. Let's move on to the next video. 22. Simple Time - Music Theory: All right. It's time to talk about time signatures. And we're going to start with simple time. Now, we're gonna talk about what simple time isn't a second. But let's just start with time signature itself. So we already talked about how we have measures and bar lines and everything. And of course, the time signature is what we have over here right next to the key signature. The time signature basically tells us what we can expect in each of these bars, okay? And how we're dividing, and how, what kind of notes we can expect as far as how long each of the nodes are. Of course. Now, as you can see, the time signature has two numbers on it. That the time signature or that it has two different numbers. The bottom number tells us how we're dividing. Basically that whole notes, right? So for example, that would top number tells us how many beats we have in each measure. So I'm just going to write number of meats. And then the bottom one is going to tell us what each of those bits mean. Beats. I'm just gonna write it like that. Alright, so a top number tells us how many beats we can expect in each measure. And then the bottom one, it tells us what that means, right? So for example, in this case of the 22, the top two means that we have two beats in each measure. The bottom one tells us how we're dividing the whole tone and how we're dividing that into different lengths. So we haven't number 2, that means that we're taking that, that whole tone and we're basically dividing it into 2.5 domes. So that means that we have, when we have 22, that means that we have two beats and each beat is a halftone. All right, hopefully that makes sense. Now, 22 is also written as this symbol right here, which is also called cut time. And this is so it's not confused with 404. 404 is a little bit different, right? So 44 and 22 might sound the same. And yes, they both have four beats in each measure. But the difference is, I'm just going to go through it real quick here, is that for, has four beats in each measure, and each of those are quarter notes. Right? Now, this ends up being the same, obviously, because we're just quarter notes. And this ends up being the same because four quarter notes is the same as 2.5 notes. But just musically it's going to be different. Okay, so that's why it's important for us to have both the numbers. Let's take a look at 24. So 24 means we have two beats in each measure and each of the beats is a quarter note, right? So basically in a way, think of it this way. Two quarter notes in each measure. If that helps you a little bit better. Now, let's take a look at simple triple time, all right? Of course to triple signifying the top number. When we have 32, again, think of it the same way. We have 3.5 notes, right? The top-down were being how many bits we have. The bottom number telling us how we are dividing the whole tone and what kind of a beat we can expect what are betweens, right? So if we have 20 at the bottom, that means our beats is a half note. All right, let's take a look over here. We have 34. That means that basically again, three quarter notes, the top number being how many beats, want a number telling us what each beat means? In this case, it means a quarter note. 38. 38, floods, 316. Again, as you can see, we have a lot of 16th notes here. Three 16th notes. All right, So hopefully that all makes sense so far. Now, one thing to keep in mind is what's, this? Confirmation also implies? It implies a one. We have three beats in each measure. We also can have this expectation that the first beat has to be a strong beat and the next two are weaker. All right, so for the, for the other ones where we had two beats in each measure, the first one was strong and the second was week. For these muscle, we have three. The first one is strong, other two are weaker. Right? Now. Going to quadruple time for two again, let's see if we can figure it out. It's for half notes. 44, we talked about this earlier. It's four quarter notes. And it's also shown by this symbol right here, which is called the common time. Alright, so we have the cut time beforehand with a similar symbol. But for the cut time, it kind of look like this. And that's, that was cut time for Collins on we have this thing, so basically we just don't have this thing in the middle. That's, that's all it is. For aids. Obviously for eighth notes. For 16 is 4, 16 dots. Alright? And another thing to know about the moon, we have four beats in a measure is that in this case, the first one is strong. Second one is a weak. Third one is medium and strength. So it's not weak, but it's not as strong as the first one. And then the fourth one is weak, strong, weak, medium week. So that's how it goes for when we have four beats in a measure. Alright, so that was a simple time. We just covered all the different areas. Again, anytime you see a time signature, you just need to remember that the top number means, is that basically telling you how many beats we have in each measure. The bottom number is telling you what kind of a beat we have, right? So if it's an eighth of the bottom, that means that each beat is an eighth note. Alright? And the four beats in a measure means we have 4 eighth notes in each measure, or an equivalent of that. Alright, so hopefully that all makes sense, and I'll see you in the next video. 23. Assignment #3 - Course Project: It's time to go over Assignment 3. If you haven't done it yet, make sure you go ahead and download the file, do the assignment, and then come back here to check your answers with me. Okay, so let's go through the answers. Let's start with this question. At time signatures to the following melodies, right? So first thing that we need to do is that we need to figure out what constitutes a beat in each of these, because remember 4 time signature, we have two numbers, right? You have a number of top and bottom is not sharp, it's just a number sign. And a number at the bottom tells us what a beat means. What is a beat? Number at the top tells us how many beats per measure. Alright, so let's go through it over here. And the best way to see what a b is in each of these musics as to see how a smaller notes are combined together, right? So for example, here we have four 16th notes grouped together. This grouping tells us that the smallest beat in this song is basically quarter notes, right? Because you see there are grouped into forming a quarter note, or at least the same length as a quarter note, I should say. So that means that the beat, each beat is equal to a quarter note. So we put a four at the bottom. Right. Now, let's go through how many bits we have PRE measure. So this is the first measure. We have three beats here and one bit here. Three plus one gives us four. So that's a 404. Or another way to write 44 is by putting the sign at the very top. Either one's fine. Let's take a look at the next one by Brahms. Now, this one is a little interesting, right? So at first, you may be wondering, well what is going on here, but this is a telltale sign right here. So this is telling us that the smallest, as we can see by the grouping, the smallest beat is an infinite. So that means that we have an eight at the bottom. And then let's see how many eighth notes we have per each of these measures. We have 3 plus 1, that's 4 and the same all over the place again at the 3 plus 1, 3 plus 1. So that's basically what we have, right? So we have a 4 8 on to the next one. Now here, the smallest Beta we have is a half-note. So we have a two at the bottom and have any of those when we have a PRE measure, we have 123, so we have 32 over here. Hopefully it's pretty simple so far. Now, over here, the smallest beats that we see is a quarter note. So we're going to take the four. And again we have four of those PRE measures. Let me actually write the other side. So this is a 44, but also denoted by this sign right here. All right, looking good so far. On the next one by Mozart. This one. Again, let's take a look at the groupings here. This grouping, that grouping, that grouping, especially this one, this one tells you, I guess they could have combined these together, but they haven't. The grouping shows that these are each one beat, right? So that's one beat, That's one beat. And basically the smallest speed is a coordinate. So we have a four at the bottom. And now let's take a look. How many of them do we have per measure, we have 123. So we have a 34. Right? Next one is from Verdi. And in this one, the smallest that we can see is an eighth note. However, this one is a little bit of a tricky one because if you look at it, in each bar, we have four quarter notes, right? Which would mean 8 eighth notes. So you would think this is an 88 or something like that, right? But as you remember, we went through all the time signature and we don't have anything such as Eight Eight. So because of that, it just ends up being the simpler version, which is the 44, right? So I know that sounds a little confusing, but we actually don't have an 88 we just used for forest, right? So for that reason, even though this current looks like an 8 8 because of these smaller divisions, I remember we can still have a 44 and have the smaller divisions, right. It's not disallowed for us to do that. It's just that if we have let's say a 4, 8 or 24 or something, and this is our smaller division would rather go with 4, 8 then 4, 2 or 24 or I should say. But when it's just 44, then we just go with the 404 and there is no Eight, Eight or anything like that. So let's just use this symbol right here. And as you can see, we have four quarter notes in each measure as well. Over here we have the smallest measure as a half doubt. That's two. And of course you have two of them. So that's a 22. All right. Add bar lines. The following hour is according to time signatures. Yeah, 32. That means that we have three antinodes. So 1, 2, 3, but about line there, 1, 2, 3. To put a bar line there, 123 bar line there, and then 123. Over here. It's a 404. So 123412341234. And then last four right there. 34. That means we have three beats. At each of the beats are quarter notes. We have 1.52 and then 3.512, and then 3123. And then last three right there. Nice one from Handel. It's another 4, 4, 4, 4 is pretty much the easiest one. So 123412341234. So that's the one. Just to be clear, that's oops. That's too. There we go. That's three and that's for the four over here a little bit, so it's a little more clear. And then at the very end we have 1.55234. All right. Hopefully that makes sense. Thanks. One is 34, so we have 1.55231231 to three. And then the last three obviously. And just be aware that these triplets, they're all each one worth, right? So it's like taking one meets and breaking it into three. That's what defines a triplet. Now, the last one is a 24, which means we have two quarter notes per, per measure, so that's one right there. That's 2121212. Perfect. And the last one is a 48. So we have 4 eighth notes, 12341234 right there. And then we have 1234 over here. And then 1, 2, 3, and 4 at the very end. All right, on to the last exercise, we're adding time signatures to the following melodies. Again, we look for the smallest beat that we have. Obviously it's an eighth note here. So even in the bottom and we have three of those and every measure, so that's 38. Thanks One, we have eight nodes, but the eighth notes look at this. There are grouped in very interesting ways. We have four of them grouped at each instance. Now what that means is that the smallest bit is actually not a quarter note. It's a half-note because look at the way they're grouped. They're grouped in half notes, right? In at least the same length as a half notes. So that tells us that this is a 20 at the bottom. And obviously we have two of those twos in each measure, so that's a 22. Also. For those of you who know this, you can also write 22 this way because it's also called cock time, right? It's like a 44. That's a little bit grouped a little bit differently than 44, but it basically has the same number of same number of same length of notes, I should say in it. But it's just grouped as far as half notes instead of their quarter notes. And X one from Vivaldi. Again, look at the groupings right here. This is very telltale. This is grouped in a quarter, not right. So that tells us this four at the bottom. And let's see how many of those do we have? We have 1, 2, 3, and 4. So this is a 44 bar. We could also write it. As such. I'll just write the symbol. It's good to get used to knowing all the symbols because we're going to see the Somoza lot actually like when you've actually play music, you're going to encounter this much more than this. So the symbols are very important to know. All right. Now this one is fun divorce Jack. It's grouped a little weirdly. This one. You see I have this grouping here, but then add this grouping and then you have this weird grouping where it's all grouped in these cases where it's really weird and it's hard to tell what is going on. It's just best to just stick to the normal way of timing it. And that's a 34. And because we have three quarter notes per, per each of these measures, you could probably write it in a different way, but it just gets too weird and confusing. So it's just best to stick to the central one for these ones that are really weird and confusing. Next one is from bottom. Again, look at the groupings. We have groupings worth of a quarter note, and I have four of them. So that's another four for the next one is from Schubert. And yep, pretty much the smallest one is the quarter notes, and there's three of them, so that's 34. And last but not least, this one. You shouldn't look at the first one because that's a pickup right? Now. If pick up if you don't know, is basically when we take something from the very end and put it at the very beginning, it's a very common technique in music. We don't have to learn that right now. I just want to let you know like what this says. If you'd like, feel that's a little weird. That's because it's a little bit of a different technique that is used. It doesn't really have much to do with the timing for the rest of the song. So don't worry about that at the beginning. Focus on the other measures. And as you can see here, at the smallest breakdowns that we have is a quarter note. And we have worth four of those in each of these bars. So this is just the 44. All right. So hopefully that all made sense. If you have any questions again, if you need clarification, feel free to let me know. But a lad, That's pretty much it. And I'll see you in the next video. 24. Compound Time - Music Theory: All right, so now let's talk about compounds. So compounds time is a little bit more confusing then just simple time. And compounds time. The basic beat is a dotted note. All right, so we no longer have a beat that is a quarter note, half note, or an eighth note. Now it has to be a dotted notes, right? So whether it's a dotted quarter note, dotted half notes are what I view, right? So the type signatures will be a little bit more weird. And they are actually going to be in 69 or 12 or something along those lines, right? In compound duple time, there are two beats in each measure. As we talked about before. Of course, a beat is a group of three pulses, and it's represented by a dotted note. The upper number of time signature is always six, which indicates that each measure contains six pulses, right? Now. Again, keep in mind that these pulses are a little bit different than beads. When we have six pulses, that means that we basically have two beats. And the reason for that is because remember, we're saying each of these is a dotted note. So each of these bits, one bit is equal to a dotted note, which means it has to be 1.5 off something. Alright? So in order to make it a little bit easier, instead of having to 1.5, we'll just do it three up something, right? So for example, if it was 1.5 of a quarter notes, and make it 3 eighth notes, if that makes sense. Okay. So when we have 64, what that means is we have six pulses of quarter notes, right? Which really that means we have two beats of half notes. All right? But because we want to make it a little bit easier, we break it down into 1.5, and we end up with six pulses of quarter notes. All right, Now let's talk about 6, 8. What does 16? It has six pulses of endnotes. Right? So, so kinda something similar. It's basically two beats of a quarter note. But in order to make it little bit easier to understand because it's a dotted notes. We translated into six pulses of eight notes. And then 616 is six pulses of 16th notes. All right? And that's going to compound triple time, which means that instead of six we have nine at the top. 94, Again, something similar, 9 pulses of quarter notes, 98, which would be nine pulses of eighth notes. And of course nine-sixteenths, which would be nine pulses of 16th notes. And then for the quadrupole, we will end up with 12 bosses. So we have 12 postures of quarter notes, 12 pulses of eighth notes, and 12 pulses of 68 groups. Okay? So if we, That makes sense. And of course, because we are changing the basics of how we're dealing with time drastically and we're making the daughter note the base of our divisions basically. Now we're going to end up with a lot of irregular groups, right? So for example, if we break out of the dark notes and we decide to break a dotted note down into two instead of three. We could have a duplet, right? So that basically means that we're taking a 1.5 beat and we're breaking that down into two. So each of them is basically like points 75 over beat, right? And of course this is a little bit more confusing stuff. And I just wanted you to guys to know about this. But you don't have to learn these. Okay, So these, what I'm about to talk about right now, everything we've talked about so far is important to learn, but everything that we talk about right now in the next minute or so. These are just for your information. These are not stuff that you need to know, right? But this is what it is. If you ever see these irregular groups, that's what they are. And quadruplets is when we break that down into four. A quintuplets is when we break it down to five. And we have other cells or sex tuplets and setup like right. So you don't need to know these guys. These are just fun stuff to know about. You barely ever going to see them. If you do. It's mostly in modern music because there's a lot more extra orientation and doing weird stuff and modern music, but especially in a lot more classical musics, these are just never found. Okay? So these are all stuff that you need to know about. You never going to be examined about any of this stuff and theory exams. But I just wanted you guys to see that when we change the base of how the notes work. Now all of a sudden, we cannot have groups of two. And if we do, it's going to be this weird thing, right? It's going to be a duplet. It's going to be 0.75 beats or whatever. So just want you to understand that once we set the base of it as a compound time, that everything is compound going forward and everything is based on the dotted note, right? So anytime you see a 64 or a 68 or nine, 16th or what have you. That's what it means. It means that we are in this compound times. And the way it works is that we're dealing with pulses instead of beats. And the way the pauses work is as we described before. Yes. Okay, So that's the stuff that you need to know. These irregular groups There's fontanelle about, but nothing crazy about them. You don't need to memorize them or anything. All right, So hopefully that made sense and I'll see you in the next video. 