Music Composition with the Piano | Jack Vaughan | Skillshare

Music Composition with the Piano

Jack Vaughan,

Music Composition with the Piano

Jack Vaughan,

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106 Lessons (7h 44m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Overview of the Course

    • 3. Resources

    • 4. The Grid

    • 5. The Chromatic Scale

    • 6. Creating a Major Key

    • 7. Creating Chords Inside of a Key

    • 8. Naming Notes on the Piano

    • 9. Ambient Track Assignment

    • 10. Ambient Track Example

    • 11. Establishing 'Gravity' With Keys

    • 12. The Circle of fifths Major Key Gravity

    • 13. Creating a Minor Scale and Key

    • 14. Circle of fifths Minor Key Gravity

    • 15. Learning all Keys

    • 16. Assignment Transposing Chords & Melodies

    • 17. Get Composing!

    • 18. Technique & Fluency at the Piano

    • 19. Hand positions & Fingerings

    • 20. Wandering Hands Backing Tracks

    • 21. Assignment - Wandering Hands Track

    • 22. Wandering Hands Example Track

    • 23. Introduction to Chords in a Key - Diatonic Harmony

    • 24. Analysing 1000+ Tunes

    • 25. Common Chord Progressions and Conventions

    • 26. 30% Different - Changing Standard Chord Progressions

    • 27. Chord 5 in a Minor Key

    • 28. Harmony Cheat Sheet: Stage 1

    • 29. Tension & Resolution

    • 30. Chord tones

    • 31. Non Chord Tones

    • 32. The Feelings of Different Intervals

    • 33. Layering & Overlapping

    • 34. Non diatonic Tones

    • 35. The Pentatonic Scale

    • 36. Patterns - The Way to think about your music

    • 37. Assignment - Melody Writing

    • 38. Example - Melody Writing

    • 39. Roman Numerals in Analysis

    • 40. Harmonic Structure

    • 41. Repeating Harmony

    • 42. Repeating Harmony Example

    • 43. Small Changes in Harmony

    • 44. Varying Your Bass Lines

    • 45. Modulation - New Centres of Gravity

    • 46. Assignment - Composing 3 different sections

    • 47. 3 Different Sections Example Track

    • 48. Introduction to Voicing

    • 49. Arpeggiation

    • 50. Examples of Arpeggiation in Context

    • 51. Closed & Open Position Chords

    • 52. Chord Inversions

    • 53. Doubling Notes

    • 54. Dropping Notes

    • 55. Voice Leading

    • 56. Grace Notes

    • 57. Accompaniment Singers Assignment

    • 58. Accompaniment for Singers Example

    • 59. Orchestral String Writing Assignment

    • 60. Orchestral String Writing Example

    • 61. Example of Voice Leading

    • 62. Harmony Cheat Sheet Level 2

    • 63. Bass Lines Introduction Supporting the Harmony

    • 64. Voice Leading & Passing Notes

    • 65. Bass Line Riffs

    • 66. Introduction to Chords from Scratch

    • 67. In Depth Chords from Scratch

    • 68. How to Create Triads from Scratch

    • 69. Suspension Chords

    • 70. Working out the Key of a Song

    • 71. Modulation & Secondary Dominants

    • 72. Pushing Out of the Key Example Track

    • 73. Introduction to Upper Structures

    • 74. Creating 7th Chords from Scratch

    • 75. Diminished & Augmented & 7th Chords

    • 76. Creating 9th Chords from Scratch

    • 77. Creating 11ths 13th Chords from Scratch

    • 78. Upper Structure Assignments

    • 79. Upper Structure Composing Example

    • 80. How to Read Chords and Chord Symbols

    • 81. Harmony Cheat sheet Level 3

    • 82. Where do I Start? Generating material with rules

    • 83. Patterns, Patterns, Patterns

    • 84. Problem Solving

    • 85. Introduction to Harmonic Rhythm

    • 86. Passing chords & Reharmonisation

    • 87. Reharmonisation Assignment

    • 88. Melodic Rhythm

    • 89. Phrasing & Space

    • 90. Phrasing and Melodic Rhythm Assignment

    • 91. Standard Accompaniment Patterns (with commentary)

    • 92. Standard Accompaniment Patterns (no commentary)

    • 93. Musical Layers & Alignment

    • 94. Musical Alignment Example

    • 95. The Chord Progression Bible

    • 96. What Scales go with What Chords?

    • 97. The Blues Scale

    • 98. Harmonic & Melodic Minor Scale

    • 99. The Scale Omnibus

    • 100. Paired Pentatonics

    • 101. Modes

    • 102. Introduction to Chord Relationships

    • 103. Chord Relationship & Arpeggiation Assignment

    • 104. Chord Relationship & Arpeggiation Example

    • 105. Writing Themes

    • 106. Conclusion of the Course

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About This Class

Unleash your composing & songwriting with tools to unblock the writing process and generate material at the piano with ease, whether you're a beginner or intermediate at piano & music theory. 

The course consists of four core elements: 

  • Piano technique, theory & arrangement.
  • Fundamental & advanced harmony & music theory.
  • Compositional techniques and strategies 
  • Piano chords, progressions and songwriting

What you will learn. 

  • Express yourself and your musical ideas fluently, at the keyboard and DAW
  • Use extended music theory without reading a line of music
  • Compose different styles of music; filmic, classical, jazz and mainstream through a fundamental understanding of harmony
  • Build interesting chord progressions

