Music Composition 2 - Harmony & Form | Jonathan Peters | Skillshare

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Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

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Lessons in This Class

76 Lessons (1h 50m)
    • 1. Course Promo

      2:00
    • 2. Chords of the Scale

      1:48
    • 3. Departure Anticipation and Return

      5:14
    • 4. Voice Leading

      2:50
    • 5. Quiz for Section 1

      0:17
    • 6. Composition Assignments for section 1

      0:17
    • 7. Secondary Chords

      3:20
    • 8. Creating Chord Progressions

      5:00
    • 9. Amount of Similarity

      2:05
    • 10. Quiz for Section 2

      0:17
    • 11. Composition Assignments for section 2

      0:17
    • 12. Extending Functions

      2:55
    • 13. Progression Chains

      1:47
    • 14. Partial Progression Formula

      1:34
    • 15. Circle Progressions

      1:12
    • 16. Quiz for Section 3

      0:17
    • 17. Composition Assignments for section 3

      0:17
    • 18. Cadences

      1:15
    • 19. Types of Harmonic Phrases

      3:50
    • 20. Quiz for Section 4

      0:17
    • 21. Composition Assignments for section 4

      0:17
    • 22. The Period

      2:19
    • 23. The Phrase Group

      1:45
    • 24. The Double Period

      1:59
    • 25. Quiz for Section 5

      0:17
    • 26. Composition Assignments for section 5

      0:17
    • 27. Borrowed Chords

      3:56
    • 28. Altered Chords

      0:17
    • 29. Quiz for Section 6

      0:17
    • 30. Composition Assignments for section 6

      0:17
    • 31. Pivot Chords

      0:17
    • 32. Modulation Using Altered Chords

      2:04
    • 33. Pivot Tone Modulation

      1:44
    • 34. Sequential Modulation

      0:17
    • 35. Direct Modulation

      1:39
    • 36. Quiz for Section 7

      0:17
    • 37. Composition Assignments for section 7

      0:17
    • 38. Harmonic Rhythm

      0:17
    • 39. Quiz for Section 8

      0:17
    • 40. Composition Assignments for section 8

      0:17
    • 41. Homophonic Texture

      1:21
    • 42. Block Chord Accompaniment

      2:24
    • 43. Broken Chord Accompaniment

      4:20
    • 44. Homorhythmic Texture

      0:54
    • 45. Polyphonic Texture

      1:42
    • 46. Other Accompaniments

      2:15
    • 47. Quiz for Section 9

      0:17
    • 48. Composition Assignments for section 9

      0:17
    • 49. Compositional Form

      1:09
    • 50. Thematic Design and Harmonic Structure

      1:43
    • 51. Simple Binary

      2:50
    • 52. Rounded Binary

      3:06
    • 53. Sectional Binary

      3:38
    • 54. Continuous Binary

      2:54
    • 55. Other Binary Forms

      1:36
    • 56. Quiz for Section 10

      0:17
    • 57. Composition Assignments for section 10

      0:17
    • 58. Simple Ternary

      6:56
    • 59. Ternary vs Rounded Binary

      1:23
    • 60. Compound Ternary

      0:17
    • 61. Quiz for Section 11

      0:17
    • 62. Composition Assignments for section 11

      0:17
    • 63. Five Part Form

      0:17
    • 64. Seven Part Form

      0:17
    • 65. Arch Form

      0:17
    • 66. Quiz for Section 12

      0:17
    • 67. Composition Assignments for section 12

      0:17
    • 68. One Part Form

      0:17
    • 69. Theme and Variations

      0:17
    • 70. Chaconne

      1:49
    • 71. Quiz for Section 13

      0:17
    • 72. Composition Assignments for section 13

      0:17
    • 73. 1st Movement Form

      8:24
    • 74. Quiz for Section 14

      0:17
    • 75. Composition Assignments for section 14

      0:17
    • 76. Congratulations

      0:16
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About This Class

Learn how to write music from a professional and award-winning composer. This is a two part series of courses. Music Composition 2 covers harmony and form. Music Composition 1 covered rhythm and melody.

Each section of the course covers a particular concept (or related concepts). Concepts and compositional techniques are demonstrated throughout the course with real musical examples (pictures and audio samples). This course also includes access to on-line quizzes, listening assignments, and composition assignments.

Course Structure (includes nearly 50 lectures)

  1. Tonal Function
  2. Diatonic Chord Substitution
  3. Developing Harmonic Progressions
  4. The Harmonic Phrase
  5. The Harmonic Period
  6. Chromatic Chord Substitution
  7. Modulation
  8. Harmonics Rhythm
  9. Musical Texture
  10. Binary Form
  11. Ternary Form
  12. Rondo & Arch Forms
  13. Strophic & Variation Forms
  14. Sonata Form

Course Requirements

  • be able to read music
  • have a basic knowledge of music theory
  • music notation software (musescore is free)
  • you don’t need to know how to play an instrument (although it really helps)

WHY COMPOSE?

It is a common misconception that in order to be able to compose music one must be born with the gift for it. Although one cannot “teach” inspiration or the creative spark, one can “supply” the tools and knowledge necessary to write music. While it’s certainly true that not everyone who attempts to compose music is going to become a successful composer, it does not follow that unless you can compose on that level you should not even attempt it. That would be like saying only the Shakespeares of the world should write words and that no one else should bother picking up pen and paper. Not only is it possible for anyone to compose music, it is quite vital for every student of music to have some experience with music composition.

It is a sad but true fact that most modern music teachers and music courses do not include music composition as part of the students’ musical education. In the past it was typical for students of music to be able to compose music. One example is J.S. Bach who trained all of his students to be composers as well as performers. In fact, if a person did not have some basic experience with music composition they would not be allowed into his studio! This course seeks to fill in some small part this current deficiency in music education. The study of music composition is said to “complete” the musician, since the “complete” musician is one who has knowledge of music theory, plays an instrument, AND can also compose.

Here are some of the main reasons why learning music composition is important to every musician. First and foremost is the deepening of one’s understanding of music. To create something requires a certain level of understanding of the thing being created. Simply listening to music or playing music involves a much more superficial understanding than writing music. Even the person with a firm grasp of music theory cannot be said to understand music to the same degree as the composer. For example, one may know every type of chord there is to know, but not know what order to place them in to create music. One may know every pitch in a particular major key, but not know what order to place those pitches in to make a beautiful melody. It is simply not enough to know all the elements and parts of a thing. To have a complete knowledge one must understand how all of the parts work together.

