Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 15: Chromatic Harmony | Jason Allen | Skillshare

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Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 15: Chromatic Harmony

teacher avatar Jason Allen, PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

38 Lessons (2h 34m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Tools!

    • 3. Some Review...

    • 4. The Master MuseScore File

    • 5. Mode Mixture Example

    • 6. Mode Mixture Analysis

    • 7. Mode Mixture Definition

    • 8. 4-Voice Harmonizations

    • 9. bVI Example

    • 10. Warning! Augmented Seconds!

    • 11. Changes To Some Rules

    • 12. Tonicizing A Mixture Chord

    • 13. Secondary Dominant of a Chromatic Chord

    • 14. Chord Quality

    • 15. Solfege and Chromatic Tones

    • 16. New Chords!

    • 17. The Chromatic Pre-Dominant

    • 18. Beethoven: Moonlight Sonata

    • 19. Neapolitan6 in Beethoven

    • 20. Why Neapolitan?

    • 21. Rules of the N6

    • 22. Mozart: Piano Sonata in D Major

    • 23. Aug6 Chords in Mozart

    • 24. The Italian Augmented 6th Chord

    • 25. The German Augmented 6th Chord

    • 26. The French Augmented 6th Chord

    • 27. What Is Up With These Names?

    • 28. Finding Resolutions

    • 29. Resolving the It6

    • 30. Resolving the Gr6

    • 31. Resolving the Fr6

    • 32. Mozart: String Quartet Example

    • 33. Mozart Analysis

    • 34. Augmented 6 Rules

    • 35. Placement Tests

    • 36. What Comes Next?

    • 37. Thanks Bye!

    • 38. SkillshareFinalLecture

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About This Class

Welcome to the COMPLETE Music Theory Guide!

This is a class designed for the average person who is ready to take their music career (or music interest) and level up. Whether you are an active musician, an aspiring musician, or an aspiring music manager or agent - this class is perfect for you.

For years I've been teaching Music Theory in the college classroom. These classes I'm making for Udemy use the same syllabus I've used in my college classes for years, at a fraction of the cost. I believe anyone can learn Music Theory - and cost shouldn't be a barrier.

My approach to music theory is to minimize memorization. Most of these concepts you can learn by just understanding why chords behave in certain ways. Once you understand those concepts, you can find any scale, key, or chord that exists. Even invent your own. If you've tried to learn music theory before, or if you are just starting out - this series of courses is the perfect fit.

Dr. Allen is a professional musician, top-rated Udemy instructor, and university professor. In 2017 the Star Tribune featured him as a "Mover and a Shaker," and he is recognized by the Grammy Foundation for his music education classes. 

Throughout this class, If you get stuck, you can review the videos or post a question, and I'll back to it as fast as possible. 

This class is Part 15: Chromatic Harmony. We will be learning a few new chords in this class - the Neapolitan Six chord, and the family of Augmented Six Chords: French 6, Italian 6, and German 6.

In this class, we will cover:

  • Mode Mixture

  • 4-Voice Harmony in Mixture Settings

  • Modification to Earlier Rules

  • Solfege in Chromatic Settings

  • The Chromatic Pre-Dominant Chords

  • The Neapolitan Six Chord

  • Analysis: Moonlight Sonata (Beethoven)

  • Analysis: Piano Sonata in D Major (Mozart)

  • Italian Augmented 6th Chords

  • French Augmented 6th Chords

  • German Augmented 6th Chords

  • Resolutions to Augmented 6th Chords

  • Analysis: Mozart String Quartet

  • How to Study for Music Theory Placement Tests

  • ...and much, much more!

You will not have another opportunity to learn Music Theory in a more comprehensive way than this. 

All the tools you need to successfully learn Music Theory are included in this course and the entire course is based on real-life experiences - not just academic theory.

Please click the "Take This Course" button so you can launch your music career today.

Test Prep: 

This course is perfect for prep for the Praxis II Test (ETS Praxis Music), The ABRSM Music Theory Exam (up to Grade 8), AP Music Theory Exam, College Placement Exams (Music Theory), and other common secondary and post-secondary placement exams.


Praise for Courses by Jason Allen:

⇢  "It seems like every little detail is being covered in an extremely simple fashion. The learning process becomes relaxed and allows complex concepts to get absorbed easily. My only regret is not taking this course earlier." - M. Shah

⇢  "Great for everyone without any knowledge so far. I bought all three parts... It's the best investment in leveling up my skills so far.." - Z. Palce

⇢  "Excellent explanations! No more or less than what is needed." - A. Tóth

⇢  "VERY COOL. I've waited for years to see a good video course, now I don't have to wait anymore. Thank You!" - Jeffrey Koury

  "I am learning LOTS! And I really like having the worksheets!" - A. Deichsel

⇢  "The basics explained very clearly - loads of really useful tips!" - J. Pook

⇢  "Jason is really quick and great with questions, always a great resource for an online class!" M. Smith


Meet Your Teacher

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Jason Allen

PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer


J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of “glove” controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he’s not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation’s Music Educator of the Year.