25. Assignment #4 - Course Project: All right, It's time to look at the assignments number four. If you haven't tried it yourself, go ahead and try it out. And once you're done, come back here so we can check our answers together. Now, the first question is asking us to add the bar lines to the following melodies. So let's take a look at the key signature and the type signature over here. So we have 98, which means we have nine pulses of eighth notes. Alright, so we get a nine, that's three, that's six, that's nine. You put a bottom line, right? That's 3, 6, 9 bar line. And then of course we have nine at the very end. All right, so nothing too crazy that the next one is three pulses of eighth notes. So we gotta take a look here. We have a half, another one, another one and another half. So this together makes three. Same thing over here. That's a three. And the same thing over here. We have a 1.51 and then two quarters. So altogether makes it three. Next one up, we have 12 pulses of 16th notes. So let's count the 16th notes. That's 3, 6, 9, 12. And then another 12 after that. Perfect. Next one is six pulses of quarter notes. So that's three right there. That's another 3234563456. All right. It all checks out. Next one up, 969 pulses of 16th notes, I should say. So we have 1, 2, and 3, 4, 5, and 6, 7, 8, 9. So that makes up the first one. It's a little confusing the way they've written this, but it's all good with 2, 3, and then this is three 16th notes, right? Because it's a dotted eighth note. So that's six. That's 9, 10, 11, 12. It was nine. Sorry. I thought it was 12 hours. I get my bad. There we go. So we just put over that 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9. And of course we should have nine left over here. Let's just check it out. 2, 3, 6, and 9. Perfect. So it all checks out. Next one up, six pulses of 16th notes. So let's take a look. We have 2356. Very nice. 2, 3, 5 and 6. 2, 3, 5 and 6. Looking good so far. And then we have six development. Perfect. Next one up, six positive eighth notes, or eighth notes, I should say, not 18th notes. They'll be funny. So we have three over here. Now, the three, that's 63 over here, three over here, another 6336. And we should have 3D and three left over which we do. Perfect. And the last one, this question, we have nine pulses of eighth notes. Let's take a look. This is a rest for a quarter notes. So that's 2 eighth notes, that's 35689 to three. And then, so this is 33 quarter notes worth, which is 6 eighth notes worth. So that will be nine. Perfect. Again, we have 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, and 9. And we should have nine leftover, 23, and this was six. So there we go. Perfect. Objects out onto the next question, which is a little bit of a tougher question. And last when Maslow was pretty cut and dry, It was pretty simple. But this one might be a little challenging. So let's go through this one together. Now. It's asking us to add time signatures to these one measure rhythms. And the key thing here is that they say it may be in simple time or compounds time, right? So we have both simple and compound town at the time I play here. So we have to identify first if it's a simple time where a compound time, and then we can go ahead and figure out what's going on here. Alright, so let's take a look at the first one. The first one, it already looks like a simple time to me because I don't see any groupings of three or six or anything like that. We have. So this is an eighth note, another 80. So that's a group of 2 eighth notes worth of material. I know that's three notes technically. But as far as the value of it, for example, you don't have three of the same value if that makes sense, right? We have something like that over here, which we'll talk about in a second, but let's focus over here for a second. So we have an eighth note, an endnote, and then a quarter notes over there, right? So this the way the grouping has happened here is what's leading me to believe it's 24 if the grouping was not like this, for example, if there was no tail over here in this, I felt was separate from the rest, then this could have been the 48 or something like that. But because of the grouping, this has to be 24. Yeah, this has to be 24. Onto the next one, we have a grouping of three. So this is compound time. It has to be because it's three group together, right? And then another grouping of three over here. So this just looks like 6 eighth note per six pulses of eighth notes, which would give us 6 8. Remember these are all one single measure, right? So we have eighth notes as ours pulse and we have six of them, 1, 2, 3, and then another three over here. So that's x. All right, Onto the next, we have a grouping of three 16th notes. So it has to be Compound time and it's the 16th note has to be our pulse will just put 16 down there. And let's see how many 16th notes we have here. We have 2234569, right? So that has to be a nice 16th. Onto the next. This one again, look at the grouping. This does not look like compound time, right? This looks like symbol time. And the way the grouping is done, it suggests that the beat is a quarter note. So we put a four down there. And let's see how a quarter notes we have here. We have a 1.5 to 2.53 and then four. All right, so that's just a 404. Or you could just put this symbol there. Either one works on to the next. Again, take a look at what's happening over here. The groupings, especially this one, this one might be a little confusing at first, at first glance at least. But this one is pretty clear. The one over here. It's pretty clear. Pretty clear, cut and dried. This has to be simple time. Now, it does look like our smallest denominator is. An eighth note at the grouping is a little weird. Let's take a look at the grouping over here. So that's a grouping of so we have quarter and a half, so that makes up 0.75. And that's one. And same thing over here. We have a 1.5 group to get the right. So this has to be a 34. All right, for this one, our smallest value is the halftone. So we're just going to put a two and we have three of those here. So that's a 32. Pretty simple. All right, onto this one. So this one, it's a little tough to call if it is a compound time or simple time, because we do have these three here, but we don't see the grouping, right? We don't see something quite drastic like this where they have tails and they're all in the same group, which we can tell immediately. But if you just take a look at what's going on here, our smallest value is a quarter notes, and we have six of them, right? 123456 and 64. We know that that is a compound time time signature, I should say. So that's how we figured out it's a compound time we catch really just tell by seeing this because it's not telling us much about the grouping. But just by counting and seeing what's going on here, we can tell that it's a compound XY. All right, Onto the next. Let's see what we've got here. So again, this is the AMI immediately does this, this is compound time that we're dealing with here. And are all these are policy is an eighth note. And let's see how many of those we have. We have 346789, 10, 11, 12. So we have 12, eight. Now this one, again, it's a little tough to immediately say, is this a compound time or is this a simple time? So what we, what we can do for these ones where the smallest one is a quarter note, we just put that quarter notes as either are better. Our pulse, we're about to find out. And just capitalists, you what's going on. So we have to 345678, right? So we have an 84, so nothing crazy here. It's a really normal simple tech. Now this one, our smallest beat or pulse, is a 16th note. Now the grouping is not clear because obviously we don't have 368 felts in a row to see what's going on, what's happening with them. So again, let's just count and see how many of them we have. We have 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, right? So 663, we already know that. Compound time, time signature. So that's going to be a compound time right there. Here we can see the grouping immediately jumps out at us. So we already know this is a compound time. Our policies of 16th notes, we have 3, 6, 9 over here. So that's a 9, 16. On to the next one. We have, again, nothing clear. The smallest one we have is a quarter note. So what we're gonna do is we're just going to put the 4 there and just kept 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. And we know that 124 is a compound time time signature. So there we have it. That's a compound time right there. Now, this one, again, I can immediately see this is the same as just having 3 eighth notes in the same group together, right? So from that grouping we can immediately see that this is likely compound time. Now, we gotta pick between eighth notes or 16th notes. And the reason why we're not going to pick 16th notes as our pulse, and we're rather going to pick the eight note is because of the grouping, right? This grouping is equivalent to having 3 eighth notes. Whereas if the smallest pulse was a 16th note, we wouldn't have the grouping like this, right? We would only have groupings like this. We'd only have those groupings, right? We wouldn't have these groupings. So the reason that we have a grouping similar to this tells us that our smallest pulse is an eighth notes or 16th notes. I hope that makes sense. I know it might be a little confusing, but hopefully you kind of seeing why it's an eighth note because of this structure that we're seeing right here. And let's just count. That's three, that's 456, and another three. So this is a 9, 8. Perfect. Now this one, this one might confuse you for a second because you say, oh, three grouped together, right? But wait a second. What is that three up there, right, That's triplet sign. So a triplet, if you don't know, is basically a way to break out of simple time into compounds on for a split second. So in a song where you have normal time or simple time, I should say, if you want to just have one element of compound type, rear its ugly head for a second there. Triplet is where you use, you just group them into three and you put a three up top, which means that divide that quarter note into 3 eighth notes, which are not really eighth notes. It's like a third of the quarter note for each of them, right? So if you see this three at the very top to speak where that this is a sign of a triplet, which means this is happening in a simple time. But they want to emulate the feeling of compound on just for this one instance, right? So this is rather one quarter notes in two coordinates, so this has to be 24. All right. Hopefully you got this one correct if you got it wrong, don't worry. It's a very easy one to get food on. Up next, we have this very simple grouping right here. We can see that we have four coordinates grouped together. And the same thing is happening over here. So this should be pretty easy to guess what's going on. It should be a 34. Because again, the grouping, this is a grouping of a quarter notes, if that makes sense, right? So at point out is our smallest beat, and we have three of those. So it is a compound, but not the way we thought. It's a compound for. Or actually it's a simple time when we're talking about Scratch that. It's a simple time. All right, Onto the next. We have, what do we have over here? Okay, so again, we have the smallest value is a quarter notes, as the grouping suggests. And then we have another quarter notes and other grouping of coordinates. So this is pretty simple. This is just for four. All right? Whoo, somebody is going to be confusing it. All right. Onto the next one. Here. Again, we can see the sign immediately tells us that the groupings are in threes. So this has to be Compound time. Our smallest policy is a 16th notes, so I'll just put that there. And the groupings are correct. C, The grouping is 3 16th notes in a row, right? We don't have any crazy other things going on here. So the pulse has to be a 16th note, and let's see how many of those we have. We have three over here, and another 3 that's 6, and another six that's 12. So this has to be a 1260. Up next we have 6 8. So just to show you what's going on here. Again, this grouping tells us immediately that I remember what I talked about earlier. We have this grouping rather than this kind of grouping. And that's what I can immediately tell, is telling us the smallest pulse is an eight dots rather than a 16th note. And because we have six of them, so we have 23456, this has to be a 6 8. All right? Again, hopefully you can see the difference between this kind of grouping. In this kind of grouping. All right? If you can't, don't worry about it, just you can always rewind, rewind the video where I talked about this, and maybe, maybe that'll help you. All right. The last two, Let's go over those. So again, our smallest beat, our scratch pulse, I should say, is the quarter note. And let's see how many of those we have 2456. So we have six quarter notes of that is a compound time. And over here we have this kind of grouping. It's like this kind of grouping, but what really gives it away is the triplet over here. The fact that we have a triplet means that this has to be simple time. And the groupings, again, this is grouped into the equivalent of a quarter note. Same thing over here. This is grouped into an equivalent of a quarter note, so this has to be 24. All right, so hopefully this all makes sense. I know this can get confusing. Even I sometimes get confused on this stuff. So if you've got confused, don't worry about it off. Just go ahead and tries on outs Maybe if you haven't yet, hopefully you've tried them out already, but if you've got some of them wrong, just go on to see if he can find out why the right answer is the right answer, right. So I know I just walked through all of them, but just go and try to repeat it, right? Because repetition is key in learning anything really, whether it's music or any other scale, repetition is always the best tool that you can use. So just go ahead, see if you can provide justification just like I did right now for every single one that you're doing again. And hopefully that'll help you learn a little bit better. Alright, so, and of course, as always, if you have any questions or if there's any specific thing that you're confused about, by all means, feel free to reach out. I'd be more than happy to clear things up for you. Alright, so hopefully that all made sense and I will see you in the next video. Cheers. 26. Hybrid Meters - Music Theory: Alright, in this video we're going to talk about hybrid meters. Now. Hybrid meter is combine a simple and it compounds, right, to get something a little bit of a hybrid. Now, hybrid meters are used a lot in a lot of African music and stuff like that. A lot of exotic music basically uses hybrid leaders and also a lot in modern music as well. Modern music. Because there is a lot of our export areas when it comes to these kinds of experimental experimentation with things like combining meters together and see what happens. It's something that really excites modern composers. So you see a lot of hybrid meters in modern music as well. So we're just gonna go over it together real quick. Now. We're gonna start with the hybrid duple time. A hybrid duple time is when we have five pulses in each measure. And there are usually a combination of 32. Usually the way it is is that the three is first and then the two comes after. But sometimes we see 23 pattern as well, but mostly it's one, okay? And if you see F5, you can bet some good money that it's going to be 3 first and then to after. All right, so let's go ahead and take a look at what that would look like, right? So for example, we have a 52. What does that mean? We have 5.5 notes, right? Well, the way that works is that it's a combination of this thing right here. We have a compound sign right there. And then over here we have the two, which is just a simple time. Alright? We have 54 over here, which would be five quarter notes. And again, you see it's a combination of this in this, alright, so we have the compound time first and then the simple time. As you can see, the most of these are the three plus two pattern. That is the pattern that you find most often. 58, obviously 58 thirds. And again, the group of three goes first group of two. And then 516, obviously five times 68 dots. And again you can see the three goes first to go second. All right, so now let's go over to the triple time. So duple time was a five. A triple time, which is a combination of three different meters, is seven. Right? Now, there are different ways that this can be grouped. Usually it's grouped as a three plus two plus two. But sometimes you see the other variations to write. But again, most often it's three plus two plus two. So 12312121231212, right? That kind of thing. And of course you can hear the hybrid nature of it, right? So the beginning part is a little bit more different sounding and the rest of it, but because there are cyclical and all works together, right? So 1231212, That's what we have over here. We have 72. So that's 7.5 notes. And as you can see, that's exactly We have three halftone 3.5 nodes versus another 2.5 notes, and I will do afterwards. So in 4, which is 7 quarter notes, again, 1231212. 78, which is 7 eighth notes, 1231212. And then we have 7 16th notes over here with the 716, right? Again, the three At first, the two and the two after. Not sorry about the quadruple time, the hybrid quadruple time. Now, this could be nine, 10, 11, or whatever number, right? The quadruple time is really, really messy. There are many different variations. It could be nine beats in a measure of 10 beats in a measure or 11 beats in a measure. And alone on, we could offer, of course be 2, 4, 8, 16, whatever right? Number. The bottom number only signifies what each beat is and how long each bidders, right? So the bottom number doesn't indicate that it's a hybrid meter. The top number is what indicates it's a, it's a hybrid meter. So over here we have 10 eight, which means that it's 10 eight slots. And again, this could be any combination of twos and threes at the quadruple level, there's really no usual way to do it. You can do whatever you want with them. So over here we have a 3232. So the way this would sound is 1231212312. And then you have that repetition going on there over here of 10 16, which means 10 16th notes. And as you can see, it's grouped and 32, 32, one more time. Over here we have 11, 16, which is 11 16th notes. And the grouping is 3332 over here. So how would 33, 32 sound like? It would sound something like 123123123123123123123123123123123123. You can see how weird that sounds, right? But that's kinda the unsettling nature they're going for with these hybrid meters is it sounds a little off beat. That sounds a lot more exciting. And it's not the normal music that we use, you used to hearing all the time, right? It sounds a little fresh. And then last but not least, we have a 9 8 over here, which is 9 eighth notes. And I can look at, Let's look at the grouping. It's grouped as a 3222. So how would that sound? That would sound 123121212123121212, right? Pretty exciting stuff. So and of course these are just some examples you can make anything you want with the combinations of 9, 10, 11. And the bottom number can be whatever you want and you can make a whole bunch of different exciting stuff with it, right? And again, in modern music, you see a lot of different hybrid meters. Not so much in classical music, but definitely you can find a lot of modern music that uses these, especially African music, a very common thing in African culture to use these kinds of hybrid leaders in their music. So that's all we wanted to cover with the time signatures. Hopefully that all makes sense and I'll see you in the next video. 