Music Theory Comprehensive, Part 17: Chromatic Modulation | Jason Allen | Skillshare

Music Theory Comprehensive, Part 17: Chromatic Modulation

Jason Allen, PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer

Music Theory Comprehensive, Part 17: Chromatic Modulation

Jason Allen, PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer

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35 Lessons (2h 26m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Tools

    • 3. Review

    • 4. The Master Muse Score File

    • 5. Not Closely Related Keys

    • 6. Beethoven: Pathetique

    • 7. More Distantly Related Keys

    • 8. Enharmonic Tricks

    • 9. Modualations Of A Half Step

    • 10. Tri-Tone Modulation

    • 11. Lets Be Honest

    • 12. Beethoven: Waldstein Sonata

    • 13. Beethoven Analysis

    • 14. Ambiguous Modulation

    • 15. Chord Name Analysis

    • 16. Analysis In A Major

    • 17. Analysis In D Major

    • 18. Results

    • 19. The Magical Fully Diminished 7th Chord

    • 20. The Three Fully Diminished Chords

    • 21. LT and CT

    • 22. Double Flats And Double Sharps

    • 23. Fully Diminished LT Resolutions On C

    • 24. Fully Diminished CT Resolutions On C

    • 25. Fully Diminished LT Resolutions On C#

    • 26. Fully Diminished CT Resolutions On C#

    • 27. Fully Diminished LT Resolutions On D

    • 28. Fully Diminished CT Resolutions On D

    • 29. Chopin: Prelude In C Minor

    • 30. Analysis, Part 1

    • 31. Voice-Leading Chords

    • 32. Analysis, Part 2

    • 33. Linear Chromaticism

    • 34. What Comes Next?

    • 35. Thanks for Watching!

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About This Class

Welcome to the COMPLETE Music Theory Guide!

This is a class designed for the average person who is ready to take their music career (or music interest) and level up. Whether you are an active musician, an aspiring musician, or an aspiring music manager or agent - this class is perfect for you.

For years I've been teaching Music Theory in the college classroom. These classes I'm making for Skillshare use the same syllabus I've used in my college classes for years, at a fraction of the cost. I believe anyone can learn Music Theory - and cost shouldn't be a barrier.

My approach to music theory is to minimize memorization. Most of these concepts you can learn by just understanding why chords behave in certain ways. Once you understand those concepts, you can find any scale, key, or chord that exists. Even invent your own. If you've tried to learn music theory before, or if you are just starting out - this series of courses is the perfect fit.

Dr. Allen is a professional musician, top-rated online instructor, and university professor. In 2017 the Star Tribune featured him as a "Mover and a Shaker," and he is recognized by the Grammy Foundation for his music education classes. 

Throughout this class, If you get stuck, you can review the videos or post a question, and I'll back to it as fast as possible. 

In this class, we will cover:

    • Chromatic Sequences

    • The Lament Bass (The saddest music in the world)

    • Common-Tone Diminished 7th Chords

    • Chromatic Mediants

    • Common-Tone Modulations

    • Chromatic Inflection Modulation

    • Descending Fifth Modulation

      ...and much, much more!

You will not have another opportunity to learn Music Theory in a more comprehensive way than this. 

All the tools you need to successfully learn Music Theory is included in this course and the entire course is based on real-life experiences - not just academic theory.

Please click the "Take This Course" button so you can launch your music career today.

Test Prep: 

This course is perfect for prep for the Praxis II Test (ETS Praxis Music), The ABRSM Music Theory Exam (up to Grade 8), AP Music Theory Exam, College Placement Exams (Music Theory), and other common secondary and post-secondary placement exams.


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Jason Allen

PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer


J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of “glove” controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he’s not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation’s Music Educator of the Year.

