Music Theory Comprehensive, Part 16: Chromatic Voice-Leading | Jason Allen | Skillshare

Music Theory Comprehensive, Part 16: Chromatic Voice-Leading

Jason Allen, PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer

Music Theory Comprehensive, Part 16: Chromatic Voice-Leading

Jason Allen, PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer

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33 Lessons (2h 49m)
    • 1. Introduction

      4:18
    • 2. Tools

      4:04
    • 3. Review

      2:01
    • 4. The Full MuseScore File

      1:51
    • 5. Where We Are In Time

      4:08
    • 6. The Push Towards Chromaticism

      4:56
    • 7. Chromatic Descending Fifth Sequences

      2:21
    • 8. Mozart String Quartet In D Minor

      7:56
    • 9. Analysis, Part 1

      8:08
    • 10. Analysis, Part 2

      7:11
    • 11. Voice Leading In Chromatic Sequences

      3:12
    • 12. Chromatic Sequence Notes

      2:04
    • 13. The Lament Bass

      4:07
    • 14. Didos Lament

      5:46
    • 15. Notational Things

      6:50
    • 16. Sequence Analysis, Part 1

      15:16
    • 17. Sequence Analysis, Part 2

      10:27
    • 18. Pop Music Examples

      1:19
    • 19. My Funny Valentine

      11:26
    • 20. Stairway To Heaven

      7:58
    • 21. Babe, I'm Gunna Leave You

      3:30
    • 22. Nine Inch Nails: Closer

      3:05
    • 23. Embellishing Chords

      2:51
    • 24. Common-Tone Diminished 7 Chords

      5:13
    • 25. CT Aug6 Chords

      5:53
    • 26. Neighboring CT Chords

      2:56
    • 27. Passing CT Chords

      4:00
    • 28. The Wrong Chords

      3:32
    • 29. Super Mario Brothers

      8:30
    • 30. Options In Major

      6:06
    • 31. Options In Minor

      5:15
    • 32. What Next?

      1:00
    • 33. Thanks for Watching!

      1:37
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About This Class

Welcome to the COMPLETE Music Theory Guide!

This is a class designed for the average person who is ready to take their music career (or music interest) and level up. Whether you are an active musician, an aspiring musician, or an aspiring music manager or agent - this class is perfect for you.

For years I've been teaching Music Theory in the college classroom. These classes I'm making for Skillshare use the same syllabus I've used in my college classes for years, at a fraction of the cost. I believe anyone can learn Music Theory - and cost shouldn't be a barrier.

My approach to music theory is to minimize memorization. Most of these concepts you can learn by just understanding why chords behave in certain ways. Once you understand those concepts, you can find any scale, key, or chord that exists. Even invent your own. If you've tried to learn music theory before, or if you are just starting out - this series of courses is the perfect fit.

Dr. Allen is a professional musician, top-rated online instructor, and university professor. In 2017 the Star Tribune featured him as a "Mover and a Shaker," and he is recognized by the Grammy Foundation for his music education classes. 

Throughout this class, If you get stuck, you can review the videos or post a question, and I'll back to it as fast as possible. 

In this class, we will cover:

    • Chromatic Sequences

    • The Lament Bass (The saddest music in the world)

    • Common-Tone Diminished 7th Chords

    • Chromatic Mediants

    • Common-Tone Modulations

    • Chromatic Inflection Modulation

    • Descending Fifth Modulation

      ...and much, much more!

You will not have another opportunity to learn Music Theory in a more comprehensive way than this. 

All the tools you need to successfully learn Music Theory is included in this course and the entire course is based on real-life experiences - not just academic theory.

Please click the "Take This Course" button so you can launch your music career today.

Test Prep: 

This course is perfect for prep for the Praxis II Test (ETS Praxis Music), The ABRSM Music Theory Exam (up to Grade 8), AP Music Theory Exam, College Placement Exams (Music Theory), and other common secondary and post-secondary placement exams.

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⇢  "It seems like every little detail is being covered in an extremely simple fashion. The learning process becomes relaxed and allows complex concepts to get absorbed easily. My only regret is not taking this course earlier." - M. Shah

⇢  "Great for everyone without any knowledge so far. I bought all three parts... It's the best investment in leveling up my skills so far.." - Z. Palce

⇢  "Excellent explanations! No more or less than what is needed." - A. Tóth

⇢  "VERY COOL. I've waited for years to see a good video course, now I don't have to wait anymore. Thank You!" - Jeffrey Koury

  "I am learning LOTS! And I really like having the worksheets!" - A. Deichsel

⇢  "The basics explained very clearly - loads of really useful tips!" - J. Pook

⇢  "Jason is really quick and great with questions, always a great resource for an online class!" M. Smith