... See full profile

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1. Introduction: everyone. Welcome to music theory. Part 15 really excited that we've made it this far. So in this class, we're going to discover some new cords. Now, you might think it's impossible to know any new cords because you know, the diatonic chord progression. You know, chords, scales, keys, modes, you know how it all works. So how it would it be possible to make a new chord that doesn't fit into something that you already understand? And you'll be right? Uh, the differences. There's a handful of chords that we haven't talked about because they just don't have any good definition, but yet they get used a lot. So something like we're gonna look at, um, Beethoven Moonlight Sonata, a piece that you've all heard right away. There's a chord that if you encountered it, it would be impossible to analyze. Um, but it gets one of these weird chord names. Um, all of these courts fall under something called chromatic harmony. It means we're starting to pull outside of the key, starting to do a little bit different stuff. And it's something that we're gonna see composers do more and more throughout history leading up into modern day pop music. So, um, we're going on a whole bunch of new things in this course. Let's dive in and let's learn these great things really fulfilling stuff to learn. So it's gonna be a lot of fun. So let's dive in some rules, some basic rules of the Neopolitan court. The only riel rule here is that if you're going to call her Neopolitan six, the route is going to be a flat to, and it's gonna be a major court. Okay, It's gonna be a major chord built on the flat, too. One of the things that you'll have noticed that we've been doing quite a bit. Ah, in this class is really kind of leaning on this motion of a flat 6 to 5. Okay, so in this case, it's the route. You know, the route of a flat six leading down to a five, but also in the cord itself. The recipe is flat. Six sharp for one. Ah, same thing we already know. Except we don't have this flat three. We have a two in this section of the peace were in D minor, and this is actually our four chord. Okay, so we're on the four chord for this whole bar. Um, remember, there are gonna be passing tones in here. This is not ah corral kind of thing. Um, so we can call this note a passing note. Okay, So I've already told you that these Augmon and six cords are a type of pre dominant chord. Okay, so they're gonna have a predominant function, so it leads to dominant. I've also told you earlier that we tend to see this six resolving down to five motion as part of them. 2. Tools!: All right, let's get started with music theory. Part team 15. I need a another hand anyway. OK, so usual deal for these first couple videos. So tools you need, um we don't need to believe that. The point if you've been watching these videos, you know? Exactly. I'm going to say, get yourself copy, amuse, score. Uh, let's see what version of music or we're using here. Um, I'm using 2.1 point. No, you can use whatever you want. And, hey, by the way, um, just so I don't need to post this as a text thing. The new version of you score there's, like an iPad version that costs some money. The desktop version, the one I'm using still free. Um, you can buy something called muse score on an iPad or a tablet computer. It's not the same. Um, so get whatever you want. It doesn't really matter. Any notation program is fine. There's a number of them on, um, the on tablet computers. All of them were great that I've played around with it. And if you're not sure which one to use, um, post in the post question and just say, Has anyone ever used this one. Um, but any notation program will work just fine. Okay. And then, ah, some staff paper and a good old fashioned pencil always gonna be handy to have. So the next thing a post Ah. Ah. Piece of staff, paper, blank, piece of staff, paper. So I could download that. Print it off. Uh, get a couple sheets, Keep it handy. And, um, way to go from there. Okay, So that's everything you need for this class. All right, let's move on. 3. Some Review...: okay, Before we get into the guts of the class, let's talk about ah, what you should review if it's been a while since the when you took class 14 or if you're just jumping into class 15 because you are a very danger seeking kind of individual. Um, it's fine. You're welcome to do that. Um, a couple things that I want to make sure that you're up to speed on before we dive in. In this class, we're gonna be looking at quite a bit of chromatic harmony. So that means cords that are gonna happen that don't exist in the key. Okay, so we've already looked at a good handful of that, right? So any time we've looked at something like that, that would be a good thing to review. As we learn these things Thes chromatic harmony tricks. We're going Teoh really kind of rely on the diatonic chord progression Roman numeral analysis. Ah, and especially ah, inversion notation. Okay, so make sure that if I write, you know, four with a little six next to it, you know what that means? And you know how to figure out the notes in that chord. Given a certain key. Now, I'm not talking about figured bass. Um, we're kind of gonna leave. Figured bass. In the past, we talked about that a little bit way back when, um and it's something that it's a notation system that exists. It's good to know it it exists, But we don't really actively use it anymore. I should say I don't actively use it anymore. There are some weird people in the world who probably still do, but I'm gonna pass on it. So, um not figured bass, But Roman numeral notation is going to be really important because we're gonna add some new symbols. Um, we're gonna add Ah, and we're gonna play around with how things resolve in ways that are gonna be important to notice with Roman numerals, if that makes sense. So be sure you up to speed on Roman numerals, inversion notation with Roman numerals Uh, your good old diatonic chord progression because we're going to start to bend and break that a little bit. We're gonna add a couple of new things to it. Go. So those would be the things I would review If you feel the need to review. If you feel really confident on all those things. Then let then just press right on. And because that's what I'm gonna do here. Well, 4. The Master MuseScore File: okay. And then, as per usual for the last 10 glasses or so, I'm gonna give you this whole new score file in both music or and pdf. So I haven't made anything yet, so let's save it. I'm gonna go into my class is in progress. Theory 15. And we're going to call this master Muse core file. There it is. Okay, so, um, in the next video, I'll let you download the completed version of this. Um, if you're using you score. You can open and play around with it. If you're not using music, or you can open and play around with it as a pdf, um, if you have no interest in opening it and playing around with it, that's just fine, too. But I'm gonna make it anyway. Ah, as I go through the course. So you're welcome, Teoh. Have some fun with it. But if you don't, you don't. That's all good. Okay. Onward. 5. Mode Mixture Example: Okay, let's talk about mode mixture. So have a core progression here for us. And rather than just give you a textbook definition of mod mixture right away, I thought, Let's hear it. So let's listen to this funny little chord progression and see if we can figure out what's going on here. Way. Okay, so what we have here, Um, we have a core progression. Starts and see Major, See, e g with an e in the bass. So we call that c major ends in C major. See, E g. C. Um, it's got a big G seven before it, so probably 57 toe one. So pretty safe to call this whole core progression. And see, Major, that's here Over time. Yeah, something weird happens right in here, right? There's something not right. And we can kind of see there's all these Accidental is right here, So this court has thrown a curveball in there, so we have to explain that. Okay, so this can easily be explained with mode mixture. This is not in the key. This is not in C major. We know it's not in C. Major because we see these accidental right. The accidental is before we even read what notes they are. We can say this is out of keep because there are accidental. The sheer fact that the accidental are there tells us that it's out of key. So, um, let's take a quick look. Ah, let's analyze some courts. Okay, so let's call this 16 actually gonna leave off Ah inversions for the moment. So this is a seed. So this is one f a c f. This is clearly ah four Oops, four o k c e a a c e. That's clearly Ah six. Nothing strange there minor six. All in key. Nothing weird. Now this super weird. Let's skip it for the moment. Let's go to here D f a. So that's a two chord in the key of C do you minor, then here we have a G with the seventh in it. 57 and one. Okay, now let's go back here first. Let's figure out what the root of this court is. Have an e flat, a g and a B flat. So if I move this b flat up inactive, okay, now I can see Oh, I just made a triad so That means the root of this must be e flat because I could make a triad or put it back to where it was okay. Ah, we have e flat in the bass, too. So this is clearly an e flat cord. The route is e flat. Okay, that's not in the key. How can we build a chord on a note? Not in key. Well, it's very easy. So let's say this is some kind of three chord, right? Because e flat if it was an e natural, we would call it three court, Right, Minor. Three. That's what's in key, but it's an e flat. So first of all, is the cord major or minor? E flat G B flat. That's a major chord, So it's a major three. Okay, um, but it's not based on E. So this Roman numeral if we just write major three, that tells me e natural g sharp. Be natural. That's what that Roman numerals telling us. Um, that's not what we have. We have you flat, so we need a symbol that's gonna lower the route. And that is this. We put a big old flat symbol before at the beginning of the Roman numeral. Ah, that says this is a lowered three chord, and it's major. Okay, so what we have here is e flat major in the key of C. So I'm gonna put that flat symbol right in the Roman numeral analysis. It's not gonna be a little sub script flat like flat six or something like that. No, it's big, old flat three. Meaning this is a major three chord flat. Um, e flat major is what we've done here. Now, how can I call this an E flat Major court? How can this exist? Mode mixture. Right. So, uh, let's go a little bit deeper. Let's go to a new video and talk about what mode mixture is and how we can explain away this cord. 6. Mode Mixture Analysis: okay. You want to make a little bit more sense of this? Let's review really quick are diatonic chord progression major, Minor, minor, major, major. Minor diminished. Right. That's our major diatonic chord progression. Okay, It's our minor diatonic chord progression. Que minor diatonic chord progressions is minor, diminished. Major, Minor, minor major. Oops, major. Okay, so when we say mode mixture, what we're saying is borrowing from another mode Now, we talked about this way, way, way back when we talked about circle AFIS, we said, um, you know, you can borrow from closely related keys. That's what we're doing, but we're going to get a little more elaborate with it. So all we've done here is we are in C major K. Our whole thing is cruising through C major with this. But right here, what we do is we say I don't want the three chord that's in key for me. I want to do something a little funkier, so I'm gonna grab the three chord from the other mode from another mode. OK, so grabbing this three chord from another mode means minor. I mean, it could also mean you know, Lydian Dorian Fridge in low Korean any mode, Really? But in this case, all we've done is hop over to the minor key, which is a mode to the different mode. And we grabbed the three from that mode rather than the mode we were in, which is major, right? So, um mode picture. We swapped three for three. Okay, we took are mine or three. We replaced it with Major three. That was in the minor key. Now that's also built on a different note. So we had to add that flat there. Um, now we don't need to know Tate anything extra to show that it's mode mixture from the minor key. We just use flat three to show that it's out of key. And that's all we need to do for the Roman numeral analysis. But we're just borrowing it from another key, mixing modes, if you will, and that's how that works. Um, now why would we do it? Oh, there's a good reason it lets us choose a couple really cool things. Let's hear the score progression one more time, and I want you to focus your year on the baseline. Check this out right? I had this cool little chromatic baseline there. I've also got a cool little chromatic note here. I guess it's not chromatic but a nice little descending line from C to B flat A another. I guess this is parallel, but e e flat d parallels were OK because I'm not in strict four voice, Um, harmony here. But you can make these cool little chromatic lines inside of cords that are, er inside of core progressions that are really fun tohave. I kind of think that's a fun sound. It's a little different. If I was writing a pop song, I might throw this in right, Like, do something different, you know, um, get creative. So what we're gonna be seeing in this part of music theory is we're really kind of heading into kind of a mid to late 18th century when composers really start to get into mode mixture because I don't want to put words into composers of mouths. But I think probably what we're seeing is they were getting bored with the old core progressions. You know, everyone was using the same chord progressions, and we can do key changes all over the place, and we can do sequences, but At some point I just throw a accord and they're from a different key altogether from different mode altogether and create something new, so that's where we get it. 7. Mode Mixture