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1. Introduction: everyone. Welcome Teoh Music theory sequence Part seven Teen No. 10 57 There we go. 17. Um, and this class, we're going to be looking at chromatic modulation. So how composers that in this time are using Chromatis ism as a tool for modulation? Eso We're gonna look at common tone modulations, chromatic inflexion modulations, a couple of sort of sequence see, like things descending fifth modulation, um, using and harmonics within diminished seventh chords. Teoh make kind of bizarre, um, modulations. Well, look at something called a voice leading chord, which is a whole new kind of chord. Um, that's kind of a mess of everything that doesn't have a term. Just gonna call it a voice leading cord. More on that in a minute. Um, lots of stuff in here. Lots of fun stuff. We're going to really start to dive into how composers are are navigating all of this chromatis ism that's happening. So please jump in. It's really fun class. I think you're gonna enjoy it. I'll see you on the inside. - Have Beethoven, Pathetique Sonata. Ah, this is the second movement measures 16 through 19. So just a little short little four bar excerpt of it is all in really gonna focus on. Although this is a really beautiful piece, you should listen to the whole thing. But for now, we're just gonna send these four bars. And really, what we care about is these three bars. The modulation starts right here. Um and this is just a cadence. But I wanted this cadence in here to really assure six with the seven on it. Okay, so we know that that weird. So it's probably of 57 of something. What do we have here? Here we have E major, which is gonna be a to a major to it is not in key. So that's weird to that Doesn't solve our 57 issue, right? If this is a 57 of that, neither of these air in key. So let's keep going a little bit more G flat. Teoh, be double flat again. More in double flats in a second. Just hold on to that idea for a minute. So here's one. Let's make all three. So that's one. We have one that, with the way we typically think about this, is we have one that starts and see when that starts on C sharp and one that starts on D. So let's do this. See? Diverting it. Here's what I'm gonna do here. I was gonna keep it the same. And I want to show you that we can use any note in the leading tone setting, regardless of how they noticed. Spelled. Doesn't really matter. Okay, so let's do leading tone resolution. 2. Tools: Okay, here we go. Music theory. Comprehensive, complete part 17 chromatic modulation. So, first, as always when you talk about tools, the tools stuff is exactly the same. That has been for year, like, literally years. Um, we need Teoh. You need to get yourself some staff paper, a good pencil and a notation program. Those would be my preferred things. Um, I'll give you a piece of staff paper, and the next thing you can print that out and have a couple sheets of that handy. Get yourself a good pencil. Muse. Score. Um, I'm using this program called New Score. We've talked about this 100 times. Um, I will just reiterate, though, that if you're on a tablet, um, you probably want you something other than you score because, um, the new score thing in the tablet version is weird. It's different. Um, there are a couple of really good tablet applications. I'm not totally up to speed on them, but I know there's one called in notion That's really good and many others. So check those out. Um, that's really all I have to say about that. Um, that's what you need to be successful in this class. 3. Review: Okay, What do we need to review? In order to make sure we're all its speed? Let's say everything from the last class this one is really gonna build off of the last one . So we looked at a couple different chromatic techniques in the last class. And in this class, we're going to be looking at how to use some of those techniques. Four modulation. Um, we're going to look at, ah, couple sequences, but some odd sequences. We're gonna look at some diminished seventh chords. We're gonna look at other kinds of modulation. So probably the best thing to do is if you are. If you're feeling a little hazy about any of this, we'll go back to the class where we focused on modulation a lot. Ah, which would be 13. Go back to class 13 maybe review that one, because we're gonna build off a lot of that. In that class, we had a big section on the pivot cord modulation. Um, we're going to do some more of that in this class, but we're gonna use, like, common tone modulation and things like that. So ah, review 13 and the previous class 16 if ah you're feeling hazy. If you're not feeling easy and you're feeling good, then let's dive right in. Here we go. 4. The Master Muse Score File: Okay, So, as always, I'm going to give you this full muse score file with all our examples in it. Try to keep it to piano this time. Um, the last time we got a little crazy with our string quartets. Um, but will we'll see what happens? Um, I don't know all the examples I'm going to use beforehand. So, um, who knows? This is going to be six full muse score file. So if you want to use this, it will be available for you in the next section. Um, if you I don't want to use it, that's totally fine as well. Um, making it anyway, So you're welcome to use it. Okay, so in the next thing, you can download this and then we're off to the races. 5. Not Closely Related Keys: all right. We've talked about modulation before, and, um, when we have, we've looked at this guy. This is our old friend, Circle of Fifths. Right? So when we talked about modulation, what we often talk about is closely related keys. So we're in the key of C and are closely related. Keys are all of its neighbors, so f and G are gonna be the easiest to modulate too, right? Also D minor. A minor and e minor are going to be easy to modulate to you if we get farther away like modulating be flats or two d gets a little trickier, but two steps away, we can usually do it. We can kind of figure it out. Um, but more than that were in the range of not closely related keys. Right. So let's remember how we did modulate too closely related keys. What we did is we tried to find a pivot court that was our most common way, right? So for in the key of C and we want to modulate toe f, we find accord. That's in both keys. And there are a few in that case because they're closely related keys, right? So C Major is in the key of F major and F Major is in the key of both f major and see Major . But also G major is gonna be the five here, and it's gonna be the two here. Actually, it's gonna be minor here, so that one doesn't quite work. Um, a minor is gonna be the six here, and the three here said that one works, so there's a few right, But if we get farther away, if we go to B flat, then it's not going toe. There's gonna be less closely related keys. Um, And if we go farther away than that, there's just gonna be nothing. There's this gonna be no, um, common cords that would work, But there might be some common notes. So when we're doing these kind of more extreme modulations where we're getting away from closely related keys were the idea of using a common chord isn't gonna work anymore. But one technique that composers do is a common tone. So just one pitch. So what we're gonna do is we're gonna have this one pitch that hangs on, and then we're going to drop you right into a new key, right? So we might have like like if we were going from sea to e right? This is just crazy. But let's let's think this out hypothetically, once a pitch, that's Ah, the same in both keys, uh, not see because this hasn't c sharp at DE that has a d sharp e the pitch e. That's tonic there, though, so let's find something more interesting. Um, f f sharp g. That's G sharp. A. That's a works. Let's do a Okay. So what I might do is I might get us to accord. That has an A in it, let's say six that way. A is the tonic. So I'm in the key of C major. I might go to a six and then I might just lay on that pitch A for just a second, just really emphasized that single pitch and then drop us down, uh, into accord. That is an e major that has an A in it, for example, Um, let's see. Ah to to any majors f sharp minor of sharp A be the third so I could hit big f sharp minor there, then maybe go to be major from there and then down T e major from there. And I just did my modulation. Right. That sounded a little confusing. So let's look at Beethoven. Let's see how Beethoven did it here. We have a good Beethoven example of doing exactly that. Um, except not in those keys. What Beethoven is going to do, what Beethoven's gonna do is start off on a flat and use a common tone of the pitch, see, and get us all the way up to f. Okay, in about one bar is going to give us from a flat through all this and upto f. Okay, so let's check out how he does it. 6. Beethoven: Pathetique : we have Beethoven. Pathetique Sonata. Ah, this is second movement measures 16 through 19. So just a little short, little four bar excerpt of it is all I'm really gonna focus on. Although this is a really beautiful piece, you should listen to the whole thing. But for now, we're just gonna send these four bars. And really, what we care about is these three bars. The modulation starts right here. Um, and this is just a cadence. But I wanted this cadence in here to really establish the key that were in so that you can understand the modulation that's happening there. So we're gonna hear this cadence. It's gonna firmly root us in a flat, and then we're just gonna lay on this, see for a bar, right? And there's a big long see, and then we're going to start modulating somewhere else. So let's hear just this quick little excerpt and then we'll take a look at it. Okay, Let's hear one more time. I think about here. We're gonna cadence in a flat, and then we're gonna move somewhere else. Okay. Cool. Um, okay. So in this case, what's gonna happen is we're going to go from a flat toe f Now we are going to f minor here , so it's really just a relative minor change when we get to f minor here. But, uh, I want to change it to Major, just to show you that we can use this to go all the way. Ah, two different key. So let's analyze it as is now. And then we'll look at it as though it was major in just a second. Okay, so let me get some text here. All right? So we're in the key of a flat, and this is the one. Okay, so we plop down in a big one right there. Uh, uh huh. This could be some kind of five. Let's maybe analyzed that just to be thorough. So let's go there. Let's put a one there on here. What? We have a flat d B flat. We've got it. Cem e flats happening. You flat g flat. So five and a flat would be e flat to be e flat. G B flat. Do we have that e flat G B flat. There's really are five. There's an a flat in the bass and there's a D here to that. That d could That d flat could be the seventh e g b d. That could be our seventh. A flat in the bass could either be a pedal tone or this could be a credential. 