Meet Your Teacher

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Jason Allen

PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer

Teacher

J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen teaches... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: everyone Welcome Teoh Music Theory Part six Teen There we go. Um, in this class, we're gonna talk about chromatic voice leading. So where we are right now is we're rapidly heading towards the 20th century and composers air getting more and more free with diatonic schism, meaning in keys. Right. So they're stretching the rules and all kinds of strange ways. And in this kind of music theory, we have to find interesting ways to talk about the things that they're doing to incorporate Chromatis ism into their music. So we're gonna be looking at chromatic sequences were also going to be looking at this one of my all time favorite things. The Lament base, also known as the saddest music in the world through doing that will actually work our way into some pop music examples, including a couple jazz standards, some Led Zeppelin, even a nine inch nails, too. We're gonna work our way into chromatic medians and will even land on talking about some of the music from Super Mario Brothers, which incorporates a really pronounced chromatic media during the level level success music . So all kinds of fun, chromatic things and making their way into pop music. Please join us. Let's dive in, - Theo . Okay, So composers are really pushing the envelope from diatonic schism. Meaning we have rules. We work in keys and everything. We know about music theory so far, and they're pushing it towards. We don't have rules and we don't working keys. So what happens is, Well, here's a really good way to, I think, maybe explain this idea. So if you go back to us an opportunity to talk about one of my favorite chromatic sequences And yes, I am a big enough torque toe have a favorite chromatic sequence, and I think this will be your favorite chromatic sequence to because it's really distinctive. You can hear this from a mile away. Um, and you've heard it a 1,000,000 times. It is a sound that, well, it's It's so distinctive, actually, that has its own name. We call this the Lament Base. Um, I have also seen it called the Death Sequence in, um, opera in particular, it's you. So during this opening riff, we have the same thing, right? Have a G sharp g natural f sharp f natural, and then it kind of kind of breaks. So then, using what may be familiar with the video game, Siri's Super Mario Brothers from Nintendo. Um, this little riff will be familiar to you. Now I put it in here in the strings. 2. Tools: Okay, here we go off into music theory, part 16. You know, someday you know, when I when I made the first music theory kind of part one class, I was like, Oh, this will be final pop off a few music theory classes. And I never, ever thought we'd get up to part 16 um, or get into this advanced of harmony that we're gonna be talking about in this class. This is, like, really college level stuff, like, you know, junior in college level stuff. This is pretty advanced stuff. So, um, thanks to everyone for bugging me to make more. I love that. People are so enthusiastic about this, um, maybe someday you'll let me stop making them. But for now, Ah, keep bugging me and I'll keep making more, I guess. Okay, So let's talk about, uh, through the normal stuff that we do in all of these tools that you're gonna need. Nothing's changed. Um, we're gonna use muse score. We're going to use some a paper and pencil. I'm gonna give you a piece of staff paper after this video so you can print that out. Um, you know, print out 45 copies have it handy this class and even more than the other classes. I think you're gonna want that staff paper and a pencil handy because there's gonna be some fairly complicated things that you might want to work out. Like how a chromatic sequence resolves. That's something that we're going to do the first thing here, and, uh, it can kind of be a head scratcher sometimes. So you might want to kind of jot it down and work it out on paper. If you're not used to doing that, or you can use music or as well, that's just fine or whatever notation program you have. Let me say something about that. Ah, lot of people have asked about um, versions of Muse score, and if they can use other notation programs, the answer is yes. Ever program you want. All we want to be able to do is click in some notes or play in some notes and be able to hear it played back. That's what we care about. So there's a number of cool programs for tablet computers. There's a number of different programs for Mac and PC. You can use whatever you want as long as you can put in notes and hear them back, it will be just fine. You don't need to use music, or now I know that music or has changed the way that they're doing things on their website . So there is a tablet version that's very different. Don't get the music or tablet version, Um, or if you do look closely at it. I haven't looked closely at it, Um, but I think it's very different. I don't think you can enter notes in it. I think you could do different stuff and it's not free. Um, but the Muse score desktop version for Mac or PC is free, and that's what I'm using in this class. You can use whatever program you like, though, um, I should mention that the people at Muse score reached out to me last month and just said, Hey, we did your classes. Thanks for using music or so that's nice. I think there's a little blurb about me on their website now and about these classes. So, um, they do seem like good folks over there. I'll just say that, um, but they don't pay me to endorse music or anything like that, Um, I generally think it's a good program, but their new pricing strategy of putting this iPad version out that's not free is a little confusing. So Long story, short music or for desktop PC is is what I'm going to be using. Um, the tablet version, something different. There are a number of programs for tablets that are great. So go for one of those. Cool. Okay, so up next, here's the staff paper download. Put yourself out five or six copies of that, and I will jump into a little bit of things you should be comfortable reviewing before diving into this new stuff. 3. Review: Okay, um let's make sure we're all up to speed on what we need to be have to be done before we dive into this new stuff. So this is gonna be some seriously advanced harmony. So make sure that you're comfortable with everything we did in the previous class. Part 15 especially augmented six cords are going to come back up again. Um, in this class, in addition to all the chromatic stuff that we talked about, uh, in that class, I don't think Neopolitan cords are going to come back. Although it's possible diminished seventh chords are going to come back. They're gonna play a big role in this, And the first thing we're going to look at is going to do a whole bunch of just dominant seven stuff, but our resolutions air going to get a little weird. Okay, so, um, you're going to want Teoh both be really comfortable with the how all of these different things resolve. But you're also gonna want to forget how a lot of these things resolved cause we're gonna break our rules and we're going to start getting weird with the the way we let things resolve going forward so Ah, I should say forget. Don't forget those rules. Just know that we're moving forward into a new kind of world. Now, um were firmly in the 19th century where the composers start getting really free with what they're doing, and I'll talk more about that in just a minute. But, um, make sure you're comfortable with augmented six chords diminished seventh resolutions, Um, and pretty much everything in the previous class came part 15. If you're good with that, then you should be pretty comfortable with this class. All right, let's move on. 4. The Full MuseScore File: all right. And then again, I'm going to make a full muse score file for you that you can download It will be attached in the next sequence. And hey, by the way, if you're on an iPad, um, and using the iPad app and you get to the next thing and it says, Ah, here's the file and there's nothing there. Here's what you need to dio. You need to go up to the upper right corner, which is I suppose I could do it. Let's see if you're watching a video. It's here. I think we're here. Here, I think. Go up there. There's two tabs. I can't remember what they're called. But one is like, Ah, list of classes and the other one is like materials or something like that. Click that materials tab and it'll show you all the downloads for this class. Okay, so go up there and do that. Um, that's where you'll find all the downloadable files. It's really weird how they've put the files in a different spot for the web version and the iPad version. But, um, I don't control the platform. Okay. Um, so you get that? Ah, yeah. Then the master music or file. Use it if you like, if you're using music, or you can use it to follow along. And, um, I put my examples in it. Okay? I will, in fact, make that right now. So we're going to call this. This will be This will be in video six. So we're going to go to my files. Very 13 six, the full mused score file. There it is. Okay, off we go. 5. Where We Are In Time: okay before we dive in. Um, let's talk a little bit about kind of where we are. You might remember that various points in this class I've said that were kind of following music, Sort of, um, in a linear way through time. And there are exceptions to that, but more or less, that's true. So we started off with very simple music that goes all the way back to the medieval period . And then music has gotten more complicated. As time has gone up, that's just the way it's gone. So now we're kind of up into the romantic period. The romantic period. Roughly 1819 100. I think it officially it ends in 1909 or something like that. Um, we are get actually pretty close to the now. Um what? One thing that's really interesting about the romantic period is that it's really the first period where, and I don't want to get too far into the historic elements of it. I have some music history courses if you're interested in this, but, ah, it is relevant to the music theory. This is the first period where the composer kind of becomes a kind of a rock star, uh, person. So there were composers who had a personality that people wanted to get to know. Um, it includes, you know, the, you know, Beethoven fits into the earlier part of the romantic period, you know, all the way up into ah WC barely owes some of these much more modern ish, relatively modern composers. So it's pretty wide spectrum. I mean, it's 100 years of music being made. So we get these personalities that emerge where people really want our people wanted to interact with the composer's, whereas before and the days of, like, Bach and things. You know, Bach was in his day Ah, kind of famous for being a brilliant, but also, I mean, he was like a church employees, you know, like he worked for the church in Europe. Music. So we get into this era of much more kind of the composer being this ethereal, being someone who could just, like, conjures music. And that leads to more programmatic music music with the story behind it. And that leads to more experimenting with harmony. People trying to say How can I use harmony to represent madness? Right. Um, it's gonna be chromatic chords all over the place, and things were just gonna be going crazy. So there is a lot of that. Um there was also kind of a deep intellectual movement around, um, the romantic period related to the industrial revolution. So you get elements of industry working their way in mechanics machines. We see that even Maurin the 20 century, especially in the earlier part. Um, of the 20th century. There's a really kind of convergence around 1920 1930 where the end of the romantic in the early 20th century merge and you get like, a lot of music that incorporates like, machine sounds and like repetitive things. We'll talk more about that when we get in the 20th century if we get there, which probably will. But for now, just keep that in mind that there's this industrial revolution happening. Um, there. And there is this idea of the composer being this magician of sound idea, and that's leading composers to really push the envelope, push it to wear that is the subject of our very next video. And let's go there now and talk about Chromatis ism 6. The Push Towards Chromaticism: Okay. So composers are really pushing the envelope from diatonic schism. Meaning we have rules. We work in keys, um, and everything we know about music theory so far, and they're pushing it towards, we don't have rules, and we don't working keys. So what happens is, Well, here's a really good way to I think maybe explain this idea. So if you go back Teoh the 100 years before the romantic period, you have people like Bach and things like that in there. They are writing in keys, and they're master manipulators of what we could do in these keys, we can modulate between keys. We can find all these chords in the key. We can even borrow from related keys. We could do all this stuff with keys. So then, uh, skip 100 years. That's the 100 years we're looking at now. But just for ah, second skip that 100 years and let's go into the 20th century. So we get to like the 19 fifties or so, and composers are concerned with no rules being completely and totally chromatic. I shouldn't say no rules. There are rules. Talk about that in a minute. There are rules but we don't want keys. Keys are repressive. Keys hold us into, um, rules that we don't want. And in fact, there's even this one sentiment that says that composers were retaliating against a key because it gave some notes priority over other notes. And there was a an idea of, like, humanism involved in that with, like, equality, being involved in that through the strait. But, um, music of that period of 19 fifties or so not popular music but like classical music gets super chromatic and super crazy just like chaos. And we'll talk about that, and there's some really cool stuff that's happening. So this period, jumping back to the romantic period, what's really