Meet Your Teacher

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Jack Vaughan


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1. Introduction: Welcome to music composition with Piano, the Ultimate Guide to piano harmony and music theory for the modern day composer, songwriter and producer. When you write music, you want to really know what you're doing way. All want the creative process to float, but more often than we would like to admit are writing. Efforts do not go very smoothly, and we can sit in the piano just kind of getting the lock or hoping we chance upon something that works without doubt. One of the greatest things you can do to supercharge your composing, songwriting and arranging abilities is to gain greater facility and knowledge of modern day harmony in music theory. At the piano. Integrating the piano into your skill set gives you intentionality and composing. In other words, you know what you want to create, You know how to create it, and you can execute it with ease at the keyboard. My name's Jacque Bourne. I'm a composer, conductor and arranger, and I've worked extensively in film music from post production. I also run a private music studio and over the last year have taught over 1000 lessons to produces composers on pianists online and in my hometown. Aim of this course is to give you a huge and advanced composition of the cavalry from the ground up and all through a practical hands on experience of music theory at the piano that's accessible without reading a line of music. This'll course was designed with two people in mind. Beginner and intermediate musician for the beginner, this course takes you from literally ground zero into the building blocks of what makes music work and then right up to advanced, harming. You'll learn to write a wealth of material at the piano and start your composing journey off intelligent with powerful skill set at the keyboard. The other person that this course is designed for as much, if not more, is the bulk of students I get in my private studio. Composers, producers and songwriters have been working and studying seriously 35 10 or more years, but feel restricted by never having really gotten their head around. Harmony. A technique at the piano. For those of you who feel your compositional ability is held back by your piano and harmonic knowledge, this is the course for you. The first part might be a bit of catch up, but in my experience, a solid foundation is priceless. So this course has four elements on extensive introduction to piano technique theory and arrangement. Fundamental and advanced harmony and music theory at the piano taught and learned in a practical way that you can start using immediately a look. A powerful compositional techniques and strategies to help you generate material and problems sold when you get stuck, and conventions and structures of piano chords, progressions and songwriter so that you can analyze and continually grow your knowledge of building songs and tracks. At the end of this course, not only you're gonna feel more strong and fluent as a writer, you're gonna be able to solve critical problems whilst composing for using strategies that can help you. You'll be able to answer for yourself questions like Where do I start? How do I generate material? I have a chord progression, but how do I make it more interesting? How can I make my court sound more sophisticated? I have courts. How do I had a baseline? I have melody. How do I had cords? I have cords. How do I add a melody and much, much more. You'll also have the skills necessary to jam with other musicians. I work out the music that you love by here. Once this course has a ton of theory in its goal is not to turn you into a theory monster who composes theoretical music. Goal of this course is to give you more fluency as a writer and ultimately to give you options so that you can open up expressive possibilities and generate endless ideas. Whenever you're feeling stuff, stick around for the next video where I take you through an entire outline, of course, giving you an overview of all the sections on a feeling for what to expect. 2. Overview of the Course: If you've already purchased the course, you can download an entire outline off the course for reference as well as all other resource is at the following link. There are six different teaching methods. I using this course to really help you understand the material from the ground up and get the concepts into your head fully in lots of different ways. The first is 1 to 1 at the piano, and this is just you and me sat by the piano, looking through all of these things where it can really, really explain things and demonstrate things one on one. The next one is point of view over the top of the piano. This is where we have a camera directly over the top of the piano, cutting between the side camera view that we saw just a second ago on this one. And additionally, what you can see over the top of that is two things. We have a central barber. I can add chord names and certain diagrams and other things like that, and also at the top, we have a kind of digital representation of what I'm playing on the piano. So if, for example, my fingers are in the way of what I'm currently playing, or I play it a bit too fast. You can see it highlighted on the digital piano there and pause the video. Method three is really through presentations on This is where you're Not Looking at me, and I'm explaining things in a much more kind of concise way, backed up by language Andi. Different diagrams written on the screen. The other thing I do is go deeper into these diagrams so that we can start exploring music in a visual way that's not related to music notation. At least classic music notation, because the aim of this course is to get you playing and composing music at a very high level without having to read a written line off music anywhere. So we use lots and lots of different visual representations of music to help you conceptualize music more and more. Then we have in practice. So these are examples of us either composing at the keyboard or producing our compositions inside of a D. A w like logic. Then we have six, which is really reference in repetition, and there are multiple downloadable PDFs in this course, which You can download, for example, the outline right now in the top left corner of the screen to give you a sense of the whole curriculum as you move through it, but also kind of checkpoints where we do stage one stage two, stage three, etcetera, etcetera of the harmony cheat sheets, kind of consolidating everything that you know so far and allowing you to remind yourself of all the principles without having to go back to the specific video. Watch the whole thing again. There are five main parts to this course. Part one is harmonic and technical foundations. Part two. Basic harmony. Part three. Intermediate harmony, part for applying your toolkit and part five. Advanced colors and tools. Let's dive into each one of these in part one. Harmonic and technical foundations. We have three sub chapters. Introduction where we get up and running with chords and melodies. Chapter two. Gravity where we start looking at one of most fundamental part of Western music, that of gravity and harmonic centers. Then we have Chapter three, where we really look at piano technique, the key to fluency and moving around with ease and composing with your hands. Then, in part two. We start looking at basic harmony. We dive into the practical things that you need is a writer to start creating music, chords, melodies, progressions and by the end of this section, you'll have really solidified your understanding and access to diatonic harmony, melody and structure. Part three is by far the most valuable and large parts of this course after having gained our fundamental music theory badge in the 1st 2 parts. This is where we really start to spice things up and make things sound more kind of sophisticated. Contemporary, organic, original, etcetera, etcetera rather than the basic sounding beginners block stuff that you'll learn in the 1st 2 parts of the course. We go through chord voicings and arrangement baselines, chromatic harmony, I creating cords from scratch, not attached to a key upper structures and jazz harmony and reading chord symbols. In Part four, we focus down on applying your toolkit. The thing is, once you've learned a lot of harmony piano, getting better as a composer is less about learning new things and actually about applying what you've learned over and over again in new contexts. In this chapter, we get to the nitty gritty about how to construct material, generate ideas when you have none, and also to solve the classic and most common problems we all face. When composing, We go over problem solving harmonic rhythm, melodic rhythm and accompaniment and arrangement patterns. In Part five, our final section, we go over the advanced two colors and tools that you can use the composer. We go over new melodic colors, non diatonic chord relationships and thematic writing on. Then we finally round up with a conclusion. A load of resource is and downloadable guides and then my recommendations on where to go from here also bear in mind that you have full support from me throughout the course. Whenever you have a question or concern or query about any of the videos or the things that you're practicing, you can message me through the you Timmy platform or get in touch with me at lean musician dot com. If you haven't bought the course yet, I hope to see you on the inside. For those of you who are just starting the curriculum, we've got one more preliminary video just too tight a few things up before we get started. 3. Resources: For all assignments, support, and questions you might have. You can chat with myself and other musicians in the lean musician community. That's community dot lean I'll be there to support you with your goals, your work, and I'm excited to hear what you come up with. At various points in the course, you will be prompted to visit a certain link to download a resource. In fact, if you visit that link that will have hopefully all the resources. So you can download them all at once. But if you just want to download one at a time, you can choose the one that you want and then click on Download for that particular resource. This contains everything from the PDFs to midi and anything else that's relevant for this course. The final thing I'd like to say is really trust the process of this course. If you are a beginner to lay the foundations really, really well, you do have to go through quite a lot of groundwork. And that means that the sounds that you're making in the piano on amazingly inspiring, however it stick at it and keep applying your work in compositions, whether it's with other musicians or in your production. All right, let's get started. 4. The Grid: so welcome to the first episode in this tutorial, Siri's where we're introducing the fundamental idea of how music works on have called it the grid. When I get students in my private music studio who have never learned anything about music before you may have. Basically what we look at is a grid like this. What? I want you to think off his music in terms of time and going right on the X axis and then going vertically on the Y axis in terms of pitch so down at the bottom will have a beat going all the way through, on on on and on and then going vertically, weaken place different notes to represent the pitch spectrum. Now it doesn't matter necessarily what scale if you know already this grid is in. Don't think like that at the moment will get into the details of that later. Just know that it's going higher and lower, so if we combine those, we have the grid at the bottom with the Metrodome and then have notes. We can visualize music quite simply before we even start learning any theory or even touching an instrument. So thinking like a grid is a really, really important way to understand about how music works, whether you're playing a trombone, a church, organ, piano, violin, cello, singing, composing a symphony. It really doesn't matter. Everything works like this. Grit and thinking in this way allows us to do a number of things. Music becomes mathematical or logical. It's very understandable and quantifiable, and you can digest it therefore. So it's like a Lego like way of thinking about music. And ultimately we can think in patterns. So having a framework like this allows you to put your ideas anywhere. And if you understand the fundamental pattern behind an element in music, that really is mastery over that piece of material because to reach mastery, you really need a simple framework with simple parts that you can then build greater parts like like Lego. As I said. So everything that we do in the future through this course simplest is key. Think with everything. How does this work in the grid? Whatever you're learning, it will be describable in that grid small block component way the great news, Of course. Full film composers and anyone who's worked with a D. A w like logic or reason or anything like that is that this is kind of how you think about things with the piano role. As an example, I'm just gonna pull up a video of me playing very, very simple music from the first part of this course on Overlay the piano roll on top and you see that what's happening is that from left to right, obviously the piano roll is scrolling along and mapping what I'm playing up and down on the keyboard. Or you can phrase it another way that the music's going up and down vertically on the d. A W on I'm going right and left on the piano. Either way, we've got this relationship with the piano of up and down and then the actual visuals off the piano roll. And thinking like this is quite intuitive to most people who have worked with the AWS before. So actually, you may have thought that this was kind of cheating before using the piano roll, whereas it's actually more truthful toe how music is actually working when you're listening to it. Compared to, say, music notation, which is a bit more of an abstraction. That being said, we do still need to learn piano, and it will give us a huge amount of dexterity and ability to compose and expand our compositional vocabulary and learning it is absolutely the right step to improving your skill. 5. The Chromatic Scale: So in the previous video, we looked at the grid, and I explained that it's one of the most beneficial ways to think about music and how it works. We presented time on the X axis, going continually from left to right on, then pitch on the Y axis, going up and down in this video, I want to take pitch and make it go horizontally. So we take out the time component and can start understanding something about the way that harmony is constructed, or at least the back drop off this grid and what it's made out off. So instead of being it vertically, we're gonna view it horizontally as a line of dots. Uh, what you just heard there was the chromatic scale and it is every single note in order in your d A w. It might look like this. Every single note in order is called the Chromatic Scale, as I said, and it is the background structure off the grid at its most basic level in Western music. As a little aside here, of course, you can bend between notes, but certainly when you're learning the piano and learning about harmony, it's important to think of the background structure of the grid in quite a strict way. Going downwards, it sounds like a cartoon of someone falling off a cliff thing. And then if you play random notes from it, it's not particularly usable unless you want to create avant garde contemporary classical music, which we are definitely not doing this course. So let's have a look at that piano when you say your finger and put it on one of the white notes and push it into the piano bit more. And the reason I say that is so that you then start. If you go left or right encountering the black notes. Eso here I'm moving up the piano right on. I'm encountering white, white, black or white. Why black, etcetera, etcetera? What we're doing here is we're playing the chromatic scale, which is all notes in order. We're not missing any hour. If I was to just play white notes will be doing is I've been missing out all of those black notes and I wouldn't be playing all of the notes on the grid, So get ready. Good. Applying this, you don't have to do the fingering that I'm doing here. You could just do this, wander around a bit and get familiar with it once you are. What we can start doing is playing with something that will look at later called intervals and intervals is just created by using spaces in the comm Actiq scale. So, for example, we take this note. When we go, let's say four notes away or four gaps away. One gap to gaps. Three gaps, gaps. That's a state of or gaps or for semi Tens will come to know what that means. Like to run as well on. Then try and do that space from another note. Perhaps this 1123 That's also four gaps. Now don't get confused here. It's very easy to in the beginning start on another and count one. But that's not one, obviously, because it's just a specs. That's like saying this is a meter. But it's not me that you need two things toe measure to get good at moving that around on. What we're doing here is we're just touching on one of the most important things in music, which is the idea of patterns against the backdrop of harmony or kind of the structure of the grid for us, which is the chromatic scale. Because when you get really good at understanding cords and shapes and composing essentially, what there is is just understanding the core pattern behind music. So you could take a pattern like this, which is a voicing of any move it somewhere else. Will you take a nice melody? Oh, s And just everything sort of drops away and you can start playing with patterns themselves to get to know the chromatic scale. Start planning with a few little simple patterns, like a space of four or a space of three or two or maybe even a melody, very short one and move that around across the great. 6. Creating a Major Key: So now that we understand the structure off the grid, which lies behind all music in regards to pitch, what we can do is we can learn the formula off different patterns or bits of material like the major scale. And then once we learn that actual formula, we can apply anywhere. So, for example, if we look at this, this is the chromatic scale. When we understand the structure of the major scale over the top of this will be able to play every single major scale. So we're going from first principles. So we're gonna play a first note on then. If we skip the next dot, which would be this note. We don't play that note and we play the next one. It sounds like this on that gives us a step of two semi tones between these notes, the 1st 1 on the 2nd 1 So I'm gonna gray out the notes in between as we do this. The next note would be another two steps, and then the next one is one step on. The next note is two steps, two steps, two steps, one step on that sounds like this. And we have created our major scale. Now, if you've looked at this before, you may know that a group of two semi tones so stepping past two notes in the chromatic scale is also called a tone and one step in the chromatic scale is called a semi tone. So if I put those on here, we've got a gap of a tone between the first and second and then a tone between the second and third on, then a semi tone between the third and fourth tone, tone, tone, semi tone, understanding. That formula allows you to move the major scale any way you want. Let me show you by zooming out a little bit. Here's our major scale, but because the chromatic scale is a perfect grid, we can just move it'll up. So now that we've looked at the 10 10 semi tone on the grid or on the dots, let's apply at the piano will start like everyone does in these kind, of course, is at the C major scale and then we'll go into other keys so that you can kind of understand the principle in a number of contacts and apply it wherever you want. Eso. Let's start here, we're gonna go past the first stop and then to the next up. So we've skipped a tone. Now we've got another turn to do. So we skip past the next stop on get to the following dot after the 1st 2 turns, one tone to turns Remember, we're counting the spaces between these. It's very easy for people toe when they start, let's go toe But that's not a tone. That's like saying this is a meter. It's not a meter. You need two things toe measure a meter between. So we dio Ugo semi tone and tone tone tone semi to go over that again slowly. So from here to hit turn from here to here that a semi tone, then a turn, then atone Benneteau in a cemetery and that gives us off. I'll see Meteo, that's a C major scale which we can do tons of stuff in, which is what we're gonna discover in this course. Let's do two more scales, the two scales that we're gonna work primarily in in this course, let's go to G. Okay, so his g and let's do the same thing. So we skipped past the first stop gets the next. That's a tone skip past the next stop, good to the next. That's another turn. Then we have a semi time, then a tone that a tone and then a final tone now really important here to realize that when we're going from this note here up a tone that's not own, that's a semi tone. So we have to go to this one here on then one final 70 s. So it goes like this seven tone, tone, tone, tone semi 10. And then we have the major. Let's finally do f major way. Go up a time, then a turn, then a semi tone and hear this semi tone leads us on to a black man monotone, monotone, then a turn and then a senator. So it looks like a semi tone Teoh semi turn as a major and how to create your three primary major scales that we're gonna use inside of this course. I would really get to know this like the back of your hand. It's an incredibly important tool, and not just to be able to work it out on the spot, but then toe learn those skills and embody them so that you can do what I was doing. They're just playing different patterns, which is essentially composing inside of a key, really, really important point playing around with its try and other keys that aren't just C, J and f other ones. Maybe Cem scales beginning on black notes or some other ones that getting on whiteness. And these are all major scales. Remember, you've found out the fundamental formula for the major scale. It's a first step. 7. Creating Chords Inside of a Key: in this video, we're going to go over how to create cords inside of the major scales. In the previous video, we looked at the structure of the major scale of turn, turn, semi, turn, turn, turn, turn, semi tone. So then when we've got those notes that we filtered out from the background chromatic scale , what we can start doing is building a cord from an initial note. Now, this is the route No, off the scale, as you know. But what we're gonna do is we're gonna build a cord from the same note. So this is gonna become the root note off that court and the shape goes like this. You play the first know, obviously, because that's the note that we're building it from. You skip the next note of the scale and go to the third note of the scale. And then you skip one more note and you go to the fifth and we call these, of course, 13 and five or the 1st 3rd and fifth. But we can take that pattern and build that cord from another note. So let's now make that note the root of the court that will be one, the three and the five or the route, the third in the fifth over. That's court. We still have the root note of the scale in place. We are still in, for example, the scale of C major with the scale of G major, but we're building on a different route note. So there's two layers of numbers here that you need to be clear about here. We're building it on the third degree of the scale and it's the same structure. 