64 if we could see backwards a little bit, Um, it might tell us a little bit more about what's going on here, but let's just call this for now. 57 that will suit our purposes just fine. And then we resolve here to ah one. I think we can hear the function of that pretty clearly. Right. That's 51 Go. Okay, now what happens here? Here, we have just a whole bunch of see, we have a flat G f. Okay, that doesn't really tell us. Accord and a bunch of see we could maybe call this see f A. Um, it will be an f minor chord, but let's just call it anything for a minute. Let's go over here. Okay. So what can we call this? Um, let's see, it's not a one, so I'm just gonna use that as placeholder for a minute. We have really easy triads here, right? So we can figure these out. We haven't e natural. Aggie on the seats. We have C E g. Okay, so we have a C major here. C major chord. What is C major in the key of a flat? It's It's the third. Um, and it should be minor, but it's major. Okay, so we have a major three. I would put this in parentheses just to show that it's out of key. For now. Case, we have a major three weird here. Same thing. Still a major three. Here we have a G, A B flat and an e natural. So we could call this E g B. That would be e natural to G is a minor third G to be flat is also a minor third. So we have some kind of g diminished chord here. What could g diminish me that while in the key of a flat G a flat? That's seven. Sorry, e diminished. So we have an e diminished chord here. So in the key of a flat that's flat raised five. So this would be we really wanted to use a Roman numeral on it, which would probably shouldn't be raised. Five diminished. Okay, So that tells you something strange is happening. More likely, that's gonna be a seven of something, right? A diminished seven of something. So let's look at what we have here. Here. We have a flat C in F. So we have f minor. Okay, so f minor in the key of a flat, that's gonna be a six. It's gonna be in key, but what I think is actually happening here and you can't really tell because we don't hear the whole tune. But what's really happening here is I think if we heard more of it, you would realise hoops that we have modulated toe one and this we could call two things we could either call it a seven diminished. Ah, Well, actually, we just call it a leading tone diminished chord which we just learned which would lead us to one. Or we could actually call it Ah, five leading to one of five of five. If we incorporated the seat, we incorporated the sea into that chord, it would give us a 57 that would lead us to one. So depends on if we want to consider is accord tone, which I guess now that I look at it. We probably should. So in that case, we'll give it yet another name. I'm gonna call it of 57 of one. Now, I'm not going to say of one or 57 of six, because, um, I'm going to claim that the key change happened all the way over here during this bar. So I'm gonna say that bar switched us toe f minor. That's what was happening. Secretively right here. We're just laying on that. See, After this bar happened, we got plop down and see. I'm sorry in F minor. So that means the C major chord is now five. So now we have five. Leading to 57 I should probably right inversions here. 56 leading to a five for three, which drops us off on a 16 if we want to be technical. Okay, so we have big 555551 dropping us right down on a one. So I'm gonna claim that it happened here. Now, this is a relatively easy one, right? Because we just went from a flat Major Taft minor. Let's look at it again. As though we went to F major. That's gonna be more extreme 7. More Distantly Related Keys: So if I wanted us to go toe f major, I'm gonna I'm gonna do a sacrilegious thing here, which is mess with Beethoven. But let's do it. What the heck? Why not? Right. Um, I don't really need to change these because these air already major five, right? Um, major five major. Five. This one changed to one, and I'm gonna posit that it's gonna work pretty much Almost is good. Uh, I need this note to be natural to get me my f major. So I'm gonna need my a flat to be major are to be natural so that we have f major. Let's see what else thes beef flats should be major. All should be natural also, right? No. What am I talking about? B flat is in the key of F. So, beef, let's stay where they are. G natural f natural TF. Okay, I think that does it. So hopes I should make this a natural. That's probably gonna be the most jarring note because we're in a flat and suddenly right there. I'm throwing in a natural, but let's try it. Okay, here we go. That's just here, right? I could even cheat here and keep that flat and change it there. I think that will be less jarring. Let's try that. There we go. Um, so easy, right? Because of this common tone, I got all the way from a flat toe f major. I could really go anywhere. The common tone gives us tons of flexibility. You can just lay on a single note for a second and then land wherever you need to. And it might be a little jarring at first, but composers do this all the time, and this is the fund of the common tone modulation. 8. Enharmonic Tricks: Okay, let's look at another way that this can happen on. And this one's a little different. This is going to use. Well, I'm not gonna tell you. I'm not gonna tell you the trick that we're gonna use here. Um, until we got there, I just want toe see it in context case. So let's look at this little core progression. Um, and you'll see we're gonna go through this monster key change right here. Okay, So let's hear it. Okay, so we have this, like 151 and then a 151 through a pretty heavy little key change. Um, and is this key change? Smooth. Kind of. It's kind of smooth. Um, it's not the smoothest week could do, but we get there, right? Like this doesn't sound all that jarring. So let's look at what we've got here. Um, so we are and that we'll look at that glitch out. So here we have e flat. One five one. Okay, nothing strange. Let's get toe over here. And here we have. What is this key signature? This is a pretty ugly one. So we have five Sharps user little rule, and look at the last sharp and go up 1/2 step. So a sharp up to be So this is be major, be major. And then we have again 151 Okay, so we're going from e flat to be major. Let's take a look at that. We're going from E flat, major all the way around to be major. Okay. How are we gonna make that sound? Anything close to smooth? Especially when if we look through here, there's no common tone. You know, That note isn't here, so this note doesn't look like it's there. Let's hear it one more time. Okay. So what's happening here? Is this a common tone modulation? Actually, it iss, but the trick were using is n harmonics, right? Check it out. You flat de sharp. Right? So we're using a common tone, but we're just but we're changing the harmonic here. We're going from E flat two d sharp, right? I could also do this Watch. Just Teoh, make this even more clear. Right? Let's add a bar of d sharp in there, just so you can really kind of see what's happening, right? Still a common tone modulation. It's just we've added we've we've flipped our and harmonic in there in order to make it fit in the new key. Now, let's see how jarring this would be if we did this hoops. Um, I want to get rid of that bar. Let's just undo a whole bunch. Here we go. Now I want to get rid of this bar. What if we just went straight from here to there without this bar? That really kind of lays it out because this idea of, like, just exposing the common tone is not required, Right? This made it really obvious that there's a common tone happening here, but it doesn't. It doesn't always come across that, uh, smoothly. Let's get rid of that bar now. We still have a common tone here because we're going to go from this to this, right? So there's still a common tone modulation, even though it's not as obvious. Let's hear it, um, and let me get let me slow it down just a little bit, so we can really kind of focus in on it. Let's see how awkward this feels without that That bar. Okay, it feels much more sudden and, um, abrupt, but, uh, it still has some connection because of that common tone. So we would call this a common tone. Well, we would just really call it a common tone modulation. Um, but I'm going to call it common tone using and harmonics. 9. Modualations Of A Half Step: Okay, so now I'm thinking I got us from E flat to be with that little trick. Can we go farther? Can I get us from E flat t e With a common tone That's, you know, pretty far away if this works and maybe we'll try getting us all the way to a um, but let's try going from E Flat E. Now if we think about an E flat Triad and then an e major triad, do they have any notes in common nuke? But, um, the five of E and the one of e flat? There's something there we could do. So let's go out here. Let's just try to figure this out. So let's add a bar lines. Okay, so let's go back to E flat, Major. And let's just do this same bar again. The same two bars. Okay, 151 and e flat. Now, if I used an e flat here, what that could be is my leading tone of e natural, right? So let's switch keys to E. Major, and I should probably put a double bar line whenever you have just kind of a notation thing . Whenever you have a key change. You usually want to have a double bar. Um, in actual music. Um, I don't know if it's a strict notation rule that you put a double bar line and a key change , but usually you do. Okay, so let's do this now and let's make a d sharp. Oops. Can't. Now we're gonna treat this as a leading tone to e natural. So that means let's build a five chord on this. I might even kind of build it up. That might be kind of fun. So in E Major are five. Chord is going to be major. So it's B d Sharp f sharp. Let's try this. Ah, somebody wanted, um That's something I wanted to so be. And here I want b d sharp f sharp. A gonna get that seventh in there too. So here I'm just building up a big tryout of a B seven. Okay, so and let's add in. Well, no, let's not. Let's leave that just like that. And maybe just to really hit home. Let's go. Let's put a be there right there. Now you're thinking Yes. Shouldn't you use 1/2 rest? Yeah, I should, but I'm trying to write fast here, so don't for you. All right? And let's see if we can make that feel like it resolves T e major. Okay, so what we've got here we have e flat 151 A little common tone there on the e flat, switching over to a d sharp still common tone. But we're gonna call. That is where we switch to one. But we're gonna actually go to five here. We're going to get up to a 57 and then one all the way through. OK? Do you think it's gonna work? How smooth do you think this e natural is going to be when we get this e major Triad? Is that gonna feel good? I think it's gonna feel pretty good. I think this this be seven is gonna feel strange. I think that f Sharp is going to stick out a little bit on this. A natural is going to stick out a little bit. But once we get through this bar, I think e major is going to sound pretty good way. Oh, that bad, right? We almost got a whole try to in a way. Um I mean, 1/2 step 1/2 step modulation from my major key to another major key is, um, you know, the second farthest away you can of any key? Um, so not too shabby. Do we want to press our luck and see if we can get a whole tri tone? I kind of dio humor me. Let's try it. 10. Tri-Tone Modulation: Okay, so let's go back to e flat major here. And let's take this again. Case we're back to e flat 151 Now I'm going to try to go all the way of a tri tone. So from e flat major all the way to a major, that's gonna be tough. Um, because I need to find a common tone between those two. Okay, not impossible. We could do it. Um, so let's get us into a major, Okay? Completely opposite key signature. Um, so if I use e flat, I think of it as a d sharp. I don't have a d sharp in a major. I have a d natural. That's not gonna work. Although I could do something weird like put ah augmented six court or something in there to push to five and then drop off at one. I could do that. Um, so I d is a common tone that way. Or I could find something easier. Let's look at a different note in the cord. G natural. Maybe g sharp. There. That's not gonna work. B flat would be a sharp. That's not gonna work, boy. Um, go to my seventh year would be D that would work if I took a 17 major. Seven, not a dominant. Then I could drop off on. That would be a D. That could be a four chord in a Let's try that. Okay, so we're gonna get rid of these notes. I'm going to add Ah, seven here, and I that d which is my leading tone in e flat. So this is this is gonna be a stretch is going to stay a d de natural, but we're gonna go. I'm gonna try to go for five one, and then I So I'm gonna want this d to resolve down to a c sharp. Oops. Which will be my third in one. Okay, let's try it. Okay, So we want here. We want this to be a four chord, because that will make that d work pretty well. Ah, so let's go, d. Let's just make these root position so that it works. De. And then I am gonna have to change this note here, but it's cool e to get my five and then one. Uh, okay. So d f sharp. A My five chord is going to be, um e G B. Let's take this up to an E. That might change that C sharp there, but we'll see. Um e g sharp b. There's a five chord now a ce I should really put this up to an e. That's gonna be better Voice leading. Um, and then C sharp. If I really want to nail this home, I could put 1/7 on this five, but, um, let's see. Maybe we don't need it. I don't think we'll need it. Eso We're going to a modulation of a tri tone. Okay, so this is going to be for 51 and that's it. Okay, let's try it. Okay. Not bad. That common