27. Assignment #5 - Course Project: All right, time to go over the assignment. Again. If you haven't done it yet, make sure you download the file and do it yourself so that you get the practice in before we go over it together. So let's start with the first question. We're adding time signatures to these rhythms. So what we wanna do is we first want to determine the bottom number as you've done before, and then we can determine the top number. And of course these are all hybrid meters. So what we're gonna do first is we're going to look for the smallest pulse. And what I can see here is that the smallest pulse is likely to be a quarter note. Because look at this, this meter right here. It looks very similar to a quarter notes kind of structure. You could argue that maybe are pluses are the eight dots. But this just makes more sense. And if you look at it over here, it would make sense to just have them except for one little detail right there, 10 detail that determines that this is actually not the quarter note is actually not the pulse and it's rather than eighth notes is this thing right here. Take a look at this, right? We have a 1.5, 11 right? Now we don't have such a structure for the hybrid meters bowl we do have is a three-to-two, right? That makes it a seven. In this case, 7 eighth, which would be what we would get if we made our policies. An eighth note, right? So even though it might be confusing, is the pulse and eighth note, or is it a quarter note? What really determines it is the way it's structured. And you can see that just 1.5111 is not possible, right? If the quarter note is the pulse, so the pulse has to be an eighth note. So we put an eight at the bottom, and again we just added them up, right? 3 plus 2 plus 2, that gives us seven. So this is a 7, 8. Next one, again, we see something kinda similar. Now in this case, if it was a quarter note but it worked, Let's take a look. We would have three plus two that would work, right? And again, the grouping doesn't suggest otherwise. So this looks like we can confidently say that the quarter notes are pulses. So there'll be afford. And let's look at a structure. We have 3 plus 2, which gives us 5. So this will be 54. The next one. Let's determine the pulses again. We, let's first take a look at what would happen if we took the pulse as an eighth note. Don't we take a look at what happens if we take it as a 16th notes, right? If we take it as an eighth note to look at the structure here, we have a 1.5, One, One, One, right? Again, we don't have such structure, so an eighth note doesn't really fit here as a pulse status. But if we take it as a 16th note, let's see what happens here. We get three, we get two, we get 3, 2. And remember we did have this, this was the 10, 3 plus 2 plus 3 plus 2, right? So we determined that the pulse is a 16th note. So we place a 60 at the bottom and then 3 plus 2 plus 3 plus 2, that's 10. So this is a 10 16 onto the next one. Again. Let's take the Quarter note as a pulse once and then let's take eighth-note as a PaaS, and I'm going to try and 16th note as well. If we take the it's known as possible, just look at the first one. We have 1.5 and then one. Well, we don't have such a thing. It would take an eighth-note as a pulse. We have 212, right? You could argue that's a 32, but is that what it does? Well, this one really helps us determine a little bit more. We can see 302. So if you sometimes are not sure if this is a thing, you can just look at the other measures. And if one of the measures going forward, this credit stat, then you can retract and try to find out a better way to do it. Let's take a look at this one. We also have 32, even though the groupings are weird, but we'll get to that in a second about what really determines this is incorrect is over here, right. Over here we have a 23, right? And I know that 2 plus 3 is the same as 3 plus 2. They're both five. But remember, when we determine the structure to structure remains the same, we can't change it like in the fourth bar, right? So if the structure is 32, as it has been over here, over here, over here, we can't always want to make a 23 for this one, right? So that's where it really falls apart. Also the groupings here, we're not helping us, right? If this was truly a 32, this is some weird grouping going on here, right? So what is more likely to be happening here is the 16th note. Let's take a look at the 16th them. Right? Now. What we need to do is we, we poke some holes into the eighth note argument. Let's see if we can poke some holes into the 16th note arguments, and we can figure out what's going on. The 16th or argument would have US and a 4, 2, 2, 2. So you look over here to the group together. So you could say it's a six. Let me actually do this one too. They're grouped together, so that's afford, this is a 6 4 which could still fit for purpose t2 plus 4. This would be a six to two. This will be 4, 6, right? So this one doesn't make sense either. So what do we do here? Right? So the eighth-note be at a wall, the 16th note, we hit a wall. What is going on here, right? So it has to be one of the two. And now the reason why I would still go with the eighth note over the 16th note. And again, I know this is kind of confusing because it's really hard to like there is no telltale sign that tells you this is what it is, right? But here to me, it's notes makes the most sense as a pulse, even though we poke some holes into it earlier. The reason why it makes sense is that the groupings, even though they're weird, there's still making an H dot right there, still combining into an eighth note. And what could be happening here is we have a little bit different structure, right? So instead of having the structure that we're going for, we could have a 212. And over here we have a 3, 2, 3, 1, 1. And over here we have a 23, right? What could be happening here is that our structure is a 32. So 32 here, it's just that over here because it's an eight float. We're not able to group it with this, right? So it looks kinda off. And again, they usually put the stuff in here to throw us off a little bit, which is kinda fun. But really what really was causing us a problem earlier on and was causing us to go on the wrong path. And I kind of followed along with it to just show you how you can just overthink their stuff and go down a wrong path is over here, right? And the last one, now we talked earlier about what this doesn't fit the pattern of regard for, except consider this. What if we actually wanted to have an eighth quarter note and then we want to have three beats together. All right, we would still write it in this fashion. So that is, that is not the same structure that we're having the form, but it gives you the structure. If we had that structure or I should put it this way. Actually. If we had this structure, we'd have a 32, right? And look, they'll kind of look like this one over here, right? So really what the problem is over here is the fact that we've kinda breaking this up and we've changed it around. And that could be a little confusing. And we're not supposed to do this. But this is something that sometimes musicians do in order to kinda create a disruption and the rhythm. So this one is an eighth as a pulse, even though it could look really confusing, this is a 58, but it does look a little confusing when you get down to it. The next one up. Let's take a look at this one. This one looks pretty simple. I can already tell it's a 16th as a as a pulse. And hopefully you can to, if not, just look at this first one, we have a group of three, groups of three, group of three Guba to right? Easy-peasy. You can just immediately tell it to 16th note that we're dealing with here. And of course a structure and 33, 32, which adds up to 11. So this isn't 1116, right? This one was a simple one. I like last one, which was really confusing and we had to go in loops and see what works. What doesn't. This one was rather simple. Over here. Again, this one looks rather simple. If we take it as an quarter notes, which I'm pretty sure it is, because I can just tell by looking at it. This would be a three, this will be 2s, but YouTube, right? Hopefully you can see this too. If you can't see it, don't worry about it. Just try to look for it right? Chart to look for loose three and twos. Because remember in a hybrid meter, we're combining threes and twos to create something different, right? We're combining threes and twos to create five is great, sevens, eights. So it's really important to be on the lookout for some sort of a combination of three and 2s with some sort of a smaller division, right? So as soon as I see this, I immediately see three-to-two of quarter notes, and that's exactly what it is. So this is a 74. Next one up. Again, remember the same thing we talked about, finding a college and threes and twos. I can already see three comma 32 of 16th notes, and the same applies over here. 32 plays over here, all right, and again the groupings are checkout. So this is also pretty straightforward. 560. Next one up. Again, I can already see the eighth notes. Kind of threes and twos combinations. So this would be three, this will be two, this will be two, this will also be two, right? So again, this is an eighth-note as a pulse. And we have 32, 22. Which would add up to nine. So this is the 98. All right, Onto the next one. And this one we are rewriting these following rhythms, grouping the notes according to the time signature, add bar lines. All right, so we're going to group them in the way that we want. And we're also going to add more lines, right? So the first one up is a 788. And the most common way to represent seven in 78 is to have 3, 2, 2, 2, right? So we're just going to add 32 to Tuesday, three-to-two. That's the best, most commonly in the best way to represent salmon. So we'll discuss thick that, right? So we're gonna write 7, 8 over here again. And we're just going to group them in a three to a two. So that was a three to two. So that's where we place our first bar line. Next one up. We already have the three right there. We have the two. And then we have the two group together. Next one up, we need to make up 31st. That's a three, that's our x2. And that is our next two. Next one up. This is R3. Scores last two being the small ones, dessert and dessert to, right? So that one was pretty straightforward. Hopefully I made sense. Next one up, we have five-sixteenths notes, so our smallest pulses of 64, including five of them and then 5s. Remember, the most common way to do it, and the way we're going to do it as a three plus two. So again, just write 516. We add up three together. And into my eye I'm just going to put the you don't have to put the bar lines at the top. I just do them so I can keep track of where I am in the writing process. And you can do that too if you want, but you don't have to. And then the next one up, That's our three, that's our two. Links. One up, That's our three. That's our two. And of course the last one, pretty straightforward, which is group 32 together. And there we have it. Up. Next we have 11, 8, 11, 8. So we're grouping 11 positive aids. And the most common way to do 11, there are actually a couple of ways, but I think the most common way is just three plus three plus three plus 2123123123123123123123123. That's kinda the most common way. But you could put two in the third place or in the second place too. But like usually, I believe this is the most common way. So we're just gonna stick that 11, 8. And we're going to have three notes together and just group them up top so it's a little bit easier to keep track. That's three, that's three, that's two. There we go. It's going to implement this. The bottom here. Next up we have, that's 12312312312. Next up we have 1, 2, 3. This Ghani kinda crowded here, but we're going to try our best. And then the first four are double. There we go. Another three and another three and another two. Space. Looks like I might will try to squeeze it in. And now we have 3332 at the very end. So we have three, I'm scattered to squeeze it all. N 3, 3, and then 2 at the very end. There we go. I, wow, that was a 10011. After the next one, we have a 10 16, so we just drop that down over here. And for 10, the ways that we could create it. I just think the best way is probably 30 to 32. I believe that so most commonly. So let's just go with that one. So we'll just go 3, 2, 3, 2. Gaba works perfectly, perfectly. So let's consider that. We're not, it doesn't work. You could just change it, right? If you see that in the music, he repeatedly saying, for example, you're seeing three plus two plus two plus three. You can change it to that, right? But usually the most common way is the way it's written. So three plus two, plus three plus two. Very nice. Next W2, W3, 2, 3, two. Next up we have 3232. And then we have 3, 2, 32. Very nice. So it all worked out. All right, onto the last question at bar lines the following excerpts according to the time signature. Alright, so the first one is a 24. Simple time. So this should be pretty easy. I would just counts too. Beats of coordinates and we put a bar line. So that's one big right there, one. And you can just look at the grouping stood, the groupings also give it away, right? This grouping, That's one, this grouping that's another one right? Next up again, the grouping here, the grouping here. We don't even have to count this one. We do have to count, That's a half and then two quarters, so that makes up one. And then this is a sex tuplets, I believe is the correct term for it. So that's one beat divided into six. But remember, because it's these are 16th notes as a success template, that means that's a eighth note that's been split into six. So just be aware of that. Which basically means that we have is that as I would do this and you see my confusing myself here and I began abusing myself here. Let's take a look at this one more time. So we have 12. Sometimes even I have to take a double take just to make sure I'm getting this right. So if you find yourself getting confused, do not worry at all. Even I get confused sometimes want to, and that's the point of these questions right there trying to get you confused as much as possible. And then we have half and half. And then I oh, I see what's happening here. Okay. So the reason, again, this is what confused me. The reason why this is actually one beat is because it's a six doublet, right? If this was a triplet, that's what it would mean. It would mean that this is an eighth-note split into three 16th notes. But because it's six, it's, Think of it this way, right? Like if you were splitting quarter note into eight different smaller notes, and you would use 16th notes, right? Because x is closer to eight, That's the reason why it is represented as 16th note tails. So this is actually one bead. Yeah, there we go. That makes sense. All right, Onto the next one. We have one beat, one beat, and we have 1.5. And then another one over here. These are the eighth, 8, 30 second notes and make up one. And then we have one at one. Perfect. The last one we just put my knees doubles. Over here. We have a piece by sharpen. And this one is a 34. So still symbol time, but we're counting three, so that's 1, 2, 3 up there. Perfect. This is again the sixth six droplets that we talked about. The I got confused by earlier on. That's one that's 1.5523. Perfect. Over here we have one, we have five, and then we have a six. Perfect. Again, the five same thing applies here. If this was a triplet, we might not have done it this way, but because it's a template and a six doublet, we do it this way. And then 66, and of course the quarter note rest. Perfect. All right, so here we have 1. This is, by the way, this is for, for those of you who don't know the symbol. Hopefully you know the assembled by now though, because this symbol actually is used a lot, you usually see 44 in the music that you like play. Usually just see the symbol. So it's a good idea to start getting used to it. So hopefully you're used to it by now. That's one, that's two, that's three, that's four, perfect. That's 123, that's four perfect. And then 1, 2, 3, and 4. Perfect. And that would last won't put these double bonds. All right, so that was, this is very confusing and very long assignments. Even I had trouble figuring out what was going on over here, but we figured it out together. That's the most important parts. And that was it. Hopefully you were able to follow along. Again if you have any questions or if you need any clarification on this stuff, I know some of these questions were a little confusing and a little tough. So if you need clarification or we just need a little more information, you're not sure what happens on where. You can always ask me, as I always mentioned. So go ahead and do that and I will see you in the next video. 28. Intervals - Music Theory: Alright, in this video we're gonna talk about intervals. Now. An interval is the distance between two notes. Okay? So when two notes, whatever the distance is, that's what we call an interval. When they are played one after another. So let's say we play one note and then we play another note. That's what we call a melodic interval. If we have the two notes played at the same time, we have a harmonic interval. And obviously when we're playing at the same time, we just display them like so, just put them right on top of each other. Now, all the intervals have a specific number, and this number is determined by counting how many we step forward. But that's also including the note that we start at. So let me just clarify this for you right away. So let's say we want to determine the interval between C and G, right? So we go ahead and say, okay, so c itself, we have to also account that that's one. Then we have D, two, then we have E, that's three. And we have F, that's four, and then G is the fifth one. Okay? So make sure that you don't confuse this with how many notes away it is. Because if we did that, we'd say, Okay, that's 123 and then 44 notes away, right? But that's how we communicate intervals. We talk about how many nodes we have to go forward into in order to get to it, including the note that we are at right now. So if we say basically a first, that means the same note. If we see a fift, that means that basically for notes away, if that makes sense. Well, starting from us being number one and number two, number three, number four, and then the fifth would be a G, Okay? So from C to G gives us an interval of a fifth. Okay? And you can see all of them displayed here. And of course all the intervals have a specific name. So if it's the same note, it's what we call a unison. If it's a second, it can be a major or minor second. It's a third. It can be a major or minor third or fourth. Well, it's what we call it perfect fourth. And the reason why we don't call it a major or minor, is because the sound that it produces, it's a very pleasant sound for both the fourth and the fifth. Now there's something in between here, which is what we call an augmented fourth, but we'll talk about that later. Okay, so for now, just focus on these two. We don't have a major or minor between 45 were just have perfect fourth, perfect fifth, and as some, something in between them, which is augmented fourth, which we'll talk about later. The sixth we have the major or minor sixth, seventh we have the major or minor seventh. And for the eighth, instead of just calling it, it would just call an octave. All right, remember we talked about this earlier when we go up to find the same note again, but at a higher pitch, That's what we call an octave. And of course, if we go to an eighth, that is going basically to the same notes, again at a higher page. So it's what we call an octave and we call it a perfect octave. Again, there are no major or minor. When it comes to the octave, it's just a perfect octave. Okay? So let's just run through it one more time