135 As a little aside here, the astute of you would realize that when we played this first court due to the pattern of the major scale, the space between the first and the third i e. The root note and then the third off that chord has four semi tones in between it. Where is when we played the 2nd 1? It had three semi tones in between it. And whilst this is a bit to advance to go deep into right now, just know that that's the difference between major and minor sounding courts. More on that later. So this is the root of this scale, and we call it one and That would be a second degree of the scale third degree, 4th 5th 6th 7th and then actually would get back toe one again. And if you're not sure why, it's because the chromatic scale on any instrument has 12 notes on. Once we get past 12 note, we're back to the same one. So if we'd started on, see, as one see would be one again, right on the right hand side of this page right now. So if we build a cord starting on degree two of the scale, that's the root note of the cord built on degree to scale. So we call it called to, but it has its own root note. So that's the root off that chord, the third off that chord on the fifth of that court. And if we move that here, it's the same wherever you move that structure. So I hope that's helpful. I wanted to make this really clear that differentiation between the degrees of the scale or the key and the degrees of the cord on both of them are working at the same time. They're both true. You just need to understand them At the same time, or side by side. So let's take that chord pattern and will apply inside of your three scales that you've learned so far. So we're doing here. What we're doing is we're skipping one note. It's a bit like when we took the 12 notes of the chromatic Scale and we skipped some of them. In other words, with filtering out stuff again. It's another layer of filtering here, so that's the shape on the way that it works is we play one now We skip the next night off the major scale, play the next note, skip the next night, play the next night, and that gives us a C chord. We won't go into whether it's major minor diminished, that sort of thing just yet. In this video, we'll do that in later videos. For now, all you need to know is that this is built on the spot of note, and this is how you should think about harmony. Harmony builds up from the roots like a tree. We don't build harmony necessary that way, what you do much later on, but something called negative harmony, but absolutely not within the scope, this course. So we build up again. This is our secret, said if we just take that pattern like a kind of cookie cutter mold right way, apply it there. On our route of D, we're now playing a D chord, e g a B C, and this is super easy inside of C Major right, which is why everyone starts with C major cause you can understand this assumes we play other keys. You can see that there's a little bit more thinking going on in there, but the principle is exactly the same. You create the scale regardless of the fact that you don't necessarily know that yet. It's still just going like this. Yeah, OK, so that's what C major scale. And that could be called C D E F cords. But it could also be called cord one called to Court three Chord four chord fire, Code six, Code seven and then called one again because we're always thinking relatively to this root note of this scale, wherever it is. Yeah, on It doesn't work that way. We don't go 12345 when we're going down. It's always thinking up. So this would be called one because it's C and then this would be called seven because 1234567 6531 That's how we think about the cause inside. See, Major, let's apply exactly the same thing inside of G Major and F major. So here's our G chord here because I g major scale goes. What we're doing is we're going play one skipped one play one skip one play one, and that gives us our triad shape. Try out because it's three notes. It's a standard form of harmony. Really, really. Courter. Basically, everything that you will learn in music that would be called to now called three here would not be this. Now you're wondering why, but the main reason is basically because we've already worked out the scale and we realized that that major scale structure does not give us an F normal there. It gives us a shop again. Don't worry about the names. It's more about the shapes, so that doesn't go there. It goes, but that she sounds a lot better similarly here. Would it be that chord? It wouldn't because we still need to integrate this F show up. This note here into the key on. Lastly, this chord here it wouldn't be built on F because we don't have an effort in this key. We don't have a this note in this key, so it can be built on that land. So I play again called one called to a Code three code Full C Code five D called six e called seven F sharp 176 etcetera. Let's lastly, do NFL was through this one because you probably know this by now is your f major scale created from the tent and semi tone pattern. We play the first pattern built on the F second pattern built on the G. Integrating this new note. It's not that one, because that's not inside of scale. So get to know all the cords inside of this. Can you play them? Sorry in all of the key, So in G f on D. C. And be able to play all of them away through going up and down, and you'll notice that you can start creating your nice chord progressions, right? You come up with little ideas. I mean, it doesn't sound super fantastic were amazing at the moment, but this is the building blocks will get to the nuance, the arrangement and the voicings later on. But it's really important that at this stage, you don't necessarily skip through. Too much is that you can at least play every single chord inside of those three keys really quickly and be able to go okay called to off F Major called five off C Major caught two off C major chord five off g major. I'd be able to do those quite quickly, so that's you practice, see in the next video. 8. Naming Notes on the Piano: so so far we've been playing around with patterns and filtering out notes from the background of the chromatic scale. So and we took that pattern, turned and semi turn and created a major scale. And then we took this pattern and moved it around that major scale creating courts. And this is a theme that you'll come across again and again in music, that you take patterns and filter stuff out and you move them around basically now, theoretically, you could keep composing without ever learning any note names. Because really, there's nothing inherently see about this if I kind of explain what I mean. If you imagine that all humans disappeared off the planet, Andan Animal came over to this can play this this? There's nothing around this note that is inherently see, and it's really important to realize that the sound and the effect that we're hearing is not see. It's this shape against the backdrop of semi tones, which is really important, However, especially in a course like this, it is really beneficial to be able to talk about harmony and give things names rather than to say that. Note that so it's in this video that we're going to start learning all of the note names so superimposed over the piano at the moment is the standard note names A B, C D E F G, and you can see there goes on up the piano fragrant on. It's really important for you to start learning me so that immediately when you play a chord like this, you know it's some type of D chord or is it some type of G chord? So we'll start with this natural note names first. And the best way to learn this is simply just to decide to learn one of them at a time. So you play day and visually that's in between the group of two black notes. Because obviously on piano we have this 3 to 32 thing going on with black notes. So you just play oldies on panic by this and out of shot, I'm playing all of them as well. Up here is well, and hopefully even after sort of 10 seconds of doing that, that's gonna be really clear in your mind. Maybe even if you say out loud and then you try another neck G d and do that with all of the note to the outfit and then come back 10 minutes later or the next day and see how good you are going G straight to. And the thing that you want to be aware of is whether you're counting up or down from other notes. So what I mean is, if I say, Where's d and you in your mind go B c d. That doesn't count. It needs to be what we call an orientation point is really key. So that note there is your starting point a bit like a landmark in a city, you know, immediately whether is, rather than having to find directions to get to that place. Otherwise, everything that we do later, when I say player see major seven chord, you will be like, great where see again, ABC and it will slow down the whole process because you'll have this tiny little step that you have to do all the time before everything. So go away, learn all the natural notes and then come back to this point in the video and learn all the sharp nuts. So I'm assuming you've learned all off the natural notes. Every city FG across the piano. Let's talk a little bit about how you name the shop and flat minutes. So if we take a really simple example like D here in music, we always have a sharp and a flat version off every natural note on the piano. The natural makes it really easy to see because they are just white. But really, if we were to think about it more theoretically, the natural no is just a or just be without any modifications of sharp or flat. So if we play D it and we go in between these two black notes here, if I go down one that's going flat. So we call this note in relation to this one. We're calling it D flat or if we get up, we're going t o shop. Now, obviously, the astute of you will realize, or you'll know already that if we go to see and we go up one night, that's going shop. That's the same night. So the important thing to realize straight away is this is just names on the black notes have two names, right? So this is C sharp or D flat, and this is the sharp or e flat. So try and name some of the other notes on the piano aan den. Pause the video now trying name seven minutes and come back, and I'll explain one final little confusing thing. So the confusing thing that you probably discovered just then is. What about the shop? See Flat ish up on F flat? There's no sharp or flat well, kind off. That's kind of true, really. I want you to think off sharpened flat. It's not necessarily going from a white note to a black man, because if you think about it, if you're playing trumpet or violin would be no baby, no black or white element about this. And in fact, when you play on the piano, the fact that it's white or black doesn't matter to music, right? So the way that we go sharp or flat is from a natural note down one semi turn on a semi tone, just as a little reminder is that tiny little step that we learned when we did that chromatic scale. So, technically speaking, hello. This is something that you don't really come across too much. If you go from this F down one little semi tone. Yes, that's E, but you could also call it f Flat on. That would also be f sharp. So E shop would also be f e flat would be that Similarly, here's a B. It's very obvious that we can go b flat, but when we go be sharp way, get to this minute. So this is called C usually, but you can also call it be sharp again. Don't worry too much about that. You probably won't use it. Certainly not in the rest of this course, really too much, and you probably won't need it to even compose. But it's there in the background of your logic and understanding of the way that music works so that later on, you're not like hang on, what enough is that No will also encounter in the chapter where we talk about the circle of fifths. Okay, hope that was helpful. I'll see you in the next video 9. Ambient Track Assignment: So I'm big on assignments in this course, and in general, it's really important that as you're learning stuff, you really try and apply it. So not only in these assignments that I give you, but in your own work. Try and take what you're learning and apply it straight away to composing your own work as a suggestion, because we don't want to be too complex. If you're kind of beginner at this stage, what we want to do is we want to do a simple ambient track. So if you're not sure about ambient music, it's kind of basically really slow. There's no tempo. Therefore, you don't really have to fit things together in the kind of the rhythmical grid. In such a you had to spend too much time thinking about it's quite floating. So what I would like you to do is choose a pad or some kind of like instrument that's synthesizer or strings or whatever, and try with your left hand playing simple chords in your D. A W. So you just hit record, and then you might set these cords, make sure you're performing or composing in a key. So here hopefully realized that I'm in the key of F major B flat and you just hold these cool. It's for ages. Yeah, And then So we move around to other ones and then go back and record over the top inside of F major again. A really nice slow melody, probably on piano, with a nice bit of reverb on. You'll get kind of quite cheesy, but maybe quite lovely film it sort of quality. And this is a really good starting point for you to realize that you're writing inside of a key and just spend a lot of time almost a bit like a meditation, really kind of getting to know the quality of the key. What notes sound? Well, what sound? Don't what? Don't sound so good together. Just create simple ambient track. You don't have to do anything with it. It's just kind of a bit of play. So I see in the next video with a quick example 10. Ambient Track Example: so we'll start this video at the piano. Just a simple example off the ambient track and how you apply what you've learned so far in a compositional process. And then we'll go into theatrical d aaw logic and look at what I've done that. So one of the things that people often ask when they are thinking or evaluating whether they need to learn piano in order to up their compositional skill set is really that if you understand the theory off, just the fact that we've got a chord here on the court here and I'm playing next. But surely you can program everything inside of logic. Well, yeah, that's true. And actually, depending on how what you prefer, you must absolutely feel free to do that. But also don't underestimate the power of having this at your fingertips literally at your fingertips rather than at the end of the fingertip of a mouse, or whether you call it. It's a bit less of a musical feeling when you're kind of clicking and moving things around and on doing things like that to be able to just kind of yeah, and you can actually be more intentional and as you build up your ear, your aural training, you can start hearing the lines that you want and hearing the cords that you want. And it's a kind of a really nice process where everything starts to come together. Planning also away from the screen is a lot more creative. I find I get stuck very quickly if I'm set of the screen, whereas if I come to the other side of the room where the piano is, my dear W's over there, I kind of get out of my kind of producer mindset into the composer mindset. And then I can go back and get my producer mindset. So anyway, you saw I was going to funny stuff there. Let me just make it a little bit more simply, I'm gonna play a chord in my left hand playing Melody Oh, we owe See, Major, Let's try in G Major, we owe So unlike some of the other tracks in this course, this particular example took me only a minute or two because it's super easy to write atmosphere music if you hadn't known this already. Basically, what I've got here is one core track. This patch here which is basically just playing chords now, If that looks but complex to you, let me zoom in. Turn off this view here as well. What we've got is our simple triad shape going on there that you saw me playing second ago and then this one here. Then one of the notes carries on because it's the bottom of the next chord and then the next court and then the next court. There's a tiny bit of complexity where I'm just changing. That's a bit before in a bit after, but basically what I'm doing is that Triad. That three note chord shape you can see changing every kind of, uh, well, there's no bars, really sort of just changes every now and again. Onda. What then? I've gone over the top of that. It's just me wandering around on the piano inside of the key. Just see Major, and then all I've got at the bottom here, we'll hear those in a second is just some notes backing up exactly what this is doing here , and you'll find that, especially if you put a loader reverb on your on your instruments. Everything kind of just gels together, pretty well and it's a very easy way to write music by putting on a lot river from writing something that's quite atmospheric, which is why I put it as our first exercise. So let's have a little listen and I'll open up the tracks and look at different things that are going on as we listen way. 11. Establishing 'Gravity' With Keys: in this video, I'm gonna talk to you about a concept which is absolutely core to understanding and using harmony and you composing pieces that make sense to you and also the listener that is about gravity. We thought about the grid, and we've placed pictures vertically with a chromatic scale and then moving forward in time . What I want you to do in this episode is to think about the major scale transposed vertically onto this grid so that we can play melodies in it and think about where the center of gravity is now. Be aware that it's not. The chromatic scale is the backdrop of the grid now, but the grid is now made up off the major scale, so all of those notes that you're seeing there are now transposed to an equal grid. If we play the first note off a major scale, let's say it's this one. It's called the root note or note number one. And then if we go on up through the scale way, get to number one again. What we have is another route. No, on. This creates a center of gravity. So note number one in the scale wherever is, however, highly low is are resting point. It's like arriving home. So if we play a melody, this will be quite evident. Uh, and then if we move that somewhere else moved the entire major scale up a few steps, then that center of gravity arrives somewhere else on again. If we moved the major scale to a different key. So obviously I'm just introducing the concept of this at the moment on, If you're a complete beginner, it's gonna be a bit hard to understand. But I just want to sow a seed here and get you thinking about how harmony really works behind the scenes because you'll have experienced this sense of gravity in music, even if you've never been consciously aware of it. And now you're gonna be learning about theory. So let me give you some examples, which you don't have to follow exactly. Theoretically. But for example, if we're playing here at the center of gravity's, that's a center of gravity. We feel at home there like we finished. And if I carried on playing, you're getting a bit bored now, right? Because there's this sense of we're just we're just there and obviously this is planning stage. We're just at the piano. Nothing's making sense yet in terms of the full arrangement. But there's something lacking there in terms of the harmony, especially if I was to carry on doing that sort of like two minutes or something like that , because our sense of gravity is just in one place and we like gravity to move. So is an example counter to that? What if I did? We've got this new center of gravity now. It feels a lot more like we've lifted. We've done something different, and again we did the same. We then were established here. There's something different now. We've moved back into another area. Now again, you don't have to understand this totally. But the whole sense of or part of this chapter The purpose of this chapter is to get you understanding the idea of gravity inside of major scales and minor scales which diatonic harmony. And this idea is really, really important as we go forward. So I hope this chapter is useful to you and I'll see you in the next video 12. The Circle of fifths Major Key Gravity: So if a major scale creates gravity on their 12 different notes in the chromatic scale that we can start that major scale on, then that means that there are 12 centers of major scale gravity on one of the best ways to visualize and use these different centers is through something called the Circle of Fifths . Now, initially, that probably looks a bit complex. So let's take it away. Why are we learning this? Well, the circle office is extremely powerful. Please don't be overwhelmed by the initial complexity. It allows us to make harmonic decisions when we really understand the circle of fifths. So you could kind of see it like our musical compass. It allows us to move and modulate and use different keys in a very effective way, and we're absolutely not learning it. For the sake of music theory, that is completely not what is courses about. This causes a very practical course, so I'm giving it to you because it will enhance the way that you think about writing music . But the complexity for you, if you've never read music before, will almost certainly be coming from the bunching up of all these different notes and Sharps and flats signs, particularly these which are based on the Stave with the treble clef on the different sharp signs on different note places. Now let's just look at the top three keys. The's might make a bit more sense to you because we've done these major scales. We've done F on the left, which has one flat, and you can see this one flat sign G on the right with one sharp and that has one sharp sign and see up at the top. There doesn't have any sharp signs because there's no Sharps or black notes on the piano in C major. So even though we're going to try and stick in these keys for most of this course, I still want to explain how the rest of the Circle of Fifths works in this video. So I'm gonna make it a lot simpler and build the whole thing up from scratch. Here. We just have a circle and the musical alphabet, and this is the best way to start thinking about it. We're going to snow at sea because it's our starting that with no or are starting key with no sharps or flats will put out the top because it's the most simple. Now, if we count 12345 starting from C, that's gonna get us 1/5 away from C. We need to count upwards as well, by the way. So we're gonna start at sea and we're gonna go through the musical alphabet, which is known as otherwise known upwards in music C one D to E three f or G five. That's 12345 Now be aware that we started at sea, which is 12345 which is very different to what we did when we counted the spaces between the notes in the chromatic scale. Don't get confused because that will really, really, really not work if you count the spaces between notes you see here I've counted the spaces between notes and it's gotten us to a which is very different. So we go see to G is 1/5 12345 on. Then we put G around the circle of fifths. At the next point, let's do the same from G 12345 gets us to D. We put that on the circle. If it's seem with D, takes us to a a Texas to e e. Texas to be, and then we fill out the rest of circle, etcetera, etcetera. If you weren't sure what happened at this point around the Circle of Fifths just then, don't worry about it too much. It's a bit more advanced for now because we've got flat signs and we have to think about kind of the rial interval structure of what it fifth is. Don't worry about that. For now. Just think about the letter G, not the f sharp and know that G is fifth away