Definition: All right. So let's give ah, nice definition for what we're talking about here. Mode mixture. So mode mixture is shifting temporarily from a major key to the parallel minor. Um, in a musical passage. Now, I did say earlier that you could go to any mode and you can, ah, what we're saying with this definitions. Usually we're going In most cases, when we're doing mode mixture were in a major key and we're borrowing from the minor key. It can be that you're in the minor key and you're gonna borrow from the major key. Um, that's less common, And it can also be that you're in a major key or a minor key, and you borrow from a different mode altogether of the church modes. But most of the time we see mode mixture from a major key borrowing from the parallel minor from our parallel minor means were in C major. We're gonna borrow from C minor not to be confused with relative minor right, which in C major would be a minor the parallel, minor, same root note. So most of the time we're shifting from major key to parallel minor, and we can do that by in a major key, basically, just lowering the 36 or seven right? That's scale degrees. That's what turns us into a minor key, right? So all I did here was I lowered the third in the seventh in order to make this a major. A flat major three chord was lower. That's the third and the seventh. But you don't even have to think about it like that. That's even almost a little unnecessarily confusing. Um, you can just think of it as borrowing cords from one mode or the other. Um, in fact, I would even go so far as to say that, uh, using the term borrowed cords and mixture cords is essentially the same term. Ah, you can use either term just fine, so you can borrow accord from a different key mixing cord from a different key. Same thing, right? So that's what we've got now. That's not the end of the story, however, because there's more complications that come with this. For example, imagine I was doing this progression. Six flat 32 in and I was actually in four part harmony flat 3 to 2. How am I gonna do that? by avoiding parallels and things. There are some tricks to this and some more complicated things we need to consider, so let's get a little deeper into mixed records and figure some of that out. 8. 4-Voice Harmonizations: Okay, um, let's get started. So what we've looked at now is the basics of how mode mixture works. Let's dive a little bit deeper because mod mixture or kind of mucks up the waters a little bit and create some other problems for us. So in this section, we're gonna look at kind of all the things that come along with using mode picture First of all, before we go any farther. You may have already noticed this, but I didn't, um I was using you score to before I'm going to switch over to music or three now, So I'm on music or three. Um, I'm thinking you noticed it, because if you tried to open that music or file, it is probably a music or three file. Now, start off is a music or two, and now it's music or three. Whatever. No big deal. Um, I was having some audio problems with music or two is. So I upgraded to music or three s so that the audio would record correctly. Okay, So first thing I want to do is, um look, it problems that arise having do with four voice voicings. Okay, so there's kind of one big problem that our rises, that other than the obvious one, which is parallels in our case, the big problem that comes up is augmented seconds. I don't think that's gonna come up with this one, but let's find out. Um, so I think what we'll do is to this. I was gonna take our bass clef line and paste it there, and I'm gonna harmonize it from that. Um, so let's do a four voice, uh, counterpoint of this line and let's see what problems this gives us now. Really? What I'm probably gonna hit here is some parallels between this flat three and the to there's gonna be some half steps there. Um, that very well could result in parallel octaves. Also, with this six, uh, could get us to some parallels also. So you want to watch out for all that? So let's give it a shot. Um, so in C Major, we're gonna start off on a 16 So let's just kind of randomly decide what we're gonna do here. Some on our first voice. So it's put a see up top. Let's go to our second voice. Um, let's go e that leaves me with a G hoops. Yes, actually, I need todo that and put it as second voice. So now voice one, we're gonna make this G okay. Um Okay. Nice. So I've doubled my third, which isn't always awesome, but it's not terrible. And in this case, it is also the route, so it is perfectly OK. Nice sounding court. Now let's go to our four chord, which is an f major. Find the easiest way to get there so we can stay right on a c here. This e can go upto f but it can't go upto because the baseline goes up to half. We're gonna treat this baseline is a little context for Miss for now. I'm gonna make myself not change it on Lee, because I really want to keep this e flat d thing right there. Um, so what can I do with this? E can't go up to F, so let's try going down to see. Is that allowed? That stays the same that goes down. It's not a hidden active because we're technically hitting it by contrary motion here because this is oblique motion and this is down motion. So bleak is staying the same to roll with. That's a little dicey, though. Actually, I don't like it. I changed my mind. I'm gonna go to an A. So I have f a C. Let's jump this up to a C. So have anything there see to see g to see? Have a lot of stuff going up. One thing staying the same, but everything going up this g t e. That's 1/6 that's going up to see to a, which is a six. I have a parallel six there, but that's OK. All right, that's a lot. Um, I have six courts have an a minor chord, so my top voice again can stay the same. It could be a C. It's totally good. And actually, my alto voice can stay the same. Well, it could be an A e. I need to see Oh, look at that. My tender can stay the same as well, but that technically creates a parallel active C two c c. Two c. I don't want to do that. Also, it's boring. Um, let's take this seed down to a I've see to see after e see to a I think it's OK. We'll roll with that. All right, Now I have my flat three. So Oops. But I really have Here is an e flat major chord, so e flat G b flat. So let's take this a to the G. I really want to get some country emotion here. This a could go up to a B flat. Oops. And this see down to the B flat e g b. Them redoubling the fifth we don't really like that. Could jump up to an e flat. That's okay. It's a bit of a jump, but we'll do it. So that's a leap up to are. Actually, it's a skip up to and out of key. Note a chromatic note, so that might really stick out like a sore thumb. But let's try it. Um, I think it's gonna sound intriguing if nothing else. Okay, now, when you go to a D minor so D f A. This could press forward up to F. That might be interesting. That might help resolve that in kind of a weird way. This G could go to a what am I missing? D f A. I have everything covered. So here I could have ah de No, he isn't great. It's gonna be a leap. A is gonna be a parallels. Fourth, it's going to be chromatic. It's gonna be apparel. Fourth isn't great. And I really don't want here, so I might have to go up to D the way I approach this active from contrary motion, which is nice. Um, B Flat to e flat is 1/4 being up to 1/5. That's a parallel fifth. E flat is our route. So that's a parallel fit. You Flatow f or No, it's not because this has gotta skip. All right, We're good. If this was going up to see, it would be, but it's not Okay. 57 we're almost done, G, um thats notes already on the FR Soprano. So let's keep them on that f That's our seventh. Um, and now I know that that seventh has to resolve down to e. So let's put that there so we don't forget, Um g the de so this could go up to a B natural. Oops. It's gonna put a tri tone on the top, but that's OK. Be natural there. I might even put a natural symbol on it just because We had to be flat down here, make sure there's no confusion. I don't have to put a natural symbol there, but I It's nice. It's called a courtesy. Accidental courtesy. Accidental Means doesn't need to be there, but, um, it might help eliminate any confusion. Um, and here's a D already there. So let's stick with that. So I have g b d f have any problems? Think so. That d and that f parallels. But that's 1/3. That's okay. And then back to one C. Uh, this could lead stretch up to that E c e. This could go down to the G. I've doubled my third, but I think we can live with it because our voice eating is rather nice. Um, do I have any parallels? Up, down, down. B F g. That's a skip. That's okay, all right. I think we did it. Well, let's hear it. Not bad. I don't think this G flat jumps out too much. Um, it's helped by this chromatic line in there. Let's hear it again. I kind of like how this kind of opens up throughout the harmonization, starts off fairly tight, voicing and ends up to be, ah, Wide with a lot of space is in it. It also is generally moving up in the soprano and down in the base, so it has this kind of opening throughout it. Eight. Okay, so we didn't encounter any huge problems there, but let's go to another example where we might find some of the more common problems. 9. bVI Example: Okay, let's look at another example. Um, I have little shorter one here. Just four chords. Um, let's hear it first. Okay. So obviously there's something strange going on with the second cord. Do? Ah, quick little analysis here. Okay, So still in the key of C major. So we're gonna call this one? Uh, let's skip this cord for a minute. Be de g B. So what is that, G b d? That's a five. No, seventh on it. Just plain old five. And then we have a one court again. Okay, So what is this? Um, a flat c e flat? Because that's an a flat chord. Eso It's accord built on an A of some sort. So if it was built on a natural, it would be a six course. Right? But it's not. It's built on a flat. So what is that? It is a flat major six chord. Okay, that's so a flat six chord is another common mode mixture that we see. This is just directly borrowed from the minor key. Nothing too crazy. There. It's just another one. Like we borrowed flat three. Okay, let's hear it again. Now that we have the analysis in your okay. Flat six really leads really nice to five and then takes us back. No, this one does have, um, a big risk in it when we write it out for four voices. Eso Let's do that. Um, we have an opportunity to make crazy augmented second here. So let's go to a new video and let's harmonize this sucker. 10. Warning! Augmented Seconds!: Okay, let's do the same thing I did before. I mean a copy. The baseline. Put it over here and let's see if we can harmonize it. So first, I need to move these to the second voice loop. Okay, now we can go to the first voice. So see, let's go see there and then let's go e there. So ce we need a G somewhere. So let's put a G right there. All right now for our flat six, we have the notes are a flat C E flat. So here's a C. Let's go see a flat C E flat. So here's an E. So the path of least resistance here is going to be e flat, a flat, C E flat at the least, resistance. It's gonna take us here. All right, so let's take a look at what we've got. Here we have. We have doubled the third, which in this case is good because it's our only diatonic note, so that's probably the best one for us to double. We don't want to double the e flat or the a flat because they're chromatic tones if you have to, you can like we did over here, and it's OK. It's not a hard rule. Um, but it's here. It's doubling the third. So it's OK. Okay. So, um, I think everything's okay. There's sort of a parallel active here between C and C and C and C, But let's not worry about that for now. I m, uh Let's move on for now. Let's go, Teoh, resolve this. We're gonna go be Oops! First voice. So, Bebe, I mean, G and a d here. So let's go up to D expose and up to G. I suppose so. What's happened here first? Do I have any parallels? I do have a big problem here, but let's go with the obvious that first, So C to D that goes down. That's okay. He flat to G. That's okay. That to be so I don't have any parallels. Some. OK, but here's my problem. B flat to be natural. That is an augmented second. Um, here's why. It's a problem. You might have not even noticed it. Um, that's what makes it a problem. Uh, this is a minor third, right? A flat to be natural. Um, but we have it written as an augmented second so that kind of sucks. We don't remember that if this was a singer, this was a tenner. They would sing G a Flat B and we don't ever want to ask a singer to sing and augmented Interval unless it's really explicitly written like one. Well, no, we don't want to ask a singer to sing an augmented interval. Um, the better way to do this is if we did it like, um, if we did this wrote it as a g sharp, then this is 1/3 and it's fine. However, we've totally spelled this cord wrong, so that's not fine. So we have to spell it like that in order to spell that chord correctly. Ah, with the A flat, not with G Sharp. But that makes an augmented interval here. So can't have that. How do we fix it? Figure that no, Um, let's go back. The augmented intervals going to be there. We just have to make it in a spot that is not in the same voice. So if we go to here So let's see what we're notes. G b d. Let's go tubes de. I don't wanna go be here. Let's go G. Oops. Do we have now? That augmented interval is now here. That's OK, because no single voice has it goes g a flat G. This goes see? Si, si b. That's okay. If e flat d that's a little chromatic line in there. That's fine. Um, a flat Teoh B flat down to G to D. That is a parallel fifth, so we don't want that either. Um, so we're closer. We could have this go up to an F, make this seven chord, and now I think we've solved it. Let's do that. That works. So we had that seventh gets us out of there on Let's finish our harmonization real quick. Si jiu. Oops. Should be OK that f needs to go down to e to resolve and be