to make sure we understood all of it. For the first, the fourth, the fifth, and the eighth, we call those perfect. The second, the third, the sixth, and the seventh. We have both the major and minor. Alright. And obviously the major interval being the larger interval and this minor interval being the smaller interval. All right, So every major interval means that we are basically going in a second. But the largest amount that we can and a minor means that we are, for example, going a second, but they'll smallest amount that we can write. So if we're going in intervals of a second over here, the smallest that we could go to get to a second is by going only a semitone, right? So that's what a minor second would be. The largest that we could go to get to the second note is to go a whole tone. So if we have a whole tone between them, that what the major would be, okay, so hopefully that makes sense. So let's take a look at it here. Let's see how it's displayed. So as you can see, we have the majors again, the minor second, right next to each other. And as you see the minor, the second note is a little bit flatter. Then this one right here. So this is D flat. This is the natural D, right? So in this one obviously, see, obviously from C to D, we have a whole tone, or c to d Phi, we only have a semitone. So as you can see, we're both, in both cases, the D and D flat. We are going to a second interval, right? Because let's count them. C1, d2, c1, divide to write in both cases we're going a second, and it's just that because here we are going to smallest amount possible we go, we only go a semitone. We get a minor second here because we go the largest amount possible, we get a major second. Let's take a look at the third. Same thing applies, right? So we have a C and an E-flat. Here, we have a C and a naturally over here, we're going 1.5. We're basically going 1.5, right? So that's three semitones. Whereas over here we're going to hold tones which is four semitones. Again, we're going to smallest. This is possible to get to a third, so that's a minor third, were the largest distance, distance possible to get to a major third, to get to a third, which is what we call a major third. And this applies for everything. Now, it's very important to note that the intervals are always identified by using the lowest note as the tonic. So whatever the lowest note is, that's going to be our tonic. And then we identify the interval according to the lowest note and how far apart the next node is. Obviously if it's a major or minor. Now remember, I was talking about the augmented fourth or fifth and stuff like that. Let's talk about that. So an augmented interval is one semitone larger than it, perfect, or a major interval. Right? So for example, we have the perfect fourth, and we had the perfect fifth after that, the notes between them would be an augmented fourth. And augmented fourth is if we take, for example, the perfect fourths and we raise the top note, one semitone. Okay, so for example, here we have the example of the perfect fifth, right? So from C to G, we had this example before. C to G. That's a fifth. Now, if we raise g by a semitone into G sharp, we now have, we don't have a sixth, right? Because in order for it to be sixth, we have to go to a, right? So it's all quite a sixth. So what it is, It's what we call an augmented fifth. Alright, so we took the perfect, and it's called the Perfect because of the platens out. And we took the perfect and we transferred into an augment. Then an augmented sounds actually really spooky. So just unlike the perfect, That sounds so perfect and nice. Because the algorithm is just a little bit off that perfect sound. It sounds really spooky. So that's the reason for that. Now let's talk about a diminished interval. So as the name suggests, a diminished interval is one semitone smaller than either a perfect or a minor interval. All right, so again, let's take a look at the same example as the perfect fifth. We had the CG. All right, perfect fifth, no problem there. Now if we take the G and make it flat, right, we're still going from D to a fifth, but now it's a smaller fifth, right? It's even smaller than the minimum. So what's happening here is that we have a diminished fifth. So we had the perfect fifth, but we now, we're still getting a spooky Samba in the opposite direction. Instead of raising it a little bit to get the spooky SAP, we're bringing it down a little bit to get the spooky sound. And this is what we call a diminished fifth. And of course, it goes without saying diminished fifth is the same as augmented fourth. All right? Now, a minor interval can be made diminished by lowering the top note or raising the bottom note by one semitone. Okay? So for example, let's take a look at a minor note here. So we have the minor third. And if we bring that down one more time. And now you've probably seen this and wondering what the hell is that? That is a double flat, right? So it means that it's the flat of the flats. Basically what it means. So here we had G to B-flat. And again, if you are wondering, how can we make that even more flat bowl we just do adopt for flat, which means basically means a, right? That's basically what it means. But here's the thing. If we make it G2, that it would no longer be diminished third, it would just be major second, right? In order to call it a diminished third, we have to know that noted as a B double flat, right? So that's the reason why when I was talking about it, I wasn't mentioning, for example, a diminished third because a diminished third really is the same as a major second, there's really no difference to it. The only times when a diminished and augmented is actually not that we don't have, is when we're dealing with the perfect. All right? If we're dealing with a major or minor intervals, if we turn them into diminished or augmented, would just end up with the next interval. Whereas with the perfects, we end up actually getting a new interval. All right? Now, I'm also going to talk a little bit about inversion because this is also something important to know. This might sound a little overwhelming, but don't worry about it too much. We're just getting introduced to it for now. Inversion is when we take a specific interval. So for example, let's go to this GB example. And we flip one of notes. So for example, we take that g and instead of playing that g as the base note, we put it up here and we play higher G. So we end up with this thing. And it might look like 0. B is the base note, right? And G is the top dot. Well, that's true in essence. B is the lower note. Really. What we've done here is that we've just an inverted this interval, right? So when we invert a specific interval, this is what happens. A major becomes minor, and minor becomes a major and augment it becomes diminished. And of course he guessed that diminished becomes augmented. But, and this is the only time that it doesn't change the perfects, the still remains the perfect. All right, And in order to determine what it's going to turn to, we basically take whatever the number, whatever the interval was. Let's say if it was a third in this case, and we subtract nine by that number, right? So we just do 9 minus 3, we end up with six, okay? And the reason why we're doing nine is because remember we have, when we go up an octave, we're going up and eight, right? Including the node itself, that will be nine different node, so we have to subtract it from nine. Okay? So right here, we should end up with the sixth, which is exactly what we have. Okay, we have a sixth interval here. And as you can see, you can apply this to anything, right? So if, if a major third, we subtract nine from three, we get six and we have a major, so it has to turn into minor, right? If we're doing a perfect fifth, well, nine minus five gives us 4. And we said perfect remains perfect, So perfect fourth is the inversion of the perfect fifth. If you have major second, again, 9 minus 2 gives us seven major to minor and all that stuff. Okay, and you can, we take a look at the rest of them too, and they all follow the same rule book basically. So those are the intervals. Hopefully this was all pretty clear to follow. I would recommend you going through them and looking one more time at these examples and making sure that we're understanding exactly what's going on here. And I'll see you in the next video. 29. Major & Minor Chords - Music Theory: In this video, we're going to go over the major and the minor chords. Now, a major chord or a major triad, as we can also refer to, it, consists of the intervals of a major third and a perfect fifth above the root. So the root is basically the main note that we start with the right kind of the tonic. And we make sure we include the tonic, the major third, and a perfect fifth. Okay? So as you can see right here, this is a major triad of f. So this is a major court from f. And as you can see, we include F. We include the major third, which would be a, and also the perfect fifth, which would be c, right? And you can see it right here. F to a is a major third. F to C is a perfect fifth. Now a minor triad is pretty similar. The only difference is that instead of having a major third, we have a minor third. And that's why it's called a minor triad and sort of a major triad. We can also refer to them as just a minor, minor chord. So we have the same thing here. Instead of having F, a and C, we have F, a flat and C. All right, obviously, we have a minor third here, sort of a major third. And so F to a flat is a minor third. F to C is a perfect fifth. All right? And obviously we can also invert these in many different ways. If the root of the chord is the lowest note, then we have the root position. So nothing has been inverted. Just like these ones. These were, these ones are in the root position right now. If the third of the chord is the lowest note, the triad is in the first inversion. So what that means is we basically take, let's take a look at this number, this one. This is the root position. We take the lowest note and we inverted up, right? So we play higher octave of that one. So we end up getting something like this, right? So the second and the third notes have remained the same, but our root node has gone up, so it's been inverted in this way, right? And that's what we call it first inversion. And then if the fifth of the chord is the lowest note, then we're in a second version because we've had to invert twice, right? So we've inverted the root to get the first and then we'd go again. And now this time the middle note, we invert that one would bring that up another octave and we end up with this second inversion. All right? So there are two different, or there are three different ways. I should say that you could write any major, major or minor chord. And that is the root position, first inversion and second inversion right? Now. So I know you're gonna be asked to identify some kind of a court. So the best way to do it is to first make sure you bring it back to the root position. That's it. It's easier for you to find out what's going on, right? So as we saw above, when we're under root position, we obviously it's much more packed together because we have the root, we have the major third and a perfect fifth, right? So all the notes are right next to each other. There is no gap between them. Whereas here we have this gap, right? You see this gap right here. That already tells me that this is in it's first inversion state. As you can see right here, you can immediately tell, right? If the bottom note is alone, that means we're in a second inversion. The bottom note has one other note keeping in the company, but the other one is up top. And then when we're in our first inversion, because the one on the top has been inverted. And as you can see, that's exactly what's happened here. This one at the top has been inverted and it's come up here. So in order to identify it, we just imagine if this was down here. We would have had a D here and we would have had a D, F sharp, and a, right? And since the D would have been our root, that means that this is a D, a D triad. Now, is it a major or minor? Well, the F sharp kinda tells us what's going on here. Because from D to F sharp would be a major third, a major third interval. That means that it's a D major. Triad. Also has just a D major. All right, Now let's take a look at all the different notes so we can build on any scale. And let's just go with the C major scale because that's the easiest one to look at. Because we have obviously nothing had the key signature. And obviously we can have our first chord, which would be just the major C. Now our second quarter would be a minor because from D to F natural would be a minor triad. So this would be a minor key if we base the triad from the second note in our skin. All right, so the second note in the C major is d. And if we build a triad above it using the same key as a C major, we end up with a minor, just because the interval would be a minor third. If we do it with the third, with a third note in our scale as our root, we end up with another minor because again, from E to G is a minor third interval, and it's on G-sharp. And we can't have D-sharp, obviously, because C major, it doesn't have any sharps, right? It has nothing at the key segment. The fourth, that would be a major. Because again, let's take a look at it from F to a, that would be a major third interval. So we do end up with a major force. The fifth one would also be a major because from G to B, again, we have a major third. Hopefully this is making sense so far. And the sixth one would be another major, because again, from B to C, we have a major third interval. Hopefully this is making sense so far in a minor key, it will be a little bit different. So let's take a look at, for example, the a. This is the first one would be a minor. We're not going to talk about the second third for now because we get something a little bit different with those. Let's just skip over those for now. With the fourth, we have D to F, which is again another minor interval. The fifth and the sixth are the only ones that end up being a major. And that is simply because sometimes we harmonize in minors. And we've talked about this before. We take the note brought prior to our tonic and we harmonize it by adding an accidental. And we've often done that with the number five chord. And we actually do it a lot in cadences, as we will see in an upcoming video. So this would actually end up being a major interval right? Now If it's important to know if we hadn't harmonize and we didn't have the accidental here as an normal minor would not have, then we would have had a minor triad, right? But just because of the fact that we are harmonizing it, it is a major, right? And then this number 6 would also be a major because from F to a, again is a major third interval. All right, so this is understandably a little confusing at first, but hopefully you're at least getting the basics of a down. We're understanding what's going on a little bit. And again, we'll clear clear up any confusions. You have an upcoming videos, okay, we're going to delve deeper into how these work specifically in cadences. We talk a lot about how we use these, and we'll talk about why we even have to go through the number 4 and number 5. And what's the point of building triads of starting with a root position of a note that is not the tonic. All right, we're going to talk about all of that later on. But for now hopefully this kinda making sense, you're kind of following along with us. So just make sure you understand everything that's going on there and I'll see you in the next video. 30. The Dominant 7th Chord - Music Theory: Alright, in this video we're going to learn what a dominant seventh chord is. Now a dominant seventh chord is a four-note chord that consists of a dominant triad plus a minor seventh above the root, right? So as you remember, the dominant triad was the number five chord in any given scale. Alright, so we'll talk about what that means in a second. But let's go through this. Some of this, in other words, the interval above the root, a dominant seventh chord, or a major third, a perfect fifth, and a minor seventh. So we're talking about the notes that we have above the root or the major third, perfect fifth microseconds. Now note that this is not the same as the major third above the tonic. So it's a major third above the root. And we'll talk about the difference with these examples. So let's take a look at this first example. Over here, we have a C major dominant seventh. Now, notice that our root node, this first position, by the way, this is not inverted because you can see all the notes are right next to each other, right? There's no space and gaps. Now, what you can see here is that our root is G. So what is happening here is that at G, well remember what we talked about. This is a dominant triad, right? So that means that we start on the fifth chord and we add that seventh, minor seventh on top of it, right? So we take the fifth chord from C-Major, which would be a CT starting from G in the key signature from the C major. So basically a court from G that has nothing at the key signature. That's the fifth core from C major. And then what we do is that we add a minor seventh above the root on top of it. All right, so this was the normal chord that we have, the normal number five chord from C major. We have the G Major third above it, which would give us b, and a perfect fifth above it, which would give us D. And what we do is we add a minor seventh above that to make a dominant seventh chord instead of just the fifth core. And of course that one is an F natural, right? So we end up with G, B, D, F for our dominant seventh chord. All right, now let's take a look at an example in a minor key. Over here we have C minor. Obviously a little bit of a different key. But again, the same thing applies. So we have to start on the fifth chord, which starts from G, are roots, is the G. We have B natural here, unlike what the key signature suggests. Because remember we talked about this. The leading not are not prior to the, the tonic of the scale is usually raised in the courts, right? So in a fifth chord, it is raised. So that's why we have a B-natural and sort of just having a B-flat as the key would suggest. Hopefully that makes sense. And then above that we have the DFF. All right. And that would give us the number 5 court from C minor. Now what we do is we add that minor seventh above it, which would be the f. And that's how we end up with a dominant seventh chord of C minor. All right, hopefully this is making sense. Now. The tonic major and minor keys have the same dominant seventh as we just noticed right here, right? They would have had a different dominant seventh. If it wasn't for this accidental that we're putting here, we would have had a B flat, but because we put that accidental, because we talked about this. For the fifth core, which is a major chord, we always raise the notes prior to the tonic of the scale, which would be B in this case. Because we did that, we ended up with the same notes. Over here. We have G, B, D, F, and also the same thing over here. We have G, B, D, F, right? There's no difference. So this is something important to learn right now. The tonic major and minor keys have the same dominant seventh. The key of a dominant seventh chord is a perfect fifth below the root of the chord. And we just talked about this already examples as well. Now, let's talk a little bit about the ways that we could invert the dominant seventh now that we know how we can build the dominant zone. Now, what you see here is that the gaps look a little bit different. And that's because of the structure, because we have four right here. It's a little bit tougher to spot these gaps because it looks a little weird, like look at this one right here. The first inversion looks, looks a little bit weird. Now, what is happening here? You might be wondering why is this like pushed back here? What's going on? Well, what is actually happening is that we're just taking this and putting it on top. But because that will be tough to show, what we need to do is we need to push this to the side so we can show the two of them right next to each other, right? Because this would be tough to show if we just want to keep them all aligned in the same line, right? So we have to just kinda push this one to the side a little bit to make room for this one. All right. I know it's a little tough to see what's going on here. So let me write this a little bit clearer. We push this to the side and we make room for this guy. All right, so it's a little bit tougher, but the way you can tell the first inversion, instead of the way we used to with the normal courts, for normal cause there was much easier. I would just see the gap and say, oh, this is the first inversion for the dominant seventh or any court that has four notes in it. The best way is to just see how many nodes are attached together on top where we have this weird thing going on. How many nodes do we have after this weird thing, right? So we only have a one note up, up, up above here. So that's the first inversion over here. This weird thing is happening here, and then we have another one on top of it as well. So that's two notes up top. So that's the second inversion. And of course, for the last immersion, we have this weird thing at the very bottom, and we have three notes up top. So we have the third dimension here, right? So that's the easiest way to spot. Which kind of an inversion rear-end. Of course, you could always just reconstruct a coordinate C, which note has been made to be the root. And in that way, you can also determine which version you're end. But I just want to give you guys a quick way to just be able to tell right away just like that, right? Just as soon as you see it, you know, which kind of an aversion urine. All right, so hopefully that makes sense. Again, Donna, seventh chord is pretty easy to build. We just take the fifth chord and we add a minor seventh on top of it from an MI, that's a minor seventh from not the tonic, from the root. Okay, and that's a very important distinction to make. Minor seventh from the root. And we end up with the dominant seventh. And the way we abbreviate dominant seventh is by writing this, we just write a five, a Roman numeral five. And we put a small seven up top. All right, so hopefully that makes sense and I'll see you in the next video. 