Second, study of music composition can improve one’s performance of music. Although music notation has come a long way over the centuries, it still remains imperfect. Knowledge of how music is put together will allow the performer to understand the things behind the notes on the page and those things that are not able to be notated.

Third, some music requires that the performer improvise on the spot and add to what is notated on the page. Having knowledge of how music is formed greatly enhances one’s ability to improvise music and have the improvisation sound like actual music.

Last, the creative process in and of itself brings much joy to one’s life. Not to mention the fact that any music composed can then bring joy to those who hear it or to those who perform it.

Enjoy the course and happy learning!

- Mr. Peters

Meet Your Teacher

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Jonathan Peters

Award-winning Composer, Author, Educator

Teacher

Jonathan Peters is an award-winning composer currently residing in the beautiful state of Colorado. Since 1990 he has worked as a composer, conductor, arranger, recording artist, educator and author. Peters holds a B.A. in liberal arts from Thomas Aquinas College and continued his graduate work towards a M.M. in music composition at California State University Northridge, which included areas of study in advanced composition, theory, orchestration, and film scoring.

 

Peters’ music has been performed both internationally and by orchestras across the United States. He has won multiple awards and recognitions, such as 1st place in the 1996 Composers Today Contest. His nea... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Course Promo: 2. Chords of the Scale: If you've studied music theory, then you know that music written in a key is built upon the notes of the scale. The notes of the scale are the pitches a composer can choose from to form a melody. They're also the notes the composer can choose from to form harmonies, using only the notes of the C major scale here seen in blue, we conform the following courts. If a composer is writing a piece in the key of C major, these seven chords are the cords they will most likely used to harmonize their melodies and to construct their courts. It is possible for court use pitches outside of the key, but right now we're only dealing with diatonic courts cords that use only the pitches of the diatonic scale. In this lesson, we will look at three chords in particular the one chord, the four Chord and the five Court These cords air called the primary courts. It doesn't matter which notes of the scale we choose to form our melodies. They can all be harmonized with one of these three courts. The following diagram will help to illustrate this here. The right hand consists of a C major scale. The left hand consists only of the primary chords and can harmonize the skill 3. Departure Anticipation and Return: a chord progression is a succession of chords moving toward a definite tonal goal. Many chord progressions conformed to the basic structure of departure. Anticipation and return. Departure is the moving away from the tonic. Anticipation is the aural expectation of hearing the tonic again. Return is the coming back home to the tonic court to achieve this structure of departure anticipation In return, at least three different chords air needed the tonic, chord and two other courts. The first thing needed is to establish a tonic. A single court by itself cannot do this, since a single court is ambiguous and could be interpreted in a number of ways, this F major chord could be any of the following. It could be a one chord in the key of F major, a five chord and the key of B flat major before chord in the key of C major and a six chord in the key of a minor. There is no way to tell without more context. If a single court cannot establish a tonic, can a progression made up of two distinct cords established a tonic? The answer is not really a progression of two distinct cords is still not enough to establish a tonic, since there continues to be some degree of ambiguity as to which court is acting as the tonic. Take, for example, the following chord progression. It sounds like we might be in the key of F major and that the progression is a five chord, a C major chord moving to a one chord in F major court. The problem is without more musical context. We really can't tell if we're coming or going. In other words, is the second cord the departure from the first chord? Where is the first chord? The anticipation of the return to the second cord. If we add 1/3 distinct cord, a tonic could be firmly established. The previous example sounded at first as if it were in the key of F major, but with more context, we can see we're actually in the key of C major. Four serves as the departure from the Tonic five sets up, the anticipation of the return to the tonic and one is the return to the tonic. As you can see, Not only can the primary chords harmonize any melody made it from the pitches of the skill , but they also provide the sense of harmonic movement that is necessary to chord progressions. This brings us to the topic of eternal function. Every chord has a total function. Tonal function is the role each court plays an A chord progression accords. Total function is determined by the degree of the scale the court is built upon. There are three total functions the tonic function, the predominant function, also called the sub dominant function and the dominant function. The function of the tonic is to establish the key. The function of the predominant is to lead away from the tonic to the dominant. The function of the dominant is to lead back to the tonic. Each of the primary chords falls into one of these categories. The one chord obviously has a tonic function. The forecourt has a predominant function and the five court has a dominant function. This is not to say that every chord progression must follow the pattern one for 51 But since this is a beginning course on music composition, knowledge of the three basic kernel functions will serve as a great foundation and springboard for further study. When a piece is written in a minor key. The primary chords 14 and five have the same total functions as the primary chords. In major keys, we will learn more about total function and other types of court progressions in the coming lessons. 4. Voice Leading: Since this is a beginning course in music composition, we will not be covering more advanced topics such as four part writing, opening, closed, voicing etcetera. We will, however, need to understand a few basic principles. One of these principles is the principle of voice leading. Theoretically, any chord can move to any other court. There are, however, certain elements that make some chord progressions more appealing than others. One of these elements is the voice sitting between courts. The movement from one court to another is actually at its foundation, melodic and nature. To understand this, we first have to understand voice. Each pitch of record is sometimes referred to as a voice the top pitches called the top voice. The middle pitch is called the middle voice and the bottom pitches, called LeBron voice voice leading is the manner in which each voice and one chord transitions to the corresponding voice in the subsequent court. If you look at the movement of a G major chord, Andrew position to a C major chord to reposition, you will notice that each voice moves downwards by a perfect fifth to create better transitions between chords. Composers use chord inversions this process can be summed up in the principal voice leading , which states the transition between chords, his most present when one or more of the voices remains on the same pitch and when one or more of the other voices moves by a whole step or half step here is the same chord. Change a G major chord to a C major chord, this time using the principle of voice leading. Why does this work? First of all, by keeping one voice the same. In each chord, we create continuity between the two chords. Second, movement by Steps is the most melodic form of movement. It is both natural to the human voice and the movement that we find present in the scale. Make sure you understand the principle of voice sitting before completing the lesson assignments. 