happening is it's that Bach era mentality of music, theory, of keys and all of the stuff. Pushing towards total Chromatis is, um, so we've got this period where composers are bending and breaking the rules in an effort to try to be unique and get closer to Chromatis ism. So there's almost an error of new rules being made that incorporate chromatic music, and eventually the 19 twenties will happen. And that's when the rules around chromatic music get really solidified by a guy named Schoenberg. Um, and we'll talk about that in the future. Leaving that behind. Um, we are gonna talk about the music of Schoenberg, though it's gonna blow your mind. So we're in this gray area where the composer's air just pushing the envelope, pushing the envelope. How can we get more and more and more chromatic in order to, uh, just get us closer to making something new, something we've never heard before? Retired of writing and see Major, We're tired of writing and see retired writing in Major, We don't want to write in major or minor. We want the lines of key to get blurry, so that's what's happening right now. So to analyze this stuff gets really hard and even more so than before, a lot of it gets opened up for opinion. So when we're looking at a piece, you might say, I see a 145 right there and I might say, actually, it's ah, sub dominant augmented 6/4 something crazy. Um, but just remember that there's a lot of room for interpretation. Once we get into this really chromatic stuff, you could call it 10 different things. Um, so really keep that in mind. There's even more than before room for wildly different interpretations of a lot of this stuff. Okay, so we are in a world that was diatonic and is going to be chromatic. And right now those are just put in a pot and stirred together trying to figure out how to come up with rules for Chromatis ism is really what a lot of these composers air trying to figure out right now, and eventually they do figure it out. Um, but in the area that we're in now, we're still trying to figure it out. And that makes a lot of really fun music. So let's dive in. 7. Chromatic Descending Fifth Sequences: Okay, so we've looked at sequences before and that we remember that sequences are things where we have usually like a two chord pattern that goes up or down, usually down in some kind of, um, Siri's. Right. So he might have, like, a 51 and then, ah, 51 again. But let me say that again. We have, like, a 51 and then a 47 and then a 36 That's like 515151 But going down in chunks, um, so we can do that completely dramatically. Right? So that's what we're gonna do here. Um, we're going to do a ah descending fifth sequence. But we're going Teoh cheat a little bit. It's not really cheating, and we're gonna make it totally Ah, chromatic sequence. So this is going to function the same way that a diatonic sequence would write. So diatonic meaning key. So any of the sequences that we've looked at already, Um, but it's just going to be a little more colorful, right? Because all of that chromatic stuff that we're gonna put it into this is gonna give it an extra kind of flair and extra color to it. Um, it's just gonna be different than a diatonic sequence. Right? And composers of the day would argue much more interesting. Um, and I would argue much more interesting as well. As we try to analyze it, you'll find that it's also much more interesting because it's going to be kind of Ah, a little bit trickier to analyze. Um, but we can usually do it with our of using secondary dominance. Um, usually, what we find in these there's a whole bunch of secondary dominance that pulls us out of key but eventually lands us back in key. That's the point of a sequence to take us on a little journey. Okay, so, uh, I have here Ah, really good example of this. So let's go to a new video and let's dive into this. Ah, little analysis. 8. Mozart String Quartet In D Minor: Okay. So even though I said we're in, like, the firmly in like the 19 hundreds here in terms of period, we're gonna actually jump back, um, to find a relatively simple example of this, We're gonna go. We're gonna go back to Mozart. Um, so not of that period that I talked about, but, you know, Mozart was doing this to he was using Chromatis ism. Teoh Spice things up. Um, and it's something that, you know, composers in the 19 hundreds do. Ah, lot. Whereas Mozart did it rarely. But we have an example here. Um, that is a really good way to talk about chromatic sequences. And it's something we've looked at before. Ah, we We looked at this measure in the last class. This was our world tour of augmented six, right? Where it kind of goes French, German, Italian augmented sixth right there. That's what we looked at before. But now we're gonna look at like the I don't know, five or six measures before it. Eso This comes to us from Mozart's String Quartet in D minor, the third movement. This is measures 22 through 29. Um, so let's just hear it and then we'll talk through it and then we'll do a full analysis of it. So here it is. Okay, let's hear it a little slower so that we can kind of get our head around, Um, those harmonies a little bit more. That's right. 1 20 Now it's pull it down to 70. How about that? Okay, now at 70 bpm and really try to hear what's going on. Theo. Cool. And actually, I just I thought that sounds funny. I've heard a mistake. That note I entered in wrong. That's right, Theo. Okay, so we definitely hear a sequence right. We hear this whole thing just plopping down, right? It's just bomb. It's just going down and down and down and down. So we could probably spot that from a mile away as some kind of sequence. Right? It's just plotting down. But we also hear some real definitive Chromatis ism in it, right? We can see it straight up pretty much right away. Look f sharp. F natural E e flat D, right. Let's look at the second violin C sharp, see natural B B flat A and then it jumps down, toe up to be flat So I guess that's another chromatic note. Um, no less Chromatis ism in the cello and viola. They're stepping. Um, they're kind of serving as the foundational elements, so that will help us to analyze it a little bit. We can just see that there's less chromatis ism there because there's less accidental, right? There are no accidental on the cello part, so that that might help us kind of ground what we're doing a little bit. Okay, So before we dive into analyzing this, um, two things, first of all, this is string Quartet. I think we've looked at string quartets before. We have two violins, viola and cello. One thing to note here, the viola clef. I can't remember if we've looked at the viola clef at all the viola clef also called alto clef. Um, this is it's tricky. It's kind of a head scratcher because I always screw it up. I'm not gonna lie. I'm not great at reading alto clef. Um, the way to read it is you look for the little pointed bracket here, that little spot right in the middle, and that is going to be always on c. Okay, so the middle line in this clef. The middle line is C. So that is a seat, That's what That's the easiest way to ground yourself. Okay? And then everything else adjust from that. So this is also a C, but an octave lower. Um, if you want a quick way to do it, what that means is basically, you're reading a step down, Um, and knocked it down. So this see is an octave lower, then this. See, for example. Okay, so it's an octave lower, plus a step. So that means this is going to be a G right? Cause g a B C encounter way up. So villas Theo nly instrument that consistently really reads in this class. I think there's a couple other instruments that will bounce two This cleft sometimes, but viola is always written in this clef. Viola can switch to trouble classic if it gets really, really high. Um, you might switch over to trouble cleft, but you always uses the main one is, um, this alto clef some debating? Should I switch it to trouble Clough or leave it at alto clef? For your sake, I should leave it at alto clef. But for my sake to analyze this sucker. I really want to switch it to trouble class. So I think I'm going to. So if let me to say if you take music theory class, you're going to have to like any university, you're going to have to, um, learn to read alto clef at least a little bit. But since it's my class and I could do what I want, I'm gonna plop this sucker over to trouble class. Now you'll see everything pops way. We way low because of that active switch. So I'm just gonna cheat a little bit and transpose that up in active for the purpose of our analysis. Let's go up and active. Okay, Now the notes are technically inaccurate there an octave off. But it's just going to be easier for us to read and I'll do my analysis and then maybe I'll switch it back, um, to alto clef. I usually do that. I know it's cheating, but it's my class, so I'm gonna do it. Okay, so now we're in trouble class. Ah! Ah, OK. So, yeah, two things I wanted to point out is we're looking at a string quartet, obviously, and we are. We have that viola alto clef, which is now a trouble cliff. So it'll be a little bit easier to read. Our cello is still based, class based class. I'm gonna leave because we got to get comfortable. It basically. Okay, so let's dive into our analysis. 9. Analysis, Part 1: Okay, So I think what I might do here is do a little bit different technique. And I think I've done this before in the class. But sometimes, especially when we get into this chromatic stuff, it's easier to just find out the name of the cord first, and then do a second pass of everything and figure out the Roman numerals. Okay, so I'm just going to try to put chord names on everything first. Okay, So, um, so let's find out what this cord is, and if we can call it one chord per measure So we have an A in a a bunch of A's C sharp and a G. Okay, so we have a c sharp in G. That says to me, um, a seven, right. It's missing an e. But I have a major cause I have A and C sharp have a whole bunch of a in the base. So that tells me probably it's some kind of accord. Um, the C sharp and the G is gonna be the seventh. So let's call it a seven. Okay, Now let's go into our next chord. It's probably not going to be in a seven when you leave that there for a second. Okay, so here we have a d. We have a d have a scene natural. We have an f sharp so d f sharp a would be the missing note and then see, that makes a D seven that works pretty well d f sharp and a We don't have a but we have a c natural that's going to get us to a D seven. Okay, that's pretty good. And that covers the whole bar. So I'm pretty sure we're really just moving at one chord per bar here. Okay, let's go on to the next one. We have G or G be an f natural. All right. Pretty easy. G seven sequence of seven chords. Um, go to our next one. Have a see a bunch of C B, flat and e. So see, e g is missing, but B flat is there. That makes a C seven chord. Okay, go to our next one F f bunch of f A e flat. That makes an F seven court. All right, So far so good. Really easy, actually, here we have a B flat. Don't forget our key signature. So B flat. We haven't half. And then an e. Okay, we've got some moving notes here, so let's look at this beat by beat first. So be flat. F B flat de. Let's call that. Let's see. B flat C If B flat was the route, we could have B d f. Okay, I would work. Except it's not a dominant seven chord because we needed a flat. We have something stranger there. We're sorry. What am I getting in A I'm thinking in bass clef. Let's try that again. B flat F b flat de. Okay, so you just have a straight up B flat D f. So we have a B flat. Major chord, B flat two D, some major third two f natural is the fifth C s B flat, major. I'm beat too. We still have B flat and F. We have a d and B flat, So still B flat major. Pdf B flat. Here we have an e in E and A and A B flat, because were I'm gonna call these ease and this A I could call all of that passing tones, although it's an awful lot of passing times. So let's see if we can come up with a new name for that. We have B flat E and A What would we call that? Have a C e b flat. Where that c come from? Ah, yeah. See if a was the route you say a C e. But that B flat doesn't work. If e was the route, we'd have e g b Flat de hey, doesn't work B flat was the route we have, B d. Welcome that. Can any of these notes be considered 1/7 of this B flat? The seventh of the B flat. Be a flat. So not really. I think I'm gonna call all of these passing tones to get us to there because we're all stepwise. I think it's safe to call those all passing tones because we're just stepping through the e and the A to get to this cord s. So I think I'm okay with that. Now Here. This is where we have our big augmented six. Let's call that augmented six. And here we're gonna call it German. French, Italian. Okay, So there's our Little World Tour augmented six French, German, Italian And then where do we land? we land on an A E c sharp A. We land on a big ole A major chord. Okay, so just so we don't get confused here on right dogs. Six. Okay. All right. So now we have names of courts. This is great. So we can see that we definitely have a descending fifth sequence. A to D to G to see toe f to B flat. Um, so we're descending by fifth here. Um, and then we do this Aguan and 6/4 we land on a So how are we getting here? Well, let's say next thing we need to do is let's figure out our Roman numerals because we have so much chromatis ism going on here or leaving keys all over the place. So let's see if we can put this into some kind of Roman numerals. 