tone really kind of worked. Let's try getting rid of this bar and see if we can make it work that way. That's actually not bad either. Now, what I want to do is see if I can just kind of raced through these cause I'm really kind of into this sound. So here's I'm gonna dio I'm gonna make this weird. I'm gonna go to four. Bum bum, bum, bum, bum bum! Ah ah ah! Get rid of this bar. That's what I want to do this is gonna get rid of my key signature. So it's gonna get ugly for a minute. Okay, so I got rid of my key signature, so that looks weird. But let's just listen. I kind of feel like that's a cool core progression. If it was fast, I don't know. I like it. Maybe maybe I'll use that in something someday. But all we did here was do modulation by a tri tone, the biggest distance away that we can get by common tone. We use that seventh to get us to a four, went to a five and then dropped us off at one cool, fun stuff. All right, let's move on. 11. Lets Be Honest: Okay, So there's another technique related to this one that we can use for modulation, and that's called chromatic inflexion. And this one is, in a way, simpler. Um, then common tone. The way I think of this one is it's the let's just be honest approach, the the idea here and the reason I say that is because with with this common tone stuff, what we're trying to do is hide a little bit the fact that there's a key signature or that there's a key change happening because, um, having a common tone, right. So there's this common tone happening, and then we're trying to kind of sneak our way into the new key with a chromatic inflexion . What we're really doing is just saying, Okay, we're going to move to a new key, and I'm just gonna, like, bump one note up 1/2 step and ah, sorry like, yeah, I'm just gonna not try to hide it, but really just kind of hit you over the head and say, Here we go. Um, we're modulating now to a new key, so you can really kind of hear a chromatic inflexion. That's usually Ah, one noted accord bumps up by 1/2 step and then you say, Oh, we're on our way somewhere else And then we get dropped off somewhere else. So it's not a common tone. It's quite the opposite. It's, um, a very direct and obvious motion. So chromatic inflexion. Let's look at, um, a Beethoven example of doing this. 12. Beethoven: Waldstein Sonata: Okay, here we have, um, old excerpt from Beethoven's Waldstein Sonata. It's his first movement. Measures 20 through 23. Let's just hear it. Okay, so there was kind of a big key change that just happened right there. Um, we didn't see it in the key, but you can see these accidental popping up, and you can hear that inflection. That chromatic inflexion right here. Right? We're just cruising along on this chord, and then all of a sudden, we get this this something got raised by 1/2 step, and now we're on our way somewhere else, and we kind of get there right here. Sort of, Um Well, we haven't actually hit tonic of the new key yet, but, um, maybe we'll throw one in at the end. Just toe letter ears, resolve on it. But let's look at what's happening. Um, we're gonna do kind of a big key change here. Um, I'm just gonna tell you right now, we're gonna go from C major, which is where we're starting, and we're gonna get dropped off in e major. Okay, so we're gonna go Were way all the way around. Not all the way around, but pretty far around through this chromatic inflexion idea. Okay, so let's do an analysis of this and see what we've got. Um, let's go to a new video for the analysis. 13. Beethoven Analysis: Okay. So because we're, um, out of context here, we're kind of jumping into the middle of this. Um, take my word for it that were in C major right here. Okay, So we're in C major, trust me, but we're not gonna see major court, right? We have C e A A. Well, we could just look at the left hand here. I mean, it can't be more obvious in that c e a. So if you flip this around, we'd have a c e on a minor triad. Um, which might make you say, Are you sure we're not in a minor? But trust me, we're in C major here. If you go back a few bars, um, you'll see that were in C major, but in a minor are Sorry. And it's C major. This is a six chord. All right? We could be technically perfect in college. A six. It's an inversions. Will come to 66 Okay, um, we will move on to the next bar. Same thing, right? Still a 66 We don't even need to put this year because it's not a new chord, but I'm gonna put it there anyway because That's the kind of mood I'm in. No. What happens here? We have f sharp A c and in e. Mm. What do we want to call that? We eventually have in a sharp or Sorry, we haven't a sharp here. A sharp c e a sharp e. Okay, so a sharp C e. Was that look like will if we switched keys to e major right here, What would it look like then? It might look like this. A sharp is perhaps pushing up towards be and the sea is pushing down. Towards be What does that tell us be would be five in e major. So if we have that kind of double leading tone like that, that tells us probably an augmented six court, and there's only three notes in it, So it must be the Italian. So this is an augmented six chord in e major. Okay? And we got it by just pushing that note up a little bit. But this is great, because the attack the augmented 6/4 the Italian augment its export. All the arguments X cords push us to five pretty hard. So that's actually a great little way to modulate because here b d sharp f sharp be That is a big old five chord in the key of e major. Right? So just by using this chromatic inflexion just pushing this note up 1/2 step kind of flipped us over to an Italian six chord in E major and then dropped us off on five. And then eventually, we're going to get toe one. So let me just give you a one here. This is not what actually happens in the piece, but, um, yeah, let's do that. Okay, there we go. And kind of see it coming here through this d sharpened things, But let's put that little one there. Okay? So follow the analysis to see if I can get it all on the screen. That's pretty good. Sorry if that's tiny, that e major does really come out of nowhere, doesn't it? Doesn't feel all that normal, but, um, it is that's where we are Italian. Six pushing to five, pushing to one. So chromatic inflexion 14. Ambiguous Modulation: Okay, let's look at another sequence. And what we're going to see here is a sequence in which Ah, we started one key and and do another, um, we're gonna We're going to use some chromatic ideas to get between the two. And because of that, the exact kind of pivot point in the sequence is going to be obscured. Guess so. We're gonna use a sequence Teoh modulate between two keys, and it's going to be real blurry when the modulation actually happens. Because essentially, uh, all the courts and the sequence are going to be pivots in some strange way. Okay, so we're going to use this Mozart example. Let's hear it. Uh, right doesn't sound all that strange, right? And I'll tell you, the real meat of what we're looking at is here, right? You can feel something's something's up with that, but let's analyze it. Um, so we're gonna analyze in two different keys, and then we're going to see if we can figure out ah ah away to call it one or the other. 15. Chord Name Analysis: Okay, So this is the third movement of a Mozart piano sonata called Piano Sonata in D major. So, D major, it's pretty good clue. And I will tell you that D major is one of the keys we should look at. But it's not the first from right here. If we go backwards a little bit, you would find that were pretty firmly established in a at this point, which makes pretty good sense. Right? Um, we're way far into the piece and, you know, we're in the third movement at some point we've modulated to Ah, the five a right. Nothing crazy. So let's take a look at it as a, um So maybe the best thing to do here is going to be Let's go with court names first. Ah, and then we're gonna analyze this in a major and in D major. Okay, so let's do this and let's do that. All right, um, so and let's actually move both those down and let's just get Riel. Let's get real nice with this court names. Okay? We're gonna need more space there because we're gonna have a bunch of secondary dominance. I can tell. Okay, so here. That's kind of establishing a ah, with this little leading tone happening here with the G sharp. So let's go here. What can we call this? Um, Let's see. We have a maybe a B. We could consider part of that. We have B and D sharp. Mm. Tricky. Right. So that a and the B probably indicate that there's 1/7 chord happening here, so b d sharp f a would be 1/7 chord. B d Sharp F Sharp is in our key signature. So even though we don't have it here, um, we get one all the way over here, but this is going to be one chord per beat. So, um, I'm pretty comfortable calling this, assuming that f sharp is the missing note and not f natural. Um, that would be B d sharp f sharp A, which is a B seven chord. Okay, now, let's look at this one. We have yeah, e two sharp and e. Okay, that looks like an e major chord. It's gonna put an e so we know that that's major. Okay, now we have a c sharp G and a right. When I click that G natural It feels like 1/7 right? A C sharp e is missing, but that would get us in a seven chord Can that really feels like in a seven to me. Now we have d de f sharp, Andy. So that looks like a d cor. Okay. And this is the measure we're really concerned about, but let's get over here and just see if we want to call this anything. Here. We have d f sharp. And let's just leave that alone for now. I'm not gonna be concerned with that. Okay, So be seven e a 70. Nothing major there. Um, let's see if we can. I forgot. What? It isn't a major. It doesn't look all that complicated, right? Looks like a couple of secondary dominance, you know, one leading to the next. Um, nothing crazy, but let's look closer at it. 16. Analysis In A Major: okay. If we are in the key of a major, let's figure out what these cords are gonna be. So a B seven in the key of a major is a major to seven. That's not right. Right? That looks just weird. Um, that's not in that key. That's probably not functioning that way. Right? So let's look at the next chord and see that E is five. Right? So if this is five, can this be a five of five b seven t e? It surely can. So this is 57 of five. I'm going to use just slashes like that for now. Okay, So 57 of 5 to 5. Nothing strange there. Okay, a seven would be, ah, one dominant seven. Which again? That's weird. Let's look at the next one. What we have here is a four. Okay, So that tells us this is most likely not functioning as a 17 But as a 57 of four there, I like how Mu scores doing this. Get out of my way thing with text lately. Sometimes it's really annoying, but in moments like that, it's quite nice. That's a new thing. In the latest music or update anyway. Okay, So what do we have here? If we're cruising along in a major, we have a descending fifth sequence. Right? We have 5151 and then maybe a five. There's a lot of D here that would be four. Can we call this any kind of five or one Doesn't really clarify if we're sticking around and a major or not, because we've got a sharp right here, right? That doesn't really scream a major. Very well. This a sharp looks like a leading tone to this be, which would imply of 57 of five. Maybe. But now we haven't a natural again moving down to here, So And what is this? Let's see if we can figure out what this is that might give us some clue is what's happening. We have We switch to trouble clef here. So we have C a G. So we have If we put that in order, we had having a c e g. That's let's just continue this on. That's in the key of a major. A c sharp. Sorry, e g natural. That's again a 17 Here we have d f sharp D That's gonna be. Ah, four. So, does this look like a five of four? Perhaps. Yeah, it does. 57 of four. Here we go. How about this one? C e in the key of a major C sharp e. Sorry. Um, we only have two notes here, so we had to make some decisions. C sharp. T e could be a c sharp major. Um, that would be a three. Or it could be a one with a missing route. Actually, the root isn't missing at all. It's right there. Right? That note carries all the way through to here. See a e. Okay. So that we would call a one. Okay. And then here, b g sharp de it could be g b d. We could be. So if it was g sharp b d, we would