from D 12345 and in D Flat is 1/5 away from a etcetera etcetera as we go around. So let's talk about key signatures now these things on the right. Basically, they are just telling you which notes of sharpened or flattened as you know from your G and your F scale. So let's look at how that is built up. So if we start the major scale structure on G, then we end up with one sharp as you know our f sharp. And that's why G major on the circle fits has one sharp sign like that. If we do the same with D, and you might want to pause the video and do this yourself. Now you'll discover that D major with the major scale structure ends up with two sharps. See shop in F sharp. And that's what we have seen with a three shops. And that's what we have on the key signature. We do the same left around the circle of fifths. We end up with flats. F Major has B flat and then be flat has B flat, obviously, and E flat and B flat has e flat, a flat on B flat, and it goes on round. So this is how the outer part or the major part off the circle of fifths works on what we're covering in this video. Hopefully, that makes it a bit more simple, But let's talk about the practical and a useful function of thinking or using the circle of fifths. And that's really about this, that the keys that are next to each other are most similar because nearly all of their notes of the same C and F only have one note that's different. That's B flat. Similarly with C and G, they only have one note that's different. That's f or f sharp when you're in G, and this makes it particularly easy to modulate or use notes or share gravity points with another key. That's closest to it because you're only moving gravity of short distance on. This is the really important point that I want you to start thinking about. That modulation is really moving gravity to a different place. So, for example, if we're using just our G, C and F keys here, we could be playing composition, and I'll stick to really simple triads at the moment. I'll try not to do any fancy voicings that confuse you, so I'll go up here will sound a bit boring. Our center of gravity is very much and see there. But then, if we change it to G, we've got a center of gravity now arriving at G and feel we feel like we're happy toe end there. So later in the course, we get into modulation and shared keys, which give a kind of a kind of a much more interesting feel. But just play around with this idea off being at this certain point in the circle of fifths on, then suddenly deciding to be in another key and creating the sense of gravity. And half of it comes from your mind as a composer. But half of it also does get through to the listener that we are all unconsciously hearing , even if we don't know about music, where the center of gravity is and the kind of tension and resolution around when we resolved that where we push it around. So, for example, if you're in major way suddenly moved to D Major and then to see way create a kind of interesting shifting off gravity moving to different places now that will probably be a bit overwhelming if you're a complete beginner. At the moment, however, watch this video a couple of times. Try out performing and creating court in one key and then suddenly moving to another key and just get a sense of where that gravity is lying on the circle of fifths always printed out. Perhaps be a good thing and put it on the top of the piano and play around with it. There 13. Creating a Minor Scale and Key: So now we're gonna look at the minor scale. If we were able to create such interesting kind of shapes and chords and melodies inside of a major scale, the minor scale is just basically giving us the same set of ideas. But in a different flavor gives us a different quality of sound. Let's see what I mean here. Now, I could start with a line of dots like we did the major scale and say, This is the chromatic scale and we're gonna play this one. Play that one, filter out that one in the middle, go to this one. But actually, there's a much easier way of doing this rather than learning a new formula entirely from scratch. Actually, you've got two for the price of one here because theme minor scale is contained inside off our may just go. And you already know this formula. So let me show you exactly what I mean. First here in the presentation, and then I'll show you at the piano. So firstly, onion, zoom out and we're looking here with the orange arrow at our root note. So that's the root of our scale where we started our formula from If we extend this obviously down. So we're going now down through the scale, which is repeating what we see on the right hand side of the screen. There we go down two steps and then we superimpose the C major scale over it. So if you've done that in C major, that would have gotten us from C B A. And if we decide to treat this a note now is our center of gravity. Just like we treated the C note. When we're in the major, this becomes our relative minor scale. Let me show you this at the piano. So creating a minor scale isn't too hard when you know how it relates to the major scale. So to kind of reiterate what we just looked at on screen there, Let's take one of your scales. Let's take the G scale on. So long as you're comfortable and familiar with that scare, well, you need to do is go down to notes and start on E. All right way haven't minus go now this is called the e natural light. We won't go over the other types of minor until later part, of course, But suffice it say Natural is exactly the same as the major, but we've just shifted gravity to another place. So in a way, like when we were moving gravity of a major scale around inside of a major scale, you can push gravity down to a different place. So here we have a way. But now we just decide. And again it's about intentionality is a composer. You decide to move to a different place, and now we are saying with the claiming that is our center of gravity and that really, really affect the sound of peace. It's sadder to put it really simply on major and minor. To put it really simply is happy and sad. Onda, if you're if you're not quite sure what something's major or minor, you can always ask yourself what kind of question with this work. Well, at a wedding, if someone was playing, it wouldn't work so well. You want sanctity, major major sound right, so play around with a minor scale in terms of finding it from the relative major of G, C or F on. What you'll find is you'll be working out three relative minor scales, so the relative minor of C major is a the relative minor G major is e minor on the relative minor of Major. It is a demon now. You can also, if you want, if you prefer to think in a different way. So this is one way. The way we're doing here is we can't with a major scale without formula, and then we find the relative minor that belongs to it. But you could also then just learn the formula for the minor scale, and this is the really important point. This is why we started with a chromatic scale. If you can understand the structure, any content, any piece of content, whether it's a nice voicing or a scale or a melody, if you can understand it against the backdrop off the critic scale, you can apply anywhere because everything works on the grid system. So the minus go. You could learn us 71 tone tone, semi tone. So if you want to do it that way, then you can start on any note and you can play that any way you want. You're playing the natural minor scale. So have fun with that Integrated Understand the relative minor of major and how that works . And maybe try learning the minor scale in different places as well. Not just your your three relative miners as part of this course. 14. Circle of fifths Minor Key Gravity : So now you know how to create a minor scale. You take your major scale formula and you go down to notes to what we call the relative minor. Then we basically decide to create gravity at that point. Oh, so we already know from a previous video that the Circle of fifths is every major key laid out around a circle. But also inside of that key are the relative miners on the inside of that circle. Let's look at that now. So see majors. Relative Minor is a minor G majors. Relative Minor is E minor and F majors is D, and they share allow same notes. They're exactly the same notes, but they're just played starting from a different point and where we treat gravity from a different point. And the other thing is that the the relationship of fifths de to a a T E to B B to F Sharp is still in place. We still have 1/5 between D. N a, n e e and B, etcetera etcetera. This basically allows us to do the same thing with the minor keys because it's easiest to modulate to the closer keys because you're only moving gravity a short distance. So here A. If you're in the key of a minor, you can move to E minor or D minor and use all the courts from Naqi on This kind of answers . One of the major questions that most people have when they're trying to compose in the beginning is like What chords do I use? How do I move to a different place? How do I create a new section? How do I make something sounds similar and work, but also be exciting and moving onwards? And this is one of the core elements of how you do this with harmony. So the closest keys to e minor are A and B, and saying would be which B F sharp E f sharp miners relative or close keys are C sharp, minor and B minor. So really don't take my word for it. Go and try this out now and then I'll show you on the piano. So with see, the relative minor is a on inside of the circle. Just below it is a on into the right. We have G on the relative minor of G is on underneath G. Inside the circle a tree. We have e so we can do the same thing that we did in that little exercise where we decided to write a piece of music that was using the cords off G, C and F or rather the keys of C, G and F. We could do the same with our three relative minors with a minor d minor on also e minor. Okay, so you can write a piece of music that starts off in the key of a minor on. Then you can move to e minor on. Then you can t minor. Okay, now you saw me do unconsciously a few little inversions. They don't worry about this for now. You've You stick with your reposition chords in these compositions that be fine, but just it just realize it's exactly the same. We're deciding to treat gravity in a different place and by moving gravity in the course of our composition, we create quite interesting harmony. I'm sure if you've studied piano just for a little bit even may be just the 1st 3 videos. You've realized that compositions sound a little bit static if we're just inside of one PP all of the time. We don't do anything that's outside of the key on. The word for that is non diatonic. So we've been writing stuff inside of the key and then shifting the center of gravity to a different key. But the important thing to realize is that you can't just go toe any key, not not easily anyway. The best case to go for in the beginning are the ones to the left and right or clockwise and anti clockwise around the circle of fifths. So because we're working with C, G and F Major scales and their relative miners, they share a huge amount off notes. Right? If we look at C major, there's only and then we look and we compare it to Jean Major. There's only one note that's different. Okay, G major shares all of these other notes, so it's actually quite seamless to move between these centers of gravity. If I was to do a scale like F Major and then F sharp major, it's it's still can. You can still make it sound good. It is a very different quality, and you don't necessarily. It's not as easy to write good music have to think quite carefully. We will do that at some point, but devices say stick with the three keys wherever you are. But if you notice that if you were kind of a bit further around the cycle of fifths and you were doing for example, D major right D major is very similar to G Major and it's also very similar. Teoh the one on the right of it. So which would be a major anyway? A bit too much for this part of video in this part, of course. But explore what? We've just gone over there and I'll see you in the next video. 15. Learning all Keys: So hopefully by now you've gotten to know your G major, your F major and obviously or C major scales and their three relative miners. And hopefully you're writing some more stuff in some of those keys with the cords on DSA melodies on it. In this video, talk about kind of beyond the scope of this course goal, which is that you learn alot major and minor keys. Now, before you kind of think that's kind of too much. I don't need that. Let me give you an idea that there's only basically 12 notes right when you think about a 123456789 10 11 12 before you get back to the same. So remember, if you understand that part of the piano between my hands there, then you understand the whole of it, right? So if there are only 12 notes, there are only 12 major scales. And if they're only 12 major scales, that's gonna be 12 relative miners of those majors, and that's the primary kind of realm of diatonic music. That's the bulk of stuff that you hear on the radio on Spotify or whatever. It kind of doesn't necessarily go into the film ground. Some elements of filming music don't use just start on it coming. Certainly, jazz, uh, definitely uses a lot more. And of course, you know there's a very big genres there. They don't really mean anything. But at least for the first part, this course diatonic harmony is the best thing to understand. But for your six month goal of learning kind of those, all of those keys. What that's gonna give you is the ability to not only go through the rest. This course when we start doing by tonality, modulation, upper structures, all of those in court relationships, all of those things that require a knowledge of different keys and scales. But it's also gonna just mean that the whole thing of theory the whole the whole obstruction of theory drops away, and you can start playing around with patterns like you would in the piano roll or on some kind of like iPad app that allows you to make music really easily. But it's just coming from you at the panel. That's the goal. It that the theory and the keys dropped away, and it's just the music in your content which has left. So just take your turn, turn, semi turn and start on any note Or if you want to make it a bit easier in the beginning to get to know these keys, you could follow the circle if it so we're going clockwise around the circle of fifths and we've done G right. The next one is gonna be 1/5 away. So that's gonna be D So you play D major scale and do these for two actives Just like I'm doing here. You can look up the fingering online If you just put in d major fingering piano or something like that. You might get some not so reputable sources. But you know, there are There are plenty of things online. You can buy a scale manual from a BR salmon on Amazon has a good one. So on then, downwards as well with the major scandal get really good and then more around the circle of fifth. So the next one round would be a major, etcetera, etcetera if we're gonna go left run second, if it's going down from effort, be the major B flat major, right, and get to know all the cords in those scales just in their simple, reposition voicings. And then try playing your chord progressions that we've done so far. Things like 1564145251 Really, really simple bits right inside of her ski. So here's 1564 in B flat major way. I'm doing really simple voicings here and here it is in a major on. Then here it is in F sharp major and then start playing around with simple ideas inside of all those keys. So, for example, here's a simple idea in D minor, right? And then here is in a mine. Here it is in e flat, minor, right? So these ideas air translatable, immovable. And when you move them, that's composing, you know? So six month goal, Lionel Keys and I'll see you guys in the next video 16. Assignment Transposing Chords & Melodies: So in this assignment, you're gonna get really good at moving ideas and patterns into different places. So first of all, start off in C major to get used to this and take a pattern over a cord. So the way that you want to think about this is in relation to the root, not off the scale. So that's the route that started the scale. But cut the root of the current court that you're on. So here you are on a D chord on the root note is D So your melody could dio 12321 Then you move to another court in this key. So the court five for three and some things will sound better than others and just come up with patterns, maybe make more adventurous patterns. So, like 51 high three low to 1513 to 1. And I'm calling that one because you have multiple ones in different octaves. So once you've done that for a while, then take patterns and move them into different keys, so you'll transfer you. What you're doing here is you're transposing into another key. Have you heard that word and wonder what it meant. It basically means taking the same pattern and moving it into another key. It's a really simple example inside of C major. 12321 If we get into the major, it's gonna be once a 3 to 1 in F major. 12321 But what I want you to do is to transpose your chord sequence. So say you're playing chord one five six for a very famous cold progression. I want you to be able to then do that in two of the keys. So in G major would be one five six an f major b 15 six. Over the top of that, you could maybe add a little melody. For example. You could be like Maybe your pattern is 3 to 1 over the court that you're currently on. So 3 to 32 Then move to another key F major on. You see, we're starting to compose, right? So this is a very simple sounding, but it makes a bit of sense, right, because the ear is hearing a pattern moved to different places. And actually, when you start to analyze good melodies and good songs, that you like. This is quite often what they do know all the time like that. If we just kept on moving that pattern around all the time, everyone, even if you've never studied music for we'd find that quite boring. You start to realize it, but with a little bit of it. It had some A certain sound come sense of cohesion in your music. So it's a good idea to kind of start using this to play around with this in your different keys, take your patterns and move them to different places and thinking about these two layers. You've got the backdrop of the key itself Thistles, your root note of the key. But then the current court that you're on also has its own, so want, even though we're in C major and hopefully that'll yield just a few interesting results and some cool ideas. But you can see that we're on our way, and this is the important thing. To think when you're composing is think off stages quite often, the the illusion or the kind of temptation when you're working with the D. A W. And you have loads of amazing synthesizers and production tools is to believe that you can throw some stuff down and it will sound amazing straight away, especially when you're using loops. But this is an iterative process. You add stuff together, so trust the process. Learn this Onda play around with it until it becomes really comfortable. 17. Get Composing!: So at this point, in the course you've done a lot. You've learned about major scales, minor scales. You've learned about circular, fifth and gravity, and you've learned about chords in their scales and you've moved patterns around. So that's a lot of stuff to be doing already. And hopefully you've been coming up with some interesting compositions or stuff in your work that uses the material we've done so far. What we've also done is later, fantastic foundation for all of the many videos that are to come all about more extensive, interesting harmony, fewer compositions. But what I'm gonna do in this video is give you a bit of inspiration and say that what we've learned so far is kind of enough to be doing a lot with. If I can kind of explained by doing this video. Basically, what I do in the following video is show you call a simple composition that I've done just using the principles that we've done so far, so diatonic, so inside of a key, just using those cords and playing patterns inside of that. But I use a few techniques that I'm sure you will be aware of. A producer or a songwriter that basically pull those chords and melodies and arrange them on different instruments in interesting ways. Now, arguably speaking, what I've done here is I've written a piece of music using pretty much only the harmonic knowledge that we've learned so far. It's in the key of D minor, and it only uses the key of D minor on the notes in there, and it pretty much just uses route position chords. There are a few things going on, like long held nodes that join the cords together. That's a principle that will learn later on in the course. But what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna play three first and then we're gonna rebuild the track so I can talk you through the whole thing. - Okay , so it sounds may be quite complex. If you're beginning, let's dive in and show you exactly what's going on. So, first of all, let's start with this felt piano here, what I've got going on and this is the thing that I'd invite you to do if you're working with ah dear w like logic, which has midi effects like arpeggio haters. What I've basically done is I've turned the arpeggio later on and done the settings that I like. Obviously, it's not within the scope of this course to talk about logic or RPG. It is. But you can find many things like that on you, to me and other on golf course, YouTube and stuff like that. So basically all the arpeggio hater does is take the note that you're playing on notes you're playing and repeats the minister in order. So here I'm just holding D. And what it's doing is it's playing it in 16th notes, and I've changed the velocity a little bit. I'm gonna close that now so doesn't confuse us. But if I now play other notes, I bring up my little app here. My Cordy app. You'll see what I'm doing way now. If I move to another court, Theo, that sounds pretty close to a piece of music or part of a piece of music. At least this is the important thing. As a producer and composer, what you need to realize is that you actually have lots of things in your d aaw often that can help you compose. I you just create the cords and then it kind of lays out roughly what you're doing in an interesting way. That's particularly good with arpeggio haters. So that's what I've got going on for the felt piano here. And I've combined that with a clock sound. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna build I'm just gonna copy that clock sound across, put it here and then I'm gonna perform the piano over the top again, which I kind of just did by improvising. I think this is doing is particularly this is quite filmic track. It's creating kind of sense of attention underneath because I'm playing different modes is enough kind of like differentiation. It's kind of creating the sound of another court, especially if I want. So that's basically what's going on underneath there. We're gonna leave the brass and strings for a second. The other little aside, that it's worth mentioning is of course, of course, you need to have a sense of production skills and also some good instruments. And I'm using trustee Spitfire audio orchestral samples here, which I find absolutely amazing with just a simple you know, just a simple note Utkan get the sound off eyes Most beautiful performance on trumpet so really, really good stuff to be using there. So I'm gonna go straight up to these tracks here because that's the bulk a bit if you remember in ambient track. What we did is we played certain chords over with a pad that's essentially what we're doing here, but with a string pad. So what I'm gonna do is I'm just gonna hold a d minor chord here. Five changed to Cordy. You'll see what I'm doing and then up to court for So when I show people this for the first time, it's kind of the first thing should be, Hey, it's quite easy to compose. Yes, it is really easy to compose music like this. In some ways, you're just building on the simple blocks and thinking about patterns. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna lay that down. Now I'll try and keep Corti outpost. I'm doing it so you can see what I'm doing. Occasionally, I might change one now in the cords like a might move down to G, just add a bit attention and then I'll move up to the G chord way on Booth. Now, I'm just leaving out the A from the top of that chords. And then I'll leave out the earth so we just end on a long day. So that's what's going on there. I'm gonna leave this secondary, Evo. I kind of did that for various reasons. And then I'm just gonna add in. Oh, no, sorry. We got the brass and string. So basically what these guys are doing, we just solar them over here. Is that kind of adding rhythmical tension on essentially all they're doing If you combine them both together, I've arranged part of the chord in the strings and part of the chord in a brass. What you end up with is the same chord of that that's being played in the strings. So the cords of kind of following each other, So here I can't remember exactly what I did. But what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna rough idea the same thing with string. So it's following what's going on, e believe it. They're just not do the whole thing just for your sake of time. Let's try and do the same of the brass. Let's leave that there as well, then all I'm doing this is all in the scale of demon. I know what you know so far. I'm just gonna play random notes in the trumpet inside of D minor. Turn off this match name and you get the idea. So it's really, really fun to play around with. It's kind of the next stage. We've got some rhythmical content. We're thinking about the grid of rhythm here, and we're a bit more clear about where, while not in this one here, but bit more clear about where with changing chords. So I was changing kind of every two bars there. So But compared to our our Ambien track, we're just a bit of a step forward. Now you can see how it's kind of coming together. So if you could create kind of attract like this, that be really, really useful to you at this point, I think I kind of feel a lot more confident that, you know, all this stuff that I've learned so far is directly applicable. You don't have to do in a filmic style like I have. That's just my natural tendency. You do in any genre that you're after. Of course, you're instrumentation. Your rhythms gonna change. But the harmony. Arguably at this stage is going to be basically the same idea. You in plain triad chords inside of these scales and playing, playing a melody on top of that Cool. I'll see you guys in the next chapter. Have fun. 18. Technique & Fluency at the Piano: So when I was putting this course together, I was wondering whether I should actually include this section, which is on technique of piano, because this isn't how to play piano course. This is a how to compose with piano and use harmony in your compositions and your work. But the more I did this course and more planned out, the more I realized that actually a bit of fluency and physical kind of technique at the piano helps you compose. Yes, theoretically, you don't need to know how to really put your fingers on the piano in the correct way, right? Not that there is a particularly correct right. There's just a easier way of doing it right. You don't necessarily need to. You could go to a D a W on because you know, the theory of piano go right those three notes on my first chord. And if I do that, I do this and then I'm playing a melody and but you see, right, this is really awkward, The way I'm playing a moment, especially from doing these funny things in my fingers here like this looks rubbish. And actually, if you try doing what I was just doing there. It doesn't feel good right on. The main thing about composing is that you feel good when you're doing it, that it comes from flow. Most frustrating thing for all of us is when we're trying to do something. Come I like this is not working. This doesn't feel good. It sounds rubbish, you know. And so in all areas, you kind of think of this Noah's technique. But like ergonomics, just like setting up your studio correctly with the mouse in the right way, you know, this is this is the same thing. So anyway, there's only a few short videos on, So the primary thing to think about when you're sat at the piano first and foremost is when you sit when you sit down is that you're kind of upright, right? Like if you're on a whole soul on a motorbike or something like that. Maybe many bikes about example actually hopes so on. If you see on the camera above, I've got both of my feet firmly planted on the ground. So it's like I'm this this tripod, right? Your bomb on the chair in the two feet on the ground that gives you a core, this real sense of stability sore about my squeaky chair in the background, right, and that gives you the ability to move around the piano. Well beyond that, though, when we're playing the piano, the most important thing to think about is really how we impact the keys because we're impacting the keys a lot, right on the most common way to describe that most people would describe playing the piano would be We pressed the keys, right? Just like you press the keys on the keyboard. But I want to frame it in a slightly different way and that we actually fall into the keys on the piano. That sounds like really weird and like, you know, kind of really strange kind of difference. But basically we're using gravity all the time, right, if we're just if you just hold your arms above your legs like this, if you sat down and then just drop them, I went too much because the camera's gonna go right. You'll feel that they have a huge amount of weight in them, right? And so if we using that way, well, we never have to press the piano again. In fact, we never have to use effort to play the piano. This might sound like a little bit esoteric if it is a really good way to start playing on the reason why there is a reason it's to do with relax ation. So when you're playing anything on the piano, it's got to feel nice and relaxing, even if it's like, really heavy in life. So it could be really hard as well, right? But the main thing is, relax, ation, because you're falling through your own. So is the first exercise. What I want you to do is just play a few notes and rate to yourself out of 10. How much my pressing life on a key using your fingers like this and how much a my dropping using my arms weight, right? So if you imagine a scale here, if this was a scale like weighing scales and this is the key here and you just put your hand on their nothing's happening and then you just drop your weight through and the scale gets heavier and then you lift your weight up, the scale comes up. That's kind of what we're doing. The pianist and nothing's my fingers touching the piano. Women. Nothing's happening. And then I dropped weight through and something happens. So a really small distinction here, but has powerful consequences because what many people find many my students find is that if there composing or they're jamming with people that get really excited into it and they're kind of going like, you know, over and over and over again 10 minutes later, they're like, How how this really hurts, right? And it's because doing that their president, I supposed Teoh drumming sounds exactly the same rights. Know about the sound. It's about you at the piano keeping, keeping care of your taking care of yourself at the piano. So that's number one. Relax ation and the idea of weight. But of course, our weight has to fall into something right. And if we're playing like this with our hands really spread out when we get like that's like hitting something, imagine you're trying back, sank into the ground and you went to It's really stupid. It's a really inefficient way of doing. You bend your arm, you go like that right now, give a really much more powerful things. So the same thing with our hands here, and I'll just close up shots of this as well in post so that we can really see the shape of our hands here. So what I've done there is I just relaxed my hand, really, and it falls naturally into this kind of round shape. Right? You could do this if you just hold your hands like this open and then if you just turn your arms over. But don't flop your wrists like that to turn your arms over, and then that's usually what's called your natural position of function. That's the right shape for your hand when you're playing a piano. So if you watch me play a scale, that's kind of going to be the most natural way for you to fall and play around with these now that doesn't stay the same all the time. Of course, if you're doing big spread out chords, you have to do that kind of spreading with your hands. But as a central place that we always come back to our kind of core technique, it's this position of function with relax, ation and weight through our hands. So in the next video, we'll talk a little bit about how to move around the piano efficiently with our fingering 19. Hand positions & Fingerings: So in the previous video, we talked about the core idea of piano technique, which is about the idea. Relax ation on weight. In this video, we're gonna talk about how to move around the piano effectively because, actually, that's the way that you compose. This is your tool, and it's kind of an extension of your thinking. It also enhances your thinking. This is the other principle inherent and why you've decided to learn piano always, he recognized that piano will help you think about how to compose better. And if we're moving around, can emit an awkward way. Then our thinking is gonna be hindered. We can't play stuff at the speed that we're thinking. You don't want to, like record something like 60 BPM in your D A. W and then, like speed it up later and then think that's not quite right. You want to be able to play and think roughly at the same speed with your musical ideas. So there's two core ideas in this video to cause of your ideas, which is that off hand positions and finger rings right on a hand position is basically roughly where five fingers covers on the piano. Sometimes that could be five notes, or it could be a bit wider than five notes and fingering XYZ. Basically, how we go between fingers. So we'll start with hand positions if we take a C major scale, right? And I'll do this in my left hand right now. If I put my thumb on C, my second thing is going to be My third finger's gonna be on a my fourth finger is gonna be on G and fifth on F, and that's because my natural position of function roughly falls there. You might find if you have smaller hands on me, that you end up like that. If you look at the piano at the moment, my fingers a kind of now sort of bunched up over four notes. If that's the case for you, spread them out a bit so that each finger has a separate note. And with that natural position of function, feeling in your hand. Now just play a single 12345 and you'll be going downwards if you're in your left hand. If we do it in the right, we're gonna be going upwards. 123 and this is just a really, really obvious thing that you probably knew already. But I'm just a kind of framing first and foremost. So what I'm doing there is employing music inside of one hand position for each hand. Then I can move that ham position somewhere else. I could be that anyway. Right? But that's not the whole picture, right? Because we don't just play piano like this. We don't go wave our hands alleles. Move it somewhere else. Actually, we do this, which is traveling, which we've done in the scales a little so far. And if you've looked up fingering online, you'll know that's what starts to happen is we're going Think of 123 and then won again. 234 and then won again. 12 people fight and this is called pivoting, right? So if you look at the piano at the moment, my first finger goes down. One, 234 and then I can bring my thumb under 123 could bring with them on the three as well. 12 and I could bring with them under two. So these or pivots 1 to 1 Teoh, this'd using now three fingers on 12341234 So I'm pivoting with the phone. If I come back down, I could bring my fingers over the phone booth. Same with the left hand over. Now it gets a bit confusing, actually, because the hands are mirror images of each other. So when we're going down in the left hand, the thumb is coming under. When we're going down in the right hand, things over, you might need to watch this video again if that's a bit to give using view. But hopefully it's very simple. So the principle the first rule, is that we never pivot our fingers over our fingers, right? Because if you try and I think don't go that way on their own very well, obviously we need to move our riffs to do it. But on their own, they're very good at going that way, right? So that's why we kind of go thumb, which is incredibly malleable, right? Comes underneath or our fingers go over. So number one rule is fingers. Every fingers on the second rule is that we never pivot on the fifth finger so we can go 1 to 1 to one to get 23 with 31234 once before. But we can't go what we can, but it's just awkward. 1 to 515 You can do it. Course you can that you end up with that which is not very comfortable. Right and again, we're all about relaxation and comfort. And when you start moving at speed in scales, absolutely doesn't work to be going like that because it's a tiny bit of tension and a tiny bit of tension at speed over and over again is bad ergonomics. So what do you do with this, right? Well, I would say a really good exercise for you to start doing. To start moving into the round improvisation and generating ideas without necessarily having to think about those ideas is something called the wandering hand exercise where basically you playing random notes inside of a key, right? If you played random notes just on any no, it's great fun to do. Actually, it's a very good way to kind of get moving around the piano and understand. Get your fingers knowing stuff, because what you'll find is if you just watch now, you might end up doing things like this by accident. My fingers slip for that between because my finger, maybe at that point wasn't aware of where that finger was. Sorry where the key was so you could slow that down. But you're really not trying to think about what you see right now. I'm talking to you. I'm just kind of let my fingers do what they want. So kind of who's playing my fingers right there, just playing the feelings that they want to play. I'm not composed, right? That's a really good warm up, but doesn't sound. Break it. So let's move inside of a key. Really. All improvisation is is kind of a slightly extended version of what we're doing here inside of a key. So let me explain if I do that wandering hand exercise again, inside of safety, minor right center caves and sound amazing. But if I put some chords with it eyes, amazing ideas, but it starts to sound a bit like music, and potentially there will be some. The nuggets in there actually kind of works like, Well, hang on, what does that go back? Most of that was ramble, but it was that one moment where I went like I like that as a melody. Let's see what we can do with it. So that's the wandering hand exercise inside off key. And this is something that I'd like you to try and will do in a later video as well to start composing with. But basically you got to remember your two rules, which is fingers never over fingers, right, cause he might find that you're doing it. And you're like, Hey, this is great. I'm enjoying this and then you're going You're trying to do stuff like this and you're trying to do that and you'll find yourself doing this and your elbow comes up in the air and it's all going wrong, right? Try and stay with the technique element of this exercise while also enjoying the fact that you're starting to improvise and I'll see you in the next video 20. Wandering Hands Backing Tracks: So at this point in the course, we've got some more downloads. If you just head over to lean musician dot link slash LMC three, you'll go to a Google Drive folder, which will contain a number of different things. All the things you need for the course, including some backing tracks. You click on that folder, you'll see three of them, one in C major, one in F major, one in G major down like these Jam away and kind of get really comfortable moving around inside of the harmony of each of those major scales. 21. Assignment - Wandering Hands Track: so we're kind of at the end of this chapter about technique. We've already covered diatonic harmony and cords in a key in the sense of gravity. So you've already been composing. But I'd really invite you in this one to take the principles that we've learned so far and really write something that you can kind of really start ranging and enjoying in your work . So the point off the wandering hand exercise and what we've done so far learning the kind of color palette, if you like off these different keys is to really take off the pressure for you as a composer and writer and producer to generate material. Really, the point of this is to just start throwing ideas down going. That's OK. Try that. All that's better. Yeah, let's throw some of this. Okay, that's cool. I have some of that. And what if I put that with that? There's no ego there for me as a composer rather than me thinking than sitting there going . I must write something that is incredible is totally not the right way to compose. In my opinion. Anyway, you should just kind of play around with stuff, then put it in your dear w kind of go. Okay, that's good. Listen to it. Put a groove on it. Come back to the piano, maybe play over the top of that a little bit. But the whole point is having a kind of a way to write with the keyboard. Onda production Sweet. So basically, my assignment few, if you choose to accept it, is to write a piece using wandering hand exercise on different courts inside of one key or potentially two keys. If you want to explore that idea of what it sounds like when you move directly to another key, just with F, C and G or with E. D and a miner's So whichever one do you think Just express kind of what you're after at the moment is composed inside of this paradigm that we've learned so far on Gus, I'll see you in the next video for a kind of short, simple response. There were example off that 22. Wandering Hands Example Track: in this video, we're gonna take a simple, wondering hand exercise. Turn it into this. Let's get started. So with the track, you see, before you hear, all I've done is I've played some random cords, insider key on the top track, and I've played a wandering hand exercise in my right hand on the bottom track. Now, this is absolutely not the way I usually compose, but I want to kind of inspire you to explore if you're a beginner, what we've done so far and show you how easy it is to start generating ideas from just simple chords and simple melodies generated by the wandering hand exercise thing about it is it doesn't sound particularly amazing. But it works, and this is the idea that we're working with here. We're working with a key on the key takes care of a lot of things. Pretty much everything sounds harmonious. Way have to think about. It was phrasing on how we're working with underlying cord, but the some ideas in here that may have some legs and that's the point to draw out this is a kind of sketch and then pull ideas from it and see what happens. So in this pre recorded session of me kind of extrapolating on these ideas and putting different instruments to them, what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna fast forward certain sections and then continue the video again and speak over the top so that you can miss out kind of the boring parts of me finding the right instrument in sound and kind of get a summary off the composition or production or creation process from these initial ideas that we've put down. So my first step with any kind of composition is to think about the group, even if it's not necessarily a typically groovy track. It's something that basically binds all of your rating together. I think is really, really important here. You see me finding out different groups, just things that I might not use in the end, but something that's gonna create a backdrop that I can kind of frame all of my writing around. Wait on. The next stage is to start finding some kind of arrangement for this. Some kind of other instrumental orchestration. Michael. It on three important thing is to be kind to yourself at these moments. I know that sounds funny, but here you can hear me trying out a slightly cheesy 80 sounding spacey instruments on. Really, it doesn't work at all. But the important thing is to just try out ideas, try stuff over the top, work out different flavors and then you can make more distinctions about what you don't like what you do. Like if you're not sure at this moment, just put something down, Decide. Does that work? What doesn't it? And then you can have it from their work out what's right after that. But don't hang around worrying about whether you're doing the right thing on what to do next. Just put something down, see whether it works and then move on. So this is where we get to the interesting point of this exercise. We start pulling apart what we've actually done here. I'm taking the first phrase which I kind of like part off on dstets thing to think right? How can I use that as a melody? How can I sort of define it rather than just a wandering hands kind of ramble? How can I take a little part of it and put it on another instrument? So here I'm copying over to the string, climbing over on putting in the background right and thinking about how it might all go together. Now when you double something with another instrument, as I am here. So we've got piano, and then this instrument is coming from my illness. Very patch library. You can start making a melody. Sounds like a little bit more intentional because you've got two instruments playing the same thing. It's a great starting point because it makes you feel a little bit more confident in your maladies rather than just sort of this slightly kind of weak piano line. You've actually put it on two instruments and it sounds just immediately more composed. So here I'm thinking, Right. Okay, so I've got a little sort of define motif here. Let's repeat it so we can make it into more of a thing so that we can kind of extend that pattern or idea and move it around the grid of G major, which is the key that we're in. So this is what I start doing now. So we've got this melody here. This is our motif. One of the beautiful things about W's like logic is that you have something called scale quantities, which is what we're doing here. So here are making sure that the scale is major and I'm changing the key route to be G on. What happens is that the system Kwan ties. Is all of the notes in my melody to be inside of the key. That's what I can do is I can experiment with moving that pattern down and not even bother thinking about what the key is, or rather not spend too much time worrying about each individual. No, I just think more about the gesture of that melody. And then, of course, if there are individual notes like that one, I want to know that I can so bear in mind that we've moved around the melody. But we also need to make sure that our cords still hanging around in the background so that we have a background harmony to think. So that's what I'm doing here. So we're