10. Analysis, Part 2: Okay, So the name of this piece, it's string Quartet in D minor, third movement. So let's use that as an assumption that we're starting in D minor, which is not a safe assumption because we're jumping into the third movement. We're on bar 22. We very well could have modulated by now, but we got to start somewhere, so let's give it a shot. It might find that this doesn't work. But my guess is that it does work because we start off with a good old a seven. That's five, right? We end on an A That's also five. So I think it might actually work. So here we can call this a 57 Okay, I'm gonna lower this a little bit is to get it out of our way. Whoa. Okay, so we can call a 757 Indeed. So that works next? We have a D seven. That just screws up our whole thing way. We can't have a d seven in the key of D minor, right? It doesn't make sense, but actually, we can, um, we know how to deal with this. What we have here is a secondary dominant. So we have 57 Oops. 57 of what? So in the key of while in any key D seven is gonna be the five of what g right. If we were in the key of G major, D seven would be totally normal. So we have 57 of G. So what is G in the key of D minor? It is four. Right? So we have 57 of four, and and we're gonna call this minor for because that's what we would expect in the key of D minor. We would get G minor. Four would be minor. So we're gonna call it 57 of a minor for okay, that works. Now, if our secondary dominant is to be believed, then we would end up on a four chord here, and we sort of Do we get a four, but it's a seven. Okay, so we actually get to that four. But it is in and of itself, another 57 See if I can do this. Snow can't. Okay, so g seven, we got to keep it going. Is 57 of what? Well, if pattern holds, it's gonna be the next chord. See it is so G seven is the 57 of C C. In the key of D minor is what it is are super tonic seven. And that's correct. The seven is going to be a major in the key of D minor. So that is, that works. Okay, lets keep going. Now we have C seven blow. Let's put that back up there. Si seven is gonna be the 57 of what key to see seven happen in naturally half. So C seven is the 57 of F. And that is our next chord, sort of. So that kind of works. So what is F in the key of D minor? It is three. Uh, and it would be major if we were in the key of D minor. F would be major. So we're gonna call it three a major three. Okay. Almost done with the predictable stuff. So f is 57 and key of B flat, and we actually get the B flat without 1/7 so that's exciting. Ah, so we have 57 of what is B flat in this key B flat in the key of D minor is six. Okay, Cool. and then we have B flat itself, so b flat is gonna be straight up six. Okay, so we're getting there were kind of getting back to where we thought we were gonna be. And then we have and big augmented six thing. And remember, Augmented six is something that we use is a predominant. It leads us to the dominant, right. So that tells us that this a is certainly a big old five. Cool. So we analyzed it. Hooray! Um, so we have 57 moving to 57 of four moving to 57 of seven moving to 57 of three moving to 57 of four, mewling to four. Moving to a big augmented six and then landing on five. So we have this crazy sequence with all this chromatic stuff in it, but it's just moving through. Ah, 51 relationship Chromatic Lee instead of diatonic Lee. Right? If we did this diatonic lee Ah, it would line up a little different. I think we looked at descending fifth seitan tickly earlier. Um but now we're doing it totally chromatic. Now, in order to do this, there's a couple rules you need to break um, let's listen to it one more time. Ah, and keep your eye on the analysis and see if you can kind of absorb the analysis. But after we listen to it again, I want to talk about the rules that we broke to do this. Theo, Cool. Let's go to a new video and talk about what we got away with here. 11. Voice Leading In Chromatic Sequences: Okay. One big voice leading thing that we didn't do or that we did. But we did incorrectly. So remember, when we're looking at 57 courts, there's kind of two things that we expect to happen. One is, we have that Kordell Seventh, right? The seventh, which is the leading tone of the key. And that should go up, right? Um, sorry. No, that should go down. So here. So here we have a d seven chord. So the Kordell Seventh is the third, because that if we were in the key of G, that would be the seventh, um, which, if we're in a G seven, were sort of kind of in the key of G, so this would be our seven. So that's our Kordell Seventh. And actually, this should resolve up. So this should go up to G in order to get it to resolve right. But instead, we've gone down 1/2 step right and the same thing for the next one in the same thing for the next one and the next one. So we did not resolve our Kordell seventh correctly. This should be a leading tone that goes up to the tonic of the next note, Aggie. But instead it went down by 1/2 step. So is that allowed? Yes, I suppose, in this there's not really a hard rule here. If you're doing a chromatic sequence, you can kind of do whatever you want. Um, but by the traditional voice leading rules Ah, yeah. We broke a rule. Ah, in order to make this happen, Um, what about our seventh in this? Our seventh should resolve down to the third of the next chord. Right. So here's our seventh results down to a B. Actually did that this time does it keep doing that? Now we have our third. So where is our seventh on G now? Our seventh is here, and it results down to the third and actually keeps doing it. Source are seventh resolves correctly. Um, the seventh of the cord resolves down by half. Step to third. That gives us some chromatic motion. And it alternates in this case and are quartile. Third alternates back and forth also between the two voices. So here we have a quartile. Third and our seventh. Here we have our seventh in our Kordell third. Here we have our quartile third and our seventh, etcetera. So we're spotting back and forth between two violins and moving those chromatic lee. It's kind of a cool, little tangled web. Um, that's happening, but the coral third is resolving. Ah, incorrectly in order for this to work. But what you gonna do? It sounds cool. Right? So go. We're gonna do it. Okay. A couple more notes on this and then we're moving on. 12. Chromatic Sequence Notes: Okay, a couple more notes. Just about this idea of a chromatic sequence. Um, when you're making one of these, what we usually do the kind of rule of thumb is you're going to take ah normal sequence and substitute harmonies for dominant seventh harmonies. Or actually, you could do this similar thing with diminished chords. Also, um, would be a little crunchier, but could be really fun. Eso down in seventh harmonies or diminished chords would both work. In this situation, you can also or is also. One thing that is also common is to, um, embellished things with chromatic passing tones. We don't we have that here it's everything is accounted for. But if we wanted to say in the viola part, you know, fill in some of these notes with chromatic passing tones that might that would be something that composers often do in this kind of ah, sequence. So chromatic passing tones air not uncommon to find this one was given to us really easy because our base line are cello. Part essentially followed the route harmony all the way through, so it was relatively easy to follow, but it's not always that easy, So just a couple things to look out for. Um, yeah. So try it with diminished harmonies or keep an eye out for it with diminished harmonies. Ah, and keep an eye out for chromatic Passing tones can be something that we find a lot and this kind of a passage. Okay, let's move on to something. Also Superfund, another kind of sequence. 13. The Lament Bass: okay on the note of chromatic sequences that gives us an opportunity to talk about one of my favorite chromatic sequences. And yes, I am a big enough torque toe. Have a favorite chromatic sequence. And I think this will be your favorite chromatic sequence, too, because it's really distinctive. You can hear this from a mile away, Um, and you've heard it a 1,000,000 times. It is a sound that, well, it's It's so distinctive, actually, that has its own name. We call this the Lament Base. Um, I have also seen it called the death sequence in, um, opera. In particular, it's used to symbolize death often, Um, and just for fun, I have, in my own pieces, used this to symbolize death because I I think it's really interesting, and I also regardless of its meaning, I think it's really beautiful, actually, um, so what? The lament base is in its strictest form. Now we're going to see people take a lot of variations with it, but in its strictest form, it's a perfect fourth. So let me just do it here. I've notated one here, but, um, let me just show you over here. What it is, um so bass clef. So here's the base. So let's say let's do Enciso c up to right. So perfect Fourth. So what we're gonna have is a more or less a force that descends. Chromatic lee. So we're gonna take this down. Inactive, Okay, There's are forth. We're gonna fill in all the notes between it. Chromatic lee. So what that means is that it's gonna look more like this. C b b flat A oops, A flat G g full at Why is not letting me? Uh huh. That's an f sharp, that's why. Okay, Mikey signature says f sharp so f sharp. Okay, f natural. That's the fourth we want. And because my key singers there, I should probably clarify that. Okay, so we have basically a descending fourth stepped down by half steps. This is the saddest sound in the world, and we can harmonize it a whole bunch of different ways. There are a couple of ways that it's usually harmonised, but you can really harm as it however you want. We're gonna look at a whole bunch of examples of this right now, but let's just take a listen and just imagine this is the saddest sound in the world way. There you go. This at a sound in the world. Okay, so that's the limit base. It's a descending chromatic baseline. Usually it kind of is anchored by 1/4 like that, but it doesn't have to be. I've seen ago and ah, whole active just all the way down. Um, and there are cases where it skips a note. Um, and that's okay, too. Um, this term lament bases a pretty kind of soft term. You know, It's not like counterpoint where we have really strict rules. It's something that we call something that is mostly a chromatic descending bassline. So let's hear some examples. The 1st 1 I want to ah, dig into is Dido's lament from Dido and Aeneas. Let's go over to that now. 14. Didos Lament: Okay, so, Henry Purcell. Ah, that's p u R c e l l was a composer. Um, and again, we're jumping kind of way back. Even though I gave you this long speech about how this is all about 19 hundreds, this example comes to us all the way from the 1616 89. Um, and Henry Purcell was primarily, I think, considered an opera composer. And he wrote an opera called Dido and Aeneas. Very, very famous opera in the opera. We have this area, I think, in college in area called Dido's Lament. Now it's not actually called Dido's lament. We've come to call it Dido's lament, because in the opera it is this passionate, um, sad song that the carried them. One of the main character, Daido sinks. Um, what it's actually called is when I am laid. So it's about death. Um, so let's just hear it. So fair warning. What we're going to hear and talk about for the next several videos is some sad music. So Ah, if you're not in a great mood, you should baby pause this and listen to it later. Um, go take a walk and watch some cartoons for a minute and then come back. Um, because this is a sad stuff. Okay, so let's just play an actual recording, not the midi playback, because it deserves it. So I think I'm just gonna play this whole piece. It's not long. It's four minutes long. Ah, so let's just listen to it and enjoy it. Uh, - way , way, - way . Uh 15. Notational Things: Okay. Sad business, right? Holy smokes. Um, let me just give you the lyrics. Ah, for that piece Just so that you kind of understand the gravity of what's happening. Basically, she's dying, But, um here's what the lyrics are When I am laid I'm laid in earth May my wrongs create no trouble No trouble in in thy breast When I am laid am laid in earth May my wrongs create no trouble No trouble in in thy breast Remember me, remember me But ah, forget my fate, remember me But ah, forget my fate Remember me, Remember me but off Forget my fate, remember me but ah, forget my fate Sad. Oh, my gosh, this is just gonna ruin my day and probably yours, too. But, um, it's so cool, though. It's OK, so watch watch what happens. Okay, So before we get into the analysis, I want to talk about a couple of notation things that are in this that we may have never seen. So what you may have picked up on when you heard that is that the baseline and therefore core progression is really a repeating cycle. You know, it's it's it's really circular um, so I've just kind of notated it. It wants here for us. 1234567120 no, It's It actually starts here. So 12345 Uh, it's it's a six bar pattern. Uhm, it basically repeats from here to here. I just notated it weird. You'll see. Um so it it goes in a loop. That means and I think we've talked about. And when we talked about form and things, we can't put a name on this. We could call it a ship cone. If we wanted, we could call it a theme and variation. We could call it, um, pasta qalea, probably Pasta. Collier works the best because we're really focused on the baseline. But regardless of all of that, um, a couple other notation things. One thing that you'll notice is that I have a whole bunch of Milton red here. This is just amuse score thing. The reason that music or put these in red is because during our previous example, I had this line set up is a violin. Here. I switch it to bass clef so that basically these two staves would act as a piano, um, notes and read to music, or is saying those air out of the range of the instrument? It saying, I'm asking a violin to play super low even here, I'm asking the violin to play too low. So it's saying I can't really play those notes. So I'm gonna play them inactive up, which is interesting. It does play these notes, Um, but I think it plays them an octave higher, Um, or two. So I'm gonna leave. It is violin, because it's actually kind of a nice little string sound. I just tested it out rather like it. Um, So I think we are hearing these notes. So, um, but there in red because you score is saying I'm not really playing them where you wrote them, because that's impossible for that instrument to do. Couple other notation things. Um, this is in the time signature of three to I don't know, we've done so many classes. I can't recall if we've talked about the meter of three to um, but it should make sense to you, even if you haven't seen it before. What this means is that there