have a diminished Simon. Um, all in the key of a major, actually, Jimmy D. Or it could be missing an e. Then it would be e g sharp b de to be an ease seven, which would be a five chord. That seems more likely to me because we have one, and then we have a five. So let's go. Let's call this five and say we again have a missing route and then a f sharp a d a. So I have ah d d major. Okay, so that's not what I expect after five. Now I have a four. Right? I have a d major, but we're gonna resolve to this c sharp and e again. That could be just like this. So that could be a one. Yeah. Okay, so I get us all the way through in a major right now, we can look at the same thing again in D Major, and it's just as weird. Basically, um, you know, this isn't that weird. Um, you know, it's a couple of secondary dominance, but the question will be, Where do we go where? So we're starting in a major. But at what point do we get to d major? If we get to d major completely at all? So let's look at that at Let's look at this whole thing in D Major in the next video 17. Analysis In D Major: okay. If we look at this in D Major, what would be seven b in the key of D? That would probably Well, that would be six. It be. Ah, Major six with the seven on it. Okay, so we know that that weird. So it's probably of 57 of something. What do we have here? Here we have E major, which is gonna be a to a major to it is not in key. So that's weird to that. Doesn't solve our 57 issue. Right? If this is a 57 of that, neither of these air in key. So let's keep going a little bit more. What do we have if we have an A seven. Now, we've got something in key. Now we've got a 57 and we have a D. Now we have a one. Okay, so we have a nice little 571 and D major, but what do we do with these? Well, a 47 If that was a 57 what would it be? It would be a 57 of two. Right, But minor to Okay, so we get a major to hear this would be a 57 of E Minor. So let's call it that. And we would put a lower case from a numeral here because it's going to be 57 of what we expect. We expect a minor to, but instead we get a major, too. And what is a major two? We've seen major twos before, and when we see them as seventh chords, if we see 27 that's what we saw here, right? We call that a 575 We don't have 1/7 year, but we would still call this five of five. So now we got some weird stuff here because this one is doing double duty. It's 57 of two is what we So we expect a two to come next and a two does come next. But it's the wrong mode. It's major instead of minor. So we're going to call this too. Five of five, which is going to lead us to hear to their five, which is going to drop us off at one. Okay, so let me explain that I get with this cord, we expect the next chord to be e. We expect it to be e minor if it was a minor. We'd have a 57 of two, and then we have a two, and everything will be happy. But that's not what we get. We get a major, so 57 of two becomes five of five. It's still resolves kind of correctly, because it does give us that e chord, but it gives us the wrong one. So we're gonna call it something different. Five of five. It is going to lead us to a seven. Just gonna lead us toe one tricky, right? Kind of fun. Um, so this is a sneaky, sneaky little bugger here. Um, still, though, it's a descending fifth sequence where just plotting down pretty cool. Um, Okay, let's go over here. Now. See? What is this in D Major? Does this give us any good clues? What's going on? I should have written the court names, and here to that would have saved me a few minutes. But that's OK. We have a c e g. So I have a seven. So that's a straight up 57 Nothing weird. Okay, e take back what I said about this text thing, it's getting annoying. Okay, here we have and d f sharp d a. So there we have a good old fashioned one in D major. Nothing funny about that. Here we have C a E. So here we have a five that makes me question this again. Hold on A C E g. Right. Yeah. That's just a five. How can these both be five? That's not right. Oh, it goes here, that's how. Oh, this day. Okay. Now, what we have here is B g sharp d If I remember right, we called this a missing e. Yes. So if this is an E seven that would again be to so here, we would have at 27 which would probably most likely actually be 57 of five. So that's look, do we get a five here? We have d A f sharp. So we have a d? No, we get a one. Oh, that causes problems. We get a one there, So this isn't probably a 5 75 but it's probably not a 27 cause that's just weird. I don't know what we call that. I'm still gonna call it a 575 but we don't get the five. We get a one. And then when we get here c sharp e we call that an A before probably still going to call it an a major chord. But in f, this is sorry. In D Major, this is a five. Okay, so this court is a little tricky because it's doing similar things that what happened over actually right here, where it's a to kind of with a sneaky resolution and I still think that's happening. This is a 57 to 5, but we just don't get the five. We get cheated out of the five, and we get a one instead. Okay, so now we've looked at this in two different keys. Let me, um let's go to a new video and let's talk through what we found. 18. Results: Okay, so the question is, let's assume we're starting in a okay? We're in a major right here. So the question is, do we get to D Major? Do we establish the major as tonic? Ah, well, that's the first question. Okay, the second question will be where? Um so let's see, how do we determine if we've established D major as tonic? Well, the easiest way is to look at our D major analysis, find one and see if that feels good. Does this feel like tonic? Let's try. Does that feel like it could end there? It's hard with that rhythm, but I'm gonna go on a limb and say no, so I don't feel like right here. We're feeling like tonic. The next thing we could do is go to discord. We could go to this court to, but it's in the middle of a sequence. I don't think it's gonna feel like tonic, no matter what. But this Does this feel like tonic? Let's try that. Does that feel like tonic? That really feels like it wants to resolve to there? Okay, now the question is, does this feel like tonic? Does a few electronic? Let's try it. I don't really think this feels like tonic either, but it feels more electronic. So I think we're in a at this point. But I think we switched over to D at some point and then came back to a The sequence is just ripping us through a whole bunch of keys really fast. Technically, it's taking us to the key of B are taking us to the key of E and then taking us to the key of D. This is kind of d pulling us back to a and then whisking us around again and dropping us off back at a So I think the real answer is we're going from a two d to back to a right here and then kind of bouncing between a and D and then dropping us off it. A. So we're just kind of zigzagging back and forth through a and e through all this chromatic stuff. Especially right here, though, um ah, good question would be. Does this feel like tonic? Let's try that kind of that bump feels like it could be tonic. You know, Dada, Dada, Dada, Dada bomb Tom can sing, but, um, that could feel like tonic, so that might feel like D at that point, Um, this passage still feels like D Now we're into a again. So point of this is that we're using a descending fist sequence to just zigzag back and forth through these keys is a little bit of e major in there as well. We could do this whole analysis again with E major. So if I was gonna analyze this what I call this whole section A or D The real answer is probably neither. I would probably call it. Ah, if we started in a and we ended a, I would probably call it all a but just label this as a descending fifth sequence all the way through here. That whole thing, I would say descending fifth sequence. And depending on the type of music theory you're doing, you don't even really need to put Roman New Worlds island. Um, this kind of if you're in like a college class, it depends on the teacher. But ah, lot of that. A lot of the time we say no Roman numerals, just call it a descending for sequence. Because Roman numerals don't matter right now for this kind of thing because it's just gonna zig zags through different keys. It doesn't show the function. Um, so that's what I would do. I would call this all descending fifth sequence. I wouldn't use any Roman numerals. Um, but I remember being in theory and what I always had to do was do all the Roman numerals and then say, Oh, this is just sending fifth sequence so that I would erase all the room of new worlds and just right to sending for sequence. It's kind of annoying, but, um, Chromatis ISMs hard. There you go. 19. The Magical Fully Diminished 7th Chord: okay. In this next section, I want to look at diminished seventh chords again. And and, ah, how we can use fully diminished seventh chord to get us kind of anywhere, almost anywhere. Just was one chord can just Pappas anywhere. And in order to do that, we're going to use a little bit of and harmonic wizardry, right? So that means that we might make it. You know, if we're trying to get from ah, be diminished seventh chord to and f diminished seventh chord, we might actually get up, get ourselves to an e sharp diminished seventh chord and then, you know, flip it over and harmonically, to an F diminished seven. Court will show you how that works in just a second. Don't worry. Um, but beforehand before we do that, remember, um, when we talked about diminished seventh chords, especially fully diminished seventh chords, we talked about the kind of mysterious properties of the Philly diminished seventh chord. It's kind of a perfect circle, right. So we've got a whole bunch of minor thirds and it lines up at the top. So a fully diminished seven court is, um, the route and then a minor third above that and then a minor third above that, and then a minor third above that, which makes a minor third back up to the route to perfectly divided cord. Um, so, for example, B C t e flat e flat to G flat G flat, too. Be double flat, which hold onto that thought for just a minute. But we and then b double flat. Um, up to see is ah, and harmonic. Minor. Third, right. It looks like a type of second, but because of the double flat, um, it is a actually a minor third. Um, we're gonna talk about double flats in just seconds, so hold on to that for just a minute. Um, so the key to figuring this out is to remember that that diminished the fully diminished seventh chord is this kind of circular cord that divides up the octave evenly. And it's a dissonant sound cat. So when you combine those two things, they can really be a vehicle to take you anywhere. Um, we make a dissident sound, and then we can resolve it. I'm going to show you how to resolve it. Eight different ways, um, so we can use a singular cord to get us pretty much anywhere. Okay, um, So the next thing to remember is that there are only actually three diminished sent, fully diminished seventh chords. Right. If you remember that, um, let's do a quick review of what those three are, because it's going to be important. Um, as we work through this concept. 