31. The Diminished 7th Chord - Music Theory: All right, It's time to learn about the diminished seventh chord. Now the diminished seventh chord is a very different court then the dominant seventh. So it's important that we don't confuse the two. Alright, so we just went over them and seventh, that was the court where we built up on the fifth and we added a minor seventh on top of it. The diminished seventh is a little bit different. So the diminished seventh is a seventh chord built on the raised leading notes of a minor key. All right, so those are the three important distinctions to make. It's a seventh chord and sort of a fifth chord. And it's made only a minor keys. And the leading note, which was the notes prior to the tonic of the scale, has been raised, right? So again, we see this over here as well. We add an accidental to the leading note, and we are building it on the seven. So if we're in C minor and we have the key signature of C minor, are root has to be the seventh, which is B, which would be the leading note. And it is raised because it's the leading, not the B. And the way we built the diminished seventh is that we have a diminished triad plus a diminished seventh above the root. All right, so for example, in this example we have B, we have d, We have F. And we have seen. So basically it's the same as having a diminished triad with B, D, and F. And we're adding a diminished seventh on top, right. So remember, diminished seventh is one lower than a minor seventh, right? So a semitone lower than the minor seven. So from B to C, we would get the dimension. And by adding these two together, we end up with a diminished chord. So another way you could think about it is that the difference between each of these nodes is a minor third. Alright, so the interval from the first to the second, again, remember, this is our chord. We have B, D, F, C, and we expanded that out here. So it's a little bit easier to see what's going on, right? So B, D, F, and C. So from B to D, We have a minor third, from D to F again, and under minor third, and from F to C, again, another minor third. So that's another way you could think about the diminished seventh chord where the difference between all the notes is a minor third. All right? And of course, we talked about the inversions with the dominant seventh. We have the same thing happening here, right? And kinda similar structure to it as well. We have to take the bottom note, put up top. And because we have four notes, what we end up with is this weird structure, right? And again, we can use the same idea. We, whenever we have this weird structure, we just count how many nodes we have up top. For example, here we have one, so that's the first inversion. Over here we have two. So that's the second inversion. And over here we have three, so that's the third inversion. All right, so that's an easy way to spot which inversion rerun. All right, so that's a diminished chord. It's a very easy core to memorize. It's just a cord where the difference between all the nodes is a minor third, right? And because all these differences are so small, That's why we call it a diminished seventh. All right, so hopefully that makes sense, and I will see you in the next video. 32. What are Cadences? - Music Theory: All right, Now it's time to learn about cadences. Now, a cadence is a place of rest in music, right? So what is Ami ketosis, or two chord progressions? And it's important that they were two chord progressions that occur at the end of phrases and at the end of a piece of music. Okay? So they are basically what we have at the very end of each piece of music, at the end of each of our phrases in order to bring a sense of resolution to our music. Alright? And of course, there are two main types, final and non final. And we're going to break down how Aquinas's work and which ones are the most popular is, but basically every piece of music that you listen to, It's important to know that they all use cadences. Because without using a cadence, it's really difficult to bring it all to just the resolution, as I mentioned before. Now, the three most popular cadences that are most often used are the ones that we're going to cover together in this course. We have the perfect cadence. We have the plagal cadence, and the imperfect cadence. Right? And remember how we talked about there are two types, the final and non final. So these two are final. And I'll talk about what that means in a second. And the imperfect is nonfunctional, right? So what do we mean by final and non final? Well, as the name suggests, the final means that we kind of bring a sense of resolution and a sense of finality to the piece of music. And we use that specific cadence. So whenever we use the perfect hiddens or the plagal cadence, what we end up with is a sense of finality that the music has come to an end. Our journey is finished and we basically go, wow, that was amazing. Whereas with the imperfect, we're kinda after something a little bit different. What we're after is making sure that the audience, those sticks around. Think of it as a cliffhanger. Basically. You know how, like some movies sometimes have a cliffhanger Indian or a TV show that you are just a cliffhanger. That kinda has a sense of finality. But at the same time it makes you wonder, oh, I wonder what's going to happen next or all. I cannot wait to hear the next one, Watch the next one or whatever, right? That's what we're going for with the imperfect. So this one is most often used at the end of a phrase or maybe at the end of one segment of the music, but not at the very end of the entire thing, right? It would just not sound that great to have a cliffhanger at the end of a huge piece of music. Because the audience who will be left frustrated, right? They just want to come to a sense of resolution. They want to have a sense of finality. And if you just don't give it to them, It's going to be frustrating, right? But if you're in the middle of a song, it is perfectly fine, right? Because you keep the audience engaged and you make sure that they are still paying attention. And they just keep asking for more, basically from your music. Alright, so again, we're going to cover all three of these in detail in the next couple of videos. But I just wanted to give you guys a little bit of an introduction so that we know what we're dealing with, okay? And once we learn these three cadences, then you also will be able to bring a sense of finality. Or if you want to maybe live it kept cliffhanger at the end of your own piece of music whenever you produce one. Alright, so follow me in the next couple of videos as we go over each of these in more detail. 33. The Perfect Cadence - Music Theory: All right, Now that we've been introduced to what cadences art, it's time to talk about our first cadence. There were no learn together and that's the perfect cadence. Now, the perfect cadence is actually the most common cadence out of all of them, right? You've probably heard this more often than anything else. It consists of the dominant, try it moving to the tonic triad. And again, we'll talk about what that means in a second. Basically it is fifth chord to the first court, okay, but again, what, we'll cover that in more detail. Since it ends on the tonic, which the tonic, as you recall, was the point of origin of each key that we're in. It is considered to be a final cadence. And again, we talked about this beforehand. This is a final cadence and kinda gives a sense of finality and resolution. And it satisfies the audience, right? It doesn't leave them hanging wanting for more. It just ends up in a satisfying way. And it's perfect for the absolute ending of our piece of music. Alright? Cadences in the keyboard style are written with the root of each court in the bass clef, which basically means we don't invert any of our courts, as we mentioned before. And the root third fifth of each chord and the treble clef and closed position. All right, and again, we'll talk about that a little more detail to talk, break down what that exactly means. Perfect cadences in minor keys are much the same as those in the major keys, except that in a minor key, the leading note and a dominant chord must be raised. All right, and again, this is talking about what we discussed before. In the minor, he's where we sometimes arrays and put an accidental for some of these notes in order to get a little bit more flavor out of it. But again, what we'll talk about that a little more detail. I'll perfect cadences and minor keys have an accidental and the dominant chord. And perfect cadence most often occurs over two measures, were the dominant chord on the last or second last beat of the first measure and the tonic chord on the first beat of the second measure. Okay, So what this is saying is that it is true that we only use two chords, but what we can do is we can space it out over two measures, right? So instead of just having it in one measure, as you can see here in the examples. Alright, we space it out over two measures so that we can basically build up and bring it down to a epic finale. All right, so we don't just want it to be bump, bump, bum. I wanted to be DOB but or, or something like that, right? And something really dramatic that feels really epic and it feels earned. Right? Now, let's talk about what's happening here. So remember we talked about the chord progression. So we said it's 51, right? So what does that mean? So if we're in C-Major as we are here, the number one chord would be a C, right? Which is exactly what we have here, right? And as you can actually see up top, this is an inverted scored in the, in the treble clef, but we have the base root of C, Alright, so we have a C note in the bass clef, and it's only our top that is inverted. Okay, So this is important to know. We can never invert, at least for now. For the perfect cadence. We can never invert the base. The base has to be the base note or the root. I should say. But up top we can do anything but please, right, so it's actually best to have it inverted so that our root note is the highest that we hear. Because guess what? The highest note is, the one in the audience hears the most. So if we invert it in a way to have the root be the topmost note. It actually sounds much nicer. All right, Don't get me wrong. It's it will be still fine if we had an inverted this and it had been the original form. That's the word sounds good too. It's just that this will give us the best result. Alright? And of course before the number one, we had to have the five, which is spaced out over an entire measure over a couple of beats. And as you can see here, again, the base has to be the fifth, which is g. And then up top, we get a little bit more creative with it, right? We can invert it a little bit. The other stuff we can have a little bit of a buildup to it. And as you can see, the buildup is basically just a progression going up. And we're going to talk about this a little bit more in writing melodies video. But this is a nice buildup to our chord right before it. Okay? So we have the build-up, we have a number five chord, and then we have a number one court, right? And both of them preserve the root in the bass clef. Alright, so you can invert it up top, but at the bottom it's important to have the root, the base graph, right? So that's how you construct a perfect goodness. And this would sound amazing if you've played on the violin or the piano or whatever the guitar, this would sound beautiful, newbie, perfect ending for your piece of music. Alright, so let's take a look at this one right next door. Again, we have the same thing over here. There's a minor. All right, so we have the number 1 over here. Again, it's important to see that we have a at the root, right? We can't invert the root in the bass clef, but on top it is inverted so that a again, you see a is the topmost note. Because we want to make sure that the topmost naught, which is the one that the audience hears the most. A is the same as our root node, so it is inverted in order to make sure a goes to the top. But the rest of it is pretty nice. It's an a chord. It sounds wonderful. And over here we have the fifth, the perfect fifth over here. And obviously, the perfect fifth of a would be an E chord. All right, so we have the e in the base. And on top you actually haven't inverted this one, right? But remember what we were talking about, the raising, some of the notes were just talking about this a little bit earlier when we were reading of the text. So this is what we're discussing, right? So sometimes in order to make it sound a little bit more colorful, what we do is we raise the middle nodes, right? So not, not the route and not the topmost on the middle note as well. We can raise, and we can raise it by using an accidental. If we hadn't raised it with, with the accidental, we will not actually get a major fifth chord. We would get an augmented chord, right? So for that reason, it is important for us to make sure that we have that accidental in there. And it just sounds wonderful. If you follow this way, right? Again, you have the bass notes at the bottom, and you have the courts on top. This one is not inverted, but this one is inverted to make sure that the tonic is the one that you hear the most, right? So that's how you build a perfect cadence. I hopefully that all makes sense. And if you want to make a perfect case for your own piece of music, again, the recipe is very simple. You put over 2 measures. The last one will be the first, and then the one before there will be a fift. So hopefully that made sense and I'll see you in the next video. 34. The Plagal Cadence - Music Theory: All right, The next cadence we're going to learn together is the plagal cadence. Now and the plagal cadence, the subdominant chord moves to the tonic chord, which means basically that the number 4 chord goes to number one. This is another cadence that gives us a sense of personality and it brings a full resolution for the music, right? It's perfect for the ending of the music because it ends on the tonic. And again, the ending on the tonic is the key thing here, right? And once we end on the tonic and on the main chord, what happens is that we kind of get that sense of resolution right? Now. Remember the perfect Eunice was from five to four, sorry, from five to one. And in the plagal cadence hits from four to one, right? So again, you see a lot of uses of 54, and of course we end on the one. It most often occurs over two measures similar to the perfect data. So we talked about on the last bit of this first measure, we have the number four chord that leads into our tonic. And then the entire second measure is our number one quart, alright? And we have some buildup beforehand that could be anything, right? All right, so the tonic chord on the first beat of the second measure, we talked about this right now. Plagal cadence is often harmonize the amen At the end of a hymn, right? So if spes specifically for a lot of religious songs, they used the plagal cadence because it harmonizes the kind of the amen At the end of their prayer. So you will see this a lot in classical music, specifically in church music. But it's not just that it's used all over the place as well. A lot of modern music use it and use it as well. So it's definitely really good one to know and it's the second most used cadence out of all of them. Other than the perfect units, It's the most used cadence. So definitely good to know. All right, so again, we talked about how we have two measures. Entire second measure is going to be our number one. The last bit of the first measure is going to be our number 4, which leads right into it, right? And again, remember we have to, whatever our tonic is, that's what our bases have to be. So we have a C here, number 4. Let's call it together. C, D, E, F is on number four. And remember how we talked about, we could flip the top. They haven't done here, right? So this is the original chord. The C is still at the bottom of it. So this is fine too. It just would have been better if the sea had been placed on top. Sort of like here. But this works fine as well. It's just that would have been found an even nicer. But of course, you don't want to do the same thing over and over again because that would sound too repetitive. So sometimes you might want to change it up a little bit and have just a regular court presented on the treble clef. But over here, we do have the tonic at the very top. So this is a C minor. You have C, Again, F we have over here. And this time it has gone up. You see the c is no longer at the bottom. We don't have the C here. We have an up top here so that we hear it most predominantly, right? And we have the F leading into the sea. And again, we have some buildup beforehand that could be anything. We'll talk about all of these buildups in all the melody material in our writing melody video. Okay, so don't worry about this part too much for now. We just want to focus on the cadences themselves. And as you can see, the plagal cadence is the four to one. Okay? So hopefully it's easy to remember. The perfect was from five to one and the plagal is from four to one. All right? And obviously the construction is very similar to measures. The number 1 is the entire second measure, the number of the number four or number five in the case of the perfect cadence was the last beat on the first measure. Alright, so hopefully that makes sense, and let's move on to the next video. 