are going to be 3/2 notes. Two beats two beats, gets the Earth. Ah, 2/4 notes gets the beat eso 3/2 notes per bar. Like that cup, Um, we use three to usually at a slow tempo. Teoh basically give us a really least like plodding along 34 doesn't have to be at a slow tempo, but it tends to work well that way. Um, and for whatever reason, three to happens to be a really good meter for just really slow, sad stuff. It's like the saddest meter that you could have that might be because of this piece. I don't know. Um, but that's three to another thing. Where did it go? Here. There's a double dot Um, I think we've seen double dots before, but let me just remind you what that means. So we know that one dot means half again is added. So 1/2 note with a dot means that it's going to get three beats, right? So it's gonna get, um, two beats being 1/2 note. The DOT is gonna add a beat, because half of that, so now it's three beats two dots means we take half of that again. So the first gave us 1/4 note the second dot is gonna give us half that, which is an eighth note. So now this means 3.5 beats Phil confusing. We don't use them all that often because they do get confusing. But in these slower tempos, it can be, um, efficient. Tohave eso 3.5 beats. So here's 12 34 5.5 6 never out. Um, Okay, I think that's everything. That's weird notation Aly about this, uh, let's let's hear my little rendition. So I just did kind of one pass through the sequence. Here's what it sounds like. And I left the vocal part, which is this, um, as a piano. Okay. All right. So let's analyze this sucker. See what we got. 16. Sequence Analysis, Part 1: Okay, So, in order to know Tate, this let's take a guess at what key were in our key signature. Here is F sharp. Our sorry is one sharp f sharp, which tells us probably a good place to start is either G major or e minor. So let's just take a shot in the dark and say, Do we think we're in a major key or minor key? Given that this is the saddest thing you've ever heard, Um, minor key might be a solid guess. We also get and you right there. Um, big ease right there. So I'm gonna go with E minor. I think that's a safe bet. Okay, so let's see if we can get through this. I'm gonna take a wild shot that that's one E g be e e minor. Very good. So how many chords per measure do we have here? We have f sharp. Could be a passing toned G. Here's E g B still e minor. So this whole bar I'm gonna call the minor. OK, now, let's look here. So here's our chromatic baseline, right e e d sharp de natural c sharp. See natural. Be. And then we don't go to B flat because that actually to be gets us our fourth jump down to G A B B e When we get back to eat So we have a little spin on the end of it But that's cool . So let's see what we have here. We have a D sharp and F sharp and a B and A G Oh, we have all kinds of crap there. Okay, let's just put all those notes together down here. So we have do you share and let me do it in trouble, Clough, Just to make it a little bit easier. Hey, I'm just gonna put all of them in one staff here. So we have a D Sharp and F sharp, A B and A G. Well, you that it's just a mess. OK, so clearly, some of these notes are not in the cord. Let's see. Well, this looks like a pretty good triad, doesn't it? Ah d sharp f sharp A. But this could be a try A to G b up to d sharp if we put this d sharp up active. Now we have a triad between g p and G sharp. So I'm going to stick with the sharp being the root here and see what we could make of that . Okay, So I'm thinking through this this is actually really tricky because we basically have two triads here. So I'm trying to decide what are chord tones and what are not chord tones. And I think I think this a is not a cord tone. I like this be better because it carries through. So if I call this a not accord tone and then I moved this d sharp, uh, to here, that could be You're probably saying, Oh, I see. Ah, add to or something like that. Not quite, though, because G is gonna be our tonic in this case. But what if be with our tonic? Because if b was our tonic, that essentially moves me to some kind of five chord, right? See if we can make that work. If I move this g up inactive, this f up enacted of sharp. Okay, Now I have be de sharp f sharp g. That G is weird, but let's ignore that for a second. This makes a nice court. So be two d sharpest major toe f sharp is major. That gives us a B major chord. Let's cut this G in it. Um, where is that G? It's in the vocal lines, so it's probably important, but it does fall down to the F sharp fairly quickly. So possibly this is a non core tone. Could be a suspension down to the f sharp. Okay, so I'm gonna call this just I'm gonna simplify this whole thing in college of five. Um, now, I could put an inversion on there because the d sharp is in the bottom. I'm not gonna worry about inversions right now, Okay? So I'm going to call this a five. Um, we definitely have a b major. Something happening here. Right? We have that raised third. I expect that in a minor key. That's okay. All right, let's move on and see what I have here. Okay, So here, let's let's do that same thing again. So now we have a d natural and f sharp. Ah, be and a g sharp. Oops. I'm getting my trouble. Claps and bass class confused. Okay, I'm in trouble. Cliff here. It's weird having trouble Clough underneath the bass clef. Okay, so here I have a d And here I have an f Here I have a B that's there and a g sharp. Okay. What does that make? Weird, more weird stuff. I could have a kind of a B because I have a B major here. Now, I would have a b minor because of that. Dean Natural B D f sharp is just straight up. Be natural or ah b minor with that g sharp, though. Just sitting right there. Do you like that? Needs to be in there so g sharp be if g sharp was the route. Like it looks like it could be here. What would that make it? That would make it a raised third. That would be like this. Raised three and then groups. Is that major or minor? G sharp to be is minor. So be a raised three something. Okay, so we're on the right track with this, but let's keep going down this road. So if I have a g sharp, what is this? Court actually does that f sharp makes sense because g sharp b d. That's a minor. You should be two D is going to be a Dominican because G sharp to D is a flat five. Okay, so what I really have here is like a three diminished seven. Right? Minor minor, half diminished. Okay, so a raise 3/2 diminished. That's weird. Um, that's really weird. So here's what I'm gonna dio. I'm gonna suspend my judgment on that court for just second. Gonna go into the next chord and see if this court gives me any clue as to what this cord might actually be functioning as. So let's look here. So we have a single Let's do the same thing we were doing before. Here. Let's go. OK, so we have, uh, c sharp and e be another e and then in a Okay, So what I see here is a pretty clear a c sharp e that be Where was that be? Here falls down to that a pretty quick. So I think we can eliminate that as a non cord tone. And then we can call this and a major. Okay, So in the key of e minor, a major is four. It's not in key because it's a major for, but that's okay, are right now now that this is off major four and out of Key and e Minor, but that's all right. We'll call it a major for and it being out of key were just know Tate ing it by saying it's major using the capital Roman numerals when it should be. Ah, this is what would be expected in key. But we're gonna do this and that's OK. That's what he wrote. Okay, so now does this make sense? Almost. Um, what if this waas a leading tone diminished seventh chord pushing to four? I think that would make sense, Right? Look, we can see it just the way it's written right here, pushing up, which is interesting because this baseline every thing is pulling down, right? It's like down, down, down, down, chromatic down. But here we've actually established a harmony that's pushing up amidst that Down, down, down, a down. It's kind of neat, so I'm gonna call this now a leading tone diminished seven of four. Okay, so this is what it technically is, but that's not how it's functioning. So let's leave that down there. Oops, This is what it's actually doing. Being a leading toned him in his seventh, pushing to four and then we get four. Okay. Pretty cool. Um, case, That also explains that a let's move on. So are kind of our pace of our courts here. The first chord took up this whole measure, but now I think we're on. Ah, whole note and then half note. So two chords per measure, but split a little differently. Um, all right, let's go here and let's get this one. Let's get this quarter than we'll break for a new video. Um, that's what we have here we have. See? Natural. We have e we have a We have a d sharp. What does d sharp come from? Um, but then moving upto a, um, our sorry up to e So this don't this half step down in the back up. Tempted to call that d sharpened on Cortona, although it really sticks out, doesn't it? We put this d sharp in here. Yeah, we already have an e in here, so I really think that's an encore tone. This makes such good sense without it, because without it, we have a minor just straight up. Right, So in the key of e minor, a minor is four. It's what we had here right. We have a major here. Okay. And here we're still a little mode switch when a minor. So we went back in key, right? So this five is slightly out of key. Although we expect a major five. This is significantly out of key, but it pushes us to this, which is out of key. But now here we're back in key. Okay, This is getting to be a very long video. So let's break here. And then, um, we'll do the second half in the next video. 17. Sequence Analysis, Part 2: okay, and we're back. Um, let's go here. Let's do the same techniques. That seems to be working pretty well. Um, So what do we have here? We have a B. We have an f sharp. We have this A and this be thing again. So let's keep track of both of them. For now. We already have a B. We have his d sharp. Who here? What does that give us if we move this a up inactive? Look at that. We have a nice little try out there, so we have b d Sharp f sharp. So we have B major Triad and in a with 1/7 on it, and we're in the key of e minor. So be seven. That's just a good old 57 chord. Nothing weird about that at all. Actually, it is a major when it should be minor in e minor. But you know that major third in the five chord. Totally normal. So it's out of key, but it's so predictably out of key. Nothing funny there at all. All right, now, does that explain this next chord? We have an e sorry. Here we have a g e. Be org b and B. Probably not. Let's let's look at that as its own cord. See if we could make some sense of it. Ah, G e g be and be okay. What do we see there? If I drop this e down? Look at that. E G B. Good old one, right? 57 to 1. We should certainly do like that, don't we? So that's great. Okay, let's continue on, um de todo Okay. Here we have an A and E and F Sharp and a C and A B. Oh is, like the biggest cluster of accord case. So clearly, we have a whole bunch of not corn toads here. And if we're gonna continue on, we might have We might have three different chords here. I'm gonna go with that for now. Let's just look at this beat, okay? What do we think we have here? Um, well, if I move this up sharp down, then I've got f sharp. A c e. What's that be doing? That be? Could be, um, a suspension. Don't a So let's try leaving that off. Since we that's the only place we have it. So that could make some good sense. So this was our cord f sharp toe A is a minor. Third pay to see is a minor third. That doesn't sound right. I guess it does. You see, is a minor third c t e from major third. So this gives us another diminished chord half diminished. So let's do the same thing we did over here. So if this was and F sharp diminished chord if F sharp is our route than in the key of E, that's too That's actually in keys. We could call this too half diminished. I know I'm not using this symbol for half diminished here. Should have a strike through it, but I don't have one of those on my keyboard. Do you have two minutes? Seven, which is actually in key, So there's really nothing strange about that, other than we don't often follow a one with a two, but it doesn't need to be a leading tone of something else because this is actually all in key. So let's put that there. I suspect it might be still a leading tone of something else, but let's see. Let's look here, so I'm gonna convert all of this to whole note or 1/2 note. And then let's look at what's happening here. So here we have a G another f sharp A B at another G. So could this be explained in here? This note can be this note can't be And this don't can't be either. So let's try moving this f sharp op. Inactive. No, we're missing a D, but otherwise we have g be f sharp. It's a major seventh chord. If we had a D natural in there, so this could be a G major. Seven chord could just call it G major for the moment. Where with the F sharp. Oh, it's right there. Um, so let's do that. Let's call that a G major seven. That's gonna be a three 37 We don't need to know Tate that it's a major seven because 37 nothing out of key means that its major seven, because that's what happens on three. That actually lets us jump backwards a little bit and say, Now this leading tone diminished seventh. Now this diminished seventh chords to seven could actually very well D leading tone diminished seventh chord F sharp up to G right So since I think it's functioning that way, I am going to call it that. Okay, so we're gonna call this leading tone, diminished seven of three, and then we get three. Next, and that makes good sense. Okay, Almost done. What do we have next? Um, let's go back to this technique. This is working well, we have here. Ah, b have a d Sharp and G is sustaining over, but then landing down on that f sharp. So I think that f sharps probably where we are that gives us a big old be major. And what is that? That is our trusty five, which is really what we want. Okay, that's our five chord. And then that's gonna tell us right here. We're probably gonna get a one here. E e be g. So we don't even need to mess around with that 11 could We