5. Quiz for Section 1 : 6. Composition Assignments for section 1: 7. Secondary Chords: In the last lesson, we learned that there are three basic tonal functions. The tonic function, the predominant function and the dominant function. We saw how each of the primary chords fits into one of these categories. One had a tonic function, four had a pre dominant function and five had a dominant function. But what about all the other chords that can be built from the pictures of the scale? What function or purpose do they serve? To answer this question, let's take a look at the minor chords that could be formed from the pitches of the major scale. The minor chords of the scale are the six to and three chords these three chords air called secondary cords. Each of the primary chords in the diagram is followed by a secondary cord. You'll notice that each Perez two notes in common. Because of this fact, the secondary cords are easily interchangeable with their primary counterparts. When one of the secondary court is substituted for a primary record, it can take on that primary chords function. Take, for example, the one chord which has a tonic function when it is replaced by a six chord. The six court takes on a tonic function. Since it is acting in place of the tonic. Here's a diagram showing each function. It's possible substitution, and they're abbreviations. The only court that we have not dealt with yet is the seven Chord. The seven chord is the only court from the major scale that is diminished. Most music theorists categorized seven Chord as an extension of the five chord. Because they share two notes in common. The seven chord can substitute for the five chord and take on its dominant function. We now have two chords that can act as dominant substitutes. The Three Chord and the seven Chord. This brings us to a problem with the school of thought that says that only the secondary cords could be substitutes for the primary chords. In reality, each court of the scale actually has two chords to share two notes in common with it the quarter third above and the court of third below. Take, for example, the three chord in the following diagram as you can see the three chord shares to notes with the five chord, but it also shares to notes with one chord. This is why some music theorist in the past have argued that the three court actually has a tonic function rather than a dominant function. In the next lecture, we will learn how to build court progressions using diatonic chords substitutes. 8. Creating Chord Progressions: In the last lecture, we learned that chords with two pitches in common can be easily substituted for one another and still retain the same function. Here is a Venn diagram that illustrates what we learned. This diagram is also helpful tool for beginning composers in writing court progressions. The primary chords are located in the center of each circle 14 and five. These cords have only one function the cords on either side of the primary chords. Those 1/3 above and 1/3 below can have two different functions. For example, the three chord falls into two different circles. It can function as either a tonic or a dominant. The six court also falls into two different circles. It can function as either a tonic or predominant. The exceptions are the two and seven chords. Although they share two notes in common, these courts were not usually substituted for one another. Let's learn how to use this Venn diagram to come up with basic court progressions of your own. First of all, you'll need to remember the basic chord progression structure learned in the last lesson. Departure anticipation and return this structure could be written is the following formula T stands for tonic P D stands for a predominant and D stands for dominant. Next choose accord from each circle and then play them in clockwise order, beginning and ending with the tonic function circle from the tonic function circle. Let's choose one as our starting point from the predominant function circle. Let's choose the predominant substitution cord. Six. From the dominant function circle. Let's choose the standard five. Returning to the tonic function circle. Let's choose one as our endpoint. Here's a musical example to illustrate. Let's try coming up with a different chord progression. Once again, we begin with the formula tonic. Predominant dominant tonic from the Tonic function circle. Let's choose one is our starting point from the predominant function circle. Let's choose the standard for From the dominant function circle, let's choose the dominant substitute. Three. Returning to the Tonic Function circle. Let's choose the tonic Substitute. Six is our endpoint. Here is a musical example to illustrate, it is important to understand that not every single piece of music ever written fits neatly into this pattern. Although many do as a beginning composer, this structure is meant to be a helpful guide and a useful starting point. Here is a Venn diagram for the minor scale court functions. It works the same way as the previous Venn diagram for the major scale court functions. Since there are three forms of minor natural harmonic melodic, certain chords can have more than one possible quality major, minor or diminished. This diagram shows the most common forms of the cords two and three are taken from the natural minor scale. Five and seven are taken from the harmonic minor scale. Because of this, the three court and the five Chord did not share to know to common, but rather only one known common. They do, however, still share the dominant function. Music theorists who have studied centuries worth of music have found that certain progressions air used more often than others here to charts. To illustrate this, the first is for major keys. The second is for minor keys. With so many possible progressions, you can see how the formula tonic predominant dominant tonic is not a strict rule. You don't have to memorize thes charts for your lesson quiz, but they may be useful to refer back to you as you were writing music for your assignments and if it some point you want to experiment and branch off beyond the standard formula. This entire lecture can also be found in pdf format under the downloadable materials tab. 9. Amount of Similarity: in the last section, we looked at one element that made some chord changes more appealing than others, namely, the principle of voice leading another element that makes some chord changes. More appealing than others is the amount of similarity between two chords. The similarity between two chords is determined by how Maney pitches the two chords have in common with one another. There are three possibilities. Triads can have two pitches in common, trades can have one pitch in common or trades can have zero pitches in common. Triads with two pitches in common create subtle chord changes. Triads, with one pitching comment, creates strong chord changes. Triads, with zero pitches in common, creates stark chord changes. There are, of course, other factors to consider, such as rude strength, position in the harmonic series and whole stuff versus half step movement. Here. We're only considering the amount of pitches in common you should take. The three s is into consideration when choosing the chords and progressions. Ask yourself if you want the court changes to sound subtle, Strong were stuck 10. Quiz for Section 2: 11. Composition Assignments for section 2: 12. Extending Functions: In the last lesson, we learned about the basic chord progression formula. Tonic, predominant, dominant tonic. We also learned how anyone of these three functions can be replaced by a function substitute. In this lesson, we're going to look at a few ways to develop this basic structure. One way of developing the basic chord progression structure is through extension. By using a function substitute, we can extend any one of the three functions. For example, if we wanted to extend the predominant function, we could use the four chord followed by one of the predominant substitutes. Refer back to the Venn diagram in the last lesson for the complete list. Here's an example. As you can see, the predominant function for has been extended by means of a predominant substitute. Six. This prolongs the progression of moving from the predominant towards the dominant. Listen to what the extension of the predominant sounds like. Here's an example that develops the court progression by extending the dominant function. As you can see, the dominant function five has been extended by means of a dominant substitute. Three. This prolongs the progression of moving from the dominant towards the tonic. Listen to what the extension of the dominant sounds like it is important to note that the function substitute can either precede or follow the normal function. It is also important to note that more than one function substitute could be used for function. In this example, three chords function as predominance. There is one predominant and two predominant substitutes. Listen how this particular chord progression would sound. 