35. The Imperfect Cadence - Music Theory: All right, It's time to learn the imperfect cadence. Now the imperfect cadence is a cadence that we're going to learn that is not a final cadence. This is one of those ones that kinda has a cliffhanger quality to it. It kinda leaves us wanting a little bit more. And this is obviously not used at the very end of the music. You can use it at the end of a phrase, at the end of a section of the music. For example, if you have a three-part Concerto, you could use it at the end of the first part of the second part or something like that. But you don't want to use it at the very end, right? It just would leave the audience is wanting more and it would leave them frustrated if that's the absolute end of your music. So definitely use it anywhere except for the very end. So far we have learned to depths of cadences, the perfect and the plagal, because he's good, end on the tonic chord. They gave a sense of completeness or finale, like the period at the end of the sentence. All right, so we already talked about this. They're often used at the end of a piece of music. The imperfect cadence is an unfinished sound, as we just discussed, like a comma rather than it. That's a really nice way to describe it. Think of it as something in the middle of a sentence rather than at the very end, right? The imperfect cadence is also known as a half close. The second chord of an imperfect cadence is always a dominant chord or the fifth chord, basically, right? So this one does not finish on the tonic, it finishes on number five. Now the first court may be one of many rights with the imperfect cadence is defined only by the second court and not by the first. So the first court could be the tonic. It could be number four or it could be something else, right? Therefore, the two imperfect cadences that we will study are 15 and four. Okay? In an imperfect cadence, the first court, 1 or 5, 10, 4, sorry, is usually on a weaker beat. And dominant chord is on a stronger beat. So what does that mean? Well, remember how we talked about, we have strong and weak beats. So for example, if you had a 34, that meant that the first beat is strong. And the number two and number three week. Remember that? We talked about this in the time signature video? Well, this is what we're talking about over here, right? So if we have number five on a number one, then we could have the previous chord on a number two or number three in the previous measure. Alright, so that's all we mean by that. All right, so let's take a look at the examples we have here. Again, we have two measures for each of them. As you can see, we filled up the second measure with our number five chord. All right, and remember we're talking about the middle. We could, in a minor, in a minor key, we could raise the middle parts of the number 5 by adding an accidental, which is what we've done here. To sound like a dominant chord. And of course, both of them have been preceded by a number, right? So we could have had a number four here. And we do have some examples of that's what we're gonna take a look at that in a second. But let's take a look at these first. This is C major, so we have the C chord, we have the G chord over here and some buildup previously. And we'll just go from the sea and we lead into g. And it sounds lovely. And the same thing over here. However, just keep in mind that this can't be the end obviously because this will sound like kind of like a cliffhanger. It will not give you a sense of resolution. And now let's take a look at the other examples. These are the 45 progressions. All right, so again, we're ending on number five, which is G in the case of a C major. But we're bringing to that we have number four, which is f over here, right? Similar thing over here. We have E and right before the e we have d. And those are the chords that we have. And of course we have some bold enough beforehand as well. All right, so that's how we built an imperfect cadence. Really, it's only defined by the five at the very end. It could be anything beforehand, but the two most common are the number one and number four. All right, and that's how we built it. So now that we've learned these three different cadences, you should be able to implement cadences into your own music as well. If you're writing music, make sure that you use them accordingly. If you want to give us a resolution, use either the perfect or the plagal. And if you want to teach the audience, leave them hanging for a little bit more, make sure that you use why these variants that we learned about the imperfect cadence. Alright, so hopefully that all makes sense, and I'll see you in the next video. 36. What is Transposition? - Music Theory: In this video, we're going to learn about transposition. Now what does transposition? When we transpose music, what we do is we take a specific melody and we transition them melody into either a different key or on a different octave so that we can accommodate for the instrument that we're playing it on. Every instrument has unlimited range, right? It can either not played the lowest was like notes, or it can now play above a specific note, right? So think about the violin, for example. The lowest note that you can play on the violet is G. What that means is they cannot play anything lower than that. Even though you can play the highest highs on the violin, you cannot play anything below G. And if you want to play something below that G note, you need to use either viola or cello or a base or something along those lines, right? Obviously goes, instruments have a much lower range, which means that they can cover a lot of the lower notes. All right, but on the other hand, let's talk, talking about the cello, for example. And shovel is a very basic kind of an instrument. It covers a lot of the lower notes, but there are some words that you just can't. I'll play on the cello because the range doesn't cover those higher, higher notes, right? So that's what we're talking about when we talk about the range of an instrument, we're talking about all the notes that you can cover. And no matter what instrument you pick, you will have a hard time covering older. It's really the only instrument that covers pretty much everything is the piano and other keyboards, kinda like that, kind of like an organ or something, right? But all the other instruments, whether you're talking about a guitar or a violin, or the cello, or a flute, or what have you, any instrument that you play. Usually they have a specific range and they covered in notes in that range and nothing outside of it. Which means that sometimes you have to accommodate for that, which your music. Alright, let's say we had a melody that has a couple of the lower notes that are lower than the G that we can play on the violet, right? So let's talk about melody where we have a couple of notes that we just cannot learn the violin because you're just too low for the violins register. Well, what do we do if we want to play that music on the violin work? The easiest way to go about it is to just bring it up an octave and play every single note an octave higher, right? And by doing that, well, all of a sudden, it arranged does cover the whole melody and we can play the whole thing on our violet. But what if we don't wanna do that? What if we want our mounted to stay kind of little bit, Lord, then we would have it if we moved up an entire OPT and right, because moving up an entire octave brings up your, the register of the music quite a bit and it makes it a lot higher than what it was before. What if we don't want to do that? Well, in those cases, what we do is we transpose the music into a different key so that we're still keeping all the patterns between nodes the same. But all of a sudden, our tonic is no longer what it was before because we've transitioned into a different key. Also, we sometimes you that regardless of the fact that our instrument can handle it, right? Sometimes we do it just for the effects that will give to our music, right? So sometimes you have key changes in the music, like right halfway through the music, We have the same melody come up, but in order to avoid it feeling repetitive, we change it into a different key to make it sound fresh and a little bit new. All right, Well, we still aren't playing the same melody that we've heard a lot, right? So there are different ways that we can use transposition. Sometimes it's out of necessity as I just described. We just had to do it. There's no other way for us to play it on our instrument. And sometimes we do it for the dramatic effect, for avoiding repetition, for having the melody sound fresh and new, right? So there are definitely different ways that we can use transposition, but it's a very useful tool in writing music and also of course, in play music, right? When you're playing it, you need to know, for example, if a key changes halfway through, you need to know what that means and how you can adjust for it on your instrument. So that's what we're going to cover in this section. We're going to go over to transpose. Well, we just need to do it because our history doesn't cover that range. And we're also going to talk about transposing as that dramatic effect in the middle of the song, right? When we just change, are keen to a different one. So we're gonna cover all of that in the upcoming videos, but that'll just the basic idea and introduction of how transposition works. Okay, So hopefully that all made sense and I'll see you in the next video. 37. Transposing to Another Clef - Music Theory: All right, Now that we've learned what transposition is, it's time to start with the first mode of transposition that we're going to take a look at. And that is when we transpose from a specific octave to a different octave. All right, so we already talked about transposition and involves writing melodies at a different octave. Melodies can be written at an octave higher or lower and the same fluff or in a different clef. Alright, so we're still going to stick the same clef for this video. And then we'll talk about different clefs in the next video. So here's our first example. We have this melody right here. And what we want to do is I want to transpose it up one octave, right? When we say transpose it up, obviously that means we go up the octave. So for example, if you have B over here, we want to go to the next higher B, which would be red here. Alright, so let's take a look at what happened here. From here to here, we preserve the same node. So we had B, we still have B what we've just gone up an octave. Same thing over here. So we had a C we've done is brought up one octave. So basically as if we're going in eighth interval, OK, right, so Let's take a look at it here. For example, if you want to go from this C to the next C, we can just count 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. And that's little tough to see, but hopefully you can kind of follow along what I'm talking about here. Basically, one over here, 2, and then 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. And that's how we get to the next C, which is what we have over here, right? And we do that for every single one of these nodes. So the next one is a deep. We go to the higher D, which ends up right here. And that's what we have. And we just keep doing the same for all of them. And of course, when we go up an octave, we're not changing the key, right? Because all the notes are preserved and they're exact same, the key does not change, so the key signature also remains the same. All right, and of course, in this instance, I'm going to have to change the key. Sometimes we might have to change the key. So let's take a look at what that would look like. So for example, right here, this isn't version which has been transposed down an octave from the original, right? But let's see how we would transport this upright. So if you were to transpose this up, the best way to do it is to because look at what happens if I tried to bring these up and eighth, Let's look at a high note for you that, but for example, this one, this one is pretty high, right? In this staff. If I try to go up eight, so that's 12345678, right? So I have to draw this for the gate, and it just looks really messy, right? If I have to draw all the nodes like that, Given that this is a low clef, it is much better and much more, much easier on the eye. Let's say if I just change the class so that I can actually adjust all of these notes in the proper clef. So for example, by changing the cloth, we could end up with this, right? So we change the clef and the bass clef to the treble clef. And instead of doing all these crazy things, were actually having a much easier time. We can just put it like this over here, or like this over here, right? We don't have to write all of these nodes like up here or something with all these crazy lines, right? So hopefully that makes sense. Obviously, if you want to change the clef, you've gotta be very careful that, that means that these notes don't mean the same thing. So for example, if this was a treble clef, this would've been a Jeep. But because it's a bass clef, this is actually a B. Alright? So again, you gotta go back to, if you're not familiar with the different clefs, you can always check out the first module where I just covered all the basics. We talked about how to read music and how we can read music depending on what clef, right? So if you skipped ahead of those videos, but you're not really sure how different clumps work. You can always go back and check those out. But if you do know how it works, then you can just adjust in that way. Alright, so you just change the clef and you adjust accordingly, okay? If there is a need for it. But if you're on the treble clef and you wanna go up, obviously there's no cleft that's higher than the treble clef. So you just have to make two, if you have to, you just have to put those crazy lines. There's no better way to do it, right? So awfully, that makes sense. This is a very easy way to transpose the next two videos, we're going to take a look at some of the more difficult transpositions that I have a lot more complicated steps to it. But this is the easy one. We just move it up an octave. We don't change the key, we don't change anything. Okay, So hopefully that made sense and I will see you in the next video. 38. Transposing to Another Key - Music Theory: Alright, in this video, we're going to learn how we can transpose to a new key, right? So this is a little bit different. Essentially, we're going to change the key signature by changing what key we're in. And we change the key that we're in, we need to change the notes a little bit differently. So let's go through how this actually works. So transposition may involve writing or playing music at a different pitch or in a different key. Right? Here, we will learn to transpose a melody from one major key to another major key right? Now, before we go ahead and do it, there are two times, two different times that we want to do this. So one is that we just want to change the key that our song is n. So let's say we're playing a specific song in an ache, a major key. And we want to transpose it so we can play it on a D major key for whatever reason. Let's say maybe you want to accommodate for the instrument that we're playing on, or for whatever reason we just want to play it in that other key. We can definitely transpose it and play the same song in a different key, right? But another time that we actually use transposition to a new key is in the middle of a song, right? So sometimes we have this thing, we call a key change right in the middle of a song. Where basically what happens is that the melody is played again, but this time and then Yuki, All right, so let's say we start the song by playing the melody in an a major, and later on we want to change the key. So what we do is that we play the melody in C major, a sort of a major, for example, right? And that's what we call a key change. And the key change is really used as a way to keep the melody fresh and new and exciting, right? So it's used to make sure that the melody doesn't sound repetitive, but just keep them using the same melody over and over again. It's going to sound super repetitive. So one way to avoid making the music sound stale, and kinda the same thing all over again is to change the key by halfway through song, right? And that is actually very common, no matter what instrument you play or even if you're singing, you're going to, you're going to encounter key changes a lot throughout your repertoire. So this is a very good thing to know about. And here we're going to learn how that actually, how we can actually go about transposing that transpose a melody into a new key. You must know the original key of the melody and either new key or the interval of transportation, right? So nothing crazy there. We need to know where we're starting from and what we're going to. Now we can either know what's the new keda we are going to or what interval we're transposing up or down. Either one works. We just need to know where we're starting from and where our destination is. If the interval after transposition has given, you must determine the new key first, right? So if we only know the interval, then we can use that interval to find out what key we're going to, and then that would be our destination if that makes sense. Right? So let's take a look at this example here. So here we have a melody in G major, right? So we have a G major key, which means only one sharp and nothing crazy here, we have the simple melody. Now we want to transpose this up a major third. Right? Now if we want to transpose it up a major third, we need to go through these four steps, right? So the original key, as we said, we need to determine that first. We already know it's a G major, so we don't have to do too much there. Find the note that is a major third above G, right? So remember on the piano keys, we have G semitone above that will be G-sharp is another semitone above that would be a, another semitone above that will be a sharp. Another semitone above that would be me. All right, so here we have minor second, major second, minor third, and major third. Major third above B, above GMHC would be B. So a major third above G would be B. It says over here, major third above GSB. Then we write the key signature of the new key. Well, we need to write the key signature of B major, which is a key signature that has five sharps. Alright, so we write the key signature here. As you can see, we just put there. And then we move each node in the original melody up a third. Right? Now. This is very important. Know that because we have used the key signature of the new key, we don't have to, we don't have to worry about accidentals. Every one of these thirds will be major because the accidentals will be applied from this case change that we've made, right? The kitchen just going to accommodate all of that. We just need to move the nodes, right? So for example, if we had a G here would go up a third, and that would be B, and it's automatically going to be a major third. We don't have to worry about encountering minor thirds for the reason that I just explained because of the new key signature that we have implemented over here, right? So those are the four steps that we go to. We determine what key we're in first and foremost. And then we determined it where we are going to. So if we know we're going up a major third, we determined we are going to be major. We'd write the key signature of this new key that we are going into. And then we just move up the notes accordingly. All right, and that's how we go about transposing our song into a different key. And again, as I explained, you can do this for the entire song. Let's say you want to play it on a different instrument and your new instrument, its range doesn't cover it, but you don't also want to move it up an octave. You want to be around the same place. You could just change the key. Or you could do it halfway through a song for dramatic effect or for keeping the melody fresh. You can use it that way as well. Both are commonly used and both are perfectly fine. And I'm, I'm assuming you're going to encounter the second one lot more because it's very common in songs to have key signatures halfway through the song, to just keep the song in new and exciting. All right, so that's how we go about transposing into a new scale. Hopefully that made sense. And I will see you in the next video where we're going to talk about a little bit of a different transposition. 