did it. So see what we have. 15 Leading tone diminished 7 to 4, pushing up to four, switching over to minor for getting us to a 57 down to a one leading tone. Diminished 7 to 3, pushing us up to three, dropping us off at five dropping us back down. Toe one. Let's hear this. Whoa! Ah! I should mute this. Um, how can you do that? Was gonna delete it, and then I'll paste it back in. Okay. Okay. Let me go. Kind of a different direction here, but let's stop here for now. Um, okay, so that's how this descending thing works. Now, remember, you can harmonize this a whole bunch of different ways. Um, I want to look at actually a couple of small, little handful of pop songs, songs that you might be more familiar with that used the same idea, and we'll look at how they analyze it or how they harmonize it, I should say. 18. Pop Music Examples: Okay, so this core progression is not just used in opera to show the saddest thing you can possibly imagine. It's actually used in a lot of pop songs. Um, and you know, when it's used in a pop song. Do I think that those artists No, that this core progression has such a lengthy history and is so mired in, you know, death and sorrow? No, not necessarily. Um and it doesn't matter what I think is people hear it and think that is sad. So I'm going to use it. Um, So I want to look at a couple examples of it being used, and we can see different ways people have harmonized this. Ah, sequence. And really, all we're talking about here is this descending bassline, right? And there's a whole bunch of different ways you could harmonize it. Um, in this first example, it's going to be, you know, fairly simple harmonisation. But we'll look at some other ones. Um, and it's cool to see how different people have done this. Uh, okay, so let's just dive into it. Let's do a couple. Um, let's do a couple fun examples 19. My Funny Valentine : Okay, so first up, my funny valentine Very kind of sad tune. Um, can I playback controls up here? Because I just saw that we're playing this pretty fast. Okay, so this is gonna So what we have here is a lead sheet, and we looked at, ah, lead sheets before. And, um, you know what we're seeing here is the name of the cord that they've used to harmonize it for this particular tune and then the melody. This doesn't show that descending bassline, but it's really kind of implied, and we'll see. Well, we'll add that baseline and you'll see how it works into second. Let's hear just the melody, I guess. Yeah. Okay. Ah, And then it goes on. Let's just look at this first part. So maybe the easiest way to do this. Let's copy this over to our full of music or file. Let's take note that were and C minor here. Okay, so let's go up here. Let's maybe add a double bar line. Let's add the right key signature, and then let's paste it there. Great. We got records, too. Okay, Now let's add a baseline and we can add the courts to right? Because we have based guff cords, and Ah, And this will actually give us this in strings, which will be relatively nice. Did I use the wrong time? Signature 44 Are we not in for our and three to still. Hold on. Um, it's getting back to 44 here. Here we go. All right, now, let's put that in. That looks a little bit better. Okay? So I'm not going to do a full four part harmony here. I don't think we need that. It's gonna dio baseline in courts. Um, so first, let's just add the cords. Eso one chord per bar. So first, I have C minor. So let's go see e g. That e flat is already in our key signature. Ah, this triangle means, um, major seven is what a triangle means. So we have here is C minor with a major seven. It's ah, it's kind of strange is what they want. Um, this is a shorthand thing. C minor seven. And let's e guess. I just want to put a flat on that just so that we really see that it's a flat, even though it's in the key signature here we go. All right. And let's Ah, c minor six. So C minor with a six is going to be a flat. No, actually, is going to be a natural. It doesn't want a flat six. It wants in normal six. Now we have now we have a big switch. A flat major seven. Sue, I want a flat C e flat, G. Let's invert that a little bit that g down. Just kind of get it in the ballpark of our other courts here. Sickness E down. You see, down there we go. Okay, now we have f minor seven. So it's gonna be f a flat. C e flats. It's good. That's the same kind of inversion just to get it in the ballpark. See, that looks pretty good. De diminished, right? So it's gonna be d f a flat that's half diminished. So we're gonna want to see that's going to be seen natural. That makes the seventh good and think that'll do it. I'll get us in the same ballpark than G seven flat nine. So it's going to g d flat, d you and then on nine is going to be a but it wants a a flat, which is there? Stick that You flat down and let's take that d down that works. Let's hear that court crunchy. Oh, what's major? So I need a be natural proof That is country Ah, let's take that. Be down. Is that a natural? There we go. Let's just try to get a little bit of that crunch out of it. So I have a g natural and on a flat, it could be that flat nine. Okay, so let's just hear our cords and then we'll add our baseline. Go So you can almost hear that baseline in there. Right? Um let's do it. And you know what? I'm going to dio just to really emphasize this baseline, I am going to die. Just change that note. I'm gonna do this just in quarter notes. I'm just gonna thump on this baseline. Okay, so I'm going to go see Si, Si, si. OK, there's our baseline. Um, so was it a little bit? C minor will put a c Now, this one, we have a b natural, right? So let's use that. Be natural in our baseline and all right here. We're going down to B flat. And let's put a flat on that. Just to make it abundantly clear that it's a flat, We don't have to have a flat on it. I dislike seeing If we don't put a flat there, it could be seen as ambiguous. I just like seeing it. Okay, now we have in a natural right. Okay, now here we have in a flat. I will put a flat on that, also, just to be really clear. And now what happens? So we go from that a flat. We don't have a G here. We have another, a flat, or we could go down to an AF. So what is that force that we were talking about? That would be an F Really wants us to go all the way down to an AF read on a flat. We need a G. So we're going to skip a little bit here. We're gonna get down to a G right here. Let's do that is to anchor ourselves. So we could stay on a flat here, or we could go to an F. You go to enough. All right. Thank you. Okay. And then my path of least resistance here is I could stay on an F or I could go to a D or a C. Let's stay on enough. We'll see how that sounds. All right. Um, I kind of want to emphasize this base time. Let's just hear it first. Cool. So it doesn't go all the way down toe f traumatically. We've got a little skip here, but it's still the same principle. Um, descending chromatic line. So how did they harmonize this? That's what we really care about. What they did for these first through four chords is just added the descending note as a note off the main cord. So we have a C minor, and they're just adding the B natural, the B flat, the a natural here. Then we get to a flat and they move around a little bit. Um, and they keep it going through the a flat, and then they kind of lose it here. Yeah, um, which is a really nice sound when we get to this F. This f has, like, a lot of weight to. It's like we broke out of that chromatic thing and it feels really good. So a really good use of this fairly simple harmonization of it. Let's look at another one 20. Stairway To Heaven: Okay, Here's a song that you might be familiar with. Stairway to Heaven by Led Zeppelin. Um, let's just hear this opening riff. Okay, so during this opening riff, we have the same thing, right? Have a g sharp, g natural f sharp f natural. And then it kind of kind of breaks. So let's take a look. Um, can I copy this over into our full music or file? I think that will cause us problems, because this is piano. So here's what I'm gonna do. I will. I'm gonna do the analysis in this file, and then I'll give you Ah, both these last two files, my funny valentine and Stairway to Heaven. Um, in the next thing. Cool. Ah, without my analysis in it. Um, because we're just gonna add a couple chord names here, O g Ah, and I'll post those as music or and pdf files if you wanna download this and play with it. Okay. So let's look what we've got here. Key signature tells us. See, major or a minor looking here. That looks like a minor. Let's call it a minor. Um, let me get some text going up. Okay. So I'm going to say a minor? Probably. And if that is true, then this we can call. All right. Um okay. What? We call this cord. See? We have a g sharp be e I see be. Let's leave off that base note for just a second. Let's think about just this part. So we have C e b Natural. So that's a C major seven. Let's write that down. So we have here. See, major seven plus a g sharp whom Tricky. So that would be the notes. B c E g sharp B. That is a psi augmented chord because, look, we have C t e is a major third e to G. Sharp is a major third g sharp to be is a minor third. So this is ah, augmented seven chord. Um, let's call it one. Augmented seven. Um, that's probably the best name for it. Um, OK, so that's the best kind of theory. Name. Weaken. Call it the kind of more jazz name we would call it. Um, would be I think it's more accurate to call it what the kind of jazz notation would call even though this isn't jazz. But we would call it c minor over G sharp. That would basically tell us we have a C minor chord. Oh, no. Sorry. C major seven over G sharp. So we have a C major seven chord with a G sharp in the base that technically makes a one augmented seven. Um, but in this case, I think this is a more accurate way to say what's happening. Ah, but both work. Okay, let's look at the next court. So here we have C major. Nothing funny about that with G. So that is a seven. So nothing strange there. Here we have d f sharp A have sharps. We have a d major with an f sharp in the base that nothing strange either. Um, that's a D major. That's going to be four, which is slightly weird because for his minor in this key. So we're out of key a little bit to get that f sharp. F natural would be in key, but that's okay. We have a major four. Then what we have here a c e c a minor over f. Okay, so here we could do the same thing we did over here and say it's a minor slash f to say that it's an a minor with an F in the base. Or we could count F as a note in the cord. If we counted F as the root of F A C E, which would be and F major seven chord. That's actually not that weird. Um, which would be in this key 47 Ah, and that continues on. So I think that works for seven. And then we get this little turn around here. What I think is one Let's see way have g b d with a B in the bass. So G b d g major So we'll call that Ah seven again and then a c e a c E Day A here we can call this one. So a quick little 711 and then it starts over here again. So 11 augmented seven. Sort of. But then a seven chord on the four chord and 47 chord and then 71 come strange, right. Neat though, Um, but still the same lament base chromatic descending down It's sad. Death is a song about death. How it goes. Okay, let me give you these two files. And then, um, there's two other ones. I want to look at quick 21. Babe, I'm Gunna Leave You: Flynn. Um, we can kind of hear it in, Um, they're Ah, babe, I'm gonna leave you version. Ah, right at the beginning. It's not chromatic all the way. It actually saves the chromatic for the second part of the riff rather than the first part of the riff like they did in, um, stairway to Heaven. So just hear the beginning, and then I'll tell you what the notes are. So what's happening in the baseline there? Let's go over here. That's ah, adds more measures. What's happening in the baseline here is it's going, um, here's our Here's our base. Ah, starts off on a it's going a a and then down to G Um oh, I should get myself Ah, better a key signature here because this is in a minor. Now I gotta fix these. Okay, So a natural. All right. So goes a a g g. So not chromatic. Um, but then from there it goes f sharp f sharp. Oops. Have sharp two f natural. And then quickly e and then back to a so ah, oops. Let me just call this a natural Clear. Um, so we do have a good bit of descending Chromatis ism here. We have not chromatic here, but G f sharp f Natural e um, gets us basically all the way down there, right? They just skipped 1/2 step here. The way they harmonize this is a minor on the first chord, a minor seven on the second core that just gets us the G that seventh there. And then they go to a d chord. Ah di seven chord. So this is all d to hear d seven chord and then we're sorry, d accord here d seven chord here f major E major and then back toe a minor. So again, a relatively simple harmonization of it, but it's kind of neat. 22. Nine Inch Nails: Closer: Okay, one more. Just for the sake of being, um, more current, I guess, even though this song is 20 years old down to but nine inch nails. Um, closer. So, ah, listen to this song. Fair warning. The song has some dirty words in it. Um, so use your judgment on that, but it has this thing in it that's not a baseline, actually. Um, it's a, uh, more of a melodic line. I guess we could maybe call it a counter melody thing. But it's this right? And so it's it's much higher. It's on the baseline. But the same basic idea, this descending chromatic thing, Um, and really similar to the, um last when we looked at it starts on a G and then goes to an F so it has a whole step there. But from there it's half e natural e flat de ah. And then it doesn't will turn around here B flat A C C. And the whole thing is harmonized undersea minor. I actually did find someone who did amuse score arrangement of this. Um, which is I just listen to the whole thing all the way through is pretty fun. Um It's actually really, really well done. Um ah, but let me just play it from here. This is near the end, and you'll hear that, um rift. Come in right here. I think this is where it enters this play from here. And then when we get to the very end, you hear