getting somewhere. It's all really early days with this composition in a moment, but the important thing I'll always say this in these tutorials is just to keep the faith for your composition, because the problem is that as you can hear right now, this does not sound particularly sophisticated or interesting. And you might just lose faith immediately and think I am a bad composer. B. This is rubbish. See, basically all to do with Oh, I don't know what I'm doing. But the thing is that I remember someone saying to me once that the best part of projects are usually the last 20% where everything starts coming together. Remember that this is kind of your in the middle of creating the project of the moment, and it won't be clear what it's becoming until later on. So here I've repeated a few sections on never repeated the melodies or I'm just doing that . Now I'm moving those across, and then we're gonna think about how we can extend those melodies rather than just the kind of standard copy paste feeling that goes on. I'm gonna move these up higher and lower and use the scale Qantas feature to give us something that's still in the key of G major but gives us a higher pattern and then another higher pattern so that there's variation in here, and I'd really encouraging, especially if you're a beginner with this to really play around with scale Qantas feature makes things a whole lot easier. Obviously, though, as you learn and progress, you don't wanna be doing these things because it doesn't give you a massive amount of intention out. You want to be able to understand what the scale is on, move your patterns all around. Which is why, of course you're learning this course and studying piano. So know all the elements in your wondering and exercise is gonna be actually very good. This section right here I'm listening back to and thinking pretty much useless, at least for what I'm doing at the moment. I don't like the sound of it, so just cut it away, get out your way and start focusing on the elements that you actually find inspiring or potentially useful for what you're creating. The other thing that might start happening when you're kind of playing around and cutting bits up is that you start accidentally or inadvertently in a good way, defining sections in your mind. Here I'm realizing that this little section here is a different part. Even though no one's told me that that's what I've just decided that's the presence of opposition. So I take this little bit, look to the right and then move this forward because I want to hear it earlier. I'm or interested in kind of creating something with this little sort of motif at the moment than I am with the other part will just leave that for later. So here I'm listening back to the entire thing, getting a kind of emotional on emotional sense off the piece on whether this new Moti, which I've just across there, is actually gonna work. Thea. Other thing that you could consider what's your writing is to actually cut up in spice and paste different parts of the cords rather than just the melody. The cords are definitely no off limits. So here what I'm doing is I'm not changing the court necessarily. But I'm changing how many times the court is said so that it sounds a little bit more percussive. Interesting. Of course, when I say interesting, it's interesting in the back of my mind has done composing. Right now, it's just on a simple piano inside of the W. It's not produced are arranged really properly at all but the rhythm is a good idea. If you had, like an amazing orchestra playing, there are a huge band doing that kind of like that rhythmical idea behind it. It would really work. So your trusting, these little forces, little ideas, thes ostinato these rhythms and keeping going keep seeing them through to see what they'll become so later on in this course, if you've looked at the curriculum, you'll see that there's a whole chapter on how to create baselines. Now we won't go into that now. But what I start doing here is looking at the cords that I've got underneath and thinking, OK, what's the root note? What's the bottom note of those cords? And how's my baseline work here on? Actually, at this point you might not have a good idea what baselines me and I don't. So I leave it on. I move on to another element of the composition and a background RPG ated thing. So this is where I'm skipping through so you can start adding in elements now. So so far I haven't really played much on piano, right? Pretty much everything has been created from the MIDI file that I didn't wanna hand excites , but you can start playing stuff and you can see down here. I'm now playing stuff on the keyboard with an arpeggio later to kind of make things a little easier for myself and create some really interesting, rhythmical stuff in the background, adding sort of deeper layers to the composition. That kind of allowed the production a little bit about the arrangement. So then we put the basin that sounds like this on that down for the first section as well. And now I'm playing around with rhythmical idea. That's just thes percussion that sounds like this. That's a little bit sort of more interest in the background, something that you don't really want the listener to be aware off. Now we get to an interesting point where we start adding some sheens and nice kind of string sounds to the music thing is kind of a moment that I really love where you start adding the instruments and the sounds that really start making the kind of the thing kind of come to life. So that's good. I like that section, but now what we want to do is add a kind of really nice long note for the end, that kind of gels altogether. Eso usually at this point where I need to step back, listen to the whole piece again on just get that sort of 10,000 overview of the season what you're trying to do because you might listen back in you. And you kind of realize that the small thing that you were just working on a second ago isn't actually contributing to the way you want a piece to go in the direction. Now this is a short, simple exercise, and I don't actually necessarily know what I'm doing with this piece, but it's yielding. Some results on it could potentially come becoming a composition that I'm kind of interested in and want to take it further. Things is really the sketching stage. So one of the things I've found over the years is that if you add percussion as well as drums, it really, really helps. So here I'm using logic built in drama percussion library to just add into interest again. This is making it super easy for me, and I might change it later, but this is starting to make it sound a little bit. Mawr what I was having in mind. That's just great interest. - Nice and easy. Something we've created from a simple, wondering hand exercise that could potentially have some legs. Certainly sounds like we've composed right now, doesn't it? 23. Introduction to Chords in a Key - Diatonic Harmony: so so far, we've created a major scale. We've understood the structure of the tone and semi tone in that major scale, or major key, and applied it to different places on the chromatic grit. We've also then found that each of those major scales has inside of it a relative minor scale on we've learned how to find does. And we've also learned the structure of the minor scale so that you can find that from scratch without having to find a major scale. Once we have found those scales, what we've done is we've understood that there are different degrees of that scale on their on each of those different agrees we can apply a chord shape which is old wise, known as a triad, and that basically builds on the first note. Whichever note we choose off that scale on, we build up skipping and know each time we can move that two different places as well. In this video, what we're gonna do is we're gonna look at each court inside of a major scale and then a minor scale, and we're going to discuss and get to know the qualities of each chord because they're slightly different in a major key chord. One is always made now when I say always, I really do mean always. Because remember, the background structure of the chromatic scale is a perfect grid. So when you move the major skelter, different places, the same structures live. Their so called one of every major scale is always major. Co two is minor Court three. His minor, called four Is Major called five Is Major. Six is minor on called seven Is Diminished. Don't worry about what these mean. We'll get to them later in the course. But for now, let's just talk about the qualities. If I say something like the major chord is happy, bright, positive, uplifting. Those are pretty general and generalizations. You might not agree with it totally. And there are plenty of places in music where a major chord sounds really ominous and maybe sad on a minor chord sounds particularly happy or hopeful. That's a very, very different kind of thing. We're talking very plainly in generically here, but there is some truth to it, so let's just stick with this for now. Minor chords are, to an extent, sad or empty. Some people said that dark atmospheric called three has the same quality on then as we get to court for its major. Five is major sixes. Minor again on, then called seven is I don't know. Let's call it creepy, distorted, funky or just quote. It's not quite minor. It's not quite major. It's a bit different. So that's a major key. Let's look at a minor key. And just to remind you, the way that we find a minor key is by this page here. We either start on a note and think of tone, semi tone, tone, tone, semi tone, tone, tone, which gives us the minor scale that natural minor or we find a major scale for our normal tone tone, semi tone, tender intoned, semi tone on, we find the relatively. Either way, it's exactly the same. Natural minor scale has thes courts called one is always minor. Two is always diminished. Three major, four minor and then we get called five, which is an interesting one. You'll understand a bit more why, this is a bit different called five in a minor key later on in the course. For now, I'm just gonna say it could be minor or major. It's minor when we just do cord inside of a key, but sometimes called five is altered more on that later. Court sixes major and cord seven is major called one is sad, Empty Dog Minor. Then we have diminished straight away for two major, three minor, minor or major major major. So maybe you could pause the video now and go and understand these inside of the skills that you know and see whether what I'm talking about actually makes sense, and whether you agree with it, you might not. Which is also great. Get to know the sound off your color palette, which is the major and minor scale. You must really understand the qualities of these chords, and the more that you connect your feelings or emotions to these cords inside of different keys that greater your skill and connection as a composer or writer or songwriter will be so in the final part. This video. What going to talk about is how to name cords. Naming cords helps us understand their function inside off a key, but you absolutely don't need to know them. This is just something I'm including in a course for comprehensiveness on because it will probably come up. So we look at the same scale. Now. This works in both major and minor. We call them exactly the same. It doesn't matter whether it's a major or minor scale cord one or note one are called the same thing. The tonic, chord or note to is super tonic, then medium sub dominant, dominant sub median on, then the leading note leading court. Now this is a funny one. Many people call it the leading chord or note. I actually prefer the subatomic note or subatomic name makes more sense to me because it's sub to the tonic. Anyway, these aren't super important. You don't necessarily come across them all the time. And like I say, you can create music without them. However, there are three that I want you to be aware of, particularly these ones, the tonic sub dominant. The reason is it because they're known as our primary triads, and the reason that they're called primary is because that they're particularly powerful in establishing gravity of the scale or the key. So let's look at this at the piano. So I mentioned that about the power of establishing gravity in a key. So you understand the idea of gravity so far. But the cords that create gravity are not created equal in the sense that some chords create gravity more than others. Right? And those primary triads called 1 45 almost classically, the ones that we can establish gravity with. So if we start off by playing this chord here, it's an F court. Right? But because we know a few scales now we know f major on. We know C. Major. We also know D minor, the relative minor of F major. Also a minor discord right now. Could be in any of those keys, so we don't know where are home centuries I, where our center of gravity is is what I mean. So as soon as I play, called one and then four and then five of F major way have a sense now, not just theoretically, because we've got this note in it, which we know only belongs in F major in D minor. But we have a sense because of the structure of those chords that we're now right, and this is a really important point because we played called one five on. It's created this sense of homeless, right if we did it in another key like G major, what's called 145 g major. If you want to pause the video now and work it out basically what they are G is one c is for deace five on. Now we're happy to land that G. So if I do that again from F major way now, feel that is our home center. But if I do the same now in G major, we suddenly feel that GSR center. So this touches on a principle which will learn later, which is about modulation. But for the moment, just know that your primary triads, both in major on minor, create this real strong sense of gravity. So these names will help you understand and familiarize the feelings of each of these courts inside of these keys. So, whilst I said, you don't need them, I personally find them quite valuable, because when I put a name on something, it allows me to label it and then kind of that locks it in my mind more as a composer, I know that OK is a bit like saying, if you're a painter, and you didn't call it red, pink blue. But you just used the colors right. There's something useful about calling it red, blue or pink. And that's what's going on here. So you go. OK, so you think OK, well, we've been using cold one for a while. The tonic, maybe I want to move to. And now I want to use the primary Triad state to establish the key. And now I'll go to the sub medians because I know that's the minor sound and then go down to the primary cord for one. So experiment with these names and get to know them a little bit for the sake of theory and some stuff that we do for this course, but also because it might be beneficial for you in the way that you compose and I'll see you in the next video 24. Analysing 1000+ Tunes: So two quick resource is that I want to share with you at this point, while really one resource, which is hook theory dot com. And then the first of those resource is is this theory tap here? So this is a really, really useful way off understanding the theory behind songs. If you've never looked at this sort of thing before without going too deep into kind of music theory and stuff like that, you can visualize it much like we have the piano role in Idea W. And we also start to have the numbers of chords underneath here. Except they're written in Roman numerals here. So Roman numerals. If you're not sure about them, you can look them up online. Basically, it's just a way of counting in symbols. Makes it a lot clearer in some ways on. Then you've got the actual names of the cords here as well. It's a really, really useful resource. You can just click on one of these songs and go even deeper with it and let it play and understand what's going on Now. If you're unsure, a theory tab is, they've got really helpful explainer video on this home page, which goes through it. And I would explore the different things they have in their library. Some things here that somewhat less applicable to some people, maybe, and then some other ones, for example, for film composers, actually a lot more interesting material, and you start to realize that, actually, even though Taylor Swift sounds like Taylor Swift on Game of Thrones sounds like Game of Thrones underneath, the harmony is doing similar things know exactly. But it's not necessarily the harmony that creates the genre. It's very much more the all of the other stuff, so harmony can be learned universally, even from songs that you might not necessarily like. The other resource is something from their blogged. This is done quite a while ago by Dave Carlton, but basically what he did is here kind of basically crunch numbers on over 1000 songs and kind of basically looked at the data of it and asked certain questions like Are some chords more commonly used in others common cords and what corn is most likely to come after this chord? What the most common keys really, really answers a lot of questions that I know students have in the beginning about Hey, what's what's my basis? What's the standard stuff? Because it's not like we're trying to be standard. But if you know what the kind of central core styles and conventions are, what you can do is then build upon them so you can find them by going to the Earls. In both of these pages, this one's a bit of a long one. I just actually found it by searching Google. I analyzed the 1000 cords, and even though that's not 1000 there, it found it. But really, the most important principle that I want you to take home with this Blawg article in particular is not that you need to just read this blogger article. It's that by analyzing hundreds of tunes, you gain more perspective. As a composer, you build up more material and more conventions and understandings about the way that harmony works. Unfortunately, just reading Dead Cartons article isn't going to give you a massive working knowledge of harmony. You're gonna see a few conventions. Absolutely do read this. It's very useful. Get your head into it. But one of the most important things, just like learning all keys, was a long term assignment that I've set you beyond the scope of this course. Also, I would say that learning at least 20 or 30 different songs or tunes that have different types of harmony in it would be it's gonna be super valuable for you because then it's a bit like learning words and language and stories that eventually you become more and more articulate. So really, really put that as a goal. Unfortunately, I don't think I will give you the right songs to do, because that would just be wrong. It won't make sense because the right songs for me might not be the right language for you . If I'm telling you to learn loads of Spice Girls or whatever like that, then you're gonna be not learning the right music for you. So basically don't necessary. You don't need started yet. Carry on through this course and you'll understand how to learn and find all the cords to the all the songs that you're interested in on. Then, by the end of this course, then you can start really kind of making a practice off learning more and more tunes, so hopefully one day you might even know upto you know, a few 100 tunes. Not necessarily that you can do off by heart but are in your unconscious and therefore will be coming out through your compositions. Hopefully, that's useful in this stage on. I'll see in the next video, we're going to start talking Maura about common chord progressions at the piano. 25. Common Chord Progressions and Conventions: so two more resource is from hook theory dot com. There an absolutely brilliant website with just just so much good stuff has come from analyzing this huge database, and this is exactly what I was saying it will. This kind of knowledge will become natural to you once you've studied lots and lots of different songs. But for now, you can actually interact with this database on kind of make some of the distinctions that would come after learning many, many songs yourself after a long time. So it's really, really useful. So this this one, which you can see him hook theory dot com slash trends allows you to ask the question What cord is most likely to come after this one and you can choose which key? So we've been working in C, G and F, so you could choose those. And as you learn more scales, you can change here and it allows you to say OK, well, I've played an e minor court, which is called three. What's most likely to come after e minor and what's less likely to come after him? Owner. So here, the most likely called to come after e minors we've seen so far is F And then you can actually click on one of these songs here, and it will show you the analysis off that song and you can see it in action. So here we are at E minor, in the second in the story, in the fourth bar of this song, going to F and then you can listen to it there and then you can play it equals seven. Change the key of it and learn that in all keys, so absolutely brilliant resource to get sort of contextual advice. So, in other words, really, really non theoretical advice. It's not just abstract from songs. You get to listen and read the songs and understand how the cords work in context and why they work. The other one is the common chord progressions page, and you can find that under the software and then progressions. Or you could just find this through the Earl up on screen. Now, now, there are four different tabs here. We have beginner level famous chord progressions into media intermediate to advanced. Obviously, these ones, at this point in the course there gonna be a tricky few. But by the end of this course. My aim is that you'll understand everything in this whole thing's whole page here. So beginning. If we open that up, what we see is there standard player here where you can interact with the actual chord progression. Andi, all of the songs that use that progression. So here we have the 1564 progression, the really, really famous one. And then we go down and we can encounter Pac Bell's progression 15634 and then many others . So I would get into this page and really, really understand the cords that are in this beginner tab. And as I say, by the end of this course, hopefully you'll be able to understand all of the other ones inside of intermediate and advanced. So hopefully by now you've been getting into the hook theory block and also the different chord progression or the standard chord progressions that I showed you in a previous video . I want to add just a few of my own notes as well, because there were some progressions or principles that weren't covered in the standard chord progressions, understandably, because what they've done is they've derived those those distinctions from a large database . But there a few more things that I think I can add so that the core thing that that's really, really important to understand when you're working inside of a key, which is called diatonic. So if I'm inside of C major, anything that I play outside of the key, like these banknotes most obvious to see with C major, that's non diatonic, whereas if it's diatonic, it's in the key. Similarly, with G Major, that's all diatonic. But if I play that note, that's non diatonic because it's no in the key. So with all diatonic kind of harmony, the most fundamental kind of progression is called one Chord five and then caught one again . It's this relationship between one and five, and you'll hear the word dominant sometimes, and that's because we go. We call this route and they miss the dominant. So 12345 and you hear it all the time. So, for example, if you end and a concert that's going five one very important relationship, let's go back in, see so you can see that that's 151 inside. See, Major. The other one is one for one on these cords. 