20. The Three Fully Diminished Chords: Okay, so there are only three, remember? And just to give you a little semblance of why, let's troops. Let's create one to G Flat Teoh, be double flat again. More in double flats in a second. Just hold on to that idea for a minute. So here's one, um, let's make all three. So that's one we have one that, with the way we typically think about this is we have one that starts and see when that starts on C sharp and one that starts on D. So let's do the C sharp one. So minor third above C sharp is gonna b e minus. Heard above e is G minus third above G is B flat. Okay. And then our 3rd 1 we're gonna build on D minor, third a flat and C flat would. Yep. See, flats are gonna are going to start happening. A bunch Hold on to that idea. So these are three now, if just to give you a quick refresher, the reason there are only three is because this is perfectly circular. So if I put see at the top now e flat is the root, right? I could re spell this so that it waas So it looked like 1/3 by doing d sharp f sharp. A natural? Yes, a natural and then see, But it's still the same court. I just did some and harmonic trickery. Um, I could do it again, can put d sharp at the top, but let's spell it is e flat. And now we have another one. I can put f sharp at the top, right? Expelled his G flat. Now we have another one. Put a its top right, and maybe spell it as I'm gonna have to redo this one a little bit more. Actually, I'm gonna have to spell this as b m b double flat. And that gets us back to where we started, actually, so they're perfectly symmetrical, so they just repeat over and over. So this one that starts on C works in works for all four of those, right? Which means we can resolve it. Four different ways actually weaken, resolve it eight different ways. So, um, and the same goes for these. They're symmetrical. So if I just reorder them and then re spell it, and harmonically, I get the same ones. Okay, let's talk. Ah, next about these kind of eight ways that it can resolve them 21. LT and CT: I should actually say there are more than eight ways are more than eight ways, actually. And move this back down and octu, There you go. Now, my and harmonics are all screwed up double. Okay, um, so the the ways that I want to focus on here to resolve these is there are two ways I can resolve each of these chords that take advantage of the things we're talking about right now. Um, one is to treat it as a leading tone court, and we've done this before, but here's what's a little different. I can treat any of these four notes as leading tones. Maybe we've done this before, too. But don't worry. This will get different. So I can go from B flat, be double flat to be flat and treat b flat as my, um root of my next chord. Or I could go. I have g flat so I could go to Jean Natural as the root of my next chord, have an e flat so I could go to e natural for my next chord. Now, that makes a not very good resolution, right? Like going from e flat e natural doesn't look like a leading tone. What we should really have is a d sharp to e natural that looks like our leaving tone. But we're just going to get away with all kinds of weird and harmonic stuff to do all of this. So some of the rules of harmonics are out the window and go see to see sharp so I can resolve them that way. Now, I could also resolve any of these as a common tone, right? I could resolve this to a C major. If I wanted, I could resolve it to an e flat if I wanted resolve it to, ah g flat, if I wanted, could resolve it to, ah, be double flat. Or if I wanted to be sneaky, I could resolve it to an a natural right, because be double flat to a natural is going to get us into common tones. Um, and harmonic common tones right is gonna get weird. Let's take a minute to talk about double flats and double sharps. I'm sure we've talked about double flats and double sharps at some point, but I just want to make sure we're on the same page with those 22. Double Flats And Double Sharps: Okay, Just a quick refresher. Um, we remember. I'm sure we've covered at some point that we can go see We can do see flats and groups And they are and harmonically be natural. So they sound like be natural, right? So these notes will sound the same. See, flat to be natural. The same thing with weaken do e sharps are going to sound the same as F naturals. So these two notes I got sound the same. This is all just refreshing your harmonic brain. We can also do double flats who f double flat. That's a weird one, right? That would be an harmonic toe. What? Teoh ive flat, actually. Do I have any flat somewhere? Yeah, that No. And that note for the same e flat and f double flat. This is where our brains start to hurt. Um Okay, so double flat just means literally There are two flat on it. So if I do d double flat, that means d flat. So we're down 1/2 step and down another half step. Right? So we're down to see natural. Okay, You can think of a double flat as either to half steps down like to flat symbols. That's the way I think about it usually. Or if you want to just get to know this symbol as, ah, whole step down, which is what it is. Um, so if I did e double flat, we would be looking at it. It would sound like a d natural. Okay, now, this symbol right here, this little X, Hopefully we've looked at this before. I'm not sure we have, but this is a double sharp. Now. Why? You might ask yourself for a double flats. We used to flats. That makes total sense for a double sharp. We use a whole different symbol, This weird X. Why is that? I don't know. Actually, I don't know. I think that putting two of these symbols right next to each other, if you imagine that, um, perhaps a little hard to read. Um, it just looks like a weird little grid. Um, so we use this X to me in double sharp. So when you see that X, it means to sharps, So let's do this. Okay, so this note is gonna be an harmonic toe. What? See? Double sharp? It's going to be an harmonic two D It's going to sound like a d natural. This one d sharp. It's going to be an harmonic toe. What e? That's going to sound like an e natural e sharp, Tricky one. So you have to think here. Ah, whole step above e. Don't think f that's only 1/2 step. So this is actually gonna be an harmonic toe f sharp. Okay, um, then f double sharp is gonna be an harmonic to G natural. Hey, so the little X means whole step higher, and we're gonna hit some of these. I don't think we're gonna hit double sharps in these diminished seventh chord resolutions, but we will hit double flats. You should know what double sharps are. Um, because they exist. They're around. And there are, actually, maybe while we're here, I'll point out there are some other symbols because you'll probably ask me, um, the other symbols that we use are you can have a triple sharp. Um, I don't know if you can do that. Um, you score. I don't think you I'm sure there's away somewhere, but, um, a triple sharp would look like a sharp before this x So be sharp acts. See Ah, triple flat would just be three flat symbols. Um, some of the other ones are for quarter tones, so you might see like a flat symbol, but backwards. That tends to mean 1/4 tone flat. That's like in between the two notes. Um, we'll see those later if we get into really 20th century stuff where people start playing with notes between the notes and all kinds of weird tunings and things like that. But you won't see those quite yet. Okay, so double flats and double sharps um, let's look at this eight ways to resolve fully diminished seventh chords. 23. Fully Diminished LT Resolutions On C: Okay, So for each of these, I want to go through the leading tone option and the common tone option because, um, we're gonna get ourselves into some weird and harmonic. So I really want you to see how this plays out. Um, Stuart, with half notes, I suppose, that way we can keep one per bar. Okay, so, actually, let's do this. Let's make our are all our inversions of each chord first. So if I start on C, then I have e flat that I have d flat that I have are the double flat. Okay, so I'm going to copy this out to here and here and here this'll one. I'm gonna dio inversion, and it's gonna be See, we're gonna re spell this toe a story this toe f sharp. And this too d sharp. Yes. Okay, this one, we're gonna take her, see up and active and our e flat often active. Okay. Now, if you want to re spell that, lets call that be double flat in a It's called that g flat in f sharp. Yeah, I got something that looks like a triad. Okay. And now we need to take our C up. Are you flat up? RG flat up. I suppose I could have just taken RB double flat down for this one. Okay, Now, I'm gonna call this in a natural. All right? Now we have all three of them. Four of them. Sorry. I left blank measures in between. That's unfortunate. Trying to keep things tidy. Okay, so let's do for So this is so remember, this is the same chord. We have the same court four times for different versions. Let's hear it. Uh, cool. Something sounded weird about this one. F sharp. A natural cool. Um, right of sharp. A natural is minor. Third a to see is a minor third CTE flats 1/3. Cool. Okay, so now we're now we're all right. Okay, So we're going to treat the route as a leading tone and all of these So first c is going to go resolve to D flat technically, and let's resolve all of these two major court doesn't have to be, um, but let's let's do it So d flat major is gonna be d flat f a flat. Okay, so now I'm resolving this kind of that. No. Let me dio. Yeah, There we go. Okay. So I was going to use this slur to show Are going from C to D Flat as our leading tone. Now, let's go here D sharp to e If that was the leading tone. So e g sharp b. Okay. And I want to show that as the leading tone. Okay, one more. Two more f sharp G f sharp was a leading tone. Get G B D. And if a was a leading tone and be going to be flat D f Okay, let me just put that little slur in there. That's not where I wanted Toe. Here we go. Nope. Sometimes slurs. Ca NBI finicky. Okay, I'm not gonna worry about making that perfect. Okay, so now I've resolve this two D flat. Major E major, G major and B flat major by, uh, leading town. Let's hear it. Okay, so, um, four different resolutions. Now, let's do four more resolutions using common tones 24. Fully Diminished CT Resolutions On C: Okay, So you look at the common tone resolutions and a copy of this, paste it there and then delete this court. Okay, so we're left with the same chord with all its inversions. Okay, Now, let's try a common tone again. Let's use the root of all of these. What we don't have to it doesn't have to be the root. You can use any note in the cord, and that's the whole point. Um, so this is gonna be a c e natural g natural. It's gonna be the shar d sharp. Ah dee Sharp major as d sharp, half double sharp. Um, and then a sharp half double sharp. What happened? There it is. Why is that double sharp? The way I think about this when I'm trying to figure out these triads in these really bizarre keys is I kind of cheat a little bit. So we're looking at D sharp, Major, what I do in my brain in order to think quickly, I think what is D major d majors d f sharp A Have that one memorized so d of Sharpay. So let's add 1/2 step toe. Everything. If I add 1/2 Steptoe everything. It's still gonna be a major record. OK, but you have to add 1/2 step to all three notes. So if something's already sharp, then it's got to be a double sharp, right? Same thing with like e major, e g sharp and B. If I wanted to make an e sharp major chord, it would be e sharp g double sharp because he is already sharp and then be sharp. That would be the weirdest cord ever. That would be so bizarre. Maybe we'll encounter one. Was he Okay, so that's my little trick for thinking about How do I make a D sharp major chord? That's weird, but I just think d major at 1/2 cept everything. Okay? F sharp, Major chord when we used the exact same trick. F sharp f major is f a c so f sharp. A sharp c sharp. Okay. And then a major is a c sharp. No e natural. Okay, let's hear these. Okay. So, common tone resolutions. All right. Crazy. Right. We just ripped through eight different keys with the same chord. One chord to do that modulation got us to D flat. Major E. Major G Major B Flat, Major C Major de Sharp, major F Sharp major and a major. Let's hear all of them. Just for fun. Fun, right? Um, thes magical Dementor. Seven chords can get us just about anywhere. Okay? And that's just with the one. So let's look at the next one. So this is the one built on C. Let's look at the one built on C sharp. 