it by itself. But this is how the piece ends to keep your hair on this line. - Feet , right? So it doesn't, I mean to to be the technically perfect lament base. It needs to be a baseline, but this is that same idea, right? It generates such this feeling of sadness, this chromatic descending passage, even when it's not a baseline so interesting. Um, okay, let's move on. Maybe I'll just in case anyone is wildly fascinated by it. Ah, I'll give you this. Ah, score also, um, if you want, but fair warning In the lyrics of the song, there are dirty words 23. Embellishing Chords: Okay, Next, let's talk about, uh, embellishing chords. So these air cords that are exactly they sound like they're they're embellishing courts. The records that we go to that don't change the functional purpose of this section. Let me say that again. Ah, whether we're in ah, we might be in a dominant area or a sub dominant area or a tonic area. Ah, and these cords might look like on paper that they pull us away from those areas, but they actually don't. Um, they are quick, usually in passing and usually connected through some way, usually through a common tone. So what we have here are things like common tone, diminished seventh chords where we have accord. And then we might go to a crazy cord that's really hard to analyze functionally. But then But it's connected by a common tone. So it sounds good. And then we go right back to where we were that ah is called an embellishing cord. We could also do it with augmented six chords. Um, for this purpose, we have a whole new kind of, uh, way to analyze thes Ah, When we get them, there's one right there. Spoiler alert um, we don't really because they don't serve a functional purpose. We don't call them like, you know, leading tone of seven or, you know, whatever. We don't do a complicated things like that. We tend to just call them Common tone augmented. So we might. So it's kind of like the Neopolitan six. It doesn't really get a Roman numeral. We just call it common tone. Um, that tells us it's an embellishing chord. Doesn't really matter what the actual Roman numeral ought to be here because it's not worth analyzing in that way. This is something that will see in once you know, the rules of harmony start to get more and more vague that sometimes just Roman numerals just don't work. So we say it's a common tone, diminishing, cord diminished court. It's embellishing the chords around it. It doesn't have a functional purpose, so let's just call it common tone. In order for that to work, it has to have a common tone. So let's look at a couple examples of, uh, how this could work 24. Common-Tone Diminished 7 Chords: Okay. First, I've just written a really easy example of this. Um, let's just hear it first in strings, because we're in a strings mood kind of thing so far in this class, so let's just hear this. Uh ah. Right. Okay, so this is pretty obvious what's happening here. You can hear this cord. Ah, regardless of what this court is, you can hear that we go from this cord. We do this big. Just dip. Dip down is what everything kind of feels like It drops down just a little bit, and then we slide back up right to that court. These two chords are the same court. They don't look like it cause of all these natural I put on it. But they are the same court. So let's analyze this. The way we would do it is we would say we would call this one for N. C. Major. And this is C major one. Then we would go here and what we have here B d f g. So if we put that G and the bottom, we'd have g b d f. So that's a big 57 We could call it of 543 if we really wanted to get fancy with it. But let's just call it a 57 for now, then this cord, What do we have here is a little weird of Accord, right? We have a D flat in the bass. Then we have B flat, D, flat, F flat and G. So Okay, so it looks like G goes on the bottom, so let's take a look at that G B flat D flat, F flat. What is that? Is that in fact, just this core dropped down 1/2 step? No, because look at that G that g stayed right where it belongs, right where it waas. So we have. If g is the route, we have g b flat. So I have a minor third, then we have d flat. So we have another minor third, uh, then we have enough flat. So D flat toe f flat is another minor third. Then we have a flat up to G, just also a minor third. So we have It's ah fully diminished court here. Okay, This common tone thing works best on fully diminished chords. Um, so we have a fully diminished chord here so And we have a common tone with this G right? And then the G comes back, right? And then the G goes one more That doesn't need to do that for this to work, but that's nice. So this G goes all the way through this, But for this common tone toe work, we basically take a little dip away, and then we come back, and that gives us common tone. Fully diminished chord would analyze it. Just like that common tone. We don't need to call this what it actually is. Which is? Well, what would it be? A diminished g a g diminished in the key of C. So that be, Ah, we could call it a leading tone of flat six. But we don't get flat six. We get seven. So it just doesn't make any sense to do that. Um, we're just going to call it a common tone diminished court. Okay, so let's look at it one more time. Uh, I want to do something to kind of help you hear this. Um, I'm gonna do this, Ellen. Do with eighth notes. Okay. I'm just gonna put a whole bunch of G is just kind of rocking through this just to draw your attention to that common tone. Okay, listen to it now. Okay, So you with these, I think it helps to hear Ah, this G that stays unified throughout it. Okay, let's look at it with augmented six chord. 25. CT Aug6 Chords: Okay, So we can also do this with an augmented six chord. So let's go out. Here it is again. Now, uh, maybe this is a good moment for us to review augmented six chords. Um, so it's just delete this cord, okay? And let's see if we can do the same thing. Actually, I can already tell we can't, um because remember the function of the augmented six chord. We still want the augmented six court to resolve the way it's supposed to resolve, and it can doing this trick. Um, but, uh, it can't from a five. It needs to go off the one. Okay, so let's do Let's just put another one chord there. Okay? So there's our one chord. Let's get rid of that. It's not confusing in that. Okay, so now what we can do is an augmented six card. Now, remember, that kind of maintenance of an augmented six chord is that it goes, it's got that kind of double leading tone above and below to the five. So we need this G is where we're going to resolve. Okay, We're gonna resolve to this G. So we need an f sharp. So we have that. This is the leading tone up. So we're gonna lead up to that, G. And then we need to lead down to that G also, and that's gonna be in a flat. Okay, so let's put in a flat there, Okay? Now, if this was an Italian, we would put a tonic in there, see? And that would be it. Um, but this works best with German. So I should say it works most commonly with German. So we're gonna put and a minor third in there. So we're gonna put an e flat in there also, so I could go with an e flat in the bass, but I think I want a c in the base. That will be our common tone. And then let's get rid of this. He that doesn't get too dense. Let's move this a flat up. I'll give us nice voice leading. And then let's add an e flat there. So have e flat f sharp, a flat. Okay. And have a common tone, right? I see. So see carries through. It doesn't. This particular seat doesn't carry through, but see is the common tone that whole thing I could put to see there. Um okay, so now it has to resolve outward, so it usually goes right back to tonic. Now, an augmented six chord usually lands us on a five. But what we're going to do here is we are gonna let our voices resolved correctly. So that's a flats gonna resolve down to a G. This f sharp is also gonna resolve up to a G, so we only need one g here, but then we're gonna build our tonic off of it. Right? So we're going to resolve those that double leading tone to a G to the note that it's supposed to resolve, but not the cord that it's supposed to result to. We're gonna use a tonic for that step. So what we have is 11 We're gonna call this a common tone. Ogg six. That's how we do that. And then one when we get rid of that, Okay, Now, this doesn't work as well, because G is not our common tone anymore. See? Is, can I just do this? Check that out. Let's do that. Okay, let's hear it once without this and to see if it's, um, easy to hear here this. That's kind of nice. Let's hear it with the little paddle town in here thing. Yeah, this is a very common sonority. It's a way to just kind of extend the tonic. Um, and it creates a little bit more drama in the in the music rather than just having tonic go the whole way. Um, it's just kind of sliding around a little bit. Um, so it's a nice sound. So common tone, embellishing chords. Uh, so let's look at next, kind of the not the rules necessarily behind this, but the because there aren't really, really strict rules about this, but, um, the kind of options that we have here 26. Neighboring CT Chords: Okay, So this next thing this isn't really something that's worse, that we know Tate necessarily. But it's worse noting, um, about these court is that there's there's two different ways to do it. Okay, so I'm gonna switch us to G just to give us a little bit of a life to what we're doing. Um, let's keep on with half notes. So what we could do is there's neighboring and there's passing. What we've done so far is neighboring. Uh, let me just do another example of neighbouring here. So we have. We're in the key of D. So I'm out of five. And now I'm gonna go to a common tone diminished seven chord. And now I'm gonna go back to five. So this is going to be natural. And then let's just be nice about it and go after one. Okay? So what we have here is one. No, sorry. We have five seven. Yes, 57 to call that common tone. Diminished hoops to 57 Teoh. What? Okay, so we're gonna call this neighboring, right? Just because when we saw passing tones and things neighbor tones, right? You remember neighbor tones. So this is gonna have this feeling of being in neighbor. This is the same kind of thing that we did over here. This would be a neighboring quarter because it feels like it dips down and then comes back up to where it started. Okay, let's just hear this one. Quick. Okay, So common tone diminished seven chord. It's an embellishing cord. It's a neighboring embellishing court. So we call this neighboring next. Let's look at it. Ah, in its passing form. 27. Passing CT Chords: Yes. I'm gonna just do this. Okay, Now I'm gonna replace this court. Actually, I'm not gonna replace that chord. I'm gonna leave this core just how it is. But I am going to make it feel like we're passing through it and ending up somewhere different. That's the main difference here. Neighboring, we go away, and then we come right back, this one in a passing chord. We're gonna end up somewhere slightly different. Still on a five chord, though. Okay. So ah, and then this isn't gonna make it on a sense. But let's leave that for now, anyway. Er, no. Ah, we do need Teoh change this because things are going to get a little weird here, so we're gonna get to a five chord, but not the five chord that you would expect. Go. Okay, So here's what we're gonna do here. Five on a common tone. Diminished seventh. Okay, now here, we're going to go to five of five, okay? And then we're gonna land on five. So let's check this out. So my common tone of a holds all the way through this business, right? So when the key of G s, we have a d seven. Then we have this weird common tone thing, a diminished chord. Then we're going Teoh a C sharp e g. So in a seven chord, that's five of five. And we're doing it in a 43 inversion, and then we're gonna land over on five. Still, carrying this through this is gonna make it feel like this isn't just neighbouring, but we're passing through it to get to this cord, which then gets us to our five. Let's hear this, right? So kind of adds another little wrinkle there, but it passes us through. Um, so let's table these this we're gonna call Neighboring, and this we're going to call passing. Okay, so this cord, if I was gonna note if I was gonna notated with Roman numerals, what I would do is C t diminished. Don't use a Roman numeral. Just use the letter. C T U two show. It's common tone. Its function is common tone. But if I was gonna talk about it, I would say it is an embellishing cord of five. It is a passing embellishing cord. It leads us to 57 of five, which drops us off at five again. So, um, these terms are used not specifically for analysis, but to help us kind of spot the cords and to talk about them a little bit more cool. Okay, let's move on to chromatic medians. 28. The Wrong Chords: okay up next. I want to talk about chromatic medians. Now, these air something that if you took my music theory for electronic musicians class, you saw way we will be back in. I think I did that in class number three of the music theory for electronic musicians class . So why is it that in this more rigorous music theory, we're only getting to it in class 16? And that's because I put it in that class early because it's something that you actually here in pop music more than anything else and in electronica music, I've heard, if you, um ever more than a few tracks that used that technique, So I wanted to put it in there for us in order for it to really make sense and kind of what we're doing, Um right now is where it comes because what we're doing with this idea of chromatic medians is really stretching the diatonic system. We're breaking it. Um, we're gonna break it, and we're going to find a new way to kind of analyze thes things. So what we have in chromatic medians is basically the wrong chord at an specific wrong chords. Um, the wrong three and the wrong six. Okay. Um so why do we say immediate? This three probably makes sense if you imagine this is tonic and you go up three. That's the median, right? That's if you go way back to what we name our our records. Three is the median. So it's using the wrong three. But we can also go back to tonic and go back three. And that gets us to six. Or we would call the sub median that we can also use the same technique with so three or six, um, and using the wrong court. So if we're in a major key, we would expect that three to be minor, right? Major minor minor. Um, but let's use a major three, and why not call it a chromatic media? Um, there are a couple other things we can do with that as well, and we'll look at some examples in just a minute. So now we have seen things like this before, and we would have called it mode mixture, right? We would have said, Okay, you're borrowing the third from the minor key in order to justify that. Ah, major third in a major key right that's borrowed from the minor key motor Bardo borrowing, borrowing from closely related keys a couple different ways to say it. Yes, and that is still true. It is motile barter borrowing. But what we're able to do now is just say, we're not gonna worry about the motile borrowing or it's gonna call it a chromatic media. Um, so it's it's It's a further destruction of our diatonic system that we're kind of working towards now is how can we destroy that more and more and more. So let's look at an example. I have one of my favorite examples ready to G O. Um, it might get a little silly, but it'll be fun. So let's just dive right into some Super Mario brothers. 