13. Progression Chains: another way composers develop court progressions is by chaining multiple progressions together to form longer progressions. As you can see, the formula tonic predominant, dominant tonic is used twice. The six chord is a tonic substitute. It serves as the end of the first progression and also the beginning of the second progression. Listen to how this particular quote for Russian would sound. Uh, although many court progressions follow the tonic, predominant, dominant tonic formula, it is important to re emphasized that not all progressions do As a beginning composition student, this formula is a great starting point from which you could branch off One of the most famous progressions ever composed Does not use this formula. Listen to and analyze the chord progression from park rebels canon in D. Uh 14. Partial Progression Formula: Another tool used by composers to develop progressions is to break up the basic formula and use portions of it. We can use any portion of the basic formula as long as we retain the tonic. Because of this, there are only two possible progressions. We can leave out the dominant function or we can leave out the predominant function. Here is an example that combines the last two compositional techniques learned in this lesson. Partial progressions and progression chains notice how a portion of the formula tonic Predominant Tonic is chained to the complete formula. The one chord tonic function moved to the four chord, the predominant function, but then returns immediately to the one again. At this point, the progression continues. Using the standard formula tonic predominant, dominant tonic here is a musical example of the proceeding chord progression. 15. Circle Progressions: one popular method of creating chord progressions is through circle progressions, Circle progressions air based upon the circle of fifths. If you look at the baseline in the following example, you will notice the pattern descending perfect fifth, followed by an ascending perfect fourth. With the exception of the augmented fourth between F and B, this is a pattern based upon the circle of fifths, since a descending perfect fourth is the equivalent of an inverted perfect fifth. 16. Quiz for Section 3: 17. Composition Assignments for section 3: 18. Cadences: the harmonic phrases, a succession of chords ending in a cadence, a cadences like musical punctuation. It is defined as a progression of two chords that expresses some degree of finality. There are four types of cadences. Authentic Kregel, half and deceptive. The authentic cadences 5 to 1 or 57 to 1. The play go cadence is 4 to 1. The half kittens is 1 to 5, sometimes to six or four is used in place of one, and the deceptive cadence is five to accord other than one. Most often it is 5 to 6. Each of these cadences has a different strength and helps to determine the types of phrases within a piece of music. 19. Types of Harmonic Phrases: When we studied rhythm and melody and music composition one, we found that there were three basic types of phrases those that suggests continuation those that suggests a temporary repose and those that suggest finality. These three types of phrases applied to harmony as well. The harmonic phrases, typically 2 to 4 measures in length and is tied to the rhythmic and melodic phrase. Let's look at some musical examples to illustrate each type of harmonic phrase. Here's an example of a harmonic phrase that suggests continuation. This piece is in the heave d major, the last two chords in this example for on behalf cadence. Usually 1/2 cadences 1 to 5. But it can sometimes occurs 2 to 5, as mentioned previously, half kidding says are weak cadences and suggest a sense of continuation because they end on five since five is the dominant function and leads back to the tonic. When we hear the final court in this example, our ears demand that the music continue. On next, let's look at an example of a harmonic phrase that suggests a temporary repose. This piece is in the key of F major. The last two chords in this example, form a deceptive cadence. Our ears are expecting to hear a one after the five, but instead we get a six. If you remember, from lesson to the six, core can function as a tonic and can therefore be a substitute cord for the one. A deceptive cadence from 5 to 6 is a weak kings and suggests a sense of temporary repose. When we hear the final court in this example, the tonic substitute, our ears tell us we arresting for the moment, we're not fully at rest until we hear the true tone. Accord the one chord. And finally, let's take a look at an example of a harmonic phrase that suggests finality. This piece is in the key of E minor. The last two chords in this example form an authentic Keaton's authentic cadences, are the strongest type of cadence and suggest finality. Playgirl cadences are second strongest cadence. When our ears hear the final chord, we know we're definitely at a stopping point in the music, along with cadences. Another factor that helps determine what a musical phrase suggests is the final chords. Total function, a musical phrase. The ends on any chord with a predominant or dominant function suggests continuation. A musical phrase that ends on a tonic substitute suggests temporary repose. A musical phrase that ends on one always suggests finality. 20. Quiz for Section 4: 21. Composition Assignments for section 4: 22. The Period: In the last lesson, we learned about the different types of harmonic phrases. By combining phrases, we can create harmonic periods. The harmonic period is two phrases that have an antecedent to consequent relationship. We call these phrases question and answer phrases, the antecedent phrase or question phrases, the weaker phrase. It is followed by the consequent phrase or the answer phrase, which is the stronger phrase. The strength of the phrase is determined by the cadence that ends the phrase. The following diagram illustrates a typical harmonic period, as you can see phrase one ends and 1/2 cadence and is therefore an antecedent phrase phrase to ends in a perfect, authentic Hayden's. And is there for a consequent phrase. An antecedent to consequent relationship is said to exist as long as the second phrases, the stronger phrase. This is why some music theorists allow, from phrase one to end with an imperfect, authentic Hayden's as long as phrase to ends with the perfect authenticates, which is the stronger of the two. This excerpt from Wild Writer by Robert Human is an example of a period that follows the structure in the proceeding diagram each phrases four measures in length. The first line phrase one ends with 1/2 cadence. This is a week kittens and suggests a sense of continuation or a question. The second line phrase to ends with perfect, authentic kittens. This is a strong cadence and suggests finality or the answer, UH. 23. The Phrase Group: when three phrases air combined, we call it a phrase group. It is also sometimes referred to as a three phrase period. A phrase group does not technically have antecedent to consequent relationship because there are either two questions. One answer or one question in two answers. The former is more common once again. Whether the phrase is a question or answer phrase is determined by the cadence. The following diagram illustrates a typical phrase group. As you can see both phrase one and phrase to end in half. Kids is and are therefore antecedent or question phrases phrase three ends in a perfect, authentic Hayden's. It is there for a consequent or answer phrase. This arranged excerpt from Void Case, a petty from the Marriage of Figaro by Mozart, is an example of a phrase group that follows the structure in the previous diagram, each phrases four measures in length. The cadences air march beneath each line 24. The Double Period: a double period contains four phrases. The 1st 2 phrases together for him, the antis in question. While the third and fourth phrases form the consequent or answer, the following diagram illustrates a typical double period. What matters most are the cadences at the end of phrases two and four in a double period. The kids at the end of phrase for is almost always a perfect, authentic Hayden's. The kittens at the end of phrase to is never a perfect authentic ins. The cadences at the end of phrases one and three are also usually weak. This excerpt from Piano Sonata number 12 in a flat major opus 26 by Beethoven, is an example of a double period that follows the structure in the previous diagram, each phrases four measures in length, the cadences air marked beneath