25. Fully Diminished LT Resolutions On C#: Okay, let's look at the one that starts on C sharp. So you might think, wouldn't you be able to just do all of this and raise it 1/2 step? Yes. But the point of this is I want you to get really comfortable with all of these crazy and harmonic things that are about to start happening. You'll notice I don't have a key signature or or I mean, the key of C major. I'm not really in the key of C major for this, right? I am not using a key signature. Once we start getting into this really chromatic stuff, we don't use key signatures anymore. You'll see more of that in the next class. But for now, we still use key signatures. What? They get pretty washy. Sometimes we don't use them. Um, like in this kind of stuff, Like looking at all of this. What a key signature. Help me out at all. No, it really wouldn't. It probably make things more confusing so we don't use a key signature. Okay, so let's take this deployed out. Now. We're gonna take our c sharp and let's re spell this. This was a B flat swimming in a sharp. This is a gene natural. So I need in f double sharp, and then this is an e natural. No, I'm gonna do this again because I would have a D double sharp here to double Sharps says something is probably a mess. Let's do that again. Let's go from the bottom e to G to be flat to d flat. That's what I should have did has changed the c sharp to a D flat up there. Okay, now let's g o with G on the base. So let's try just switching that to a D flat already, and that gets me to an E for this, I'm gonna need an F flat. So G b flat, g flat a flat. Okay, we're gonna go to the next one. Things are gonna get a little weirder. So c sharp to be g to be flat. I skipped one. Nope. B flat says at the bottom so I could call this in a sharp. I could do it that way. There's actually two different ways to do this one. I could do it this way. A flat C sharp, e g, or I could do B flat D flat, F flat. A double flat would get me a triad either way. So let's stick with this one. This one's a little less ugly. Um, Okay, so leading tone resolutions. Let's get him. So we're gonna go see Sharp is gonna go to D. So we've got a d. Major e is going to go to F A. C. G is gonna go to a flat. So a flat the might major through to see e flat A Sharps could go to be t sharp after. Okay, um, maybe add my little slurs in here because I think that was kind of nice to show the note. That is the leading tone. You're gonna do that to me again, aren't you? Nope. Why? Why won't you go the other way? Okay, that works. It's kind of weird, but it worked. Okay, So here's our leading tones. Great. All right, let's do comment on resolutions of this sucker 26. Fully Diminished CT Resolutions On C#: All right. Well, I copy that pasted over there. I'm going to get rid of our, um, common tone. Resolutions are leading tone. I mean, so we can do common tone. It's a good exercise. If you're just like sitting at a piano. Even if you don't play the piano, find one of these cords, find two ways to resolve it. Um, actually, you confined eight ways to resolve it. Um, okay, common tone. So this is going to get us to a C sharp major. So it's gonna be C sharp e sharp. And it's not gonna easily let me do that without adding a sharp the sharp g sharp. Okay, E major is the sharp e g b uh, being natural. G b d natural a sharp, a sharp C sharp. Eat. Now, something's wrong there because I can see something's wrong because this interval we know is a minor third. Because this is a diminished chord. This is a major chord. So that's that. That can't be the same. Um, this thing's a double sharp, right, cause and a major triad is a c sharp e. So in a sharp triad is gonna be a sharp See double sharp E sharp. Right. Okay, Let's hear these. Okay, great. So that got us through with one chord again. We got to D Major F major. A sharp major. Be major C sharp, Major E major, G major and a sharp major. No, I want to do the 3rd 1 I'm gonna do the serving a little bit different just to hit this idea home. 27. Fully Diminished LT Resolutions On D : Okay, so let's make the court on D the 1st 1 So it's going to d half a flat and see, uh, flat. Okay, so there is our third diminished seventh chord. Now, instead of inverting it, here's what I'm gonna do here. I was gonna keep it the same. And I want to show you that we can use any note in the leading tone setting, regardless of how they noticed. Spelled. Doesn't really matter. Okay, so let's do leading tone resolutions here. Okay, So d to e flat. So e flat major is gonna b e g b flat. Okay, now I'm gonna go f as my leading tone. Okay, So f is gonna go to G flat. So g flat B flat d flat. Right? So I'm just gonna use this as my leading tone, even though it's not the root that's okay, because in this court, it is the room. All the notes are the root a flat is going to go to. Technically, this should be be double flat. Let's do that. Be double flat. So a normal B flat is gonna be B flat D f. So that means be double flat D flat f ah. Can't just use my arrow keys for that. A flat. That's gonna be my cord there. Um, I could also spell that as an A If I want to do weird, um, and harmonic stuff, I could go. I could call this a C sharp e. Why does that sound weird? Oh, a natural. So this cord, these two chords are the same. Either way could kind of work. This is technically correct. But in this and harmonic world, there really is no correct Correct. So I'll even both on there with that. Okay, Now, let's use see flat as our leading tone, that ought to lead us to some kind of d If we want to get fancy, I have a feeling this is going to give us a weird double one also. So let's go to see Flat would be d double flat. So a d major is d f sharp. Eso de double flat f sharp with two flats on. It is going to be one flat because f sharp with If we take away the sharp, that's like adding one flat because the staff natural. Then we had one flat more that's gonna get us to a flat, and then a is going to need a double flat. Okay, that's an ugly cord. So let's spell it as see Natural, which we could also do. Oops. See, e g. Those two chords are the same. And harmonic. Right? So what we did here. And this is why I have been using these. So check this out. So now are leading tone is from this after G now are leading tone is from this sea flat to we're sorry. A flat to a natural or from this a flat to I really wish I could see that other little handle there. This be double flat what I'm trying to do. Okay, so there's are leading tone a flat to be double flat. And here, same thing kinda are leading tone is see flat two D double flat. Or and I should say Or and or same thing, I guess in this context, See, flat to seeing natural Whoa. Why'd you do that? Weird. Okay. Ah, whoa! Oh, man. It's gonna leave it like that. Okay, so I hope that makes sense. Um, we don't need the notes of the court to be in any particular order for this to work. That's right. Now what we should do if we want this to sound better is invert these chords. Right? These kind of did a weird little registered shift, especially this one. So if I took these cords down and knocked these notes down inactive, it would sound better if I took this whole core down productive. It would sound better. Let's try that. Ah, di double flat. Something's gonna let me do that. Yeah. I'll just do it as C major. It's gonna sound better, right? Um, I'm gonna go back to where it was. Just so I have the right spellings. Okay, so now let's do Ah, one more round of comment. Oh. 28. Fully Diminished CT Resolutions On D: Okay, lets grab these four bars. Let's do the same technique here. So do that on delete our leading tone resolutions. All of them. All right, let's do a common tone resolution on each note. And again, it's not really gonna matter which, um, how the court is stacked, so d gonna resolve to d major. Easy. Ah f result toe f major A c a flat. We're going to resolve to a flats major a flat, See e flat. But you need to be natural and then see flat. Oops. We're gonna resolve Teoh C E Flat major, I guess. See, Flat e flat and G flat. Okay. And let's take this one down on active. Okay. See, uh, things to BC flat, though. See, flat E flat, Chief. Okay. And I could take this down an octave to if I want to get fancy. You flat sound a little better. Get it through these, right? So all of these resolutions, work and harmonics are going to start to get crazy. Key signatures are gonna become super relevant. Um, as we get more and more and more immersed in Chromatis ism 29. Chopin: Prelude In C Minor: Okay, let's look at some Chopin. So with this one, I thought instead of kind of tell you the thing we're looking for, I thought, Let's just analyze it. And then when we get to the kind of head scratcher, I'll tell you kind of what what's going on here, But let's just try to analyze it with the tools that we already have. So this is to bar excerpt from Prelude in C minor. This is just measures five and six. Um, let's take a listen. Okay. Cool. Nothing crazy. Um, let's slow that down just a little bit. Kant's right now. Oops. Okay, that's a little bit better. Hi. That, um okay. First kind of too weird little notation. All things. Ah, I want to point out about this. First this right here. Okay, so we have two voices and the other voices inside. You know, this one is kind of embedded between the first voice here. Um, So I only want to point this out to just remind you that these three notes happened at the same time. Okay. Um, it doesn't look like it. You kind of have to calculate it out, but this is B three. Um, so don't get thrown by that. This isn't on a weird beat or anything like that. This beat three. You do sometimes see this, like this note on the other side of these. Um, so it would be like the stems would be, like, possibly right on top of each other, but I don't think that's correct. I think this is actually correct, so don't get thrown by that. Um, another locational thing I want to point out is on that same topic. Shouldn't you see some rests here. If this is its own little voice, you should, um but a lot of the time in this kind of music and piano music, um, we just kind of get rid of those rests. We know that there there, we don't really need them. They just kind of plug, you know, clog things up. So we have beat one beat to beat three. We've notated into two different voices, um, and then beat for so we don't really need to have the two rests here in the one rest here. Um, if this was like a four part harmony thing, we would, because we would need to know that those other voices are resting. But in this case, we can just kind of sneak that one beat of other voices in there. Um, you'll see that even more in, um, as we go forward into the 20th century, the the rules about putting rests where you don't need them. Um, in this kind of case, when the bar is full Ah, it's not like we've done anything rhythmically bizarre. We just don't have that. Those extra rest in there. Now, if you're using new score, I found it to be rather difficult to get rid of those rest. So what I did is I just drugged them up. So if I scroll up blue, there they are. Um, I just drugged them way up out of the screen. Um, that's probably achieved. There's probably a way to hide those, but I just didn't feel like looking for it, so I just stuck him up there. You can just click and drag and move these around. Um, so they're up there. Who cares? Don't need him. Okay. Um, great. Uh, let's try to analyze this sucker. Let's go to a new video and dive in 30. Analysis, Part 1: Okay, let's take a stab at analyzing this sucker. So what key do we think we're in? You know, we see all these chromatic stuff so we could be in anything. Who knows? But, ah, C minor would be a pretty good guess. And my clues are, um this piece is called Prelude in C minor, and we're actually still right at the beginning. So this is only bar for their Sorry about five. And this is bar six. So we're still really early on the peace. We haven't. We probably haven't modulated yet. If we looked at the whole peas, the whole beginning part, and we Yeah. So we're probably still in C minor. Another good clue is obviously the key signature telling us c minor or e flat. Um, although with all this chromatic stuff, the key signature doesn't matter too much. And probably the best clue, though, is right here. Bagel. See, with e flat, G e big seas right at the beginning. So let's go with C minor. I think that's a pretty safe bet. So that not only tells a c minor, but we also kind of figured out what our first chord. It's right What? So we have a big one court here, see if e flat g e flat There's no B flat in it are sorry. There's no g in it are there is a G in it. C e flat g. Later we go. We have everything. I saw this and I was like, Oh, there's a hole in it. There's no So we got everything we need for a big C minor chord right there on the downbeat . Let's look at the next court. This court is interesting. We could actually call it to things, and I'd be pretty okay with it. See, e flat, A flat e flat. So, technically, the notes we have could be stacked into a triad a flat C E flat. That would be six chord. Right? Um so that would be technically correct. Looking at all the notes, I could also be pretty comfortable calling this a one chord with this a a passing note from G moving over to this a um