39. Transposing for Other Instruments - Music Theory: All right, Now it's time to learn about transposing for orchestral instruments. Now, some instruments of the orchestra are transposing instruments, right? So let's walk through what that exactly means. It basically means that these instruments produce notes that sound higher or lower than what is written. Now, this is what we call a concert pitch, right? So just to make sure we understand what's going on here, there are some instruments. For example, clarinet is one of them, a saxophone is another one. And there are a lot of them, right? Usually a lot of wind instruments that when they played a specific note, it actually doesn't sound the same as the node that is written, right? I know that sounds really weird. But basically let's say they played C and D are playing C. But it sounds like a different note, right? And that is what we call a constant pitch. The sound that they're actually producing is the concert pitch. The sound that they are playing is the written notes. All right, So let's go through an example because I know this sounds really weird and confusing. When a B-flat instruments plays middle C, it actually produces B flat, hence the name D flat instruments, right? So all the instruments that do not produce different sounds are called C major instruments, right? Because they're basically producing the same as you would normally expect, right? But if you have a different name to your instrument, let's say you have a B-flat instrument. That means that anytime you please see, you get B-flat, right? So that's the interval that you are basically exchanging, right? So from C to B flat, that's a whole tone. When you have an instrument, that means anytime that play anything, the sound you're actually producing as a whole tone or lower compared to a C major instrument. And yet, as we just discussed, it actually produces B5, which is a major second Lord. Instruments in B-flat include the B-flat clarinet, B-flat trumpet, and the B-flat saxophone. All right, so for example, let's take a look at a piece of music that is written for a clarinet. Looks pretty normal, nothing crazy about it. But here's what happens, right? So you see, first of all, f, d, and then we have C, we have B, and then other notes after that, right? Well, once the clarinet actually plays this, this is what it sounds like. It sounds like C, B, a, and other nodes, right? So as you can see, everything is lower, right? And everything is a major second law, or to be precise. And that is because of the way the instrument is built, right? So it's a B-flat clarinet. That means that everything is going to sound a whole time lower than what you actually put this right here. When instrument in a placement, you'll see it actually produces a a minor third law again. So anything, whatever the name is. So in this case we have an instrument that in a, that is what is going to be played in sort of see. Alright, and that's how you can find out the interval. So for example, at a to C is a minor third, right? That's 1.5 photons. That basically means we have to adjust accordingly because that's the sound that was going to be heard. So if you want that instrument to play, let's say a, you need to write C, and vice versa. If you write C, it is going to sound like a, right? So this is very important to know when you are writing music because you need to make sure you are writing accordingly. So if you want the pitch of C to be heard, you need to write a four it for this specific instruments. Again, let's take a look at an example here. This is a piece of music from Edward Elgar. Again, looks pretty simple. We have nothing crazy at the ski signature. Now we have C, B, C, D, etc. But what is actually going to be heard is obviously lower. Because remember, if Vcc, we produce a, and the same goes for everything else. We have G, a, and B. Now remember, the way we transpose is to first make sure we know what key we are going into. So we're kind of implementing what we learned in the previous video where we were talking about if we go to a new key, we can do so by first changing the key signature into the key that we are going into and then adjusting the nodes, right? And that's basically what we're doing over here. We change the key signature from a normal C to a, so that then we can just bring down all the notes and it sounds the same, right? So we had C-Major over here. We have a major over here instead. Now when an instrument in F plays the middle, see, it actually produces F. Again, the snail of the instrument is what it produces instead of C, which is a perfect fifth floor. All right, so some examples of this are the French horn or the English one. Now, again, let's take a look at an example. We have C major here. As you can see that there's nothing in the key, so it's a C major. We have now It's like C, B, C, D, etc. And, uh, once we convert that into the concert pitch, and what do we actually go into here coming from these instruments? As you can see, first of all, we need to change the key signature, which you bring it down, a perfect fifth, which is from C major, we going to F-major, which would just be one flat. And then we adjust for all the notes accordingly, right? So from C we go down a perfect fifth to F. From B, we go down a perfect fifth to E. From C. Again, we go down to F, From d, we go down to G and et cetera. All right, so hopefully this is making sense. Again, we're implementing what we learned in the previous video about how we go about changing the key first and then also adjusting the notes. And that is exactly what we do, right? The only difference is that this is not a case where we are given an interval to change. This is a case of this war. We're actually going to here. And in order to find out what we're actually going to hear, or find out what we need to write in order to hear what we want to hear, we need to be aware of the interval that we need to adjust for, right? So it's a little bit of a different approach to it. But the method is still the same, right? It's still, we go through, we see where we're starting from, what we're going to. We adjust the key signature and then we adjust the notes. Alright, so again, hopefully that makes sense. I know this might be a little confusing. I remember when I first learned about this topic that different instruments might not produce the same sound as what they are actually playing. I was really confused. I was really hard for me to process what that even means. So I completely understand if you guys are confused by this, if you have any questions about you can always, obviously always ask me about it. I'll try to break it down for you a little bit more. But basically it's just good to know that that's the case, right? So some instruments, when they see a specific note written and they play that, that's not actually what they're producing. They're producing a transposed version of that, of that note. All right, So actually you might be playing, why does instrument? So if you are, you definitely need to know about this, right? This is very good information. And if you, even if you're not playing one of those instruments, it's still good to know because there are going to be instances where you're going to have to, you're going to have to deal with this sort of thing, right? And you definitely need to know about this. So hopefully you are all made sense and I will see you in the next video. 40. Short Score Vs Open Score - Music Theory: Alright, in this video, we're going to go over to different types of writing a score. You have a short score and an open score. Now let's take a look at the short score first. So this is an example of a short score, or sometimes referred to as a closed score. A short score is just like a piano score, right? It's just everything on a grand staff. You see all the notes on just these two staffs right here, just the one grant staff, if you will. And we obviously have one treble clef up top and the bass clef at the bottom. And that covers basically the entire range. And we have all the notes that we can identify on either of these steps. And that's basically a short skirt. It just has everything on this grant staff, so there's no other element to the score. I don't know, maybe like precaution and stuff like that, but like no other rhythmic or melodic or harmonic elements to the music outside of this grand staff that you see everything is represented here in the grand staff. And that's what we call a short score. Notice that the music is written for four voices, soprano, alto, tenor, and bass. Now, these are the four voices in choir. Obviously so proud of being the highest. Alto, the second highest, tenor, the second lowest, and base the absolute lowest. The treble staff is shared by the soprano and the alto. So the two that are highest, usually, these are the women's section and then an acquire. And the bass staff is shared by tenor and bass. These are usually the men section that quiet because men have a lower pitch compared to women, just on average. The stem for the soprano and tenor go up, and the stem for the alto and the base go down. So if you take a look over here, you can see that the alto and bass, the stems or downwards, whereas the soprano and tenor or upwards, which makes sense, right? We can't have this one, have a downwards. That's because then we're clashing into some other note down here, right? So the one at the top has to go upwards on both staffs and the one on the bottom has to go downwards. Right? Because otherwise we're just going to crash into each other with our steps. So pretty clear so far. When music is written in open score, each voice or instrument has its own staff. So we're gonna go over open score now. And the difference between a score and a short score is that we basically take all of these and we give each of these lines, are each of these voices, if you will, their own staff. So we're no longer in a grand staff were in a much expanded staff that is covering everything on its own. Right? So let's take a look at how that looks, this, what that would look like. As you can see, we have one staff for the soprano, one stamp for the alto, tenor, and one for the base, right? And everything, all the notes are the same. It's just that we've put the notes for each of these parts on their own staff. So it's very clear who's doing what. And this is usually. Used for usually for conductors. So they can see everybody's parts when they're conducting an orchestra or acquire or whatever, it's much easier for them to see. And then the short score is usually what you use when you're first composing a song, or if you're writing for piano and the piano is supposed to cover a lot of different parts. That's when you use a short score, right? So obviously the short score as compact, It's very multilayered and it's best if you want to just play all these parts with one instrument, for example, a piano. Whereas the open score, I should say, it, is very advantageous in showing everybody's exact parts and showing exactly what everybody's doing, right? So, for example, for a conductor, it's much easier to see what the altos doing, right? Because there it is, That's the altar line, right? Whereas in here, I mean, you can still see it, but it's just a little bit more jumbled, right? It's not as clear as it could be. So that is the open score, right? And again, it's really easy to remember the names. The short is the one that is very tight and everything compact into each other. The open score is this one, which is pretty much as open as they can get right? Now. Note that the music is written for four voices, soprano, alto, tenor, and bass, just same as above. Each voice has its own staff and the parts line up vertically, right? As you can see, all these parts line up vertically. For example, last beat in every single measure. They all line up and all the measure lines or the bar lines or what have you. They all line up as well. See that all of these beats line up, all these beats line up. And even here, this thing lines up with all the other ones, right? The auto part is written the treble clef. As you can see. We have the soprano part and treble clef, Alto and trunk or F. And then the tenor could be in ten or are in trouble, I should say, or base, depending on how high or how low the tenor part is. Sometimes you see the also, maybe in some other cases while, but that's not as common. They're usually in the treble clef. But here we have a little bit of a different one with the tenor. We have a treble clef. Usually the tenor part has a bass clef, but it could have a top treble clef as well, which it does in this case. We're gonna go through that as like the tenor part is written in treble clef, an octave higher than it sounds. And some publications you may see a small eight under the clef, which indicates that the notes should sound an octave lower than written, right? So sometimes you might see something like this. I'm just clear it up a little bit here. You can see something like this right now what this eight right here would tell you is that we basically moved all of these notes up an octave in order to be able to represent them on a treble clef. So what we really mean, for example here is not that a, we mean this a, That's what we actually mean, right? But in order to make it simpler to see, we put up this a and just put an H down here to say, well, when we see this a, we actually are talking about this one. It's just easier to show this one. So that's what the eight means. We don't have it here. I just added it myself. But sometimes you might see it in some other music compositions. You might be able to see something like that. And I just want you to know what that's about if you see it. The normal rules for stem direction applied. So the normal rules for all the stamps and the tempo marking is written only once above the top staff, but dynamic markings are repeated for each part. All right, so let's take a look at that. We have the dynamics repeated for all of them. And obviously the timestamp and everything also included the very top as well. The one thing that is only said that once and not for every single part is this thing right here, which gives us the tempo of the piece, right? It tells us how fast or how slow Moderato basically means. Moderate, right? Like it's pretty self-explanatory. And moderate speed for this piece, right? And you don't need to include that for every single, every single part I should say. Because once you included at the top, obviously all the parts have to sing at the same pace, right? Like the tenor isn't going to be singing double the speed The Sopranos right now, would it make sense? So you only need to include that one time. But everything else obviously is covered for every single part. Just for just to make sure everyone's on the same page basically. And that's pretty much it when it comes to the short and the open score. Hopefully that was pretty straightforward. Again, if you have any questions about any of this stuff, you can always ask me. But hopefully this shouldn't be too many questions because it's pretty, pretty straightforward stuff here. All right, let's move on to the next video. 41. Writing Melody - Music Theory: All right, In this lesson we're going to learn about writing melody. So you've made it to the part where we can actually start writing our own song. And of course our own melody. Melodies contain three types of movements. So let's go through them. Moving by step, which is called a conjunct movement. Now, what is a movement by step? Look over here, you see this gradual increase step-by-step, one note at a time we're going up, we're going up one nodes and other nodes, and other nodes and other nodes. Just keep going up like that. And of course coming down as well, come down one note, come down OneNote, down on note. This is what we call a conjunct movement, right? We're basically moving to the neighboring nodes, which means the notes, either one after or one before. And we just keep moving to the neighboring nodes in order to move in a certain direction, whether up or down, right? So for example, we're going up here and we're going down over here, right? And this is what we call a conjunctive movement and very commonly used in writing melodies. Let's take a look at the second movement. Movements by leap is often called the disjunct movement. So let's take a look at this right here. What's happening? We're taking a huge leap year, right? We're jumping from this note. It's octave, right? So that's basically an eighth difference right there. We're jumping a whole overhaul lot of notes. And this is what we call it this joint movement. Over here. We have that again. We're jumping down a fifth from B, we're jumping down to E. This is another district movement. Of course we have over here as well. We're jumping down and forth from a to E. Yet another disjunctive. Alright, so hopefully we are already learning to the two commonly used movements, the conjunct, which is just go into neighboring nodes, and the disjunct which is just jumping to a note that it's very far away. And the third 1, third most common kind of movement in writing melodies as repetition of a notes before movement. Alright, so we have a note, we repeat it, and then we make a movement. Same thing here. We have this note. We want to make a movement, but first repeat it, and then we'll make the movement sampling here, right? We have the exact same note repeated twice, right? And again, this is a very common, very common tool that people use in their melodies. Most melodies consists of a combination of these three types of movements. So very Keq, a combination of these three types, we want to make sure you actually end up using all three. In the vast majority of cases, it's a very rare that you don't use one of these movements because they are very fundamental types of movements. A melody should have a sense of shape or direction. This is very important, right? Because a melody, if it doesn't have a sense of shape or direction, It's just not going to sound appealing because it just kind of sounds like random things are happening just for the sake of happening, right? And who wants to listen that obviously the best types of melodies are the ones that build and try to form into something really extraordinary and have some sort of shape or direction, at least on some level. And obviously if you don't have that, then You know, you just lose a lot because your melody is just not going anywhere now, right? And who wants it doesn't that often a melody rises too high point. Or the climax is clear this up a little bit here. The climax, and then moves down again. All right, so once you