each line. 25. Quiz for Section 5: 26. Composition Assignments for section 5: 27. Borrowed Chords: and listen to. We learned about diatonic chords substitution. We saw how certain chords within the key diatonic chords could be substituted for one another and take on each other's function as long as they had two pitches in common. In this lesson, we're going to learn how cords outside the key chromatic chords can be used as substitute chords, a very common form of chromatic chords. Substitution is substitution using borrowed cords. Borrowed cords are cords taken from the parallel key. Parallel keys are keys that share the same route. For example, F major and F minor are parallel keys because they share the same route f. Here's a diagram showing all the cords from the parallel keys of C major, which has no sharps or flats, and C Minor, which has three flights B flat e flat in a flat cords that are directly above or below each other in the diagram can be easily substituted for one another or borrowed. Since they share the same routes and or because they have 1 to 2 notes in common, it is important to note that the Roman numerals under the courts in the second line are how the cords air named when they're used in the key of C major, not how there. Named in the key of C minor, for example, the three chord is called a flat three. Because it's route has been flattered. In the key of C minor, this court would simply be called. Three borrowed cords that share the same Roman numeral name are able to share the same function. For example, a forecourt from seem minor could substitute for a four chord in C major, and it would continue to function as a four, a predominant function. Listen to the following court progression. Played first without the Bard cord and then with the borrowed court. It is more common for a song in a major key to bar courts from a minor key than a song in a minor key to bar chords from a major key. This is because we have other forms of minor, such as the melodic minor scale from which we can use pitches to create our courts. For example, with the pitches of the sea melodic minor scale C, D, E, flat, F, G, A and B, we conform. All of the courts found in the C major scale. With the exception of the tonic chord, C E. G. Here is an example of a court progression in C minor that borrows the one chord from the parallel Major C major. When the expected minor tonic chord is changed to a major tonic chord, it is referred to as a picker t third. 28. Altered Chords: 29. Quiz for Section 6: 30. Composition Assignments for section 6: 31. Pivot Chords: 32. Modulation Using Altered Chords: we learned about altered chords in Lesson six. Altered cords are cords that have one or more of their pitches replaced with pitch is not found in the key. We saw how a particular type of altered chord, called a secondary dominant, was able to make a cord. That is not the tonic chord sound, as if it were the tonic chord for a brief period of time before returning to the original tonic when we did not return to the original ton accord we have modulated to a new key. Here is an example of unaltered cord that is also a secondary dominant being used to modulate. This excerpt is taken from Sonata number 10 in G Major opens 14 by Beethoven. This example begins in the key of G major and modulates the key of D major. The altered core can be found in the second half of measure for where the two cord has been altered from a minor to a major by means of the C sharp, the G and the right hand actually makes the court into a dominant seventh chord in a seven . This a seven chord is a 57 in relation to the destination key of D major, but a 57 of five in relation to the starting key of G major. Although this altered court acts as a pivot cord, it cannot technically be called one. Since the A seven court is not shared between the keys of G Major and D major. The A seven court belongs solely to the key of D major. It is only loosely related to the key of G major by being a secondary dominant. 33. Pivot Tone Modulation: Another type of modulation similar to pivot cord modulation, is pivot tone modulation or common tone modulation. The differentiating factor is that Pivot Cordon Modulation uses accord that is common to both starting key on the destination key in order to modulate. Whereas pivot tone modulation uses a single tone that is common to both the starting key and the destination key. In order to modulate, listen to the following excerpt from Fantasy number four and C Minor K 475 by Mozart. This example begins in the key of B minor and modulates to the key of D major. The F Sharp is a town that is common to both keys. It is the fifth pitch of the B minor scale and the third pitch of the D major scale when our ears hear the F sharp in isolation. It's not that we forget the proceeding tonality, but rather our ears are open to the possibility of other tonalities that can grow out of that single tone. 34. Sequential Modulation: 35. Direct Modulation: another type of modulation is director modulation. It is sometimes called abrupt modulation because there's no set up for it. There's no use of pivot cords, pivot tones, altered cords or sequences to help smooth out the modulation. It happens abruptly because this type of modulation typically occurs between two phrases. It is also referred to as phrase modulation. Listen to the following example from the second movement of Sonata and See Major by two Bias Hassinger. This example begins in the key of C major and modulates to the key of G major. The first line is decidedly in the key of C major, with an authentic cadence 57 to 1. The next phrase begins in the key of G major, without any signs or warning. Director modulation is not only used between phrases, it is also commonly used between sections of the song. We shall learn about sections of a song in Lesson 10. When we begin the study of compositional form 36. Quiz for Section 7: 37. Composition Assignments for section 7: 38. Harmonic Rhythm: 39. Quiz for Section 8: 40. Composition Assignments for section 8: 41. Homophonic Texture: in this lesson, we're going to look at musical texture. Musical texture is the way in which rhythm, melody and harmony are combined. We have already touched upon how melody is tied to harmony when we studied chord tones and non chord tones in music composition one, it would be very beneficial at this point to review sections 17 through 20 and music composition one before completing the assignments for this lesson, The first musical texture we're going to look at is called Homo Phonic homophone. It comes from the Greek word Homophone knows, meaning same sounds, music with the home, a phonic texture, his music that has a single melodic line with a harmonic accompaniment. In the next few lectures, we'll look at some examples of common harmonic accompaniments found in music. As you study these examples, remember that the melody could be made up of just court tones or a combination of quarter tones and non core tons. See music composition one Section 17 through 20 42. Block Chord Accompaniment: Blaquart accompaniment is the most basic type of accompaniment. A block cord is, according which the pitches have played simultaneously. They're to block chords in this example, uh, and the lot court can be held until the next court change, as it was in the preceding example. A block work can also be played repeatedly in various rhythmic patterns until the next court change. As in the following example, this is much more interesting and allows the harmony to contribute to the rhythmic element of a peace. It is not necessary that all three pitches of a court be played in the accompaniment. Sometimes composers were used just two pitches from Accord, thus allowing the listeners year to infer the third pitch. Other times, the third pitch will occur somewhere in the melody, as it does in the following example. The court heard in The first measure is a G major court. The D and the melody is the missing pitch from the court in the left hand and completes the court. The court heard in the second measure is a C major chord. The E in the melody is the missing pitch from Accord in the left hand and completes the court note. The pigeon, the melody that completes the court does not have to occur on the same beat with the cord. He can occur at any place in the melody while the court is being heard. Before moving on, we will mention one of the way that block chords could be used to company melody rather than repeating the same court over and over again and versions of the quarter sometimes used. Here's an example of possible left 10 accompaniment using inversions of the C major chord. 