14 and five called out Primary Triads Triads because there are three notes built up of thirds on primary because their most important, in a sense, you could say important in inverted comments. But they call the primary Triad off a scale, and it works the same in a minor scale. His a minor, his Court one at Court for and Cord five for various reasons. I'm not gonna play that if you know a little bit about theory. Sometimes we do that. Let's just call these are primary triads for now. So inside of all of your chord progressions, thinking about one foreign fire is quite important that really, really powerful cords. But beyond that, for example, the 1564 progression our 1st 1st note goes or sorry, our first and second court go 1256 on. Before you could also do one six. That's another famous one. And again, I'm keeping my playing really simple at the moment. When we get into the voicings and everything like that, it'll sound a lot more interesting. Everything's a bit more. That's just because I'm making sure that everyone can follow stuff. So the other thing to think about Final thing really, for common chord progressions or conventions is not just the 15 relationship in the 14 relationship, but also the circle of fifths relationship. Because if we go around the circle of Fifths, for example, from we go from D, which is two steps to the right from see if we're staying in C major, It was 1/5 away from D left around the circle of fifths T g and then back to see what we're doing is a secondary fifth. So yes, AGI is fifth away from sea, but also D is 1/5 away from G. So we have this kind of fifths movement. So we get 1/5 away from G on, then 1/5 away from C. And that gives us if we stay diatonic. So all the all the cords, not D major, but D minor. We play this. It sounds like this. Okay, on. That's called a to 51 because that's called to in this court five, and that's caught one. And this is just hinting at something that will get too much later in the course, which is called secondary dominance. The secondary dominant allows us to get a dominant G and then a dominant to see So D is acting as a dominant gene. And then Jay is acting is dominant to see, and that gives us a really nice sound. So that's the circle of fifths and how you could think about that. If we extend that even further, we go right around the circle of fifths all the way to E. Don't worry too much about trying to understand that and don't make it more complicated than it is. Really Just see is going around the Circle of Fifths, And that would sound like if I put some nice, interesting voicings to it. It would sound like final thing that I just want to reiterate about the principles that came from the hook theory. Research is that Chord three is a tricky court to manage and you'll notice from the data when you read those articles is that Court three is quite tricky to move from Court three to another one. It doesn't often sound as good as you might hope. Some court some songs really make it work, but just be aware that the Court three is a bit tricky if we if we go from seeing for me, that Corbyn question really doesn't work. It's a bit what it's a bit weak from here to here is okay from 1 to 3 is fine on bond. That's kind of a bit of a let down somehow. Again. That's just my opinion. You gotta use your own here, but just be aware of that. Managing called three is quite important and certainly caught seven because what we've got is it's called a diminished court. Don't worry about what that means yet, but it's a bit of a strange shape there. So 1245 and six your kind of real standard cords When you're writing diatonic Lee, I wanna add one more thing here, which is about tension and resolution on that principle in composition. On writing anything is really important. It's also important in any other type off art that uses time. So, for example, of film, you have a character who starts out and she maybe has an event. So it starts out OK, and then there's an event that happens and inciting event. And then she goes on a journey Andi kind of finds find something, has some struggles and then end. So you've got tension on the resolution of the big story arc. You have resolution at the beginning or kind of ease its intention, and then it results. That's the classic story arc and in cords and harmony, that's often what we're looking for if I just have. If I just play the song all the time, that was, like, ever and ever it would get really reborn because those cords called one import. Three Quite relaxing, right? They don't feel like we're going anywhere. Whereas if I if I do this called 1 to 2, we feel like we're about to travel somewhere else and particularly with Court five. If I suddenly stopped there, you're like, No, I need to something else to happen. It's about an expectation. So it's this balance of attention, attention, resolution, but not totally on a bit of attention, cause we want to be, oh, back here to resolve to be thinking about that when you're constructing these component parts from the standard things that I just went over and also present in the hook theory pages. Andi, think about tension and resolution and how effective that is for what you're trying to do is a composer 26. 30% Different - Changing Standard Chord Progressions: so a quick principle here about changing standard chord progressions. Because if I was you and I was just starting out when I was just hearing me speak about all this, I'd be thinking, Why am I learning all these standard chord progressions? I kind of want to get into kind of more interesting stuff. Or how is that me writing my own thing? Well, like I said, once you internalize these, you end up putting them in your own order. And as you see, there's only a limited set of court. So actually, everyone does repeat and copy each other. But one idea, if you're still not satisfied with that that will help you is the idea of changing something 30%. So let's take the 1564 progression right if you just change maybe one part of that right? So instead of going to five, let's go to to write. That's suddenly different now. Obviously, someone will have written that chord progression before you can't get away from that. Your uniqueness and sound does not come at this level. This is like the building block off how the piece works. All of your nuance comes in arrangement. You know, production, vocals, everything but it. Making this kind of difference is more satisfying to you because you know that you've done a bit of composing rather than like taking a block and going book. I'll use that standard chord progression, this idea of 30% difference. So if there's a song that you really like the sound off like God, I really like that sound will keep the elements of it that you really like. The sound off, right? Say it's one six, right? See you like that bit. But you don't want to get five because that's like the standard 1645 progression. You could try something else. Just change the five. Now don't worry too much about what I was doing there. If you're completely generate piano, we will cover everything that was just doing in terms of voicings later on. So it. But what I was doing was I was very much playing 164 and then won again, right? But I just did a different arrangement at the end. But you see there I'm kind of taking something that I really like in an existing song, turning it 30% and making it my own. So that's your assignment for this. Part of the course is take a number of songs that you find or a number of these progressions on, then change them roughly 30% and then make it your own. 27. Chord 5 in a Minor Key: So when you're playing courts in a key and you're in a minor key, one of the things that often gets bit confusing is what to do with Court. Five have probably mentioned that in a few videos before, because it can be a minor chord or a major chord. So let's look at that. Now let's look at it in a minor, which is the relative minor of C major. We're gonna get caught. One, 23 There's Court five if we're playing it purely in the diatonic way, I only using the notes from the scale. But I probably mentioned before that what you can do with court finds you can take this middle note that gives it a slightly more powerful sound when you're moving between chords and eyes, a centimeter away from the root note of the key, so it gives it more power. Moving that cord one. If I play chords 145 with the natural version of Court five. So where we don't change the middle name. I'll play that fast and listen to sound. Still, a great sound is many, many change that used that, but if I do it now, way uh, something about the preparation of that last chord that has more attention, which then results in a semi tone. So what we're doing there was, We're turning it from Court Five being and Lina Court. You will learn exactly how minor made records working throughout the course of a major. Yeah, let's do it in the other two keys. Let's do it in D Minor Way play chords 14 and five in D minor in e minor. That's what it would look like if it was in our standard, my now with natural way. And you'll see this in the common cold regressions that I give you in the harmony Cheat sheets in this, of course, and also beyond outside of this course in kind of court analysis, and you'll see I'll teach you how to read all those. But the thing to realize is that when you're on Court five, which is often written with a V, it will be written with a Capital V if it's the major or a lower case, if it's the minor and it creates a very, very different sound. So if we one of the corporations we study later on in the course is Hans Zimmer's time, which is a piece from interstellar. No inception. I get confused between two. So it's a really, really great progression, and it goes like this. What that's doing for in the scale of a minor is were playing called one five in its natural form. Without that note that and then we go to court seven five. I just really, really lovely sound. If we were to change that to a major court five, it wouldn't work. Maybe, but certainly no, it's no, it's no good for the time progression. The time progression is defined by that feeling of going. Thats kind of empty floating Court five. So that's a little clarification to realize that that chord can change, sometimes in minor keys. 28. Harmony Cheat Sheet: Stage 1: So this is a quick video to explain the resource that's downloadable at this point, which is the stage one. Harmony, Cici. This pulls together everything that we've learned so far into something that allows you to just keep on your computer desktop or even print out. If you want on, just remind yourself rather than having to go back through the videos. So if I scroll down here, what we've got is everything that we've done in order, the fundamental points and the formulas. So we got the major scale formula relative major, minor relationship, minor scale formula, etcetera, etcetera. We go all the way down with the circle of fifths. Some hook theory resource is links and also some common chord elements and progressions. And I wanted to talk very briefly about this. This is absolutely not exhaustive and is absolutely only my opinion. I can't make something super objective here, but over the years is a piano teacher. I've learned a ton of songs, and I've taught a number of people, and I've kind of distilled the most essential chord progressions here. Now it's really imperative that you take these elements and then build upon them and mess around with them. So what I'm essentially saying here is all of the's work well, but I'm not saying that these are the best ones or anything like that. Far from it, these are the building blocks. So, for example, as we start getting to the longer progressions down the bottom here, whether it's in major or minor, what you can start doing is changing these around. So instead of 1564 here, you could do 1456 and see what that sounds like. Similarly, with all these here, instead of going 651 you could try going one, 56 or whatever trying these out but ones at the top here, where we just have chord relationships of one to the other. That's kind of a fundamental relationship, and it's often called the cadence. In some ways, it's just a kind of slice of time in music where harmonically, those two chords work particularly well going next to each other. So try these out, build your own chord progressions and maybe keep this on your piano or by wherever you compose. I hope it's useful to you 29. Tension & Resolution: So in this section we're primarily looking at melody over the top of harmony. But before we do that, I want to introduce a contact which is relevant throughout this course and how you compose , which is tension and resolution. It's a bit like the idea of gravity and a key. It's kind of loosely connected but mawr granular and more detail into how you are actually constructing your melodies and harmonies. Basically, it's not necessarily the only way to think about how your composing. It's one way to frame what you're trying to create with the idea of how much tension and how much resolution. Because depending on your taste in music, we like a certain amount of tension resolution. So let me show you what I mean. So this chord here, relatively stable. All right. But if I had one, maybe something about this court that is making us want to move to see memorials. And if I resolved that, that means things kind of essentially resolving attention, finishing attention. Now we finished right, and that sounds a bit classical and obvious there, but essentially, when you do called one, that's tension that wants to be resolved, Teoh resolution One of another word. And as you're writing, but your melodies and your harmonies, you want to be thinking, Well, how much is this tension and resolution working? In a sense, it's if you're finding that sanctions are working, you could kind of just ask yourself the question. Okay. What's the balance of tension and resolution? Have I got enough tension? Have I got enough resolution? Is there too much of one too much of the other? Because if you're writing a piece of music, I'm just gonna go in C major, that's like this all the time. Okay, two minutes later, right? It's very boring because we're just in this feeling of resolution, but if you add some of this stuff, right, this some kind of mixing of stuff going on in there. So let's have a look. That was with harmony, right? Then we'll get Maurin toe What cord to create. What kind of attention? You kind of already know that we've been looking at so far. But what about Melody? Right? You've got something going on here that there feels like it's not quite a stable is the first to so that melody is leading us up from resolution in detention and into resolution. So in this whole chapter, we're gonna look at particularly melody in harmony both court turns and non court turns and mawr. But the whole time be thinking, right. How can I use this in my work? Going apply. Make a little little sketches after each episode in this part of the course, kind of taking the idea of like court turns, non core turns non diatonic turns as well and see how you can start constructing melodies with these different flavors and feelings under the whole heading of tension and resolution on what's right for you and your style of music. 30. Chord tones: So let's start with the feeling off resolution. If we're playing a chord is f major notes off that chord work particularly well inside our melody. So we've got this chord here and then the following notes are the cord turns. So, for example, if we created a melody that's made entirely of those core tens, I think this sounds really plain and a bit boring now. But if you had someone saying this amazing gospel singer on, then you know you had someone just doing some or interesting voicing and they're going, it would sound good, right? So don't underestimate at this point, you know how this simplicity of this will sound actually quite good. I want to arrange it properly, so planning at this point doesn't have to sound good, but it's quite logical to use notes from the cord. But then, if we change chords, so his for two and then we highlight all the court turns of that chord, which is basically these notes all the way up the piano, then our melody could use court turns from that court so we could write a melody, really, simply that would be right on that is actually a really good first way of composing. So if we do that inside G major again, here's court to, uh, it's very similar to Mad World. They're actually, if you had to, so play around with court turns inside of your keys. Also your minor keys as well on try and come up with the melodies. What you'll find immediately on. We'll discover this in the next video is that almost certainly want to move to notes that aren't just the court tens. And this is where you have that kind of tension and resolution thing coming back in because court turns a quite static. We don't want to move anywhere necessarily. Yeah, there really is no to quite static. But if I play a non cord tone said like this one, it's beautiful. I absolutely love that, and I could stay little day. I love that sound, but you kind of have to admit from a really kind of standard theoretical perspective that this wants to move somewhere else, which is classically speaking to a Court 10. So you want to resolve it. Another one here would be his. Our Jeanne made a court on our court tens and then we want to play this note, which is a non core tone, and it wants to resolve up to that G, which is a chord. So I see in the next video where we do known call it turns. 31. Non Chord Tones: so we're still diatonic were still inside of a major or a minor key. And yet we still have a huge amount of expression whilst using this tension and resolution principal melodies. So I'm gonna work inside of the scale of e minor. Just the relative minor off G. Major. I'm gonna write out the cord turns that the court tends that we had before on the piano, and then we're gonna talk about the non core turns. Okay, so obviously, if these of the court way have four other notes that are non core turns, right, it's this one, this one on this one, Anil service Ansari. Let's look at that in C major, if that was a bit too hard for you. So see, major, here our core turns. Eso are non core turns our And if I play those of record of C major, listen to what they sound like. Each of those if we're thinking really classically here, gives a certain amount of tension and it often wants to resolve to one of the other notes. So I can a simple way to write a melody would to be to go to mix and match those notes. So let's try an E minor again. Now you can decide to begin with 10. Journal, begin with resolution here. I'm gonna begin with. Resolution. Intention, intention resolution. Attention. Resolution, Resolution! Attention! Resolution! Resolution. You get the idea. So use this and all of your keys to start creating some interesting melodies. Then if you combine that with your chord progressions, you get some really useful stuff straight away. So let's get back into C Major. So you can really see this. I'm gonna do my core progression of 251 and I'm gonna do these ideas. I'll talk you through it. So resolution attention Now, because I've moved on to court five. This is now a resolution resolution. So you have this interesting relationship where record to hear this news was tension. But then when we change the court underneath it, that becomes resolution. And then if I keep that, it becomes tension again. So we'll get to this later on in further chapters. That what I was doing there was called a pedal note and it joins chords together and makes them kind of interact and be almost compared with each other side by side s. Oh, yeah, that's useful. Enjoy your composing and I'll see you in the next video. 32. The Feelings of Different Intervals: So obviously we've worked on a major scale and many times you know exactly what's going on here. I'm gonna take away the details and put the numbers on, because what we're gonna do is play a long cord and we'll start with cord one so that we can play these different notes of the scale over the top of it and get to know a little bit about their character. Now, this is not really an objective thing. It's a very subjective thing. So I'm not gonna tell you how I experience those notes too much. But I'll start you off so that you can then let your imagination run wild when you're listening to these notes. Basically, you need to ask yourself, What does this note feel like over Cord one and have an emotional connection with it? However small and whatever comes to your mind is almost certainly right for you. So listen to one. It's quite a static, stable, home like note because it's obviously over its home court two has a kind of character of leading. It's right, it's positive for me. Look for maybe a little bit more dissonant, perhaps not sure for you but obviously for me, it is a tiny bit more distant and wants to resolve back to 37 also is quite a tense note. Wants to resolve up to one again. So let's now change the court on Let's play some other notes over the top of that way. So those all create very different qualities. And what we're looking at is a slice of time on what music is creating for the listener in that slice of time. And it's important for you as an exercise to go through all of these all of the cords on all of the notes and start to understand for you personally what each one represents. Now, if you're not sure and you're kind of playing in your life, I don't know, Jack. Come on, you're reading into this way too much. Find that's totally cool. But it is a good idea to start understanding the structure and the feelings that come as you play these different notes of the scales. However small and minimal, you don't have to do it with every court, every note and as you do it just as a little reminder, there's two sets of numbers going on this, the numbers or the degrees of the scale or key that you see in front of you here, but also the degrees of the cord that you're currently on. So let's talk about intervals now. Intervals are really important to understand theory off because when we move away from just playing one static note, we have to describe things in intervals. So what we're gonna be doing here is diatonic intervals and let me explain what that means . Diatonic is basically inside of a scale or a key. An interval means the space between two notes. So a diatonic interval is the space between two notes inside of a scale or a key. Let's take a scale. So the difference between No. One and No. Two here is called a second. You may have already known now or thought about that, but think about this. If we go from note to to note three, that's also a second on No. Three. To note four is a second, but we're not talking about turns and semi tent it. We're talking very simply as degree kind of the space between degrees of the scale. So if we then go backwards as well. That's also the same. So if we went from 4 to 3, that would be a second. Now let's look at the next interval space of 1/3. If we go from 1 to 3, that's obviously 1/3. But if we get from 2 to 4, that's 1/3 or from 3 to 5 or 5 to 3. That's also 1/3 which we can move anywhere else all the way up through the scale. So then we have 1/4 which is this space. We can move that two different places, and then we have 1/5 on, then a sick on, then 1/7 which I won't show all the options off, either because it won't fit on the screen. Each of these played from any note, has its own sound, And that's another thing viewed. Start playing around with over cords because these are the minute little building blocks of melodies that give something color, character and shape as an example here to melodies that use small intervals like seconds and thirds and then the second melody, which uses bigger intervals like fifths and six. So I hope what I said there was kind of useful to you on. You kind of understood most of it again. Some of it is a bit tricky, potentially for the beginner at this stage on, Don't worry about it too much. Come back to this video and watch it again as you go through the course. In fact, I'd advise that with a lot of these videos that this is not just a course that you go through to get to the end and you like boom, done. This is like a library of principles that you can kind of draw back on and think. OK, OK, so I'm not so good at that anymore. Should go back and visit that video. What was it? He said again about, like melodies and tension and resolution? I'll go back to that part. Certainly you'll need to do it for the later stages and use this as practice, but to supplement what we've just done there. On the presentation, I would recommend a guy called Holistic Song writing. Or rather, his YouTube channel is called Holistic Song writing, and he's got some fantastic analyses off just simple melodies from major artists that you'll have heard of. Not necessarily that you will like but artist that you will definitely have heard off. And it will get you thinking about what we've just looked at, theoretically, on how you apply it to thinking about other people's melodies and also your own melodies. So is a quick example. One of the things he's talking about with certain ask this artists is that they use certain intervals. So if we look here at my I'm gonna play in G major hearing a stop in court five right again , this is not fully fledged arrangement. This is just us planning out the harmony in the melody. So there it's like, kind of that's not so great Jack. Again, we're planning it, but imagine you arrange that fully. There was an amazing singer of the top of that great groove, everything that you could make that sound easily good in a number of different genres. But the core of it here is that that movement of a second inside of the scale and then right so this that singer will be going dirt and try not to think too much in this course. But they basically create a certain quality because they're not jumping. Teoh high, right? And then that one also that that creates a certain feeling, whereas if that singer was instead going right, you'd have a certain feeling their that's way bigger, more expensive and gives a certain sound on what holistic songwriting goes into is, for example, certain artists prefer the sound of 1/3 so you'll be like in one King you'll be like, So that was based around the third. The primary thing that gave that melody it's character was there, right? Yes, I did some other stuff, right that wasn't third, but the primary part of it is that third sound in the melody and then another artist might use a forthright. So if we're in, let's go in tow a minor. There's a different quality. Obviously, the harmony creates a certain quality. But even the melody on its own, primarily based around the fourth is a certain quality. So dive into his videos. There's some really good stuff in there and start applying that thinking to your melodies in your writing 33. Layering & Overlapping: so a couple of videos ago what I mentioned Waas, that we can create resolution on one chord. And then that resolution, if we stay on that note, becomes tension on the next chord. So what we're doing is we're changing in context for that note on one of the most amazing things that you can do and I get students to do this is actually create a melody with one note, and I mean, how do you do that? Well, it's kind of a title, really, rather than a technical explanation. What we're doing is we're changing the harmony underneath. So only at the end there did I change the note because I just really felt it needed to change. Don't worry about too much. What I was doing in the left hand essentially was basically cords, but I was doing those voicings which we're gonna come to later on. So that's one thing that you can try as an exercise. Change the harmony over one note and see what happens. And the thing to realize when you're doing this is that some chords share notes with other chords. So there this is resolution for both of these cords Now it's attention on there. That was almost that was just actually a reasonably satisfying melody. And I was only using two notes, and that's because the cord underneath shifted our feeling of tension and resolution. One final principle to think about is something called Voice leading on. This is kind of a very simple way of looking at voice leading when we get into the harmony and voicing chapters much later on will really take a deep dive into voice leading. But as an example, Here we go. So he is called to called five Chord one Court six called to five Court One. Now, if you go back and watch that video again, or that section of this video, I'm going up in a scale right on time, making sure I'm going up in a scale and only choosing the next note off the cord that we're currently on. So here we're on the fifth, of course to, and we're on the third of court five. Them were on the roots of cold wind. Now, when I went to Court four here, I can't go up because that is not in court for so I decided to stay here. And then I think I went to court six. Next. I can't really remember actually something like this. So all the time I'm making sure that my melody note is in my mind relating to the court. There on the voice is leading through the courts. So that's another way to think about your melodies is to decide a cable for this partner malady. I'm gonna make my scale go, or I'm gonna make my melody dio like that. So I'm gonna make sure that my chords of fitting that melody right? So say you, Millie, that does do that. So that would work my next chord. It could be called six because that would work. And then what chords use. See? Well, four does, but also wonders So used one, and then we'll call to use B. Well, let's try. Let's try six again. G. Hopefully that makes sense. So, in a kind of simple filmic arrangement, really what? We've got up at the top here. We've got kind of that long held a note orchestrated with two different sounds. We've got a kind of this kind of bowed guitar sound. We've got the piano over the top as well. So already it's quite film it that creates a huge kind of atmosphere on its own. But then underneath what we've got is we've got the cords changing, and I've done my trusty kind of arpeggio hated thing going on here kind of recently sore three. New Blade Runner on de. So it's kind of in my head on, and I guess I'm going to sound like that. Core change Core change Call change, Court change change on We've just got a long held pedal note holding that together underneath men, some ominous brass as well, filling in the cords underneath and all together. That kind of makes this so the melodic content there is really minimal. Basically, it's one held in a way up to bar 14. Then it changes than these thieves to ending notes in the piano at the end of the tiny little change in the sign lead there. So hopefully that's a useful practical example of playing one note and changing chords. Very, very simple. Just three chords underneath there. Go have fun. Try something like that out in your own production 34. Non diatonic Tones: so so far we've looked at diatonic tones. Yes, they might not be a member of the cord, but they are all diatonic in the key. Now we're gonna add another level off tension, which is non diatonic tones. Again, let's be simple of stance. I see major eso here all our diatonic tens and very simply you can see all the black notes are non diatonic, right? And they really, generally speaking don't work at least in the way that I'm playing in a moment with simple root position triads voicings kind of a bit funky in a bad way, but you can make them funky in a good way if use, they're in the right way. Okay, so one of the things that will look at in a later chapter is kind of ornamentation, which is basically, instead of playing a melody like this, you could add, say, thes two notes. It's a very simple example that these two notes, just short grace notes. We call them before those notes, and you can use grace notes with with non diatonic tones because they happen very quickly. Right? So let's say our melody goes Ugo, right? You see, I I slipped past and played that non diatonic tone on that one works particularly well what we've got. There we go 123 and then we get down a semi turn to be. It's called a minor third. You don't necessarily need to know that. But so experiment now with your melodies and seeing whether some diatonic toe, non diatonic tones work well in this grace. No, you do get quite jazzy style when you do that semi tone one there, but you might find some other ones like this one here. It's quite creepy. One. You get a very, very different sound when you use non diatonic tones, but you have to learn yourself. Which ones work best, As I said, the one with a major chord there where you take the third note and you go down a semi tone gives us jazzy sound. What I did just then was I played a minor chord. His d minor and I played the note, which is a semi tone below D. We'll get to what that's actually called. It's called a major seventh in later chapters, but you just think of it. The pattern here I went to number five from D when I went down a semi tone, and that is not in this key. Similarly, wouldn't be in this key for inside C major and there I played, which is a 17 above. You have fun with that and see if you can come up with some more structures and flavors. That ad difference to your melody, but probably a word of warning is use it sparingly. 35. The Pentatonic Scale: the pentatonic scale is a really useful scale in that it's incredibly easy to write good melodies with it. I often call it the full proof scale because it's virtually impossible when using it over good harmony to not write a melody that sounds good. Let's look at it and what it means. Penta means five and Tonic is relating to the first degree of the scale. So essentially, when you take a major or a minor scale, what we're doing is we're filtering to notes out to create a five note scale. Let's look at that with a major scale. So let's start with noting of one way miss out note number four and skip straight to five way Miss Out Number seven and go back to one. So that's the major pentatonic scale, and it sounds like this. Let's look at the pentatonic scale in minor now his on minor scale and let's start filtering out to the notes. It's different in this one. We start with no number one on Miss out, no number two straight away. Go to three, miss out no number six. Go to seven on, then up back toe one. That's the minor pentatonic scale, and it sounds like this. Let's look at that now at the piano in context. So let's take it in G major first, right? So there's a jet made of scale on Let's Take Note number 1235 and six, and that gives us the headstone. Ex g o. Really, really lovely. Let's do that in minor. So the relative minor G major is e minor and let's take note. Number 13 That's the scale, and it sounds pretty cool. See that briefly inside of F Major and then we'll finish up the video. Take the 1235 and six notes off the scale, and we get the F major pentatonic, and then we go to the relative minor of F major, which is D Minor way. Take note number 135 and seven. Uh, so you don't necessarily need to use it exclusively in your melodies. You can just use it as a basis. The pentatonic scale note often worked really, really well over the basis court of whatever the rumor is, but you can use other nights from the scouts. Say, for example, here you might want Tokyo 135 and then bring in a tiny bit of this note, which is outside of the pentatonic scale that's still inside of the minor scale that spends tonic for you guys. I'll see you in the next video. 36. Patterns - The Way to think about your music: So if I haven't made it clear already, what we're trying to do is think in patterns on the theory of the keys goes away. We don't think about anymore, I said in the previous video. Probably that there's nothing inherently see about this. No, or in early G about this. No, it's not the cord. See, that gives us this feeling. And it's not the cord f minor with ninth. It gives us that feeling or the fact that I'm moving here. It's not the careful to see that gives us that feeling. It's the patterns behind the names, if that makes sense, which is why we start this whole course with the idea of a grid where you can move things around. So patterns are the key to music, and it's something that cohesive eyes. That's definitely not what I don't think, but anyway, I'm gonna leave it in the the stuff that you were arranging right, so it makes things more kind of like they belong together. So for an example, right so you can go. Let's take this really, really simple melody inside a G major. So So the character of that is, let's move around to different places. So is that pattern. I moved to different places. That gave it a sound right Also. Similarly, if you've got kind of a core pattern, this is in a key that you don't necessarily know right where we're going. It is the pattern of my accompaniment, which will get to voicings and a compliment in a later chapter that makes those cords doing together. If I was then to move to another section of my way and then this section and on and then I went, I mean, it sounds cool, but it's and it's also very much a different pattern, right, So you're going, think a bit weird. But then Ugo on it feels like a different section similarly with melody. So let's go back to that one. I think it was this so you could base your whole verse on this with subtle differences. And then you get to the chorus, which would have this pattern, Let's say right, so that's it. And then you go back to the first already roughly see the idea that I'm getting out here thinking patterns and overlay that what we're thinking of his layers that we go okay, right layer one. Let's think of the harmony layer to Let's think off the pattern or the melody, right? And then we change the layer and maybe keep one of the layers. And this is a principle that will come back to in this course as we move forward, both with the voicings and the way that we structural composition structure are harmony, which is really about these ideas of layers. So in your dear doubly, you've got the layers of different instruments doing stuff. But you've got behind that in the way that you think about composing, composing theme, kind of different ways off, layering up how it works, right? So the kind of method organization of your compositions, if that isn't too pretentious So if it is basically that is that is that the way that we want to think about music? His patterns 37. Assignment - Melody Writing: So we've done a whole ton on melody, and I hope it's been useful to you. What I would suggest is that you put all of this together now everything that we've done in the last few videos and put it into a song or a piece of music, right? So choose a simple chord progression in your left hand or actually record this and put in your w. Don't think too much about the courts. Do something really simple like 15641345 16 That sort of thing. Make it really, really simple. But make sure there's more than two chords, right? So 1564 would be super simple to do this with and then a make a melody that uses everything that we've done in the previous videos, so that we, with chord tones, notes inside of the court non chord tones, notes that on in the current court that you're currently playing held shared notes. So to redirect what that is basically, I mean, I go over this in the next video, in an analysis of one melody that I put together, a held shared no is basically a note that is in the first chord and also in the next court . So if I play a g chord, top note, that court is the right. And then if I go to de cored these indie, obviously. So my melody could be like on a long note. And on that D was held over from the previous court. That gets the lovely sound. So that's that's Number three held Shared knows, then patterns. Obviously gonna be creating patterns anyway when you do this, but take a kind of conscious hold off your patterns that you're writing music with and try and gel your melody together so it feels like it belongs together rather than, for example, the opposite of patterns would be the wandering hand exercise, just something that goes doing something random. Yeah, then use the pentatonic scale, which we've looked up and then also one diatonic note. That's quite a lot, but you can definitely do it, and I do it in the next video. So that's chord tones use court turns, non chord tones, held shared notes, patterns, pentatonic scale and one non diatonic tone. And obviously, if you want to, you can think about the note characters, the characters, you know, for example, staying around with Second for is part of the core of humanity. Or the fourth is part of the core of your melody. Whatever you, whatever you feel like you don't have to use that last one necessarily. But trump it all together, and I'll see you in the next video for analysis off a malady which incorporates all of these things. 38. Example - Melody Writing: - Okay , so let's analyze what we did. Just that. So we're in G major and we start uncalled one with note one that we immediately go Teoh tension with No. Two on the resolution on the three. So another court, I actually think of it a lot more simply than that. What I was thinking Waas Sorry, Pentatonic scale said. My melody starts with the first part of it on Mrs the Sick. But on this note we changed to court five, right? And what that does is that we start on attention note and then resolved to the third of that cord and then we moved to court six. Can you see what I'm doing? There is the melodies slightly lagging behind the cords, which gives us that layering over the top of each other, feeling on these notes, a kind of non cord notes. But they sound quite nice, and it gives it a slightly more contemporary feeling than if I was just going, which is a super boy, that there you could see it like attention. No, but for me, in my head I'm seeing is anticipating the fact that we're about to move back to court one, and that's how my ear hears it. So on now becomes a resolution. And then I did something like this on. That's a really nice jump when you do in melodies. If You Listen to Blackbird by the Beatles starts with a huge jump. And actually we were so used to hearing melodies that used the step all the jump. Actually, we really love it when we go Way did it all the time. It wouldn't work so well. It's not great for singers. It might be good for instrumental music. So here I go on, I'm repeating as well. Just the other thing to mention is that I'm still thinking about patterns, so I go back and repeat, but I don't do it exactly. Do that again. Would be to risk, you know, repetition. We want this nice amount of like familiarity and then newness in our melodies. So the second time around it goes, that's anticipating the next chord on. Then we go into kind of a chorus type thing where we have a pedal note right with tiny non court note before it, and that's talking back to them on. I'm not sure that I came up with an exact ending. But hopefully that makes sense and is useful. Teoh give you a kind of formula with those those things that you did in your assignment really do go together to make great melodies in both major and minor keys. 39. Roman Numerals in Analysis: So at this point in the course, I thought would be useful to go over a little thing. Gold Roman numerals, which is basically an analysis, a way to look at the structure of harmony. It's quite a traditional way of doing stuff, and it's not necessarily the only way. But it's beneficial to be able to think about the relative relationship of cords inside of diatonic harmony. I inside of a key or a scale later on in the course. What we'll do is we'll go through this again and in much greater detail when we look at how to read chords and chord symbols. So let's first look at a scale in Roman numerals and let's start with the first chord, which is called one now for the top. There we have an upper case, I and at the bottom we have the number one on the bottom. Numbers are just gonna be me explaining which number were on. So one is I. If you put two eyes next to each other that represents two and three eyes, represents three. Now, number four is a little bit different. So we're going to do is I'm just gonna skip past it and go to five, and you can see that Number five there has a V and V, and Roman numerals means five. So if we go back to for a second, we can see that there's a one before the V, which is kind of explaining that there's the one before the five, which is four. So you can think of it that when the eyes to the left of the V, that's one less than V, which is for then we have the which is five. Then we have one to the right of the which represents six on, then two to the right of the represents seven. Now, this should be fairly straightforward. If you kind of hang around this a little bit, it'll start to make sense. But why on earth do we do this? Why do we not just use 123456 and seven as the numbers? Well, the reason is to do with major and minor. So if I show you a Roman numeral in minor, it looks like this. So it's a lower case. I so one in lower case means one minor, but one in upper case means one major and similarly to lower case ice means to minor on to uppercase eyes means to major. Similarly, if we look at these courts here, we've got three in the minor form and then in the major and then five in the major form and then six in the minor. And you can see that in the six minor. The V is lower case in the eyes lower case indicating that that court is minor. Now don't worry too much about if you're still not totally sure about Major, and minor chords were going to go over those totally on how to create them from scratch later in the course. But for now, I'm just introducing it so that you can understand my analyses and my explanations in the following videos. However, you may have already gotten a grasp off major and minor chords inside of the skills that you already using. So with that in mind, let me just go over the Roman numerals inside of a major scale. So called one is an up case I called to is minor, so it's to lower case eyes. Court three is also minor, so it's three lower case eyes Court for is a major, so this is upper case I and then a V and then called five is major. So it's just another case V called Sixes Minor. So it's lower Case V and I, and then called seven is diminished. But we kind of also draw that like it was a minor court as well minus girl looks like this 123456 and seven. So don't worry. We will come back to reading cords in a later chapter. But for the next video, this is going to be quite useful in our analyses of the structure of harmony in music. 40. Harmonic Structure: like stories. Music has beginnings, middles and endings, but they're not necessarily just called beginnings, middles and endings. They're called sections, and we label those sections in our analysis of tunes with usually letters. A B C would be beginning middle and end, except tunes don't necessarily have that simple structure. They could have structures like ABC, and then they might repeat ABC again. That might be verse bridge chorus, first bridge chorus, But you could have another structure you could have like an intro and then ABC, ABC and then an outro, where you could have a different structure or a different structure. But what's defining these sections? Well, in truth, it's everything. All of the elements of music together go into, creating a new section, the groove, the production of singing the lyr