reach the climax, obviously you have to come down because otherwise you wouldn't be the climax now would it be? Climax is the highest point. So for it to remain the highest point, you have to start coming down from their motion by step is most common. Leaps at interest in contrast. But too many leaps, this is very important to many leaps may cause a melody to lose its shape, right? So even though leaps are very good to incorporate, you want to make sure you're not just jumping around all over the place for every single transition, right? You don't want to go from this node, jump like that seventh and jump down a fifth and jump up at 12, right? That would not have a sense of direction or shape by any means, right? Are you still want to incorporate them, but you just want to make sure you don't overdo them, right? So this is very important. That's a very common mistake some beginner composers make, is that they just start going all over the place, the jump from here to there. And they don't really have that same sort of, that sense of shape or direction that we were talking about up top over here, right? So very important to make sure you don't overdo the leaps. Melody has two main elements. And melodic structure, which is the general shape of curve of the melody, right? So take a look at what's going on here. You see that It's kinda like a wave, right? It just comes up and down and it kind of goes at it kind of it has some points where it dips a little bit, but overall, it's very gradual, very nice, very, very controlled, right? So that's the melodic structure. And the second is the rhythmic structure, right? Which is the rhythmic pattern that unifies to the melody, right? So it's not just about what kind of notes we picked, but it's also about the length of the notes that we keep using, right? And we want to make sure there's at least some sort of similarity going forward. For example, look it up, look at this thing right here. All right. Clearly we've taken that from the first measure and we've just changed the last part slightly, right? But it still feels like it's a part of what came before, right? Because it's not just completely something new and completely different what came previously. But it does incorporate the same structure, at least the vast majority of the bar does. And then obviously it's completely fine. A very encouraged to change it a little bit to make it sound fresh and new. But you want to make sure you keep the same identity, right? Like if you don't have the same identity as well, what's coming before then? Just doesn't feel like it has a sense of shape or a sense of unity. And obviously that's very important. And yeah, you see that? Basically a lot, right? And once you combine these two elements, you can form a beautiful melody, right? So for example, take a look over here. We have the structure where we are making sure we don't make too many jumps. We have a jump right here, but that's okay. Once in a while was perfectly fine. All right, so that's a beautiful structure right there. And of course, the rhythmic structure is looking very good to remember what we talked about up top. We have the same thing happening here. Those rhythms are pretty much the same as just the last chunk of the bar. That's a little bit different. And basically this rhythm here is actually exact same as the one that we saw before. And the nodes are also carried over from this one as well. So this is when we combine these two, we get this third one right here, right? As you can see, it looks like a very nice melody that has a sense of shape and direction. Now here are some important points to remember when you write a melody. And make sure the melody ends in a way that feels complete. Those very important. And obviously, we learned cadences, and obviously cadences help a lot with making sure that the melody feels complete and it comes to assign some sort of resolution. Alright? And of course, one way to achieve this is to aneuploidy with the tonic. Remember the perfect cadence finished on the tonic so that the plagal cadence. And this is another place where we're talking about that. Remember that the shape of the melody is important. The melody should have a sense of direction, as we discussed earlier. For example, it might move to a high point. And then down again. Try not to shift aimlessly around the few same notes. Again, as we talked, make sure you are going somewhere with the melody. It's not just staying in the same note, going up, going down, going up, going down, make them jump, right? That it's not going to be as interesting matrix going up or going down or taking some sort of direction. But you're doing it gently. You're not overdoing the leaps, then it's going to sound beautiful. For the most part, use stepwise or scale like movement. Very good ideas. Add some leaps for contrast. But don't use too many or the melody may lose its shape. We discussed all of this earlier. Avoid leaps of an augmented interval between melody notes, especially augmented second or fourth. All right, so augmented intervals are usually not a good idea to use in your melody because they just sound so awkward that it's not going to be a good component to your melody. You can use in other places in order to just have a little bit of zinc to your song. But you don't want to do it in the melody, right? You can do it in their response to the melody or when, once the course is not being played, something else is being played. You can use it there, but you wanna make sure you try to stay away from it in the melody. If your melody is in a minor key, it is best to use the melodic form of the scale. Try to develop the ability to hear in your mind what you write down on the paper, which might not sound as easy, or I should say, it sounds much easier said than done, but it is definitely possible, right? If you, especially if you train your ear, you could get used to just imagining what you're writing would sound like. And obviously that comes with a lot of training and practice, but it is doable. And if you can do that, then obviously that's a huge asset in your ability as a songwriter, right? Use your imagination to improve the quality of your melodies. Try out your melodies by playing them and experimenting with different patents. Obviously, this is the best idea that you could implement is to just whatever ideas you have, just try it out. Play him on a piano or whatever instrument you play, just play it out and see how these out. And if you need to manage Osman school for it. Here are some strong ending patents for the melodies. Numbers indicate the scale degrees, right? As you can see, printers often end with the tonic just because that's the nicest way to end it, right? It's always going to feel like it has a sense of resolution. It's always going to sound nice. So it's always a good idea. All right, so those were some basic fundamentals that you need to know about writing melodies. Obviously, there's a lot more that goes into writing melodies. But what we want to make sure we cover all the fundamentals so that you are set up for success going forward, right? Like if you don't know the fundamentals, then whatever else you know, is not going to help you as much because the fundamentals are what are very important, right? So hopefully you have all of these down by now. If you have any questions by always by by all means you can always ask me. But hopefully that was clear and to the point. And I will see you in the next video. 42. Writing a Response to the Melody - Music Theory: Alright, now that we know how to write a melody, or at least we know the fundamentals of reading Melody. It's time to learn how we write a response to a given melody. Melodies often have a question and answer forum. First phrase, the question is followed by a second phrase, which is the answer that responds to the first phrase. All right? Often the first phase of a question and answer Melody ends with an imperfect cadence, right? So the first phrase ends with an imperfect. To leave us wanting more, to leave us craving and answer if you will. And the second phrase ends with a perfect cadence to give us the answers so that it gives us a sense of resolution and sense of completion. Alright, so here are several techniques or methods for writing the responding phrase of a question answer melody. The first technique that we could use is to just repeat the opening phrase as our answer. Now, what would that mean? Let's take a look at this example right here, right, so we haven't given melody here. Let's take a look at it. I'm not going to include the cadences because as we discussed, the cadences are going to differ. But the main body of the melody is this part. And that thing is repeated exactly down here, right? We take that same thing and put it down here as our answer phrase. The only thing that we change is the cadence. So instead of having an imperfect cadence, we change that to a perfect cadence. So it, the melody itself, the body is the same, but it sounds different at the very end because we take that question and instead of ending your question within that like an answer, think of it even in terms of speaking, right? When you're speaking, let's say you're going to ask someone. Did you have coffee today, for example, right? And then when that person is answering, they might use the same words, but they end the phrase with a different tone. And that's what tells you, Oh, this is an answer. So you can say, did you have coffee today? I did have coffee today, right? It's the tone difference, right? And I know in that example, not every single word were the same, but there are definitely some other examples you can find where you might use the same words, but depending on how your tone is at the very end of the sentence, that determines whether you're asking or you're answering. And the same applies in music too. You could have the same body of Mallory. You could use the exact same notes in both the question and the answer. But because the first one ends with an imperfect cadence, which leaves you wanting more. It feels like a question. It doesn't feel complete. Answer because it ends with a perfect cadence because it ends on the tonic, because ends with a number 1 court. It feels like an answer and it feels like a completion of this melody or this melodic jury that we went on together. The easiest way to make sure your endure melody with a perfect cadence is to end the melody on the tonic. All right, and again, remember the perfect cadence is a core number five chord followed by a number one chord. And of course, it's best to use the tonic as the topmost notes on that number one chord because that's the note that is going to be heard by most people. The best way to approach the tonic note is from either the supertonic or deleting notes. Right? Now, what that means is that the best note the place as far as the highest note that we heard. The best not to place before, the number one is either number 2 or number 7 because these are neighboring nodes to number one, right? And by neighboring nodes we mean there are notes that are right next to it. And because they're right next to it, kinda have a dissonant sound to him when you compare it to number one, right? Because they're so close that if you plan together the Kinda sounds like think of the music and jaws. You have that sound. It's a very dissonant sound that creates a sense of dread because of how dissonant the feeling is. And the same applies here, right? Except here we're not using it to create dread when we're using it for, is to contextualize our tonic, right? So think of it this way. If we play a note that sounds dissonant compared to our tonic before we play the tonic, which sounds beautiful and complete. It's mixed number one, sound even nicer and even were complete, if you will, right? It's like contrasting a really bright white against the black background right there, just makes it sound out even more. If you have a piece of paper and you place it on a bright yellow background, it might not stand out as much. But if you place it on a pitch black background, it stands out immediately, right? And that's basically the same thing we're doing here. We're contextualizing the sound of the number 1 or the tonic by using it dissonance notes. Now, that said we don't want to use too much of a dissonant sound. We don't want to use an augmented interval between these two, but we wanted to make sure we're using the number two or number seven because it just makes the number one sound even nicer coming right after, right? It's like we're leading into the tonic. The second method is to repeat the opening phase. Either I can hire or a second Lord. Now, in the example below, you see that the second phrase, the answer, has the same shape as the first phase, but it is a second higher. In this case, the transposition works perfectly, but this may not always happen. You may still have to alter the final notes slightly to make them fit the perfect cadence. All right, so let's take a look at what's happening over here. We have the same body. It's just that this time instead of repeating the exact same thing, we change it a little bit, right? We move it up a second. In this case, we could have also moved it down a second if you wanted to. And what that ends up doing is that it's still the same relative structure to the melody, but it sounds a little bit different and it's a little bit fresher new, right? It's like you were answering with a little bit different tone throughout the sentence, if that makes sense, right? But off course, the most important element is to make sure that every kid has his own point. We need an imperfect cadence for the first part and a perfect cadence. For the second part, which is the answer. And that is ultimately what is going to determine the way that our melody sounds and whether our melody sounds like a question or it sounds like an answer. When using this method, be careful to avoid augmented intervals, as I mentioned before, between melody notes, melodic augmented intervals tend to sound rather harsh or awkward, and the awkward being the key word here. You want to avoid augmented intervals as much as possible unless you're going for that effect, right? If you're specifically going for an effect of an awkward or harsh sounding kind of parts in your music, then you could look into the augmented once, but more, more often than not, we're not looking for that, so it's best to stay away from it unless that's exactly what we're looking at for. The third method that you can use in writing, the response to a melody is to use a fifth higher, or a fourth lower version of the opening phrase. Now in the example below, the second phase, the answer has been changed to accommodate a perfect cadence. The second phrase has the same shape as the first phase, but it is a fourth lower. Since the question phrase begins on an upbeat, the answer phase begins an upbeat as well. This helps to create rhythmic balance and unity between the two phases, right? So if you take a look at the example here, we haven't upgraded beginning, which again, if you still don't know what the API does, basically is us taking a beat from the last measure and moving it up to the beginning so that we can have a little bit of a lag, get jumpy start, right? It's like we hit the ground running instead of just easing into the science a little bit different effect that is commonly used in a lot of music. It's a good thing to know about. And what this means is that all our phrases are going to be shifted slightly so that when our answer begins, it also begins on an upbeat, right? So instead of finishing this bar with the melody, Uh, we come two-thirds into the bar. And then we use the last beat as our upbeat for the next phase, which is going to be our answer, right? So that's all. That means. It doesn't have to do much with the method is just something that could happen sometimes that it's good to know about. But now let's go into taking a look at the method and seeing what, what is happening here. So we have taken the main body of the melody, and what we've done is that we've moved it down a fourth. We could have also moved it up and forth if you wanted to. So for example, or move it off at fifth, I should say. So for example, here we had GI, we took that and move that down to D G again, and we moved it down to D, B. We moved it down to F sharp, D, move that down to a, and et cetera, et cetera, right? And the only thing that is very key, again, similar to the other two methods, is to make sure for the question we have an imperfect cadence so that it doesn't fulfill us. It leaves us wanting more and leaves as craving and answer. And then for the end of the answer segment, we end up with a perfect cadence so that it doesn't leave us well anymore so that it fulfills us, so that it gives us that sense of completion that we're looking for. So that it sounds nice and everything right? And always remember to check your responsibility for an augmented interval, as we mentioned before, and adjust the notes if necessary to avoid these intervals, right? So those were the three methods that we could have used to write a response to a melody. Let's go to the one more time. The first one was to repeat the opening phrase, just change the cadences from imperfectly perfect. Second one was to repeat the opening phase, either a second higher or a second lower, and of course change the cadences. And the third method was to repeat the opening phase, either a fifth higher or a fourth lower. And of course change the cadences. And when you are changing the game, that says, for all of these methods, for the question part, we've finished with an imperfect cadence. For the answer part, we finished with a perfect cadence so that it gives us that sense of fulfillment and sense of completion at the very end of it. All right, so hopefully that made sense. Hopefully you've been able to follow along. If you do have any questions again, you can always ask me. I know I keep saying this in every video, but I just want to make sure that you guys are not left hanging, right. If you ever get confused by any of the stuff, you always have a direct line to me to ask for help. So definitely use that if you need to. But other than that, hopefully that all made sense and I will see you in the next video. 43. Conclusion: Are you guys come to the end of our music theory course here on Skillshare. I hope you guys enjoyed it. I hope you learn something real cool. I hope you had a good time while you were watching this. You know what's very important for me to have a course that is both very informative but also fun to watch it, right? We don't want to make this lake schoolwork or anything. You want to make sure we learn while we have fun, basically. So if you have any feedback, I see, I appreciated. If you could leave a review, there'll be always a very nice of you. Please do the assignments if you haven't already. It just helps you reinforce your learning. And I can always give it feedback on your assignments as well. And, you know, if you're interested in learning instruments, I do have a violin course right here on Skillshare, where I basically teach violin for all beginners. No matter what stage of your violin query you are. If you're a total beginner, if you've played a little bit, basically, if you're any sort of beginner violin player, you should be able to get a lot from that course. So definitely feel free to check that out. It's right here on Skillshare. And it's a very comprehensive course. It's over 13 hours and I basically cover all the beginner material that you need to know. And I'm very proud of that course. So if you're interested, check that out. But otherwise, it was a pleasure to have you as my students in this course, and I will see you hopefully in another course. Cheers.