43. Broken Chord Accompaniment: and this lecture will be discussing broken court accompaniment. A broken court is accord in which the pitches air played sequentially. Broken chords are also sometimes referred to as arpeggio hated cords from the Italian arpeggio ari, meaning to play upon the heart. There are many kinds of broken court accompaniments in this section of the lesson. We'll look at some of the more common types. A very common type of broken court accompaniment popular in the classical period and also into the romantic period was Alberti Bass, named after Domenico Alberti because he used it quite frequently and Alberti bass. The pitches of each quarter played in the pattern. What was ties to middle highest? For example, the C major court in the first measure of the following excerpt is played C G E G. Typically, Alberti bass occurs in the left hand of PM music and uses notes of shorter duration than the notes of the melody. Although it is typical on piano music for the melody to be in the right hand and the harmony in the left hand, this is not a necessity. Many examples exist where the melody is in the left hand and harmonies in the right hand, arranging the pitches of the court and the pattern. Lowest. Highest medal highest, such as an Alberti bass is not the only way pitches of the court could be arranged. There are countless other ways that the pitches of accord could be played to sequentially. Here's a diagram showing some common examples. Let's look at each line. In turn. This example uses theory change. Mint, lowest, middle, highest middle. This example uses an extended version of the chord, with the route being played again on octave higher. This example uses both an ascending and descending extended version of the court. This example uses theory age, mint, lowest middle highest. This example uses open harmony, where the highest on those pitches of the court are more than a knocked of apart. This example. You just open harmony with multiple types of no durations. Another type of broken court accompaniment is the waltz accompaniment, Anawalt accompaniment, the lowest. None of the court has played alone on the first beat. Well, the middle and highest notes are played together on the second and third beats waltzes, typically in 34 meter. Although two pitches of the quarter played simultaneously this is still considered a broken cord rather than a block ord, since not all three pitches are played simultaneously, pieces and meters other than 34 may have accompaniments similar to walls accompaniment, as in the following example. As with any harmonic accompaniment, we can always create variation to change in the rhythmic structure. Here's an example. Another variation involves the inserting of another pitch of the cord as an alternate based note. On 1/3 beat the examples in the selection or just a few of countless possibilities for broken court accompaniments, you will be asked experiment and come up with some of your own broken court accompaniments for one of the lesson assignments. 44. Homorhythmic Texture: a home. Arrhythmic texture is similar to a home, a phonic texture except that the melody and the company might have the same rhythm. This is common and choral music, but can also be found in many piano pieces. Here's an example. The melody can be found in the highest pitches of the right hand. The lower pitches in the right hand and the pitches in the left hand formed the harmony. Because both the melody and the harmony share the same rhythm, this musical excerpt is categorized as home arrhythmic. 45. Polyphonic Texture: the musical texture we're going to look at in this lecture is called Polyphonic. Polyphonic comes from the Greek word California, meaning many sounds, music with the polyphonic textures, music that has multiple melodic lines able to stand on their own independent of each other but when taken together, form the harmony of the peace. Although polyphonic writing is very complex and goes beyond the scope of the beginning course of music composition, let's take a quick look at one very simple example so that you are familiar with the basic concepts. As you can see, the left hand is not playing courts but rather baseline that is melodic in nature. Both the right hand and the left hand could be played separately and could stand on their own independent of each other. But when taken together, they form harmonies between the two of them. For example, the pitches in the first half of Measure seven, when taken together, form the pitches of a C major court. The pitches in the second half of Measure seven when taken together, forming the pitches of a G major court music has a horizontal aspect, melody and a vertical aspect. Herman E. Composers must think both horizontally and vertically when writing music 46. Other Accompaniments: two other accompaniments that are worth mentioning Our pedal points. An ostinato, a pedal point is a single pitch that is held for all or most of a piece. It is typically a tonic or a dominant pitch played in the base. When to peddle points occur together. It is called a double pedal point. Yeah, as you can see, this example uses a double pedal point, the tonic and dominant pitch of G major. Since the pedal point does not change pitch, some of the notes of the melody will be constant with the pedal point, and some of the notes of the melody will be dissonant with the pedal point. And finally, let's take a look at the ostinato. The word ostinato comes from the Italian word meaning stubborn or obstinate. On ostinato is a motif or phrase that is repeated in a very persistent manner. When an ostinato occurs in the baseline, it is called a bass ostinato. Listen to the bass ostinato in the left hand of the following example. This ostinato consists of the pitch is a E if it's above units below and Ian eighth above again. Since this pattern was repeated very persistently in each measure, it is therefore considered in ostinato and not simply a motif that re occurred a couple of times. 47. Quiz for Section 9: 48. Composition Assignments for section 9: 49. Compositional Form: for the remainder of this course, we will be studying compositional, for there are many types of compositional forms. This course will cover the most commonly used. What is form? Simply put form is the structure of a piece. We're not talking here about the structure of the individual components that make up a piece such as motifs and phrases, but the larger overall structure of a piece. Let's continue with the analogy to language that we began in music composition. One Justus Paragraphs makeup chapters in a book. So in music periods and phrase groups make up what we call sections in shorter pieces. A section could be made up of a single period, whereas in longer pieces, section could be made up of multiple periods. 50. Thematic Design and Harmonic Structure: before, begin delving into the different types of compositional form. It is necessary to take note of the two essential elements to form thematic design and harmonic structure. These are the two elements that help still any 81 section of music from another. Basically, a section of music is called a section of music, either because of the thematic material used or because of the harmonic material used or both. This will become clearer as we study the different types of binary form. When analysing music, we did no distinct sections of a piece by labeling the sections using letters of the alphabet. The first section of a peace is always labelled as a binary form is a two part for him. We label the first section A in the second section. B binary form is very common during the Baroque period. Oftentimes the sections would be repeated. That's making the form a a BB rather than a B. As previously mentioned, the sections are determined by the thematic material or the harmonic material, or both. Oftentimes, though, the sections can be easily spotted because they're separated by double bar lines with repeat signs 51. Simple Binary: let's begin our study of binary form by looking at how the thematic material can delineate a section of music. The most basic way a section of music is termed a section is if it has different thematic material. When the A and B sections each have their own distinct thematic material, we call this simple binary. An example of simple binary is Russian focus by Beethoven. - If you look at the score, you will see that a section and B section are separated by double bar lines with repeats. Even without these repeats, one could determine the sections of the peace through the thematic material. The thematic material in the A section measures 13 begins with 4/8 notes, which rise 1/3 then repeat three times. The thematic material in the B section, which is measures nine through 16 begins with 1/4 note. Fold by a dotted rhythm, which falls downward by seconds. As you can see, these two thematic ideas are different, both melodically and rhythmically. It is important to note that the thematic material does not necessarily need to be entirely different for a part of the music to be qualified as a unique section. Some other thematic material can be the same as long as some of its different. For example, one of the motifs used in the B section, Measure 10 is actually borrowed from a motif used in the A section measure for take time to recall the principle of unity and variety that we studied in music composition one. This is a great example of that principle. 