the question would be Does this feel like a different quart or does it feel like the same chord with this note passing? You know, these notes are the same. This just flips up inactive. Really? So let's hear it. Let's see, Let's think. Does that feel like a different chord? Or does that feel like the same chord with a little extra passing tone in it? Hard to say. I think that this feels like a different chord. So I'm going to go with the six. But if you wanted to call that ah, one with a passing tone in it, that would be totally OK. I'm gonna go with six. Okay, Now we get to this court. What we have here be de and a flat. Let's take a look. Hoops. Let's go out here and let's just look at what that might be. Be natural D A flat. Okay. What do you want to call that? Um, well, let's see if we can get this into a triad. If we move that a up, then sure, we have a missing f. Okay, so B flat D f. So, if we assume f is the f from the key signature, which would be f natural, then we can say we have a B flat d f a flat. That is a fully diminished court. Hooray! Nothing too bizarre. There However, we have a slight problem here because of this thing right here. So if we consider this note to be part of this cord and it's a fair assumption because we don't get an F and so we're kind of looking for an f here and we finally get one right here , still within the beat, Probably part of the cord. So this is the F that we're looking for and it happens to not be the F in the key. It is an f sharp. So what does that get us? I'm gonna put a flat on this A just even though it's in the key signature. I just want us to be able to see it a little more clearly. What we have there, we have B to D is a minor third B to F. Sharp is a perfect fifth. So major third here. So we have a B minor triad here, but then we haven't diminished seven to a minor try with a diminished seven. Ah, If it was gonna be a normal seven, it would be in a natural that would give us a minor seven chord. But it's a diminished seven. So, technically we have. And harmonically, we just have a major second here between his f sharp in his a flat. So what we could do if we wanted is you know, we could re spell this as a g sharp If we called this a g sharp. Then we could call this cord something like a b minor with a six in it. But that's not really what we have. We have this really bizarre seventh court, okay? And we don't really have a name for this court. This is not a chord that has existed to us yet. So what we're gonna call that cord is goofy. Seventh court. So technical term here are really goofy. Seventh chord. Not really. There is a better term for it. Let's go to a new video and let's see if we can come up with a a term that would encapsulate this particular record 31. Voice-Leading Chords: Okay, So goofy. Seventh Corps doesn't really work as a technical definition. So what we're going to call this is a voice leading cord. Now, here's why. We can kind of declare every note in this chord as a voice leading element between here this cord and this court. Okay, so let's look at what this court is really fast. Ah, that chord gets us to a a minor five. Right? Let's take a look at that. B flat, D and G. So see are five and the key of C minor would be G g b flat de. Okay, so that gets us to a minor five court. We could call it a five six if we want to be technically correct, because it's inverted. Okay, so everything here could be voice leading between the six and this five. So let's look at how that could work. We have this sea going chromatic lee down. We're passing right through there. So we could call that a chromatic passing tone. OK, in both both notes there. So here to here, so we can call that a common tone. Andi to d. We can call that a common tone into the next one. This a, however, a flat sorry which jumps down to this F sharp could be called a double neighbor tone around the G, which finally does resolve here. So this is a double neighbor to G, so that makes every note here, possibly a voice leading cord. So instead of goofy seventh chord, we're going to call it VL Voice leading Easy right now, a couple things about this one. Is that this I I hate that we use VL here because it looks like five something to me. But that's just what we use. VL. It's a voice leading cord. It's a nonsense cord that has come into existence on Lee by the grace of it being ah whole bunch of voice leading tones that have coalesced into this one moment and then move on to the next. So how do you know this is the frustrating thing? And then you're probably thinking of this as well. How do you know when something is a voice leading cord, or should you and analyze it? Should you should we have dug through this even more and thought well, we could call it something we could probably maybe really figure out a name for this thing , or can we just give up and say, Well, it's a voice lied in court. That's one of the really tricky things about this. And this is where the theories stuff comes into play, that this is a theory and there are multiple answers. Um, the biggest thing to keep in mind is that this idea of a voice leading cord really Onley works in this 19th century kind of stuff, right? You wouldn't find accord in Bach that we would classify as a voice leading cord, right? This kind of thing only comes to us by composers willing Teoh stretch these boundaries of Chromatis ism. So in this era, in this kind of music, you find these, um so it's a new term that we can use for this kind. Of course that doesn't otherwise make any sense but can be explained through looking at voice leading. Now, if you find a really bizarre cord and it can't be explained through voice leading, then it's something else. Um, voice leading cords only work when you can explain it as voice leading better than any other kind of, um name that you can put on it. Okay, let's continue through the rest of this piece and see if there's any more of a waste leading cords. Spoiler alert There is. 32. Analysis, Part 2: Okay, let's continue on. So we figured out our minor five here, So let's go to our next chord here. We haven't a natural C, g and A C. It doesn't look all that weird. So let's just look at those notes over here. Hoops. So we have an a natural see natural and a g natural. That is a little weird, isn't it? A g c. Okay, well, we could call it 1/7 again if we put this G up top. Okay, Now we're missing an E to get any kind of e. Any winner by E flat would be what's in the cord. So if there was an e flat here, we would have a to see. So we have a minor third. Then we'd have an e flat, which would be a minor third from C T E flat and then e flat to G. We would have 1/2 diminished chord. Um, and we could call it 1/2 diminished chord. Or we could think of this as another voice leading cord. Does that work look Okay, we got a passing tone there. I got a common tone there. We got suspension there, and we have a neighbor tone. They're so this I'm kind of inclined to call another voice Lied in court. And, you know, if you wanted to get weird with it, also correct. Probably would be. And a diminished chord, which, in the key of C would be, are raised six diminished. Okay. So we could call it raised six diminished, which is super weird. Or we could just say ass Screw it. It's a voice that in court, so depends on how weird you want to get. But in most cases, something this weird. I'm just gonna call a voice leading court when we get up into this level of music theory because everything can be explained as a voice leading cord. Okay, What else is going on here? Um, this next court looks pretty funky, right? Not funky. And like the James Brown way, but funky in like, the What the heck is going on kind of way. Okay, so I have in a flat to a c a d and an f sharp c d hoops de f sharp. Okay, that's everything, right? That's another d. All right, A flat C de f sharp looks pretty weird, but I could explain this by not calling it a voice leading court. Um, we know this cord. We've seen this before before we put an answer on it. Let's go over here to this next chord, and then we'll jump back to this court. Trust me, G g d be natural. Well, that's just a big old five chord. Nothing crazy about that. Okay, so what leads really well to five? Ah, an augmented six. Core does pretty well, right? Could this be an augmented six chord going to G? Do we have that double neighbor tone business F sharp would go up to G A flat would go down to G. We've got the route in the middle and then one extra note and the extra note is a two in this key a d, which is a very specific kind of augmented six chord. Uh, it is the ah fresh augmented six chord Sorry for my accent. French Augmentin, six chord, French, six going to a five, then ending our phrase on what? What we have here b d g. And it's being natural. That certainly looks like a G chord. S f is our seventh. It's in the base, so that looks like a five to cord. Now, we've ignored the sea in this. A. We could give this a name if we really wanted to. Um, kind of looks like its own thing. Technically, it would be G c A. I think it's part still part of this with passing. Yeah. So that's its own passing deal. I don't really need to put a name on it. I don't think because it's 1/16 note passing. Okay, we did it. So we have 12620 just a voice leading cord. Whatever to a minor. Five to another voice leading cord. Whatever. Two. French 6 to 5 to a 52 Let's hear it one more time. Think about the analysis while you listen. Neat, huh? 33. Linear Chromaticism: Okay, so this idea introduces a new term to us, and that is linear Chromatis ism. So what linear Chromatis as a means is it means so linear would be like a line, right? So it means looking at Chromatis is, um, not Onley from, ah, harmony perspective, but from the line, like a horizontal line and the resulting cords that happened because of those lines. That's what gets us to something like this weird voice leading court and this one, you know, we have this chromatic line here, right? That chromatic line. That's a Lanier line. That's linear Chromatis ism. And we have something like this f sharp. That's also a chromatic tone leading here. So we have these kind of lanier lines thes lines. I should just say that result in a bizarre accords and because all the chromatis ism is just coming together and that makes, um, thes voice leading courts. So linear chromatis ism means the the music is chromatic in ways that results in unnameable cords. There are lines that are created. These chromatic lines lead us to voice leading chords. So remember that term linear chromatis ism. Okay, while we've covered a lot in this class, um, I think let's wrap it up there 34. What Comes Next?: Okay, What comes next? I think next it's time for us to really dive into the 20th century. So when we get into the 20th century, this is kind of like the thing we've all been waiting for. Um, we started off way back the Renaissance Baroque even before, and we put together notes and we made harmonies. That was great. As we've gone throughout the centuries, you've seen that the harmonies, the way people think about harmonies, they're starting to extend them. There's more dissidents. There's more. Chromatis is, um, things are getting more intense. Ah, with our harmonies. So if you imagine like a graph, basically what happens is throughout the centuries, harmony gets more and more and more complex, and then in the 20th century, just explodes, and everyone says there is no such thing as harmony. Everything is totally chromatic. So things start getting really, really weird. Um, so that's what we have to look forward to in the next class. I can't wait. Is this a my favorite stuff? Um, it's gonna blow your mind. So I look forward to diving into that. Off we go. 35. Thanks for Watching!: All right, everyone. That's it for music theory. Part 17. Thanks for hanging out. I hope he had a good time. I hope you enjoyed this class. Um, please stick around for one more. A little bit at the end of this Ah, lecture. There will be some text on the screen which gives you some cool stuff to do. Ah, thing. To download ways to get more involved in my student community and to get more involved. Me, um, all great stuff. So thanks for being a part of everything. Thanks for taking a stupid amount of music theory classes. Uh, and we'll see you in the next 1 20 century. It's gonna be awesome.