should go up to see b two c b two c parallel Active. Well, why don't I make such a hard one? Okay, let's make this. Let's cheat a little bit on this last one. Have this jump up to e. So the seventh is resolving the seven scale degree is resolving here B to C the seventh of the cord f resolving their e This be I'm gonna cheat by jumping all the way up to E or actually could cheap by jumping down to G two. I like that. Better jump down to G almost creates a voice crossing between this f n g, but not quite. Okay, let's hear that now. Nice. Uh, that flat six is cool sound. I had some really cool attention. We're gonna see more of that as we get into some of these other new courts, so stay tuned. OK, uh, let's wrap this up with a couple changes to the doubling rules that I want to just kind of explicitly point out. 11. Changes To Some Rules: okay, A couple of things about voice leading and doubling none of these as we start to get into more complex music theory, especially chromatic music theory, which is what we're starting to do now. There are probably just a many exceptions to rules as there are rules. So a lot of people ask questions, saying what is the rule to this? Like they want, um, a single sentence That is like the rule. Um, And I'm sorry to say, as we get deeper and deeper down this rabbit hole, um, the rules, we become more flexible. So the rules that I'm about to tell you are kind of rules, but there are a lot of exceptions, and, um, they could be broken. So with that, um, a couple things when you're dealing with these Ah, in general, we want to try to resolve chromatic tones down, and you can kind of see that we did that. Um, this one went up. I guess this one went up, but this went down because most of the time, the chromatic tone, um, in a mode mixture setting is derived from a lowered scale degree. Right, because if we're in a major key or borrowing from the minor key. It's a lowered note. It's a flat six that the flat three. It's a flat seventh, something like that. So that means that it's going to naturally fall down at least one of the two tones. If there are two tones and what you've done, um, should resolve down, Um, one of them might have to resolve up to avoid parallel, which is what we encountered here. So in general, think about resolving them down like a flat six resolving down to a five ah, scale degree wise, not chord wise. Uh, the courts can do whatever you want. Um, try not to double the chromatic notes if you can avoid it. It is often unavoidable. Um, here it was avoidable here. I don't think it was avoidable. So we had to double e flat, which was a chromatic tone and chromatic tone. Just means the tone that's out of key, as I'm talking about there. Ah, If a chromatic line results, which often does that would be like this e e flat f No, not that. Not that one. This one e flat D is a chromatic line. When one of those emerges. Try to keep it all in the same voice That'll help with any kind of creating any kind of cross relation, like a hidden active or anything like that. Um, uh, it also sounds cool. So keeping it in the same boys could help bring it out. And then the last thing the thing we focused on, watch out for augmented seconds. Um, like a flat to be natural. That's an augmented second, we like to avoid those as much as possible, and they are usually avoidable. Um, you just have to be on your toes to spot him because they're kind of hard to see. I'm sure I will make that mistake many times. And I will claim to have already made that mistake many times. Cool. So those were new rules. Now, let's go on and let's get even a little weirder with it. What if we Thomas sized one of these? Um mixture, cords? We just said Okay, now where you went from sea and we're gonna just be all right. We're in the key of flat six. All of a sudden, you can totally do that. Um, let's go to a new video and take a look at how 12. Tonicizing A Mixture Chord: okay, up next. Let's talk about Ah, Can we do some of the same functions we've done with other chords with mixture chords? In other words, can we do something like Thomas eyes a mixture court? We absolutely can. We can use a mixed record to pivot in a modulation. Ah, we can use a mixture cord two as a secondary dominant. Um, it's a little trickier, but you can totally do it. And it makes for some really fun Little switches around in. Ah, core progression. Take this one. Um, I just added another kind of short little core progressions. See, major hoops Oops! Started beginning. It's just kind of ah, world wind that we go through there we started end in C major right? But we go see to an e flat major chord to a a flat major chord to ah g major chord to a C major court. It's got a whole ton of major chords there. Um, moving around Now. This might look like if you think about it, it might look like C two flat three to flat 6 to 5 21 But there's more to it than that. Um, we might be able to call something in here a secondary dominant, actually. So let's actually go to a new video and, um, dive into an analysis of this and explain what I'm heavily alluding to right now. Offer you. 13. Secondary Dominant of a Chromatic Chord: Okay, let's look at this. So we start off with a one chord, right? Easy enough now e flat. This is clearly any flat major chord, right? So that would lead us to say, Well, it's probably it's almost certainly Ah, flat three, right? It's a major chord. It's built on and the borrowed scale Degree three from the minor mode, which is lower e flat. So flat. Three. Cool. We'll stick with that for now. Ah, a flat C E flat. So this is probably flat six, right? Everything is still true. Built around our borrowed six scale degree from the minor mode. Nothing strange there. G g b D. That's clearly a five. And see, that's clearly a one. Okay, this works. This is an okay analysis, but there's maybe something a little bit even deeper happening here. Could it be that this fire this three cord is not, actually ah, flat three chord, but is a five of flat The group's flat six. Does that make sense? So let's remember how secondary dominance work. Let's go here. So this is an a flat major chord. So what is the five above that? What is the five that would lead us to that. A flat major court will be in e flat, major chord. Um, e flat a flat. Right? So an e flat major chord could be five of flat six, which would lead us to this court. They've the minor sixth borrowed cord mixture, cord. Whatever you wanna call it. We could strengthen that. Even mawr. If we want to throw 1/7 in there, it's a major seventh. So Oh, who? What do we do there? Because in the key of C major, if we added a d, it ought to be d major. If we borrow from the minor mode R D is going to be what still d not d flat. Right? So we can't actually make 1/7 chord on this on out of the flat three unless we get even weirder because we food floor if we flower, if we lower that two d flat were now out of the range of mode mixture, right? Because that D flat is not borrowed from minor. We could say it's borrowed from Fridge Ian, Baby, um, that kind of works, But, um, it's really not a mode mixture thing that we would do So let's leave that off for now to not get more complicated. We could easily add 1/7. Um, but it would be d natural because d natural is d natural in both. See, major and semen. Um, and that makes a major seventh chord. Not a dominant seventh chord, which is what I would want to have happen there. Let's leave that seventh off. But remember that this flat three can be functioning as a secondary, dominant to the flat six. Right? So that is a tanase ization of the flat six. It doesn't need to have the seventh to be a tanase ization to be a secondary dominant, and it doesn't need to stay on the flat six for all that long. Um, in this case, it goes right back to five. So the flat six falls down to five and then resolves toe one just is easy, but we could stay on the flat six for a little bit longer if we wanted to. Um, that would be totally acceptable and normal. I just wanted to get us back to a one nice and quick. Let's hear it again. Right. So this does to me this court does really kind of feel like it. It brings us forward to this flat sex, right? In other words, this chord sounds more out of place than this one does. This one is functioning as a bridge, if you will, to get us to the flat six. Right. So we could do this if we wanted to. Just even get weirder. Actually, let's do this. Let's take these two measures. Let's put them here. Okay, So now we're going to go flat. 65 full at 651 Okay, so we're gonna use this flat three that pushes to flat six. We're gonna go five flat, 65 and then to one. So we're just going to stick around and flat six a little bit longer. Let's see what this sounds like. So I think that works pretty well. You know, we can stick around on this flat six if we want to. Because we've had that tanase ization happen. Cool. Okay, Now, let's talk a little bit quickly about, um how we need to analyze some of this stuff. I just want to remind us of Ah, some important analysis things and terminology and stuff 14. Chord Quality: okay. I just wanted to quickly remind you, ah, that when you're writing Roman numerals for these major and minor still counts. Everything we've done has been major, just kind of. Oddly enough. Well, I guess here's a minor couple mine records, but, you know, it could be that, you know, this happened unlikely flat, minor six. That would be lowering this G flat. That's unlikely. But in the Roman numerals, if that happened, we would have to use the lower case from the numerals. I see a lot of the time people when they're doing this kind of thing, they used flat six without thinking If it's major or minor, they just use the big flat symbol and then, um, the six. But it might be minor. Um, whenever you're going from a major key to and borrowing from a minor key, it's going to be minor. Um, we've seen are sorry. It's going to be a major chord. We've seen it in three, Seen it in six. We haven't built accord on the borrowed seventh yet, but let's see what that would be. So that would be with B flat as the root de f Um, because D is not a borrowed note. It's the same in major and minor. F is the same. A major a minor. So B flat d f is a major court. So seventh would be a major court also, so that would be written as flat seven like so we really like that. You see that one a lot? Actually, we haven't used it yet, but it is very common. Um, especially in pop music. Pop music loves the flat seven chord. Not to be confused with the seventh chord that has a note that is a flat seventh seven with a TH after its seventh. This is a flat seven chord, a chord built on the flat, seven of the scale. Very confusing. Um, some of this lingo gets a little tricky when you start throwing around the seventh, but always pay attention to the quality of the cord. None of that has changed. Um, we need Teoh. We always need to be sure that we're writing the correct quality, whether it's flat or not. Little public service announcement. Don't forget about that. 15. Solfege and Chromatic Tones: Okay, let's go back to Seoul. Fetch for a second. You remember. Selfish. That is this thing we do. 1/4 notes was gonna write a scale for us here. Oh, come on. Okay, so there's a scale. So you remember that when we have sole fish, we have syllables like over along with each note. Now, I know there's been a lot of debate about this in earlier classes in how this works. Ah, with the different syllables in the different languages. Okay, so let me just clarify two things that I know to be. Truths. Ah, one is that there are two different symbols are sorry. They're two different systems of soul fish. One is called fixed dough and one is called movable dough. When I'm teaching is movable dough. This is what is most popularly used in the United States, however, is not popularly used in ah, many other countries. Fixed dough means whatever tonic is is dough We call dough. So if we in the key of e flat e flat, we would call dough. Okay. In many other places, they use fixed dough. So fixed dough means that sea is always dough. Um, in fact, you wouldn't even call the note. See, you would just call it dough. Right? So this would be door Amy fossil a lot. Edo I would say this is C D e f g a B c. And if you ask me to say that in Seoul, fetch, I would say door Amy fossil at Edo. Anyway, um, the second thing that is a truth is the seventh. Ah, in the U. S. We call this tea? Ah, t e t dough. But in many other countries Ah, you use something different for the seventh. Um, you should use whatever is normal to you. Okay. The reason I'm bringing all of this up now is because we've introduced some chromatic tones . Right? We've introduced Ah, flat three. Ah, flat six in a flat seventh. Um, and we should have a way to deal with that in Seoul. Fish. So if we're in a major key and this is dough, this is Ray. This is no longer me. Because that doesn't work. Right? Um we would say may So doh Ray may, um, may is flat me. So if yours phone along doh Ray me is C d e or the 1st 3 notes of a scale. If it's flat, I would not call it me. You would call it may. Okay, Far soul laugh is six. But if it's flat, we would call it Lay So LA becomes lay T for me is the seventh t Ah, If it's flat, we would call it Tae. So doh ray may far soul lay tae dough. So, um, now that we have some chromatic tones, you should know what those are now. There are there is a chromatic way to say to go through the entire chromatic scale with soul Federal. We'll get to that eventually. But for now you should know that those exist. Okay, if that just confused you more than anything else than just ignore it, it's not. This is not a crucial thing to understanding what we're doing going forward. It's just something I wanted to point out because it's good to know 16. New Chords!: Okay, Next we get into the Superfund stuff, so we're gonna learn four new cords Now, Now you may be saying to yourself, How can new cords exist? How Concordes exist, that I don't know yet because I know the scale. I