52. Rounded Binary: The next type of binary form we will be looking at is called rounded binary like simple binary. It also has two sections. The difference and rounded binary is that the thematic material from the A section is tacked onto the end of the B section. This rounds it out so that the peace begins and ends with thematic material from the A section. Here's a diagram to illustrate this. The upper case letters refer to the sections well. The lower case letters refer to the thematic material. For example, the lower case A refers to the A theme used in a section. The lower case be refers to the B theme used in the B section. The B theme is sometimes referred to as the digression. This portion of the B section is usually very short and cannot stand on its own. The A theme then returns usually halfway through the B section and rounds out the piece. Typically, it is only the second half of the a theme that returns and not the a theme in its entirety . An example of rounded binary is Menu It by Leopold Mozart measures one through nine. A section is made up of the following thematic material, which is part of a theme, measures nine through 12. The first half of the B section is made up of the following thematic material, which makes up the B theme measures. 13 through 16 is the return of the A team again. Typically, it is only the second half of the A thing that returns and not the A theme in its entirety here. Measures 13 through 16 are a repeat of measures five through eight. 53. Sectional Binary: We learned at the beginning of this section that there were two elements the delineate, one section of music from another thematic design and harmonic structure. We have seen how thematic design contributes to the form of a piece when we looked at simple binary and around it binary Well, now look at how harmonic structure contributes to the form of the peace. If the a section ends in the tonic key, it is considered harmonically complete. When the A section is harmonically complete, we call the form sectional binary. Typically, this is accomplished through an authentic kittens where sometimes a playgirl kins, an example of sectional binary is beret by Christopher Grabner. Ah, notice how the thematic material was mostly the same in both sections. In this example, it is not the thematic design that determines the sections, but rather the harmonic structure. Lines one into the a section are in the key of the minor and end with an authentic kids in the last two measures of lying to from a 57 to 1 or B 17 minor. Because the A section ends in the tonic key, it is harmonically complete, and the pieces there for a called sectional binary. It does not matter what comes next, harmonically in the B section, as long as the A section ends in the tonic key. Although what comes next in the B section does not determine whether the pieces sectional or not, here's in typical harmonic structures of sectional binary form. When the A section is in a major key, the B section will typically begin in the dominant key before modulating back to the tonic he at the end, when the A section is in a minor key, the B section will typically begin and the roles of major key before modulating back to the tonic he the end. 54. Continuous Binary: in sectional binary. The a section must end in the tonic E when the A section ends on anything other than the tonic. We call this continuous binary because the A section does not end on the tonic E, it is not harmonically complete. It will continue on into the B section. Here's a typical harmonic structures of continuous binary form. When the A section is in a major key, it will typically modulate to the dominant key. At the end of the A section, the B section will begin in the dominant key before modulating back to the tonic key. When the A section is in a minor key, it will typically modulate to the relative Major Keith the end of the A section. The B section will begin in the relative major key before modulating back to the tonic. He on example of continuous binary is menu and seed by Mount Search once again notice how the thematic material is mostly the same in both sections. In this example, it is not the thematic design that determines the sections, but rather the harmonic structure. Mine's wanted to be a section begin in the key of C major, the one or the tonic E an end in the key of G major, the five for the dominant key lines three and four The B section begin in the Q G major. The five were the dominant key, an end in the key of C measure, the one with the tonic he 55. Other Binary Forms: the four types of binary form we have studied thus far are simple. Binary, rounded, binary, sectional, binary and continuous binary. Simple and rounded are determined by thematic design. While sectional and continuous are determined by harmonic structure, it is important to note that because melody and harmony did not happen in isolation, these forms usually occurring combinations. There are four possible combinations. Simple sectional, simple, continuous, rounded sectional and round. A continuous two Other terms, you should know are symmetrical binary, an asymmetrical binary. When the A section in the B section of the same length, we call it symmetrical binary when the a section of the B section or different lengths, we call it asymmetrical binary. Typically, it is the B section that is longer in these instances. 56. Quiz for Section 10: 57. Composition Assignments for section 10: 58. Simple Ternary: The next type of musical form we're going to be studying is turn Eri form Turn Eri means three part form the three sections air labeled A B and A. Each section typically ends in an authentic kittens, and the N B sections consist of contrasting thematic material. Internet reform. The sections do not normally repeat as they do in binary form, the B section of a piece. Internal reform is usually in a key that is related to the key of the A section. Most common are the dominant key, the relative major or minor key and the parallel major or minor key. The B section and a section are typically very contrast. Ing ways in which the B section could be contrasting to a include but are not limited to our contrasting key contrasting tempo. Contrasting dynamics in contrasting rhythmic and melodic material. When a returns, but it's slightly varied. We label the form has a B A one. Coronary forms can also include transitions between each section and a coda. The transition is basically a portion of music that helps the composer shift from one section of a piece to another, or from one seemed to another it could be made up of thematic material from the section thematic material from the B section or could be completely different in new material. Dakota is an extra part that is added onto the end of a piece. Kota is Italian for tail. Think of it as a final statement. The innocent sums up the whole piece. Coronary form is used in the 17th and early 18th centuries in opera arias. The former is called the deck capo aria because the final A section was not written out. Instead of writing out the entire A section a second time, the words da capo, which mean from the head or from the beginning, told the performer to replay the original a section note for note. In the 18th century, the menu in Trio was written using Turn eri Form turn. Every form is also used in single movements of larger pieces such a string quartets, symphonies and Sonatas. In the 19th century turn. Every form is used in short piano pieces, an example of simple turn. Every form, written in the 19th century, is a piece called Ballad by Johann Friedrich Berg Miller, uh, - Theo . The A section consists of measures. One through 30 the peace begins in the key of C minor. It is characterized by the mysterious sounding 16th note pattern and stick Honore Thumbs. A transition from the A section to the B section occurs and measures 19 through 30. Here it is a foreshadowing of what is to come in the B section. It's basically a variation of the left 10 rhythmic pattern. The B section consists of measures 31 through 56. The thematic material in the section contrast nicely with a thematic material from the A section. Both the rhythmic and melodic material is different, as well as the overall mood. Harmonically, the B section is distinguished from any section due to the difference in key. The B section is in the key of C major. The parallel key to the Q C Minor measures 47 3 56 is a transition back to the A section. It uses thematic material from the resection measures 57th or 86. The A section returns almost entirely. Note, for note is basically a complete restatement of a. After the second a section, we find 10 extra measures that have been tacked onto the end of the piece. This is the coda. The thematic material used here is most definitely taken from the section. Now go back in this lecture and listen to the peace again. You can also print or demo the attached score for further study. 