29. Super Mario Brothers: okay, if you are a child of the nineties or, um actually, not even because it's our it's made a comeback lately. Then you may be familiar with the video game. Siri's Super Mario brothers from Nintendo. Um, this little riff will be familiar to you. Now, I put it in here in the strings just to keep it in our same document. It's not going to sound very good and strings, though, so I have it here set up on piano. So let's take a quick listen. Okay, so this is what happens in Super Mario brothers when you clear a level specifically in the first Super Mario brothers. And I think in, um, the newer kind of switch and later versions of it. I'm a big fan of super Mario. Don't get me started, Okay? So you can kind of sense something is a little off on this, right? Like not office and bad. But off, as in this is not just playing through a major scale without even looking at it. There should be a sense that things are moving in a different way. Um, to make this little fanfare thing happened, let's listen to overtime. Okay, So let's look at what's happening and gonna bounce back over here. Maybe I haven't done this yet, but let's just hear it in strings. Just for fun. It's kind of fun. Okay, let's take a look at what's happening here. So we're in C major. Um, so let's just do a quick and analysis of it. It's not hard to analyze. Actually, um, let's go with chord names first, and then we'll see if we can figure out from Roman numerals. Um, so we're in C. So what's happening here? We have G e e g c e e g c c. That's a whole bunch of C major triad G c e c g e c e g. This is nothing but see Major Triad all the way through just arpeggios so we can call this C Major Triad. Let's put this up here for a minute, okay? Now, when we have a flat c e flat, okay, that's an a flat major triad. Did I have anything other than that? Not really. Just have a flat major cool. So here I have a flat major triad. What we have here be flat D f to B flat major triad. I have anything other than B flat D f and go out on a limb and say no. So have the flat major triad here I have here c e see? So can probably call that c major again. Okay, so there are records, See, Major, a flat major B flat major and C major. So let's try some Roman numerals here, OK? So clearly, if we're in the key of C major, this is gonna be one one all the way through this bar. Nothing weird there. This one a flat. So in C major, we don't have any flat. Um, it's not in the key. So we're building accord on a note That's not in the key, which is a little strange. Um, but what is a A would be the six right? C d e f g a. That would be the six. So that up to be minor. So not only is this note, not the root of this court is not in the key. The closest one to it, um, is the wrong mode. It should be minor, So that's a little weird. So we're gonna call this. Ah, flat six. Okay. This is a chromatic media it because it's a six. Right? And remember, six can be in the same category of chromatic media, and it's the wrong mode, and it's the wrong note. So we're gonna call it a flat. Remember when the flat comes before the Roman numeral, that means the route is lowered. Same thing goes with sharp, so it's a flat six. Now, let's go. Here. What we have here, we have B flat. What is B Flat and C major again? Not in the key. This would be called a flat seven. And then we could hear. And we have a one again. Okay, So what is going on here? We could easily explain this by saying these two chords Let's do this. Um, this cord and this cord Ah, all the way to here. I suppose this is all borrowed from C minor. That would explain this just fine that we were in C major. We borrowed from C minor here, and then we ended up in C major. That would be the old way that we would explain this in this new way. We could just say chromatic median A and E. This is a chromatic median and then this one this actually, this flat seven here is not a chromatic media because it's a it's a flat seven. It's just a chromatic cord. So here I would say we can just call that a chromatic cord. So the flat seven doesn't really apply to our chromatic immediate rule. Um, which is unfortunate because it makes for this to be not a perfect example, but it's such a good example. And Super Mario brothers come on that I wanted to use it anyway. So this is our chromatic media. This B flat major is not a chromatic media s. We have see toe a flat major total chromatic median there and then to B flat major on the C C major, let's hear one more time in strings. This chromatic median relationship tends to have a really kind of heroic sound. So you do hear this kind of, um, smoothing around by thirds in, like, fanfares and things like this, cause it just gives that triumphant kind of sound even though it's totally chromatic. It's weird. Um, but it does generally make that sound. Okay, So, uh, let's look at what our options are for this in major. And look a little more detail about how what we can do with chromatic idiots. 30. Options In Major: Okay. I want to look at this in terms of, like this graphic rather than notes, because it's a little easier to understand. I think so. What I have laid out here is in C major, What's in key? And then one are possible. Chromatic medians. So in C major, three is minor. Okay, that's what we expect. Um, but what we could get is possible. Chromatic medians would be major three. Let's just do that. Let's put that there. Ah, flat three. Right. So if this is E, if we're in C major, I should just probably right major key here. But if we're in C major, this is gonna be e minor, right? I could do an e flat minor, right? That's super weird. I could do Well. What I have here is E flat, Major. This font is not showing. Um, our Roman numerals. Very well. Let me try to get to a font that shows hope. There we go. Okay, So I'm a minor third, I could do a major third, right. I could do a flat major. Third major three. Sorry, I could do a flat minor three. Right. So fine men. C Major, I have e minors. My predicted I could do e flat minor. That's a cool, um, possible third shift. I can't really do sharp three because that would put me on E sharp minor in this case, which would be and harmonic f minor. So I could in theory do it. I could write an e sharp, minor chord. And when I looked at it on paper, I would say that is a chromatic media that is an e sharp, minor chord. But when I heard it, I would hear in F minor court, and I would call it a minor four, which is in itself is a chromatic cord. But it's, um, not exactly a chromatic media that's a little bit different. So this is kind of theoretical. Let's say okay and similarly sharp. Three. Ah Sharp major three. That's even more theoretical because that is gonna be an harmonically in key, right? That's just gonna be f major is going to sound like F major. So it's gonna be. But if I notated it this way, it would technically be, um, a chromatic media. If I notated as e sharp major, so not not something you see very often there. There are times when that could work. Okay. Now, also, we can do the same stuff with six. Right? So six is going to be minor in a major key. Let's do that. And now all of these still apply, so I could do major six. I could do flips flat six. What would that be for? In the key of C Major, this is gonna be a minor. This is gonna be a major. It's gonna be a flat minor there. Sorry. A flat major. This is going to be a flat minor. This would be a sharp minor. And would that work, or would we get into another harmonic equivalent? I think we would, because I think what we would here, Although it doesn't exactly get us back in key at all. Um, and a sharper, minor chord. I think we would probably feel that as a B flat, minor chord, which would feel like a flat seven rather than a raised six. Um, but totally could do it. And the same thing with this. So I would call these slightly these two slightly less theoretical on the six. And ah, but definitely theoretical on the three So these are all the options that we can do that create a flat that created chromatic media, and it's gonna draw some lines. I think that looks nice. So you might find this to be especially useful if you are a composer or a songwriter or anything, because these give you a lot of really cool options to do when you're writing music. Um, okay, let's look at what our options are in a minor key. 31. Options In Minor: Okay, let's move to a minor key and let's do it down here. Minor. So in minor my three, it is my diatonic three by three. That's in key is Major, right? And my six. Oops! His major. So finding the key of a minor A B C C major, my six in minor is F f major. Okay, so it's keep those in mind for a minute while we hash through what? Our options are here. Um, so it's basically the same as this except kind of inverted red so we could do minor Third. So in the key of a minor, we could dio c minor. We could dio flat c minor c flat minor. Could we do see flat Minor? Oh, again, A little theoretical. But yes, technically, we could do see flat minor. Um, would that sound like B minor? Would that sound like a minor to? It would definitely sound like a minor, too. So we're going to call that one theoretical. So we put out in parentheses. But in theory, we could do it. Could we do flat Major? It's gonna sound like a B major. It's going to sound like a to a major to so again theoretical, but could be done. Um, could we do raised three in minor. So we're in a minor. We're expecting a seem major. We get a C sharp, major. Yeah, that's definitely a chromatic media. So that's not theoretical in this case. And similarly, we could do a C sharp minor and get a chromatic media cool. All right, let's look at our sixes. Seem kind of deal, So I'm just gonna copy all of these. I missed one. I missed that one. All right, I'm running out of space here, so let's push these up because I want to give you this graphic just so that you have this to reference for later. So I'd like it to look kind of good. What is that? Okay. So we could do minor. Six. We could do flat six. So let's think through that one. So let's say we're in a minor. Were at an f major would be in key. We could do f minor for sure. We could do a flat minor. Theoretically, um, that's gonna sound like e minor in the key of C. Yes. Sorry. A It's gonna sound like a minor. Five which is actually in the key. Um, so very theoretical there. Um, if I did Ah, Flat major six. That I'm on a major five. Really? So again, Very theoretical. But if I notated in this way, then it could happen. Okay. What about Sharp six Razed. Six. So thats f major kind. You f sharp Major was definitely a chromatic median and f sharp minor. Definitely a chromatic media. Cool. Okay, so I'm gonna No, I think it's good. Um, let's do that. Let's make some lions connecting everything, and I'll give you this document to play with as a pdf file in the next segment So you can have this as a reference for when you encounter chromatic medians. Cool. There's all of your options. 32. What Next?: All right, We've reached the end again of part 16 0 my gosh. Um, So what comes next? Ah, I think I'm gonna do apart 17 I guess. Um, well, look at chromatic modulation. Doing modulations by chromatic devices will be a lot of common tones. Stuff in there probably can expect some leading tone type things, but not leading tone Diatonic lee, as we've seen in the past. But, um, doing some kind of chromatic inflexion kind of ideas. So we'll get that. We'll get to that shortly. Probably start working on that right away, actually. Um, so hopefully that next part 17 it isn't far behind 16 because why not? Um, okay, A couple more things, and then we're out. 33. Thanks for Watching!: There's a podcast I like to listen to called 99% invisible. Maybe some of you have heard of it. Um, it's about design and lots of other stuff. It's about a lot of stuff. It's really great podcast. Um, but he addresses the listener, the listeners of his podcast, the fans of his podcasts he addresses as beautiful nerds. He says, Hello, you beautiful nerds at the beginning of ah, a lot of episodes and things. And, um, I hope you understand that I mean this with, ah, nothing but love in my heart. But, um, that's kind of how I think of all of you. You are a bunch of beautiful nerds that have, um, wrote me into making, ah, hundreds of hours of music theory classes, and I love it. So, um, I it's just fun, and it's great. And as long as you beautiful nerds keep ah bugging me, um, on Okay, on the Facebook group are on the various sites where you can find these things. Then, um I guess I'll keep making him. So, uh, thanks for being one of the beautiful nerds that watches this class and all of my classes. Check out some of my other ones. Um, just keep being awesome. That's all I have to say. Okay. Ah. As usual, one more kind of bonus thing with some extra goodies. And then ah, and then we're out to keep an eye out for Parts 17 coming soon.