know the diatonic chord progression. I know how cords are built. So there can be no other chords. There's not like gonna be a new scale degree, right? That's not possible. But there are. There are other courts, their cords that just kind of don't make much sense using the rules that we already know. So these cords get their own name now. Historically, you confined core other chords like this, not the ones that we're gonna talk about right now. But there are other chords that that do exist that typically have the name of the composer or the peace that there ah, most famous for as their name. For example, um, there's a piece by Stravinsky called Petrushka, and in it he hits this one court over and over. It's accord that makes very little sense in any setting. It's got a lot of chromatic notes in it, and and people were like, Well, we could call it this. We could call it that. It's kind of this. It's kind of that. You know what? Screw it. Let's just call it the Patricia Accord. So if you Google Patricia Accord, you'll find Accord a group of notes called the Patricia Accord. Um, so every now and then a composer, you know, kind of makes a group of notes famous, um, for because they used them a lot in a particular piece. And there's not an easy way to explain that group of notes. Probably Stravinsky's down a few times, but these four chords that we're gonna learn in this next section are not part of that. These are more these air not attributed to any specific composer. These are just things that a lot of composers have done. So ah, this is what they are. This is what we're going to see. This is the Roman numeral for each of these, So n six. So we don't put a number or a Roman numeral. We just write a big end for this one, and and it's almost always, um, in this inversion. So we put a six on it. All of these are six chords by the way. Interesting. Um, this one. I t capital I lower case t. That's not one something, that's I t. That's short for Italian Italian. Six chord, French, six chord, German, six chord and the End Stands for Neopolitan six Chord So four different chords that we're all gonna be totally new to us and all have chromatic elements. No, it's in a way. There are only two chords. The end six. The Neopolitan cord is it's kind of its own thing, and these three chords kind of part of a family of chords. We tend to work out these three together because these air called these three chords collectively are called augmented Sixth Cord's case. So we'll talk about those separately. Um, let's start with the Neopolitan six chord. Actually, before we do that, let's talk a little bit about in general what the's cords do 17. The Chromatic Pre-Dominant: one of the things that you'll have noticed that we've been doing quite a bit. Ah, in this class is really kind of leaning on this motion of a flat 6 to 5. Okay, so in this case, it's the route. You know, the route of a flat six leading down to a five, but also in the cord itself. Um, there's this motion of flat six leading down to five. You can think of it almost as a new tendency tone. Right? We've talked about tendency. Tones is like five. The scale degree five tens. Don't want to go to scale degree one, right? That's a tendency tone scale. Degree seven tends to want to push up to scale degree one. That's a tendency tone, right? The the flat, six scale degree, uh, wants to fall down to scale degree five. Ah, and that's a new tendency tone for us, right? So we know that the 5 to 1 tendency tone is the basis of a lot of chords. The 7 to 1 big tendency tone is a basis to a lot of chords. So this flat six falling down to five. That ought to be the basis of a lot of courts to, and that's really what they are. Um, all of these are really have in some way or another have a flat 6 to 5 relationship scale. Degree wise, we wouldn't call them six Chord necessarily. But they are. They have a flat six that falls down to five, and therefore these are all these. All can be considered pre dominant chords. So these are essentially cords that come before the dominant because that flat 6 to 5 obviously leads us to five. That dominant so predominant the thing that happens before the dominant right? So these are great cords to lead us to a dominant. So, for example, you might see a core progression of common core progression will be something like end 6 to 5 toe one right pre dominant chords Italian 6 to 5 to one French, 6 to 5 to one German, 6 to 5 to one. These three the Italian French German, especially. Ah, push to five. Um, Neopolitan six does as well. Okay, So pre dominant is what a lot of these are. And the trick to remembering how to spell these has to do with that predominant. Um, I'll show you how the way I learned to remember how to spell these is by writing the resolution. First. We'll talk more about that in just a second, but let's dive into the Neopolitan cord. 18. Beethoven: Moonlight Sonata: Okay, let's introduce a neopolitan cord by looking first at one of its most famous examples. So you know this piece before where you've heard this piece before? Probably. This is Beethoven, Moonlight Sonata. The 1st 4.5 bars. So not too much. I'm not gonna make you listen to the whole, like, hour long thing. Um, So what do we have here? Let's just quick take a look at what's here. We have a key signature indicating E major or C sharp Minor. If you know how this song sounds and we look at this big C sharp right here, you're probably thinking c sharp minor. And you would be right. C sharp minor is really where we're at grave here. Or gravity. This is ah, tempo indication. This means really slow. Like grave, dead, dead slow. I don't think that's really how it translates, but really slow. Okay, so we have we see a whole bunch of arpeggios in the right hand, Um, things getting a little weird right in this bar. We gonna be sharp. That's a little fishy. Um, some accident ALS, and then we end right there. So let's just hear this little excerpt. Try to get all on one page here, have you, right? He will. - All right. And then that's where the melody comes in. So somewhere in here is one of these goofy Neopolitan chords. So let's do an analysis. Let's get through the first couple things here. And then we'll jump over to a new video once we get into that gnarly stuff. Because the first couple things are quite simple, actually. Right, So let's take a look down here. Okay? So we are clearly and c sharp minor. Okay, so let's just do that. And then let's say what is our first chord? Probably a big old one. Okay, we have C sharp here. What are gonna be the notes of C sharp minor C sharp E and G sharp. We have G sharp, C sharp and E right there. So we're just spelling a good old C sharp minor triad over and over. Okay, so now what do we have here? We have C sharp, e g sharp. We still have a C sharp, minor chord, but we've added a be to it, so it's still kind of a one, but it's gotta be. So what is what is be in the key of C sharp minor. It's what scale degree is it? It's the seventh, right? We're in a minor keys with that flat seventh, Um, but O r. I shouldn't say it's a flat seventh. It's a natural seventh in this case in in this key, but it's not a leading tone, right? It's not 1/2 step away. Ah, that would be a B sharp, which, remember, we're gonna see a B sharp up here. That's a good clues what that's doing there. But, um, we can call this a 17 though, so this really kind of is a 17 But let's call it more accurately what it is, which is a 142 chord. So that's our inversion. So meaning that if we just wrote this court out, let's go out here. Say, what court is this? It would be, Let's just write it out in kind of a root position. So be C sharp, E g sharp. That's what the cord is. We call it a four to theirs are, too. There's are four. Um, technically, it's a 642 but we leave the six off. Remember, though It's 1/7 chord. It's a 17 chord, but let's call it a 142 chord because intervals are inversions are going to get important. Okay, so now let's go on to the next chord. So what do we have here? We have a C sharp and E without looking at the base note. Just looking at these three. Can we tell anything about what that is? A. C E right? A c sharp e. That's a a major triad a c sharp. And this is also in a so pretty solidly these two beats R a c sharp and e um, on a major. So in the key of C sharp minor. What is that? Is that something in this key? It ISS Actually, it's nothing Very weird. It all It's our six. Okay, nothing strange there. So one toe 17 26 A little strange to go from 1/7 chord to, uh, I mean normally, if we saw a 17 we would kind of assume it's a secondary dominant. But remember, we're in a minor key here, So this is a minor seventh chord, not a dominant seventh chord. Eso it doesn't have that same tendency to resolve that. The dominant seventh. Those okay, now we get to this guy. So what we have here, we have a D natural and f sharp. So if we put these into accord, we have d f sharp. A makes a d major chord that works. That's a chord, D major, we have an f sharp in the base, so that still supports our d major chord. So it's just right, d major, because what is d major in this key of C sharp minor? Nothing doesn't exist. Um, because if we remember the diatonic chord progression and minor we have made or we have minor major major. So the second cord is major, but it's built on d sharp. Right? This is just 1/2 step away. So can we call this full latte to? Does that make any sense? It's a flat to cord. That's what it is, right? It's a two chord built on off the flatted route. So is there another thing we could call this kind of. I don't know why my text is clinching out that way, But, um, there is another thing we can call this. We can call it a neopolitan cord. We don't really put the exclamation point in there, but, uh okay, so let's go to a new new video and let's analyze this as our first big neopolitan cord. 19. Neapolitan6 in Beethoven: Okay, So we have now learned what a Neopolitan court is. It's a flat, too. Okay, It is a flat to its, um, a major chord built on the flat to scale degree. Okay, so in the key of C sharp, minor neopolitan cord is gonna have a root of D. It's gonna be 1/2 step higher than the route. That's super weird, right? Like, why would you do that? Well, check it out. Let's look at how this actually works. Remember that. Usually it's in the six inversion. Why do we care about that? Okay, so that puts an f sharp in the base, right? Because that's the third above the root of D. So what is our five in the key of C sharp? Uh, minor. It's g sharp. Right? So this makes it so this could resolve up to that g sharp. Okay, let's hear these two bars. Right. So we have that pre dominant feeling this leads us to five, which is going to then lead us back to one. Okay, so the Neopolitan six is just a chord that we use. Um, it's a word that we use to mean flat, too. Okay, Um usually in minor, usually. And, um, the six inversion, but its core built on the route of flight two. Um, and it's a predominant cord. It leads us to five. So we can continue from there. And you might be thinking, I need I really need to put ah, Roman numeral on that and you don't the end capital end. That's the Roman numeral here. That's all you need? Um, so let's move on. Um, so 57 Probably because we see this here. So but what are 57 b b g sharp? Be sharp if we wanted to be major five. Right, cause we're in a minor keys. We've got to raise that g sharp. Be sharp, de sharp and f sharp. Okay, so we've left off the d sharp here, Um, the five. And that's okay. We put g sharp in the bottom to emphasize that five made it major. Here we have our seventh there, and then we're gonna do kind of a fun little thing. Here is we're going to resolve it. Kind of two of 564 groups. Still, probably. Actually, this is a 164 So we have C e g sharp with G sharp in the base. So we resolve it to a 164 We're kind of getting, Ah, a strange ish. Uh, credential. 64 here. So what we have here is our credential. 64 or we have this kind of a thing. I should be using small numbers for this, but that's OK. Used 854 resolving down to seven, 53 So, uh, so this is the five g c sharp de sharp. A little weird. Um, that gives us back our, um, fifth of the five court. So we have g sharp is our route, and it's in our base. We need g sharp, be sharp, which we've left off here D sharp and f sharp. We've also left off here, and then we've resolved it to the actual five chord, and I think we're gonna call this d sharp passing tone here. It's kind of an early resolution to right here, so it moves to, uh, g be sharp. Still sharp on that be D f. So 57 chord full on right here. And then Teoh one with nothing funny about it. Okay, So just to kind of complete that analysis. So we have a tonic tonic, pre dominant area, dominant area tonic. I'll do this cool. So let's hear it again and really sink your ear into this Neopolitan court and how it feels like it kind of pushes over to that 57 20. Why Neapolitan?: OK, uh, let's address quickly. Um, why we call this a Neopolitan cord? Um, there's not a great reason, actually, Um, I was just thinking about that, and I thought I don't really know the answer, so I looked it up. Um, the best I can find is that it's associated with the Neopolitan school. Um, which waas, 18th century composers of Italian opera, like Scarlatti, Um, and some others. But it already existed long before that. People were using it. Um, like Beethoven. Um, but it must have become the most famously associated with these composers in this Neopolitan school, which were composers from Naples. We have in the past also called it a fridge Ian to cord. Because if you were using the fridge ian mode Ah, and built a two chord, you would end up with the same thing. Um, that's not a name I commonly see used a whole lot. There's a certain kind of music theory called Shang Cherian analysis, which I think we talked about a long time ago. Um, it's kind of a different type of music. Very. They ah often call it a fridge in two chord. So if you ever come across the fridge in two chord means the same as Neopolitan. I think in Neopolitan court is the are Neopolitan six is the more common thing to call it. Um And I guess it just has to do with this group of composers that got kind of famous for doing it on. So we named it after them. I guess you'll find that some of these weird chords, like the Italian Six and French six and German six. They just kind of carry these names and no one really knows why. And, um, we'll talk more about those in a minute. But But there we have it. Ah, history has decided that the Neopolitan school gets its own cord name and it is Neopolitan six. So now you know. 21. Rules of the N6: Okay, real quick. Um, some rules some basic rules of the Neopolitan court. Um, the only riel rule here is that if you're going to call her Neopolitan six, the route is going to be a flat to, and it's gonna be a major court. Okay, It's gonna be a major chord built on the flat, too. So that's what a Neopolitan cord is. However, um, some other characteristics of it is that we usually find it in first inversion. So as a six, it usually resolves to five, although there are some exceptions to that, and it's usually in a minor key. Now again, there are exceptions to that. You can do it in a major key. Ah, you have to use a little bit of mode mixture to get there, but you can do it. Um, you can resolve it to a credential 64 instead of a five. You can resolve it to 57 I'm sorry, a, uh, diminished seventh chord. Um, but it's a little trickier and much more rare. So it's typical. Usage is as a six chord in a minor key, resolving to the five chord. Um, but as we get further and further in to music theory. You'll find that composers air going to start to get really liberal with these rules. Write all the rules that we've learned up till now, composers are going to start to say, Will, you know, maybe they're just guidelines. And Aiken, do what I want. Um, because you can't. As a composer, you can do whatever you want. Eso the analysis gets harder and harder because they start to, ah, break the rules a lot. And what music theory has done is adapt. Ah, and say, Well, we can We can deal with the way they broke that rule by creating a new rule. So we're going to see more of that. Okay, let's move on and talk about augmented sixth cords. 22. Mozart: Piano Sonata in D Major: Okay, The augmented six cords. Now, this is that group of three chords that we looked at before that have kind of curious nationality is associated with them the Italian, French and German. So before we get into that, let's do the same thing we did with Neopolitan. And let's look at something in context. So I have here just a quick, short little passage from Mozart. Uh, piano Sonata in D major, third movement. Um, so we're well into this piece? This is the third movement. This is 122nd bar. So we're not actually in D major here. We're actually in de miner at this particular moment, so let's just label that correctly to set ourselves up for success here. Okay, so we're in D minor. Let's hear this. Now, this is a quick passage that goes by really fast, but I'm gonna leave the tempo really slow so that we can hear um, what's happening here? Um, a couple of rotational things. I just want to point out, um, we have hear two voices in the right hand. So I put this this big rest here because the second voice doesn't come until here and this voice actually goes from this D down to this a. And then this voice goes, And then these two notes that used to notes right? So there's kind of ah, I guess that's a voice crossing. But it is a piano music, so it's not, um, voice crossing isn't that big of a deal? Ah, as it isn't vocal music or strict counterpoint. Um, either way, this is what Mozart wrote, and we're not gonna call Mozart wrong, So it's a voice crossing. It's OK. Ah, he did it. Okay, so let's hear it. Okay, so starts on D ends on D. So let's see what we've got here now. Obviously, you know the name of the game, that there's gonna be something really weird here. Let's just scan through. Where could it be? It might be on this. Be natural. That's really strange. Well, that's not really strange, but it's an out of key note. And remember, we're still talking about chromatic chords here, cords that are out of key or have something out of key to them. Like in the Neopolitan. We had to alter some notes to make that happen, So it's a chromatic cord um And that's still what we're talking about. These air, not cords that are going to exist naturally in a key. We have to do something extra to get to him. So it could be that f sharp Could be that Be natural. Could be that g sharp. Um, that's enough natural. That's okay. And c sharp. So just a courtesy. Accidental here. Could be this c sharp. Probably not the C sharp, though, right? Because we're in a minor key and that c sharp is gonna make a leading tone into that D So that's almost expected. Right? That's going to make a major five chord fact. We can probably just guess right here. We've got some kind of could Henschel 64 happening here. Toe one. Right. So 5645321 Uh, it just sounds like it without even thinking about it. I'm sure we can call it that. 64 I'm just gonna do this kind of short and 6453 not 64 53. But you get it, and then one so we know what that is. Uh, what about that? We already have something really strange. So these next three chords gonna be a little tricky. Let's see if we can figure them out. So we have C f Sharp and D. What could we call that? Let's see if we can find a way to get those into a triad. Right. So we have c f sharp on D. Well, um, I see that second right there. So that tells me I could get them if I used de as the root de f sharp a c So we're missing the A, but that makes a triad for D seven chord D major seven Chord. What? We're in d minor here. Things are getting weird. Okay, so this we're gonna call, I'm just gonna call it d Major with a minor seventh on it. That's what that is. So let's just file that away for a second. And so put another thing here. Let's do question mark seven. That's some kind of dominant seven, right? Because it's a major chord with a minor seventh. So it's something. And if it's a major court with the minor seventh, but it's a major one chord, that's odd. But that probably points us to a secondary dominant right? So what would d Major be the secondary dominant of it? Would be for So a good guess would be that this is 57 of four. Now. We expect for to be minor, though, Um, so it's 57 of a minor for is probably what we're looking at. OK, do we all get how I came up with that? We figured out that it was a D major chord with a minor seventh. That means it's a D seven chord. Okay, so if it's a dominant seventh chord built on D, the odds are that it's going to be a secondary dominant. And a D seven in the key of D Minor would be a secondary dominant of four. It would be five of four. Now we can confirm that if this is in fact a four chord, so let's see if that is a four, because that would confirm that hypothesis. Let's see, here we have a B natural G and D. Let's go out here. Let's try to see what we can do here. We have a B way, have a G and a D. Actually G b deep, right, So we have a G major chord, which is our form. So that works. Um, however, we have Major. So that means we have five of minor for here. Because that's what we expect is that minor for? But when we actually get major for that's okay, um, we can write it like that five of months. So we leave this minor to show that that is what is expected. But what we actually get is Major. That's okay. It's weird. But it's OK. Mozart can do it. Not everybody can do it, but Mozart can. Okay, so now we've solved this little riddle. Now we get to this one. Let's look at our notes in this chord. So we have a B flat. Let's go here. Okay. B flat, which is actually in key. Right. That's in our kissing. That your that we have a g sharp and we have a D. And we have another D cats. We have those three notes. So we already know something's fishy here because we have opposing. Accidental is we have a flat and a sharp in the same chord. Um, whenever you see that, you know something strange is happening. Something augmented is happening. Basically, um, in order for that to happen. Now, you don't need to see that. Um, the two different kinds of accidental is in order for this thing to be true, this augmented six court. But, um, that does make an augmented six. There are ways to get in augmented six. With how those, though. Okay, so we clearly have here in Augmented six board. Let's go to a new video and pull this apart a little harder. 23. Aug6 Chords in Mozart: Okay, So I've already told you that these Augmon and six cords are a type of pre dominant chord. Okay, so they're gonna have a predominant function, so it leads to dominant. I've also told you earlier that we tend to see this six resolving down to five motion as part of them. The big thing about the augmented six chord is they all kind of have this interval of flat six to raise raised four. Okay, so, um, let's look at this one. So, in the key of D, if we go up to the sixth of D, we get to be and we're in d minor, so it's b flat. So when I say flat six in the minor key, it already is flat. So it's flat. Six. Okay. To a sharp four G is the four in the key of D. There's our route. And so there's a four, and it's gonna be raised. So this interval of flat six to sharp four makes an augmented six. Okay, so, um, that's why we call these augmented six chords. All three of them French, German, Italian, have that character. Okay. One of them has the route in the middle. Actually, more than one of them does. I think, Um, but this particular one where you make it augmented six and then put tonic in the middle. I shouldn't say root tonic in the middle. That particular one is called an Italian six port. So what we're gonna right here is I t six Italian. Six chord. That's just what we call it. No Roman numeral, No nothing. Now, there are some resolutions we expect to see here. We expect to see that flat six or in a minor key. The in key six resolved down to the five. We expect accord to resolve two of five. Um, we also expect that augmented fourth or the raised four of the augmented six to resolve up to the five. Okay, In other words, check this out. This is what's kind of cool about thes augmented chords. Um, they have this thing, so B flat results down to a G. Sharp results up to a Okay, So in a lot, I think in all of the augmented six chords, what you can do is take the five and then step backwards and then say, in order to make an augmented six chord. I need a leading tone up to that five and a leading tone above are not a leading tone, but, um, a note 1/2 step above that five and out. Okay. So that these resolve out right. It's like a G sharp B flat opens up to an octave a and that is effectively what happens here. This B flat goes down to a that g sharp goes up to that a the D stays on a d. Okay, let's hear just that. Okay, so I know I said a lot there. Don't worry. We're going to go into this a little bit deeper. Um, so that's kind of the crash course on Augmented six chords were going get a little No earlier. Now I shouldn't seen earlier. Um, we're gonna get a little bit deeper into them. No. Um, let me just play this. So feel the opening up of that. That is the augment six sound. Okay, so that's basically how they work. Let's go deeper down the rabbit hole. And let's start with examining a little bit more detail about the Italian 24. The Italian Augmented 6th Chord: Okay, let's look in a little more detail that specifically, we augmented the Italian augmented six chord. So here's the recipe. Italian augmented six. Chord is always no matter what you're doing. It's flat six sharp for and one so scale degrees of not of any court scale. Degrees of the key. Um flat six. Sharp four and one remembering that if you're in a minor key, your six is already flat. Okay, so that is like the ultimate recipe. Now here's how I always think about making, um, these So first of all memorized that then what I'm going to do is let's do it with whole notes. It's a little bit easier. Actually. I can. Yeah, So here's what I'm gonna do. I'm going. Teoh make a five first. So let's say let's which are key back. Let's do this as simple as possible. Let's go back to see Major. Okay, we're in C major. So first I'm going to make the resolution, so g t so Now I know the notes I need are going to be ah, half step above that lower one and 1/2 step below the higher one. Okay, let's see if that worked. So all I did was take an active of the five, right? And then step backwards by half, step above leading down to it and 1/2 step below leading up to it. So did that work. Is this a flat six in a sharp four in the key of C, my six would be a so flat would be a flat in the key of C. My four would be f so raising four would be after. There we go. So now, in order to complete this our Italian six chord, all I need to do is add in the one. Right, So we're in the key of C, so see? Okay, so now you might think, What's the root? What's the root of my Italian six card? We don't really think about Italian. Six chords is hiding routes. You could put this f at the bottom and make it into something that looks like a triad. But you've got a super goofy try out here, right? You've got f sharp to a flat. That's ah, augmented Second. Now we're sorry. It's ah diminished third, right, cause it wasn't augmented six that inverts to a diminished third. Um So you've got a diminished third here. Um but if you wanted to, you could call f Sharp the route because it would make sense. However, that causes more problems. Because now your resolution is super goofy, right? You can't resolve this correctly in route position because this f sharp has to go up to G. This a flat has to go down to G. So But what we really want to have happen is have these open out actives and it doesn't really work if they both collapse in onto the same note. So the best resolution is like this where they open out to the octaves. That's why we always call these six chords Italian, six German, six French, six, um, because we want them toe open out like that and that requires this'll note, which is the third of the cord. Technically, if we're thinking of this as the root, um is in the base. Okay, so that's my pro tips for making these cords make a five of whatever key you're in, then step backwards and do a leading tone up to it, leading tone down to it. And then third thing is filling the other notes in this case, the other note is one. Once we get into the French and German, what is here is gonna change. Okay, so let's finish. Let's fill this out. Um, so if we have a five chord, we have g b and deep, and then we want that to resolve to one, uh, there simple. That would be kind of a happy sound at the end, at least. Oh, I need it not to be Largo. We're killing super slow. Okay, uh, let's do moderate. Okay. Okay. So with no prep, we didn't really establish that, See was our key, So it doesn't sound amazing. Um, What did that? No, just turn. It's weird. Uh, okay, so we don't really establish that c was our key. So it doesn't sound really like a great resolution right there. But if we had already established that CEOs are key, that would have felt better. But that is an Italian six court. So let me just label that correctly. Actually, I think I did this weird before. Typically, we capitalized the I and not the T. So I'm gonna go back here, fix that one. I thought that looked funny. There we go. I t six Italian. Six. Okay, let's go on and look at German. Six chords 25. The German Augmented 6th Chord: Okay, let's use the same formula and look at the German one. So if we go over here, say the German six, which we abbreviate G R six is the same three notes we still have flat six, sharp four and one, but we add another note, we add a flat three. Okay, So German six has four notes. Italian six is actually the only one that only has three notes. Um, now you might think, Why does that matter? Here's why it matters. Um, when you're in, if you go to college, um, and you do you take college music theory, you're gonna get thes ridiculous exams where you're gonna have to spot Italian, German and French, um, in a piece of music all the time. And you're gonna have to remember the difference between the three. And I'm not going to quiz you on that. And I'm not gonna give you a ridiculous exam like that because this is an online course, and you can just do what you want to do. But, um, we come up with all kinds of tricks for remembering how to spell each one. Um, and one of the tricks is the Italian is the only one with three notes. Um, so anyway, keep that in mind. Okay? So let's spell this. I use the same technique, so I'm gonna leave a nifty bar, and then I'm gonna go to the five, Okay? Ah, and actually, let's do this in a minor key, because they just sound better in minor keys. So if we're let's keep our C major key signature and Sumer in a minor, Okay, so we need to make a five. At least scale degree five. So that's going to be E. Okay, so now, in order to make our flat six sharp three thing, we're gonna go half step above which is that f and 1/2 step below, which is going to be D sharp. Okay, let's confirm that we've actually done it correctly when key of a minor, the six of a is f ah, and we're in a minor key, so it's already flat, so we don't need to do anything there and the four of a is D. So we raise that to get our sharp four. That gives us d sharp. So we've got our flat six sharp for good. Now let's add in our one. So in the key of a minor, we're gonna add a Okay. Now we are going to also add a flat three. So we're in the key of a So see is the three, and it's already flat because we're in a minor key. Okay, so this becomes our German six chord flat, six sharp for one, flat. Three. Again. We could call this de sharp the route if we wanted to flip it. But we almost always do it in the six inversion, because it then it resolves nicely out to five. Okay, let's hear it sounds an awfully a lot like a diminished or sorry. A 57 Right. Um, and if we flip it around and we re spell it, it kind of is de sharp. F a see kind of is so resolves out to five. So once again, let's just finish our five. So, e g, let's raise that sucker up to make it a major five b and then we're gonna go Teoh a e Let's put it in the bottom. Just for fun. Okay, so let's hear it. Ah, that's so predominant. Dominant tonic once again. Ah, the German six all of the augmented six. Lead to 55 leads. 21 Let's hear the difference between Italian six and German. Six. Right? Um, I should do them in the same key beetle easier, but I'll do that in a minute. So obviously, the German six is a thicker sound because it's got four notes instead of three. Um, in a minute, we'll look in an example where we hear all three right in a row in the same key for no. Uh, let's just power through and learn our 3rd 1 The French Fresh. I was bad. Sorry. My fake French accent. Um, the French Italian six card. Okay, after that. 26. The French Augmented 6th Chord: Okay. Same deal this time. Let's look at the French. Six. The French six. The recipe is flat. Six sharp for one. Ah, same thing we already know. Except we don't have this flat three. We have a two. No alterations to that too. Okay, so you're seeing one and two when you're thinking. That's kind of weird. Um, you're right. Okay, so let's use our technique again. Go over here. Uh, let's stick to a minor. So we're gonna add and go, you pops. Although it's man. Okay, E. Okay, so we make our flat six sharp four with an f and a D sharp. Okay, there's are flat six for sharp four. Now, in the key of S O R. One is gonna be a and our two is going to be There it is. And that gives us the French augmented six chord. Okay, let's finish out that, um five chord. So a g sharp. Let's make it be in the a c e. Bottom groups there. All right, so it's here. Okay, Let's hear the difference between German and French, right? There is a difference. It's this note versus that note. Right That flat three versus the to this two. Makes it a little crunchier, right? It's a little more. Um, I don't know. It's hard to say. It's just a little thicker because of that, too in there and going back to when I was talking about about the crazy tests that we had to take. Here was my trick for remembering this. Um, this is this is silly, but I'm gonna tell you. Anyway, um, when I learned this and had to memorize the notes, the way that I remember this one was that I personally prefer French food to German food. So I would think this too. Ah. Makes it a little a little tastier by that, Having that to in there, it adds a little a little taste to it that I like. Um, whereas the German doesn't have that extra tasty nous. So when I would listen to them, I would think, Ooh, that one's a little taste here. Gotta be French. Um, so there you go. That's all. I remember them. Ah, I apologize for Ah, any German folks watching this? I think your food is great as well. Um, I've just spent more time in France eating their food So they go. Okay, So these are the recipes for the three augmented six courts. All three of them have the augmented six in them. The flat six. Too sharp for a recipe. Italian six has a one. Ah, the German six has a one in a flat three. The French six has a one and two. Cool. That's how they work. Okay, let's look at them in a little more context. 27. What Is Up With These Names?: Okay, so let me just address really quick why these air called by these nationalities Italian, German and French. Um, looking around online, it seems that no one really knows. No one really knows why we call him that. They don't have really any deep connection with, um, the German, French or Italian music history. Um, the best I can find is ah, I'm looking at some theory websites, and someone says, Why the national names? No particular reason they had to be called something. So that's what it waas Um Ah, there's some debate about ah, their primary uses at some point came about in the different types of opera Italian opera, French opera in German opera. Um, that might have spawned something. But just like the Neopolitan cord, these these are names that somebody used at some time, for whatever reason, and they stuck, um, they don't really have any basis in French. Composers were particularly interested in using the French one, and that's why we call it French. It's not really like that. They're really just kind of arbitrary names at this point. Um, until someone discovers some crazy document in which somebody figures out exactly why they how they got those names? We don't know, Um, and there's probably no good reason. So they're just names. You can think of them like, Ah, Susan, Johnny and Amy. Um, they're basically arbitrary names, just like everything else. So, um, keep that in mind, I suppose, if you're wondering, 28. Finding Resolutions: Okay. Ah, the next thing I want to do is look at resolutions and in order to look at resolutions, we're gonna look at them in four part voicings because that's really the best way to see the resolution. I've been kind of throwing resolutions together here in a quick way, but you're not really seeing the way that the voices need todo and what to do with these inner voices. So, uh, let's take a moment and let's dive into, um, doing four voiced versions of all three chords and looking in detail at how they resolve so , uh, as we often do, let's start with the Italian first. 29. Resolving the It6: Okay, so let's make some resolution. So I'm going to switch us over to D minor just for something a little different. Um, And remember, the main resolution is always gonna be the augmented sex cord to five. That's what we really care about. Of five goes to one. And in some cases, we care about that too. So I'm gonna write our Italian augmented six chord here. Oops. Voices I always forget. And then later, too, if I didn't write, should be there and there. Okay, so let's first make the resolution, and then we'll check to make sure we do everything right. So a that needs to be. Yeah, that's later, too. And then later, one. Okay, let's just pause there for a second and not worry about the inner voices for now. So what we have here is we're in the key of D minor, so let's right that. Let me just grab that. Okay? So d minor. And what we have here is an Italian six chord, and we know that Italian six chord is flat. Six sharp four and one. So, um, in D, the resolution is gonna be to a but we don't need to think about that. Let's think about it. Just with the recipe. Flat six in the key of D is going to be B flat, which is right there. Ah, Sharp. Four is going to be g sharp, which is right there and then one is deep and we've doubled deep. Okay, so that's okay. Um, we'll talk about doubling in a minute, but that's perfectly good. Noticable in this case, the best note to double, actually. Okay, so then always the augmented six opens out to the five. Okay, We always want that to happen. And then we can let the other voices do their things so later too. So there's d. Let's resolve up to the e and this d that's resolved down to a C sharp groups can. What does that make for us? A c sharp e A big old five chord. Okay, so let's label that five and we've raised that c sharp. So it's a major five, which is probably the most common thing to do. And that's really the resolution. From there we resolve it Teutonic like we already know how to do. So Let's hear this. Okay, nice and easy. Italian 6 to 5. Great. All right, let's go on to the German and French, which are a little more complicated because of that extra note. Um, so let's go to a new video for those. 30. Resolving the Gr6: Okay, let's start by making a German six chord, and we're gonna go g sharp and a beaks. And you do that be in the second voice. Okay, so there's our flat six, sharp four. Now, let's put our flat three. Our sorry are yeah, are flat three that we need for the German one right there as that f and then our one that we need there. So let's see if that checks out. So remember, for the German, we have it right here. We need flat six sharp for one and flat three. So in the key of D, flat six is going to be B flat. Sharp. Four is gonna be g sharp. One is gonna be d and flat three is going to be f f is already flat in the key of D minor. We don't need to flatter to get Okay, so now we know that the resolution needs to be the first part of the resolution. Needs to be the same. So we need to resolve that augmented six out. Okay. Hoops? Yeah. These voices driving. Okay, so are augmented. Six resolves out in all three. It's gonna resolve outward like that. That's just what we wanted to do. That's the whole point of these court to get us to five. And this really kind of slick way. The flat three. We're going to keep on flat three. It's the easiest way to do this. And tonic. We're gonna keep on tonic, so check it out. We have Let's do our labelling Here. Here we have German six, 25 So five is going to be a Actually, what we've resolved it to here is a little bit different because I was like, Wait, where's my c sharp? That's right. I am. Or what? I did not. So, uh, what do we have here? We have d f a within a in the base. What is that? That is our credential. 64 So German six chord really common to resolve to a credential. 64 Oops. 6453 Which means, in order to really resolve it, we need one more step. Right. Um, let's keep this five down there and let's keep this five up there, and then we're gonna take that f down to an e. Uh, and we're gonna take that d down to a c sharp. So most common resolution of the German is into a 56453 potential 64 resolution. Right? So let's hear that Boehm. Right? And then we get toe tonic eventually. Um, that's just a really rich sound, right? It's very nice. Um, so resolution of German six chord into a credential 64 31. Resolving the Fr6: All right, One more. Let's resolve our French 64 Okay, so first, let's make a French 64 chord. We know that first we need are augmented six is going to be that. What else do we need for a French? We need a tonic. So let's put tonic appear on d And we also need a to that weird to that makes the French one nice and tasty. We're gonna put that right there. Okay, that gives us our French six chord flat six sharp for one and two scale degree one into All right, This one easily resolved directly to of five. We don't need to do a 6453 Um but we know first thing we're gonna do is resolve that augmented six outward. Always, always, always the d weaken resolve down to groups. It's one down to a C sharp to get us a major five chord, and the e can stay right where they are. That's kind of why we don't have to do the 6453 here because the E could stay right on eat . Let's look at that. A c sharp E k. Right. Everything lines up all nice and pretty to that one. Right? That little grittiness right there opens up a little bit on its own, right? It's almost like two different things. We're opening up these The augmented six interval opens up. And this second, uh, ho opens up to a minor third. Ok, uh, let's label this. So here we have for all she got stopped doing that. Oh, my gosh, Um, to a five. All right, let's hear Milling around just for fun. Cool, fun. Okay, um, so that is the best way to do voice leading and, um, resolutions of all three. I'll wrap this up into a nice little kind of rules of voice leading and doubling in a minute. Um, let's hear something else first. 32. Mozart: String Quartet Example: Okay, lets take it. Ah, look at something a little different. Something we haven't looked at before. I don't think, um we're gonna look a string quartet here. Okay, So this is just a couple measures from Mozart's String Quartet in D minor. Third movement again. Kind of jumping into the middle of this, But I thought it be fun to get away from the four voice things. Uh, you know, I guess this is technically four voices, but it's not voices these air, four different instruments, um, and the piano music. And look at some actual, like, string music. So we have here just a couple measures of a Mozart string quartet. This is a very famous example for looking at augmented six chords. Let's hear. Okay, just that bunch. Um, OK. Before we dive into an analyzing this, I want to point out a couple of things about string quartet score that might be unfamiliar to you. First of all, we have four different instruments two violins, viola, which is like a big violin and viola and cello, which is a fancy way to say hello. It was like a really big violence. Um, take note of the cliffs. This is one of the things that makes reading orchestra scores and string quartet scores and things a little tricky Trouble, cleft trouble class thes. They're going to be normal bass clef. Just like the left hand of the piano, right? Nothing weird. This funky symbol we may have looked at way, way, way back in the beginning of all of these music theory classes, this is what we call viola clef. Sometimes we call it seek laugh. Um, this is a whole different Chlef. Eso All the notes are different here. Like this is not a be sharp. Um, the way to read this clef is look at where it kind of comes together at this little point right in the middle. That is going to be on sea. Okay, so you're thinking No, that's be Nope. Let's see now. So this middle line is C? Yeah. It makes it hard to read. Um, it takes some getting used to. You can look at the key signature, right? We have a B flat, B flat. This is still a B flat. So where that is is a B flat. If you go up one that see, so watch out for that. It makes reading these old a little tough. I'll, um, kind of translate for you, I guess, But, um, as we analyze it, but so this is gonna be f e d c d e. Right. So you get used to it. Um, I think it's it. Otherwise, everything else works the same. So we're gonna analyze this. Ah, and we're gonna find ourselves Ah, an augmented six chord. Or maybe more than one who knows inside this thing. So let's dive in. 33. Mozart Analysis: Okay, I'm gonna give us a little bit of a head start because it would be hard to figure out, um, out of context. So in this section of the peace were in D minor, and this is actually our four chord. Okay, so we're on a four record for this whole bar. Um, remember, there are gonna be passing tones in here. This is not ah, corral kind of thing. Um, so we can call this note a passing note. Um, passing notes are all over real music. We don't see him so much in our examples, but they exist. So let's next. Look at this bar. What do we have here? Well, actually, let me just give you a clue. Jump out to the next bar, and we know that we have a five. Okay, so there is a five here. There's a four here. We're in a predominant area. Probably still predominant here, going to the five, So, Yeah, there's probably an augmented six chord here. Right, But which one? Well, let's figure it out. So what do we need for an augmented six chord are five is a So if we kind of step backwards from that we know that we're going to need Well, even regardless of that Ah, If our key is D minor, we're gonna need a flat six in a sharp four. So are flat. Six is going to be B flat. Okay, so where do we have a B flat in this bar? It's right there. It's going through that whole bar. Okay, so this bar has a B flat going through all all the notes. OK? Eso check. We have our flat six. Do we have a sharp? Four are sharp. Four in the key of D is going to be G is our force of G sharp. Yes. G sharp going all the way through the whole bar right there. Great. Okay, so now we need that tonic somewhere. Right? D do we have that anywhere way? Do right there. Um, this is a d Remember our clef issue here? D e f g a B C. Yes. This is a deep um, for this is a D. This'd d and this city. Okay, so we have d in most of the measure. We don't have a d here. We might call that just a passing tone. Or maybe even a neighbor tone. But we'll see how that shakes out so deep. So we have all the ingredients of the Italian six, right? Do we have the ingredients of the French Said? Well, let's talk with the German with the German six. Right? The German six. We go back over here and look, we need a flat three. So flat three and d would be f We have that here, but we don't have an f anywhere else. Okay, so we definitely have a German six here. Okay, What about our French with our French? We don't want that f but we want a two. Right. So in the key of D, that would be e which we have right there. So, actually, what's happening here is we're going German to French, right? If we can call that a passing tone or a neighbor tone, actually, let's call that a neighbor town because it is. Trust me. Then what happens on the last court? Wouldn't it be cool if our Italian popped up there? Well, that actually does, um because check it out. Ah, here is our too weird notes. And now we're just down to one. Right? So we have this 3 to 1. Um, and that is doubled here. These are the same note octave apart. And that gives us an Italian. So we actually step through all three. What I did to turn that gray again, but still works. So this is why this is kind of a famous example, cause we go four German, French, Italian, five. Right. Um, and then here we get to one one. Okay, So all three Italian six chords smashed into their Let's hear it. Neat, huh? Kind of a cool trick. It's kind of a dark sound. Um, because it's it's kind of a lot of out of key stuff that's happening right there, but it really pushes us to that five, right? You could feel all of this measure just really pushing hard with all these g sharps upto a and under this big B flat flopping down to a really pushing us to five. Nice trick. Well done, Wolfgang. Okay, um, in the next section, I'm gonna give you this file because I had to use four lines to make this. So it's not included in our Master Mu score file. But I'll give you this as a separate file right in the next bit, and then we'll continue on cool 34. Augmented 6 Rules: Okay. Um, quick summary of some of the rules that we've talked about. Four Augmon and six courts. Um, first of all, augmented six chords. More common in minor keys. Can be in major keys. You're gonna need some borrowed cords, though. Um, but more competent minor keys. Always resolved to five. Or, um, potential 64 Um, all of the Augmon and six chords share the flat. Six sharp, four and one scale degrees. Resolving outwards. The flat six, sharp four. Resolve out to five. Um, the German has a flat three in there, and the French has scaled. Agreed to in there for voice leading, if you're doing it. Italian. Ah, double the tonic on Italian. Double the one scale degree one not atomic of the court, but scale degree one. Um, the rest of them don't need any double wings because they have four notes, and that's pretty much it. Oh, and then the if anyone ever asks you the names come from, who knows where, Um, remember that the French is more tasty than the German. Sorry. German friends. Um, that's it. So now you know, um augmented six chords 35. Placement Tests: okay as we wrap up, um, I wanted to address really quick this thing about placement tests. I get a lot of questions about this in the comments and the questions and things in these courses. Um, and there's and there's a relatively easy answer to this. So the question that I get a lot is I'm looking at some kind of music theory placement test . Um, there are different ones for different countries for different schools. Ah, lot of them are graded where that says, like, you know, grade five music theory or great six music theory. Um, there are a ton of different kinds of these test. So, uh, what a lot of students are asking is now that I'm this far along in your class, how does that relate to this other test? OK, here's how you find the answer picks Something that we've covered in the class and augmented six chords is a great thing toe. Look at. OK, look at the test that you're considering taking. Look at their their list of study questions or some kind of guy that tells you what's, um, going to be on the test find where they have augmented six chords. Okay, so it'll say, like in level four. Secondary dominance in level five augmented six chords. Something like that. Um so wherever it lists augmented six chords or Neopolitan chords, that's another one that might be listed wherever it lists. Those, um, you should be good to go for that spot and everything prior to it, because the sequence that we teach music theory and is pretty universal. Um, it won't be that they're gonna ask you about something that I haven't taught you before. Augmented six courts, maybe some little things here and there, but no big topics. Have I left out everyone kind of all. Music theory kind of builds on itself as you've seen, so there's always, ah, sequence to it. Everyone does it a little bit different, but there's a lot of consistency. So if you look at one of those tests and you see, um and you wonder what level you think you would test into and if you should take that test find augmented six chords, find secondary dominance, stuff like that, and you will know that you know that thing and everything prior to it. You should be able to get through on one of those placement tests. Cool. So if you're considering taking any of those tests good luck. Um, in the college, Ah, United States music theory system were probably, um, a little bit into the third semester. Now, um, this chromatic harmony stuff is really where the third semester of music theory is. So were of about 1/4 of the way into the third semester of college US music theory. So you 36. What Comes Next?: what comes next? Um, if you plan on continuing on, um, in the next big chunk of music theory, we're going to start to get into a little bit more pop music. Um, it's gonna initially look a little bit more like jazz because it's gonna be kind of this Tin Pan Alley idea of pop music. If that means anything to you, will explain it all in the next class. Um, but you can think of it like Broadway, Broadway show tunes and stuff like that. It's a great way to start learning pop music forms, pop music, harmony, pop music. Harmony is all the same. It's all the same stuff. It's just that we change the form a little bit. Um, and it's just kind of the next evolution of this stuff that we've been learning so far, Right? So, um, we take the same core progressions, the same ideas, Um, and we kind of we give him a backbeat. It's not all that much different than that. So that's kind of the next big section will be, um, popular music, Broadway, jazz, things like that. Cool. So I look forward to jumping into that class as soon as possible. Um, I'll probably start making it fairly soon, so look forward to that 37. Thanks Bye!: All right, That's the end. You have reached the end of music theory. Comprehensive, part 15. Holy smokes. There have been 15 parts of this class. That's amazing. That's way more than I ever expected there to be ever. Um, but people keep taking them, so I'm going to keep making them. Uh, I really enjoy doing this. And I just want to thank you for being a part of this class being a part of any of my other classes being a part of learning online in this kind of new educational anarchy that were all involved in. I think it's fantastic. I love doing it. I love hearing from you. So please leave some comments, chat with me. Um, I answered these questions that people post every day every morning. I First part of my day is to sit down and hash through all the questions, and I get so feel free to leave questions, comments, anything you like. And, um, i'll look forward to you. Seeing you in another class, perhaps. Um, I have tons and tons and tons of classes here. Um, so please check those out. Um, and there might be another little section after this where? I got some extra goodies for you. Um, but that's it. Thanks for being a part of this class. Hope you enjoyed it, and we'll see you in the next one. 38. SkillshareFinalLecture: Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out some of my courses on this site. I post a lot of stuff there, and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me and one of those two places or both, and we'll see you there.