59. Ternary vs Rounded Binary: At this point, you may be wondering what the difference is between simple turn eri form and rounded binary form. If you recall from the last lesson, the a section of rounded binary contains the A theme. The B section of rounded binary contains Thebe theme that I aggression, followed by a return to the A theme about halfway through the B section. This a B A look similar deter Neri form, but it's not. Coronary form is different from a rounded binary in a few distinct ways. One. The B section intern Eri is much longer than the B theme in the B section of rounded binary to the beast section. Intern Eri is an independent section that would make sense have played on its own. Where is the B theme in the B section of rounded binary would not make sense of played on its own. Three. The B section intern Eri is typically very contrast into a Where is the B theme in the B section of around a Binary is usually more closely related to a 60. Compound Ternary: 61. Quiz for Section 11: 62. Composition Assignments for section 11: 63. Five Part Form: 64. Seven Part Form: 65. Arch Form: 66. Quiz for Section 12: 67. Composition Assignments for section 12: 68. One Part Form: 69. Theme and Variations: 70. Chaconne: another type of variation form is the shit cone. Mr. Cohen is a set of variations based on a short repeating harmonic progression, very frequently on a short repeating baseline, This harmonic progression are repeating. Baseline is the foundation of the entire piece and is the tool by which variations can be carried out. She cones were very popular in the broke period and were typically in 34 meter. For an example of this con, listen to the Shikotan and F minor by Johann Park a Bell. Here's the short repeating baseline on which the harmonic progression and the entire piece is based. Uh, for another example, she cone form. Listen to Parco Bells, Canon in D. This is probably the most famous and recognizable piece which incorporates the sheikh own form. Here is the short repeating baseline on which the harmonic progression in the entire piece is based. Ah, 71. Quiz for Section 13: 72. Composition Assignments for section 13: 73. 1st Movement Form: one of the most significant and influential forms of the classical period was the Sonata form. The Sonata is a larger scale instrumental piece originating from the 16th century, consisting of multiple movements, usually 2 to 4. Each movement of a sonata was written in a different form. For example, the second movement was typically written internal reform well. The third or final movement was typically, and Rhonda form. The term Sonata form refers to the form that the first movement was typically written in. This is why Sonata Form is also known as first movement. For him, it should be noted that Sonata Form was occasionally used as a second or third movement, whereas a finale Sonata form is also sometimes referred to as Sonata Allegro form. Since the first movement of a sonata was typically played at a quick tempo allegro, the form itself began to take shape and become solidified during the classical period, primarily through the works of Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven, we will now go over the structure of Sonata form. There are three sections. The first section is called the Exposition. This is the section in which the themes air introduced or exposed to the listener. In the exposition, there is a primary theme and a secondary theme. The primary theme is in the Tonic E. Well, the secondary theme is in a related key. There is usually a transition between the primary and secondary themes that assists in the modulation to the new key. After the secondary themes heard, there may be a code ETA, which solidifies the modulation to the new key, typically with an authentic cadence. The next section is called the Development Section. This is the place with composers free to expand upon and further develop any of the themes used in the exposition. This section can also contain completely new thematic material. Typically, the development section is in the new key, in which the exposition section ended. Although it can be in a related key. Often during this section there is a lot of modulating through different keys. Development is done primarily through manipulation of the thematic material and key changes . The development section typically feels unstable and is in stark contrast to the sections before and after it. The length of the development was typically shorter than the exposition during the classical period and longer than the exposition during the romantic period. The final section of a sonata is called the Recapitulation. There is usually a re transition between the development and recapitulation to assist in the modulation back to the original key of the peace. The recapitulation is basically a recap of the exposition. Typically, the only difference is that the secondary theme is an atomic key this time around. Although there may be other slight variations, a code is sometimes added to the end of the recapitulation. Now that we have the basic structure of Sonata form laid out, let's look at the first movement of a piece written in Sonata form. The title of this piece is Sana, Tina and See Major by Lucio Clementi Sana. Tina is basically a short sonata, so although we'll be looking at a Sana Tina in this example, the form used is still Sonata Form. Now that we've heard the peace, let's briefly look over it. The exposition measures one through 15. The primary theme is in the tonic key of C Major and contains the following motif. There is a very brief transition in the last speed of Measure six through the end of seven , which assists in the modulation to the key of G major and Measure eight. Measure eight begins the secondary theme in the new Kiev G major and is made up of the following motifs. Odetta occurs and measures 12 through 15 ending on an authentic kittens 5 to 1, which solidifies the new key of G major. The development section measures 16 through 23. The development begins in the parallel minor. The final chord of exposition becomes the first chord of the development section, and this is how the composer's able to get to see minor the thematic material the composer's chosen to further develop in this section is the primary theme in the transition theme from the exposition section. The primary theme is seen first as part of the dominant chord and then a C minor chord. The transition theme from exposition is seen once again in Measure 18 the right hand, this time in the minor key and using quarter notes for other than eight minutes. It can also be found hidden in every other note of the left hand and measures 23 21. The recapitulation measures 24 through 38. In this particular piece, the recap is not an exact copy of the exposition section. There are a few slight alterations. The primary theme is transposed an octave lower on measures 24 3 27 the primary themes seen again and Measure 28 with the intervals of record moving in the opposite direction. And, again, a Measure 29 using a different inversion of the court. Since the secondary theme in the recapitulation is always in the tonic, no modulation is necessary. In the transition, Measure 31 begins the secondary theme in the tonic you see major the code ETA re occurs, slightly altered and ends with an authentic AIDS to solidify the return to the home key. Now go back in this lecture and listen to the peace again. You can also print or download the attached score for further study. 74. Quiz for Section 14: 75. Composition Assignments for section 14: 76. Congratulations: