Music Composition 1 - Rhythm & Melody | Jonathan Peters | Skillshare
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93 Lessons (2h 11m)
    • 1. Course Overview (section 1)

      1:57
    • 2. Uniformity and Variety

      1:43
    • 3. Music's Relation to Language

      3:42
    • 4. Coming Up With Ideas

      0:17
    • 5. Quiz for section 2

      0:17
    • 6. Composition Assignments for section 2

      0:17
    • 7. The Musical Sentence

      4:03
    • 8. Quiz for section 3

      0:17
    • 9. Composition Assignments for section 3

      0:17
    • 10. Categorizing Phrases

      3:50
    • 11. Quiz for section 4

      0:17
    • 12. Composition Assignments for section 4

      0:17
    • 13. The Period

      1:59
    • 14. The Phrase Group

      1:32
    • 15. Quiz for section 5

      0:17
    • 16. Composition Assignments for section 5

      0:17
    • 17. Augmentation

      1:39
    • 18. Diminution

      1:22
    • 19. Quiz for section 6

      0:17
    • 20. Composition Assignments for section 6

      0:17
    • 21. Truncation

      1:11
    • 22. Expansion

      0:46
    • 23. Displacement

      1:31
    • 24. Quiz for section 7

      0:17
    • 25. Composition Assignments for section 7

      0:17
    • 26. Rhythmic Mood

      4:42
    • 27. Quiz for section 8

      0:17
    • 28. Composition Assignments for section 8

      0:17
    • 29. The Definition of Melody

      2:17
    • 30. The Nature of Melody

      5:47
    • 31. How Melody is Formed and its Connection to Speech

      0:17
    • 32. Quiz for section 9

      0:17
    • 33. Another Form of Motif

      5:05
    • 34. Quiz for section 10

      0:17
    • 35. Composition Assignments for section 10

      0:17
    • 36. Repetition

      0:58
    • 37. Transposition

      1:42
    • 38. Sequences

      4:59
    • 39. Quiz for section 11

      0:17
    • 40. Composition Assignments for section 11

      0:17
    • 41. Intervallic Expansion and Compression

      3:30
    • 42. Octave Transfer

      2:21
    • 43. Change of Tonality

      0:55
    • 44. Quiz for section 12

      0:17
    • 45. Composition Assignments for section 12

      0:17
    • 46. The Musical Sentence Revisited

      0:58
    • 47. Multiple Motifs

      2:37
    • 48. Transposition of Multiple Motifs

      2:30
    • 49. Quiz for section 13

      0:17
    • 50. Composition Assignments for section 13

      0:17
    • 51. Types of Melodic Phrases

      4:19
    • 52. The Melodic Period and Phrase Group

      2:24
    • 53. Quiz for section 14

      0:17
    • 54. Composition Assignments for section 14

      0:17
    • 55. Inversion

      1:17
    • 56. Transposed Inversion

      0:47
    • 57. Mirror Inversion

      1:38
    • 58. Retrograde

      1:00
    • 59. Retrograde Inversion

      1:02
    • 60. Quiz for section 15

      0:17
    • 61. Composition Assignments for section 15

      0:17
    • 62. Augmentation

      2:10
    • 63. Diminution

      1:34
    • 64. Truncation

      0:55
    • 65. Expansion

      0:56
    • 66. Displacement

      1:35
    • 67. Quiz for section 16

      0:17
    • 68. Composition Assignments for section 16

      0:17
    • 69. Categorizing Melodic Tones

      4:56
    • 70. Quiz for section 17

      0:17
    • 71. Composition Assignments for section 17

      0:17
    • 72. Passing Tones

      5:39
    • 73. Neighbor Tones

      3:36
    • 74. Quiz for section 18

      0:17
    • 75. Composition Assignments for section 18

      0:17
    • 76. Chromatic Passing Tones

      3:19
    • 77. Chromatic Neighbor Tones

      2:16
    • 78. Incomplete Neighbor Tones

      2:59
    • 79. Quiz for section 19

      0:17
    • 80. Composition Assignments for section 19

      0:17
    • 81. Anticipation Tones

      1:44
    • 82. Suspension Tones

      3:43
    • 83. Quiz for section 20

      0:17
    • 84. Composition Assignments for section 20

      0:17
    • 85. Creating and Resolving Tension

      0:17
    • 86. Change in Pitch

      1:51
    • 87. Change in Interval Size

      1:50
    • 88. Change in Duration

      1:18
    • 89. Syncopation

      2:20
    • 90. Quiz for section 21

      0:17
    • 91. Composition Assignments for section 21

      0:17
    • 92. Congratulations

      0:17
    • 93. Conclusion

      0:16
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About This Class

Learn how to write music from a professional and award-winning composer. This is a two part series of courses. Music Composition 1 covers rhythm and melody. Music Composition 2 covers harmony and form.

Each section of the course covers a particular concept (or related concepts). Concepts and compositional techniques are demonstrated throughout the course with real musical examples (pictures and audio samples). This course also includes access to on-line quizzes, listening assignments, and composition assignments.

Course Structure (includes over 50 lectures)

  1. Overview
  2. The Rhythmic Motif
  3. The Rhythmic Phrase
  4. Types of Rhythmic Phrases
  5. Rhythmic Periods and Phrase Groups
  6. Rhythmic Development – Part 1
  7. Rhythmic Development – Part 2
  8. Conveying Mood Through Rhythm
  9. Introduction to Melody
  10. The Melodic Motif
  11. Melodic Development – Part 1
  12. Melodic Development – Part 2
  13. The Melodic Phrase
  14. The Melodic Period
  15. Melodic Development – Part 3
  16. Melodic Development – Part 4
  17. Chord Tones & Non-chord Tones
  18. Passing Tones & Neighbor Tones
  19. Chromatic Tones & Incomplete Neighbor Tones
  20. Anticipation Tones & Suspension Tones
  21. Tension & Resolution

Course Requirements

  • be able to read music
  • have a basic knowledge of music theory
  • music notation software (musescore is free)
  • you don’t need to know how to play an instrument (although it really helps)

WHY COMPOSE?

It is a common misconception that in order to be able to compose music one must be born with the gift for it. Although one cannot “teach” inspiration or the creative spark, one can “supply” the tools and knowledge necessary to write music. While it’s certainly true that not everyone who attempts to compose music is going to become a successful composer, it does not follow that unless you can compose on that level you should not even attempt it. That would be like saying only the Shakespeares of the world should write words and that no one else should bother picking up pen and paper. Not only is it possible for anyone to compose music, it is quite vital for every student of music to have some experience with music composition.

It is a sad but true fact that most modern music teachers and music courses do not include music composition as part of the students’ musical education. In the past it was typical for students of music to be able to compose music. One example is J.S. Bach who trained all of his students to be composers as well as performers. In fact, if a person did not have some basic experience with music composition they would not be allowed into his studio! This course seeks to fill in some small part this current deficiency in music education. The study of music composition is said to “complete” the musician, since the “complete” musician is one who has knowledge of music theory, plays an instrument, AND can also compose.

Here are some of the main reasons why learning music composition is important to every musician. First and foremost is the deepening of one’s understanding of music. To create something requires a certain level of understanding of the thing being created. Simply listening to music or playing music involves a much more superficial understanding than writing music. Even the person with a firm grasp of music theory cannot be said to understand music to the same degree as the composer. For example, one may know every type of chord there is to know, but not know what order to place them in to create music. One may know every pitch in a particular major key, but not know what order to place those pitches in to make a beautiful melody. It is simply not enough to know all the elements and parts of a thing. To have a complete knowledge one must understand how all of the parts work together.

Second, study of music composition can improve one’s performance of music. Although music notation has come a long way over the centuries, it still remains imperfect. Knowledge of how music is put together will allow the performer to understand the things behind the notes on the page and those things that are not able to be notated.

Third, some music requires that the performer improvise on the spot and add to what is notated on the page. Having knowledge of how music is formed greatly enhances one’s ability to improvise music and have the improvisation sound like actual music.

Last, the creative process in and of itself brings much joy to one’s life. Not to mention the fact that any music composed can then bring joy to those who hear it or to those who perform it.

Enjoy the course and happy learning!

- Mr. Peters

Meet Your Teacher

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Jonathan Peters

Award-winning Composer, Author, Educator

Teacher

Jonathan Peters is an award-winning composer currently residing in the beautiful state of Colorado. Since 1990 he has worked as a composer, conductor, arranger, recording artist, educator and author. Peters holds a B.A. in liberal arts from Thomas Aquinas College and continued his graduate work towards a M.M. in music composition at California State University Northridge, which included areas of study in advanced composition, theory, orchestration, and film scoring.

 

Peters’ music has been performed both internationally and by orchestras across the United States. He has won multiple awards and recognitions, such as 1st place in the 1996 Composers Today Contest. His nea... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Course Overview (section 1): 2. Uniformity and Variety: how rhythms formed. Can we randomly place different note durations on the page and get a rhythm? What's experiment? Here's a succession of random, no durations. These notes are technically a rhythm. Is it a good rhythm? No, because there is a lack of uniformity, there is nothing that ties it all together. Let's look at another example. Technically, this is a rhythm as well. Is it a good rhythm? No. Because all of the notes are of the same duration. There's no variety without variety. There is nothing to separate the rhythm into contrast in parts. Throughout this course, you will learn that all great music contains a well balance of both uniformity and variety . When there is a unifying factor, it makes the music intelligible, thus easier to grasp and easier to enjoy. At the same time, without some variety, music would be repetitive and un interesting. Uniformity and variety are the two most basic principles of music composition, and we will be studying there many applications over the duration of this course 3. Music's Relation to Language: music as a language has many similarities to the English language that we speak and write every day this will become more apparent as we proceed through the course. We will begin our comparison by looking at letters and words. The musical equivalent of letters are the individual notes. The musical equivalent of a word is called a motif. Just a letters make up words. So two notes, makeup motifs. A moat chief is a combination of notes that form a short re occurring musical idea or theme , which characterizes apiece or section of music. Motifs can be rhythmic, melodic or harmonic in nature. In this lesson, we're only focused on the rhythmic or chief. Let's take a look at possibly one of the most famous motifs in all of music. Uh, these four note durations. Three. A thoughts and 1/2 note taken together, form a motif. Remember, we're not talking about pitches here. Just the note durations. Look at the following music and see how many times you confined the motif. If we think back to our discussion on uniformity and variety, we can see that the motif plays an important role in bringing uniformity to the music It is a huge part of what holds the music together and makes it intelligible. Let's take a look at some more rhythmic examples and attempt to identify the motifs to find the motif. In the following example, we need to look for short, recurring patterns. If you look carefully, you should be able to see the half note quarter note pattern, 1/2 note, followed by one corners. This is the rhythmic motif. It occurs three times once in the first measure, once in the second measure and once in the last measure. Here's another example again, if we find the short, reoccurring pattern, we will have found the motif. Here. The pattern is the dotted quarter note, followed by Nathan, followed by half net. This pattern is the rhythmic, more chief. It occurs once and measures one and two and again in measures four and five. Once you get used to noticing patterns and music, you will see motifs everywhere. Here are some basic rules and techniques to remember when trying to come up with your own motifs for your lesson assignments. Shorter is better. No chiefs are generally anywhere from 2 to 8 notes in length motifs are usually best when they contain at least two or more different note durations. For example, 2/4 notes would not make a very good man chief. Neither were to half notes nor to hone its for the best results. Use a combination of no durations when choosing notes for your motifs. 4. Coming Up With Ideas: 5. Quiz for section 2: 6. Composition Assignments for section 2: 7. The Musical Sentence: just a sledders. Make up words and words make up sentences. So in music notes, makeup motifs and motifs, make of phrases a phrase is the musical equivalent of the sentence. A musical phrase can stand alone as a complete thought or idea. We'll talk more about this when we delve into a lot of crazies. Also, phrases typically four measures in life. It could be larger or smaller, but it cannot be smaller than two measures. We will now take a look at how we can combine motifs to make up a phrase. In this particular example, we're going to use to different motifs now. Either of these musical ideas by themselves would not be enough to make a sentence, since they are much too short. Each is only three notes long a very common and useful tool for creating phrases is that of repetition. If we begin our phrase by repeating one of the motifs above, we accomplished two things. First, we introduced the motif to the listener, letting them become familiar with it. Second, we established this particular motif as the primary motif, or PM. We must be careful not to simply endlessly repeat a primary motif since the music would become monotonous and the listener would soon tire of hearing it. This is where my chief number two comes into play. Let's repeat our secondary mu chief, so that it's four beats in length just as the primary. My chief is four beach length. If we insert this measure in between measures containing our primary Mo chief, it will provide variety and also established the other motif as the secondary motif. We now have a four measure rhythmic phrase made up of two different motifs. This is a very simple example of how much he's could be combined to create phrases. There are countless other combinations we could have come up with once our primary and secondary motifs have been firmly established. We can then begin to develop different rhythmic phrases using these same motifs. Yeah, what we have done here is cut our primary motif into two halves and intermix them with the secondary motif, which were kept intact. As you can see, this is a little more complex, but a little more interesting. This new rhythmic phrase contains both the element of uniformity, the original motives and the element of variety. The possibilities are endless. That's the wonderful thing about music. You can use your imagination and be as creative as you want while still maintaining order. This lesson was just an introduction to rhythmic phrases. We will go into more depth as we proceed through the course. 8. Quiz for section 3: 9. Composition Assignments for section 3: 10. Categorizing Phrases: In the last lesson, we learned about how combining rhythmic motifs can create rhythmic phrases and this listen , we're going to learn about different types of phrases. There are only three types of phrases those that suggests continuation those that suggest a temporary repose and those that suggest finality. Although these three types of phrases are more easily delineated through means of melody and harmony, which we shall see later, rhythm can also, and it's handed forming a musical sentences. Let's take a look at a few examples and see how changing the ends of the phrase rhythmically can affect what the phrase will suggest to the listener. Here's our original phrase. Let's say we won't have this phrase suggests a sense of finality, like the period at the end of a sentence. There are a couple things you could do to accomplish this. First, you could end on a strong beat. The stronger the beach, the greater the degree of finality. Second, you can end on a note of longer duration than all the notes that came before it. In the following example, we have changed the last measure so that we end on the strongest beat beat one and we have made the note a whole note so that it is longer than all the previous notes, thus giving it more weight. This phrase now suggests a sense of finality. Next, let's say that we wanted to create a temporary sense of repose. Like for comma in a sentence. There are a couple of things you can do to accomplish this. The first way is by adding rests to the end of the phrase this suggests to our era that were not really at the end yet and that the music will continue on momentarily. The second way to suggest a temporary sense of repose is by ending on a week beat. This suggests that the music will go on our ear nationally, wants to hear more, Uh, and finally, let's say that we wanted to suggest a sense of continuation. The best way to accomplish this is by ending the phrase with very short notes such as 8th 16th etcetera. This will create the impression that we're not stopping not even momentarily, and will continue on. This type of phrase will connect very nicely to a second phrase 11. Quiz for section 4: 12. Composition Assignments for section 4: 13. The Period: Justus combinations of sentences, makeup paragraphs. So in music, combinations of phrases, makeup periods and phrase groups, a period consists of two phrases that have the relationship of antecedent and consequent. This antecedent and consequent relationship is harder to understand when speaking about rhythmic phrases, and will be much more clearly seen where we study melodic and harmonic periods. What we mean by Anderson consequent phrases when speaking of rhythm is one phrase that ends weekly. The answer student, followed by a second phrase that in strongly the consequence here is an example of a period . Uh oh. Notice how the first phrase measures one through four ends rather weakly. Well, the second phrase measures five through eight ends much stronger. Do you remember the three types of phrases from the last lesson and to see in a Phrases are created by use of either of the first to phrase types those that suggest continuation and those that suggest temporary repose. Consequent phrases are created by use of the third phrase type that which suggests finality 14. The Phrase Group: when two phrases do not have an antecedent to consequent relationship, we call it a phrase group. Here's an example. As you can see, there is no antecedent consequent relationship, since the second phrase is a repeat of the first phrase. The second phrase does not have to be an exact repeat of the first phrase as long as the first phrase does not end weekly on the second phrase strongly, phrase groups can also have more than two phrases. Here is an example of a phrase group that consists of 34 measure phrases. Each phrase is completely different, but since they'll instruct ugly, there is no possibility of an antecedent consequent relationship. 15. Quiz for section 5: 16. Composition Assignments for section 5: 17. Augmentation: Now that we have studied and worked with the motif phrase and period, we're ready to begin developing our rhythms through a number of compositional techniques and this listen, we will cover two of these techniques. Augmentation and diminution. The word augment comes from the Latin Augment Tory. To increase Augmentation is taking a mo chief for an entire phrase and increasing the duration of each note by the same proportion. Let's look at an example. As you can see, the original motif was comprised of 4/8. It was followed by 2/4 notes. If we double the duration of each note, we end up with 4/4 notes, followed by 2/2 nuts. When we double the note orations, it is called strict augmentation. We can also triple or quadruple the no durations, but that is less commonly done. If we had quadrupled each maturation, the motif would have taken up too much time and might become unrecognizable as the motif by the listener. If we had tripled the snow duration, it would have changed the pulse of the motif and would have had to be written out in an entirely different meter. This once again, would make it very unlikely to be recognized as the motif by the listener 18. Diminution: the word diminution comes from the Latin Dima Newt's you to decrease diminution is taking a motif or an entire phrase and decreasing the duration of each note bythe same proportion. What's looking at an example? As you can see, the original motif was comprised of 1/2 note fold by two coordinates. If we have the duration of each note, we end up with 1/4 note, followed by two a thins. When we have a no durations, it is called strict diminish in. We can also reduce the no durations by 1/3 or fourth, but this is less commonly done, especially since reducing the note lengths to 1/3 changes the pulse of the rhythm. The important thing to remember with both augmentation and diminution is that the no durations in the original motif must have the same proportions one another as the no durations in the altered motif. If proportion is not maintained, the motifs will become unrecognizable, since they will lack the principle of uniformity 19. Quiz for section 6: 20. Composition Assignments for section 6: 21. Truncation: In the last lesson, we began learning about compositional techniques used to develop rhythmic material, namely argumentation and Mnuchin. These techniques created variety while maintaining uniformity. And this listen, we will learn three more techniques. Truncation, expansion and displacement. Truncation is when any part of the end of a motif for phrase is left off or truncated. This works best with whole phrases, since motifs are already fairly short to begin with. Let's look at an example of truncation. If you look at the truncated rhythm, you will notice that the last three notes have been left off, creating a variation of the original rhythm. We could have cut off as much or as little as we wanted. There are no wrong answers here. 22. Expansion: expansion is the opposite of truncation. Expansion is when any part of the motif for phrase is added onto the end of the original rhythm. Let's look at an example of expansion, as you can see to create our expanded rhythm, we took the last four notes from the original rhythm and tax them on to the end. We could have added as much or as little as we wanted. There are no wrong answers here as long as you use material from the original. 23. Displacement: The last compositional technique we will cover in this lesson is that of displacement. Rhythmic displacement is accomplished by shifting a motif or phrase over so that it begins on a different beat. Let's look at an example of displacement. As you can see, we have shifted our entire rhythm over one beat so that it begins on the second beat. The last note has been changed from half minutes. Will quarter note so that it continues to fit into two measures. We know from basic music theory that in 44 time beat one is the strongest. B three is the second strongest, and that beats two and four are weak beats. By shifting everything over, we're changing which notes of our rhythm fall on strong beats, in which notes fall on weak beats. This changes the entire field and the actual sound of the rhythm. Let's listen to and compare both rhythms. Here is the original rhythm. Here is the displaced for them 24. Quiz for section 7: 25. Composition Assignments for section 7: 26. Rhythmic Mood: in this lesson, we're going to look at how rhythm can contribute to the mood of the piece of music. Let's listen to an example because most of these notes are of a longer duration. This rhythm could be said to be depicting Peacefulness or tranquility longer. No durations usually depict the less intense emotions or moods for four. Meter also contributes to this, since the measures air longer than notes within them can be of a longer duration. Of course, a lot of this also depends on the tempo of the peace. If the example above were played at a very fast tempo, the notes that sound as if they were notes of shorter duration, and this will lose that sense of calmness. Let's look at another example. Justus longer no durations helped to create the less intense emotions, so the shorter durations helped to create them or intense emotions. Because most of these notes are of a shorter duration and because there are a number of different rhythmic patterns, this rhythm could be said to be depicting frantic nous or hurried nous. The to four meter also contributes to this, since the stronger beats occur at a more frequent rate than than 44 meter to four meter usually sounds more hurried. Don't forget to factor in the Temple of the peace. Here's another example, because this rhythm consists of the same pattern repeated over and over again, this rhythm could be said to be depicting persistence or resoluteness. This next example is in 34 meter, 34 meter can often suggest a rocking or swinging back and forth and can help to depict a very soothing or comforting mood. This particular motif, the half note followed by 1/4 note, can sound like skipping when played at a quick tempo. This could help to depict a playful or joyous mood. As you can see because of tempo, it is not a set fast rule. The notes of shorter durations depict more intense emotions, while notes of longer durations to picked less intense emotions. Besides meter and tempo, one must also remember to consider the factor that dynamics and articulations can play in helping to shape rhythmic mood. For example, if we played the very first rhythm in this lesson fortissimo, it would no longer sound peaceful. It would sound angry. Here is an example of our articulations can contribute to the rhythm. Include staccato articulations can create a lighthearted effect, while Mark Otto articulations can create a more agitated effect. The examples In this lesson we're just a few examples to help kick start your imagination and give you some idea of how rhythm, along with the contributing factors of meter tempo, dynamics and articulations, can help to create the mood of a piece. The possibilities are endless. Experiment and be creative. 27. Quiz for section 8: 28. Composition Assignments for section 8: 29. The Definition of Melody: The first part of this course was devoted entirely to the study of rhythm and composition. We now begin the second part of this course where we will study melodic compositions. Just a rhythm is an ordered succession of durations of sound, so melody is an order of succession of pitches. The definition of melody will become clearer to you as we study its parts and how it is formed. In layman's terms, Melody is the tune or part of the song that we hum, sing or whistle before he began. It is important to note the melody cannot be separated from rhythm. Rhythm, however, can be separated from melody. In order to see this more clearly, let's try clapping the first line of Happy Birthday without singing it. We have just separated the rhythm from the melody. We cannot, however, sing Happy Birthday without also singing the rhythm. For the moment, you sing a pitch you must, by necessity, give a duration. Once you give durations two pitches, you have rhythm. In fact, rhythm is so connected to malady that by changing the rhythm, melodies can actually lose their identity. Listen to and compare each of the following musical examples. Here's the 1st 1 Here's the second. Although both of the examples shared the exact same pitches, they have different rhythms. You probably didn't recognize the tune until you heard it played in the second example. This is because rhythmic durations of notes are such a huge part of the identity of a melody. It helps make it what it is. Remember this as you move forward through this portion, of course. 30. The Nature of Melody: melody must be melodic. In other words, melody by its nature must move. What is meant by move is that it must change pitch. Look at the example below. Singing the same pitch over and over is not properly called melody, since melody is an ordered succession of pitches, not an ordered succession of the same pitch. We would refer to this line of music as recited or chanted if melody by its very nature must move. The next question to ask is what other ways in which you can move. We will therefore begin our study of how to compose melodies by looking at all the possible ways in which Melanie can move. There are only four ways and which melody can move. The 1st 2 ways deal with the direction of the movement. The 2nd 2 ways deal with the size of the movement. Let's look a directional movement first. This is the most fundamental type of movement, because pitch, by its very nature, is either going higher or lower. Directional movement can be either ascending or D cendy. A well written Mellie must consist of both ascending and descending motion. If the directional movement was always moving in the same direction. Theme music would become very dull. A nun interesting here is an example of melody that moves in only one direction. Descending the two other types of melodic movement deal with the size of the movement. When we speak about the size of the movement, we're speaking of the interval IQ distance Such a seconds. 3rd 4th etcetera. We classify the size of the movement as being either conjunction or destruct. Conduct motion is simply movement by seconds. Another name for conduct motion is stepwise motion. As you can see from the Diagram Conjunction, motion can be either ascending or descending. Disjunctive motion is simply moving by any interval larger than a second, since a common form of destruct motion is moving by thirds or skips. Another name for district motion is skip wise motion. As you can see from the diagram destruct motion can be either ascending or descending. Now let's look at a few musical examples of conduct and destruct emotion. This melodic line is made up entirely of conjunction motion. This would be considered a well written melodic line, since the conduct emotion is both ascending and descending still, since it does not contain any district motion. It is lacking a certain quality. Let's look at another example. This melodic line is made up entirely of district motion, since it contains both ascending and descending Russian. It has an essential part of being a well written melodic line. It is pleasant enough, but since it doesn't contain any conjunction motion, it is lacking a great deal. Stepwise motion is a much more natural type of movement, as compared to skip buys motion, since it is more closely connected to the scale into the human voice. If you study music, you will find that the most well written, most melodic melodies contain a balance of ascending, descending, stepwise and skip wise motion. These types of melodies air very singable. They're memorable and stick with us. Here's an example. Red equals destruct. Mushin Blue equals conjuncture motion. This example is such a wonderful melody because it contains all four types of melodic movement. Ascending, descending conjunction and district notice how the conduct motion in this example is always ascending Well, The destruct motion is we'll see descending. It didn't have to be written this way, for what the composer did greatly helps to unify the music as we moved to the rest. Of course, it will be very important to keep in mind the four types of melodic movement learned in this lesson and to make use of these types of movement in the melodies which you will compose. 31. How Melody is Formed and its Connection to Speech: 32. Quiz for section 9: 33. Another Form of Motif: in lesson to we learned about rhythmic motifs. If you recall a motif is a combination of notes. That former short, recurring musical idea or theme, which characterizes apiece or section of music motifs, can be rhythmic, melodic or harmonica nature. And this listen, we will be learning about the melodic motif with a rhythmic motifs. We observed that the short, recurring musical ideas involved the durations of the notes with melodic motifs. The short re occurring musical ideas involved the pitches of the notes. Let's take a look at some examples of Malaga motifs so that we can get a better idea of what this man's Here. In the following diagram, we can see that the first measure contains a repeated note, followed by a rising major, third c T E. In the second measure, there is also a repeated note, followed by a rising major third half day. This pattern of repeated note, followed by a rising major Third, is the short, recurring musical idea. It is the melodic motif. Since melody cannot be separated from rhythm, most melodic motifs will coincide with the rhythmic motifs in the following diagram. The melodic motif repeated note, followed by a rising major third goes hand in hand with the rhythmic chief 2/4 notes full by half. Now it is not a necessity that the rhythmic motif remains the same with the tree occurrence of the melodic chief. In fact, oftentimes a melodic motif will be repeated, using a different rhythm as a means of developing or varying the motif. Here's an example. As you can see, we have changed the duration of the 1st 2 notes in the second measure. The melodic motif remains the same in each measure, a repeated note followed by a rising major third. But the rhythmic mo chief has been altered from 2/4 and 1/2 to a dotted quarter. Eighth and 1/2 must listen to each example. Here's the first. Here's the altered motif. When a melodic motif is restated, the interval quality could be different. The interval number, however, must be the same. In other words, a melodic motif can consist of a major third and then re occur with a minor furred. But it cannot first occur with 1/3 and then re occur with the fourth. There are exceptions to this, which you will learn about when we studied the development of motifs in this lesson and the assignments for this lesson, we will only be dealing with motifs that recur with same interval number. Let's look at an example that will help illustrate this. Uh, if you look closely, you will notice that the original melodic motif is a falling major third GT foot. Where is the re occurring melodic motif is a fulling minor Sirte F. Two d. Although the quality of the interval changed, the restatement of the motif was still 1/3. If the restatement of the motif had used some other intervals, such as 1/4 or 1/5 it would have been a development or variation of the more. Chief, which is mentioned earlier, will be studied in another lesson. You're almost ready to begin your lesson assignments again because rhythm inability are tied together. You will need to come up with rhythmic motifs at the same time that you're coming up with melodic motifs. He's the same rules and techniques that used to create rhythmic motifs and listen to here they are for your review. Shorter is better. Motifs are generally anywhere from two day notes and length motifs are usually best when they contain at least two or more different no durations 34. Quiz for section 10: 35. Composition Assignments for section 10: 36. Repetition: in this lesson, we're going to begin our study of the techniques used for developing melodic motifs and for adding melodic material. In the last lesson, we learned about the melodic chief to compose an entire piece of music. We're going to need a lot more melodic material. The most basic way to add melodic material is through repetition. Let's look at an example. This is called strict repetition. Since the original motif is repeated note for note. All of the pitches, all of the durations are identical. 37. Transposition: Another very common technique that is used to develop melodic motifs is the use of transposition. Transposition is connected to repetition and transposition. The motif is repeated, but at a higher or lower pitch, Let's look at an example. The original motif in the first and second measures consisted of two fulling thirds fold by the rise of 1/6. The transposition of the MO chief in the third and fourth measures is also to falling thirds, followed by the rise of 1/6. The difference is that each pitch has been shifted or transposed down by a second. The motif now starts on D rather than starting on E. But the relative distance between each pitch remains the same When the motif is transposed but continues to use, Pitch is found in the key of the peace. It is called diatonic transposition when the motif is transposed but uses pitches not found and they keep the peace. It is called chromatic transposition. Diatonic and chromatic will be explained in more detail in the next video 38. Sequences: Another technique used to develop melodic motifs is called. The sequence Sequences are, in a sense, the combination of the two techniques learned in the previous videos, repetition and transposition. A sequence is the repetition of a motif three or more times, with each repetition being transposed by the same interval, higher in pitch or by the same interval. Lower in pitch here is an example. The melodic motif is the three note pattern moving up by thirds. The first measure states the motif CD. The second measure restates the motif with all the pitches of second higher than the first statement D E F. And the last measure restates the motif with all the pitches a second higher than the previous statement. E F G sequences could be either ascending or descending, but they cannot be both in the same sequence. The diagram below is an ascending sequence. Because each restatement is higher than the previous one. Here is an example of a descending sequence. Notice how each time the motif is receded, it has played a second lower in pitch G f e f E D E D. C. Sequences do not necessarily need to move higher or lower by seconds. Although this is one of the most common ways they can also have higher or lower by any other interval. Here is an example of an ascending sequence that is moving higher by thirds. As you can see in the diagram, each time the motif is restated, it has played 1/3 higher, first on C, then on the flat and then finally, on G. Besides being ascending or descending in nature, sequences can also either be diatonic or chromatic, sometimes referred to as non diatonic. Here's an example of a diatonic secrets. A diatonic sequence simply means that each time the motif is restated, it remains in the same key that is, it uses only pitches from that particular here skill. Because of this, they will usually be slight differences in the proportional distance between the pitches. For example, if you look at the pattern of half steps and whole steps in the first measure, you will find that the movement of pitches is whole whole half hole. If you look at the pattern of half steps and whole steps in the second measure, you will find that the movement of pitches is half half whole whole in order to keep the distance between the pitch is exactly the same from one statement of the motif to the next . We would need to sharper flat, certain notes in the second and third measures. If we did this, we would be using pitches that are not found in the key, and thus the secrets would be called chromatic rather than diatonic. Remember, diatonic simply refers to the major and minor scales. Here is an example of a chromatic sequence. As you can see, we have preserved the pattern of half steps and whole steps by the addition of Sharps. In the second and third measure, each statement of the motif has the same pattern. Coal hole, half hole because we have added pitches that are not found in the key. Remember, a C major contains no sharps or flats. We call this sequence Chromatic writing sequences is a very easy way of creating melodies out of motifs. In fact, sequences were quite common in aging and 19 century classical music 39. Quiz for section 11: 40. Composition Assignments for section 11: 41. Intervallic Expansion and Compression: in this lesson, we're going to continue our study of the techniques used to develop melodic motifs as you probably gathered from the last lesson. Most motive. IQ development involves some form of repetition. Repetition is the underlying key to motive IQ development. The next techniques who look at are the techniques of interval IQ expansion, an interval of compression. Simply put, Interval it expansion is the repetition of the melodic motif using larger intervals. Here is an example. As you can see, the melodic motif in the first measure consists of 1/5 followed by two seconds. The repetition of the motif in the second measure is an interval IQ. Expansion of the motif since the interval of 1/5 has been expanded to 1/6. There are three options for interval like expansion of AMO chief. A single interval may be expanded, multiple intervals may be expanded or all the intervals may be expanded. We have already seen an example of the first option in the previous slide. Here is an example of the second option. As you can see, two out of the three intervals have been expanded, the fifth and the third in the original motif have been expanded to 1/6 and 1/4. In the second measure, the interval of a second remains unchanged. In this example, all of the intervals have increased in size. The thirds in the original motif have become fourths, while the second in the original has become 1/3. And all of the examples we have looked at this far we expanded the intervals by making them one number larger. It is important to note that when using interval IQ expansion, the intervals could be made larger by any amounts and do not necessarily need to be made larger by a single number. 1/3 for example, doesn't need to become 1/4. 1/3 could also become 1/5 6th 7th etcetera. Once you understand interval IQ expansion, it is very easy to understand and develop compression. Interval A compression is simply the opposite of expansion. An interval of compression. The melodic motif is repeated using smaller intervals. As with expansion, there are also three options for compression. A single interval may be compressed, multiple intervals may be compressed or all of the intervals may be compressed 42. Octave Transfer: Another technique used to develop melodic motifs is a simple technique called active transfer Are active. Transfer is very similar to the technique of transposition and transposition. The entire move chief could be transposed, higher or lower by any interval. An octave transfer. A single pitch may be transposed by an active several pages may be transposed by an active or the entire motif may be transposed an octave. Let's look at an example of each. This is an example of Arctic transfer, where all of the pitches have been transposed up an octave. It is an exact restatement of the motif, an octave higher. It is important to note that octave transfer can be an octave higher or lower. Here is an example of Arctic transfer, in which some of the pictures have been transposed by an octave. As you can see, the last three pitches of the original motif have been transposed, knocked of lower, listen carefully and compare the original motif to the art of transfer. If the motif is still clearly recognizable, then we have done a good job of balancing the principles of uniformity and variety. Uh, here is an example of octave transfer in which a single pitch has been transposed by an active in the restatement of the motif. In the second measure, only the first note has been raised, knocked of higher. The rest of the motif remains the same. 43. Change of Tonality: Another simple but effective technique used to develop melodic motifs is through change of tonality and change of tonality. We simply change the tonality from major to minor if we're in a major key or from minor to major. If we were in a minor key in the following example, the original motif is in a major tonality G major. The motif is then repeated in a minor tonality. G minor again, this is a simple but effective technique that is often used. 44. Quiz for section 12: 45. Composition Assignments for section 12: 46. The Musical Sentence Revisited: and lessons three and four. We learned about the rhythmic phrase and this. Listen, we're going to learn about the melodic phrase. Let's begin by reviewing what a phrases just a sledders make up words and words. Makeup sentences. So in music notes, makeup motifs and motifs, makeup phrases, the phrase is the musical equivalent of the sentence can stand alone as a complete thought or idea. Here are some important things to note about melodic phrases. They're typically 2 to 4 measures in length. Most melodic phrases are divisible by two. 47. Multiple Motifs: we have actually already encountered a type of melodic phrase when we studied sequences. If you recall a sequence is a melodic mo chief that is repeated three or more times, and each time it is repeated, it is transposed, specific, interval higher or lower in pitch. As with all motifs, rhythmic, melodic or harmonic, repetition is a good thing. It is what unifies theme music and helps the listener to understand the music as an ordered hole. But as we saw with rhythmic phrases, unity needs to be balanced with variety. For example, if our entire melodic phrase was made up of only one motif, it would be much too repetitive. Even if we used the techniques for developing, Mo chiefs learned in the last few lessons, we would still have too little material to work with to compose an entire song. This is why most melodic phrases are made up of a number of different motifs. We saw this in our study of rhythm when we combined primary motifs and secondary motifs to former rhythmic phrases. We could do the same thing with melodic motifs in the following example there to melodic motifs. The primary Matif consists of the interval of 1/4. Well, the secondary Matif is of a more stepwise nature and ends and 1/3. Together they make up a melodic phrase. You may recall that the definition of a motif states that it is re occurring. Although the secondary motif occurs only once. In this particular phrase, they can re occur and other phrases and in other places of the song and need not re occur immediately. Melodic phrases are not limited to being made up of one or two motifs. They can also be made up of many. It is important to note that if a phrase is made up of too many motifs, the melody will lack unity and be unintelligible. If a phrase is made up of two fumo chiefs, the melody will lack variety and be dull. 48. Transposition of Multiple Motifs: Another very common and simple way to create melodic phrases is by combining the technique of transposition with the use of multiple motifs. Let's look at an example and then explain what is meant by this. In the following example, the primary MO chief consists of three repeated pitches, followed by the interval of 1/4. This primary motif is then heard again in the second measure, transposed to step higher. The secondary motif consists of three notes stepping up, followed by a skip down. The secondary motif is then heard again in the fourth measure transposed a step higher. The use of different motifs gives Friday to the melody. Well. The transposition of these motifs creates both unity and variety. This makes for a very pleasant little melodic phrase. Notice also how the melodic and rhythmic motifs coincide with one another. The primary melodic Matif coincides with the primary rhythmic My chief of 4/8. It's the secondary melodic motif coincides with the secondary rhythmic motif. I've done it. 8th 16th 8th 8th Remember, this is very common, but not essential to the nature of melody. Since this is a beginning composition course, it is advised that do you stick with a lining rhythmic and melodic motifs when completing your lesson assignments. Other ways of creating melodic phrases include techniques who have already learned about, such as sequence interval IQ expansion and compression, active transfer and change of tonality. By combining these techniques with multiple motifs, we can create a lot of melodic material for our phrases. This is just the beginning of learning how to compose melodies in the coming lessons. We will delve deeper into the different parts of melody and also look at its connection to harmony. 49. Quiz for section 13: 50. Composition Assignments for section 13: 51. Types of Melodic Phrases: When we studied rhythm, we found that there are three basic types of phrases those that suggest continuation those that suggest a temporary repose and those that suggest finality. These three types of phrases also apply to melody as we shall see momentarily. But before we can discuss these three types of melodic phrases, we need to first learn a little bit about stable tones and unstable tons. When a piece is written in a particular key, the stable tones are the pitches that form the tonic chord of AKI. For example, a piece in the key of C major. We'll have for its stable tones that pitches 13 and five. C E and G. Here is a C major scale, and it's stable tones. Pitch one is called the Tonic Pitch. It is always the most stable tone in any particular key. Pitch five is called the dominant pitch. It is the second most stable tone in any particular key. Pitch three is called the median pitch. It is the third most stable tone in any particular key. All of the other tones are considered unstable. This brief overview of stable and unstable tones will suffice for our current discussion, we will talk more about them in another lesson. Now that we have learned about stable and unstable tons, we will observe how they may be used to create different types of melodic phrases. Let's start by looking at a musical example that demonstrates both temporary repose and finality. The following example is in the key of G major. The stable tones in G major are pitches 13 and five of the G major scale G B a d. The last note in the fourth measure is therefore a stable, tone. Stable tone. Be stable. Tons could suggest either a sense of temporary, oppose or suggests a sense of finality. The Reeker stable tones of dominant immediate usually suggest temporary repose. While only the strongest stable tone the tonic suggests finality. Line one is the first phrase. It ends on a weaker, stable tone. Be and suggest temporary repose. Mine, too, is the second phrase. It ends on the strongest stable turned G and suggests finality. Let's listen now. Let's look at an example that suggests continuation. The following example is also in the key of G major. Once again, the stable tones in G major are pitches 13 and five of the G major scale G, B and D. The last note in the fourth measure is therefore unstable tone. A unstable tones suggests a sense of continuation. Since they're not stable. Our ears feel that we are not at rest yet, and so we expect the music to continue on until we hear the most stable pitch. The atomic pitch Line one is the first phrase Indians on unstable Turn A and suggests continuation. Mind, too, is the second phrase it is on the strongest, stable tone G and suggests finality. Let's listen. 52. The Melodic Period and Phrase Group: All of the examples in the previous video were examples of periods we learned about periods when we studied rhythmic phrases. Let's briefly review Justus combinations of sentences, makeup paragraphs. So in music, combinations of phrases, makeup periods and phrase groups, a period consists of two phrases that have the relationship of antecedent and consequent. When speaking of melody, these phrases are sometimes referred to as a question and answer phrases. The antecedent is the question phrase. The consequent is the answer phrase and to see and phrases are formed by two types of phrases. Phrases that suggests continuation and phrases that suggest temporary repose. Consequent phrases are formed by one phrase type phrases that suggests finality. In the following example, Line one is the antis ing phrase or question phrase, since it ends on an unstable tone and suggest continuation. Line two is the consequent phrase or answer phrase. Since it ends on a tonic pitch and suggest finality, listen to the example and see if you can hear how the second line is an answer to the first , when two phrases do not have an answer seed into consequent relationship. We call it a phrase group rather than a period phrase groups usually have three or more phrases and groups of three or more. Only the last phrase may suggest finality, for example, question, question answer. 53. Quiz for section 14: 54. Composition Assignments for section 14: 55. Inversion: and this. Listen, we're going to continue studying compositional techniques used to develop melodic material . We will begin by looking at a technique called inversion. In version of a motif or phrase is the restatement of the motif, or phrase, with all its intervals moving in the opposite direction. For example, if the motive is 1/3 moving higher in pitch, then the inversion will be 1/3. Moving lower in pitch inversion is sometimes referred to as turning everything upside down . Here's an example of a motif and its inversion. As you can see, the original motif consisted of a rising third, followed by two rising seconds and the inversion Everything is upside down. The motif is now a falling third, followed by two falling seconds. 56. Transposed Inversion: inversion could start on. The same note is the original, but it does not have to. We could have started the inversion on any pitch. To do this, we would simply transposed the inversion toe a higher or lower pitch. This is called transposed inversion. In the following example, we have inverted the original motif and then transposed it so that it begins on D. 57. Mirror Inversion: Let's take another look at the inversion found in the first video of this lesson. Although the inversion of the original maintained the same size of intervals, the quality of the intervals was not maintained. For example, the original rose by a major third, then a minor seconds and then a major second. But the inversion fell by a minor third, then a major second and then another major seconds. This difference in major and minor qualities comes about because we're using on Lee the notes of a particular key. In this case, we're in the key of C major. If we wanted to maintain the exact quality of each interval, we would need to add pitches not normally found in the key of C major. When we keep both the number and the quality of each interval the same in the inversion, we call it a mirror and version. As you can see, we have added a flat to one of our notes. By doing so, we're maintaining the quality of each interval in the inversion. See, to a flat is a major third a flat G is a minor second and G to F is a major second. This matches the original 58. Retrograde: another way to develop melodic material is through retrograde. To explain retrograde, we need to compare it to inversion with inversion. The motif for phrase was restated upside down with retrograde the motif for phrases restated reverse. It's basically the original played backwards. Retrograde is a lot simpler to understand and to use the new version. Since all of the pictures remain the same only played backwards. All of the intervals will of necessity be the same quality but in reverse order. 59. Retrograde Inversion: if inversion was the upside down version of the motif for phrase and retrograde was the backwards version, then Retrograde inversion is Thea upside down and backwards version of the motif or phrase Here is an example of retrograde inversion. Uh, retrograde inversion is much harder to wrap your brain around, and many people have trouble with it. If you remember the following order, you will be fine. Step one. Flip the original upside down. Step two. Play it backwards. 60. Quiz for section 15: 61. Composition Assignments for section 15: 62. Augmentation: in this lesson, we're going to continue learning the techniques used to develop moronic material. When we studied rhythmic variation, we learned the techniques of argumentation, diminution, truncation, expansion and displacement. These same techniques could be used when working with melodic material, although these techniques alter only the rhythm. Since melody is connected to rhythm, any changes made to the rhythm will affect the way the melodic material sounds. We will go over each technique in turn, starting with augmentation. If you recall the word Augment comes from the Latin documentary to increase Augmentation is taking a motif or entire frays and increasing the duration of each note by the same proportion. Let's look at an example. Observe how each note's duration in the second line is double of what it was in the first line by keeping all of the pitch is the same. In both clients, we create a sense of unity between the two melodic ideas. By changing the no durations, we bring variety to the music. Remember, doubling the no durations is called strict augmentation. We can also triple or quadruple the notations, but that is less commonly done. If we had quadrupled each no duration the motif would have taken up too much time and might become unrecognisable as the motif by the listener. If we had tripled each note duration, it would have changed the pulse of the motif and would had be written out an entirely different meter. This once again would make it very unlikely to be recognized as the motif by the listener. 63. Diminution: if you recall the word diminution comes from the Latin diminished CIA. To decrease diminution is taking a motif or entire phrase and decreasing the duration of each note by the same proportion. Let's look at an example. Observe how each note's duration in the second line is half of what it was in the first line by keeping all the pitch is the same. In both lines, we create a sense of unity between the two Miletic ideas. By changing the no durations, we bring variety to the music. Remember, when we have the know durations, it is called strict diminution. We can also reduce the no durations by 1/3 or fourth. But this is less commonly done, especially since reducing the note durations to 1/3 changes the pulse of the rhythm. The important thing to remember with both argumentation and definition, is that the no durations in the original motif must have the same proportions to one another as the no durations in the altered motif. If proportion is not maintained, the motifs will become unrecognizable since they will act the principle of uniformity 64. Truncation: truncation is when any part of the end of a motif for phrase is left off or truncated. This works best with whole phrases, since motifs are already fairly short to begin with. Let's look at an example of truncation. In the following example, the last three notes were left off, creating a variation of the original Matlock material. We could have cut off as much or as little as we wanted. There are no wrong answers here. 65. Expansion: expansion is the opposite of truncation. Expansion is when any part of a motif for phrase is added onto the end of the original melody. Let's look at an example as you can see the loss. Four notes of the original melody have been added on, thus creating a variation of the original. We could have added as much or as little as we wanted. There are no wrong answers here as long as you use material from the original. 66. Displacement: The last compositional technique we will go over here is that of displacement. Displacement is the shifting of them, or Tiefer phrase so that it begins on a different beat. Let's look at an example. As you can see, we have shifted our entire melody over one beat so that it begins on the second beat. The last night has been changed from 1/2 note to 1/4 note so that it continues to fit into two measures. We know from basic music theory that one of pieces in 44 time beat one is the strongest speech. B three is the second stronger speech and beats two and four are weaker beats. By shifting everything over, we're changing which pitches of our melody fall on the strong beats and which pitches fall on the weaker beats. This will change the actual sound and thus the entire feel of the melody. See if you can hear the difference. Here's the original. Here's the displacement 67. Quiz for section 16: 68. Composition Assignments for section 16: 69. Categorizing Melodic Tones: the next step in learning how to compose melodies is to study the different types of tones present in melodies. To do this, we will need to begin looking at melody as it relates to harmony. Although this course is dealing primarily with the composition of rhythm and melody, it is impossible to study melody fully without briefly looking at harmony. One of the most fundamental distinctions of tones present in melody is the distinction between chord tones and non chord tones. Often the melody or part of a melody is formed directly from the pitches of a court. We call these pitches chord tones. Let's look at an example. All of the pitch is used in the following example come from the C major court. See e G. We would call each of these pitches chord tones because they're all from the same court, sees a court tone is 1/4 tone and G is 1/4 turn. Any other pitch would not belong to the Sea Court and would therefore be called in non core tone. Let's look at another example. This little section of the melody is formed from two different courts. The pitches in the first measure, when taken together, form an F major chord and second inversion. The pitches in the second measure, when taken together, form a B flat major chord in rue position. Here is an example of a melodic line that includes both quarter tones and non core tons. Yeah, how can we distinguish between court tones and non court tons the best way it's looking all the pitches in a melodic line and see if any particular chord suggested or implied. In this example, we can see an implied F court, half A and C. The Pitch G does not fit with the other. Pitches cannot be combined with any of the other pitches to former court. Thus F A and C or quarter tones and G is a non court. We will study non court tones in more depth in the next few lessons, another way to distinguish between chord tones and non core tones. It's a simply look at the left hand of a piece of music, and often you will find the entire court right there. Of course, this only works if you're playing piano music. If you play most any other instrument, you will need to be able to distinguish between court tones and non core tones. By looking on Lee at the melody, piano players should try to acquire this skill. A swell Let's look at one more example before moving on to lesson assignments. If we take all the pitches in this example, what chords can we make before DNF, taken together would form the B flat? Major court DF, in a taken together would form the C minor court. So which court is the melody for him from? There are a couple of clues that will help us determine the answer. The pitches DF in a occur more often than the Pitch B flat, which only occurs once the Pitch D falls on the downbeat, the first beat or the strong beat of the second measure. The D minor court is outlined perfectly in the 1st 3 notes of the second measure and again in the last three notes. We can also tell from listening to the clip that the sound is definitely minor, not major. We can therefore safe we conclude that this melody is formed from the D minor court. This means that the pitches DF in a are the quarter tones and the Pitch B flat is a non quarter turn again. We will study non core tones in more depth in the next few lessons. 70. Quiz for section 17: 71. Composition Assignments for section 17: 72. Passing Tones: in the last lesson, we learned about quarter tones and non core tones. And this Listen, we're going to begin learning about the different categories of non core tones. We will start with the passing tone. Passing tones are a type of non core tone and are used to pass between court tones. There are, however, a few criteria that have to be met in order for a tone to be classified as a passing town. Let's look at each in turn one. A passing tone must be between two court tones. It is important to note that the two chords need not be the same court. For example, the first court could be G, and the second court could be see to a passing tone must move in stepwise motion. It may move by seconds, but not by thirds or any larger interval. Three. A passing tone must move in a continuous direction away from and to the next court tone. If the passing tone is a second higher than the preceding quarter tone, then it must continue moving another second higher to reach the next quarter tone. If the passing tone is a second lower than the preceding cartoon, Then it must continue moving another second lower to reach the next court tone. In the following example, the notes marked with red arrows are the passing tones, the court in the left hand. It's an a minor chord, and so we know that the pitches A, C and E and the melody are the chord tones. The B's and D's are therefore non court tones, but what type of non cord tone are they? They're passing tons because they meet the three criteria above. Let's go over each one in turn, the first passing turn. The 1st 3 notes are A B and C B is the passing tone because it is between the court tones A and C. It also moves in a step wise and continuous motion upwards. The second passing ton. The 3rd 4th and fifth notes are CB in a B is the passing tone because it is between the court tones see, and A that also moves in a step wise and continuous downward motion. The third passing ton, the 1st 3 notes and second measure our A, B and C. He is the passing tone because it is between the court tones a and see. It also moves in a step wise and continuous motion upward. The fourth passing John the last three notes in the second measure R, C. D and A. He is the passing tone because it is between the court tones, see, and he they also move in a stepwise, continuous motion upwards. It's important to note that there is such a thing as a double passing ton. Criteria number one is ignored. And instead of one non core tone between the court tons, there are two. The court is a D minor chord, D F A. Therefore a is a court tone, and D is a core turn. The notes that B and C sharp do not belong to the court. Therefore, non quarter tones. We classify them as passing tones because they fall between two court tones and because they move in a step wise and continuous motion. The next thing we need to learn about passing tones is that they can be either accented or non accented. All of the previous examples have been examples of non accented passing tones because they did not fall on any accent. It beats if you recall from basic music theory. The accent of beats are the strong beach in that particular meter. Let's look at an example of an accented passing town, the cords in the left hand or C major courts, the right hand melodious, made up primarily of the court tones C, E and G. He is the passing tone between court tones e and see, moving in a continuous stepwise motion downwards. But since defaults on an accented beat beat one, it is therefore called an accented passing tone. 73. Neighbor Tones: we have already seen one type of Nordic or tone the passing tone. The next type of non core tone we're going to look at is the neighbor tone. For a note. To be a neighbor tone, a few criteria have to be met. One. A neighbor tone must be between two chord tons. It is important to note the two chords need not be the same court. For example, the first court to BC in the second quarter could be a to a neighbor. Tone must move and stepwise motion. It may move by seconds, but not by thirds or any larger interval. Three. A neighbor tone this move in a discontinuous motion away from and immediately returned to the same quarter tone. For example, if the neighbor tone moves a second higher than the preceding court owned, it must move in the opposite direction and return to the court tone. If the neighbor time moves a second lower than the preceding quarter tone, it must move in the opposite direction and return to the court. It is important to note that the only difference between a neighbor tone and a passing tone is whether the motion is continuous or discontinuous. Let's look at some examples of neighbor tones. The court in the left hand is D minor court. The court tones R D F in a is therefore a non core 10. But what type of non core tone is it? It is a neighbor tone because it meets the three criteria. First of all, it is between two court tones D and D. It moves in a stepwise motion. It also moves in a discontinuous motion that is, it moves away from one court on and returns to the same quarter ton. We call E the upper neighbor Ton because it is a second higher. If it had been a second lower, we would have called it the lower Neighbor Ton, just like passing tones. Neighbor tones ca NBI either accented or non accented. The previous example was an example of a non accent neighbor tone because the neighbor tone fell on a week beat. Now let's look at an example of an accent to neighbor time. Uh, the court in the left hand is a D minor court. The court tones air there for D f. A. He's the upper neighbor tone between the chord tones D and D, but since E falls on a strong beach, beat one, it is therefore called on accented neighbor tone. 74. Quiz for section 18: 75. Composition Assignments for section 18: 76. Chromatic Passing Tones: the next type of non cord tone will be looking at is the chromatic turn. Chromatic refers to the pitch is not found in the skill. Where's Diatonic? Refers to the pitches in the scale. Chromatic tones could be either chromatic passing tones or chromatic neighbor tons, both maybe accented or non accented. Let's look at an example of each. The following is an example of a chromatic passing town. The court tones of the first measure make up the C major chord C Hmm and G. The court tones in the second measure make up the F major chord f okay, and an implied See the G sharp is there for a non core ton. It is the passing tone between cord tone G from the court in the first measure and quarter tone A from the court in the second measure. Since G Sharp is not a diatonic pitch, we call it a chromatic passing ton. How do we know it's not a daytime pitch? Well, the key signature in this example, the C major and we know from basic music theory. The C major is made up of the notes, C, d, E, f, G A and B. Any other pitch would be considered chromatic. Now let's determine if the G sharp is accented or non accented. Since it happens on a week beat the second half of Beat four, it is considered a non accented chromatic passing tune. Let's look at another example. The following example of the court. Tons of the first measure make up a C major chord C E and an implied G. The court tones in the second measure make a big E major chord. G B de. Therefore, A C Sharp is a non quarter. It is the passing tone between court tunes See and D. Since C Sharp is not a diatonic pitch, we call it a chromatic passing ton. How do we know it's not a diatonic pitch? Well, once again, we must look at the key signature, the key signature in this example of C major. The pitches of C major or C D. E, F, G, A and B all other pictures air considered chromatic. Now let's determine at the C Sharp is accented or non accented. Since it happens on a strong beat, the first speeds of the second measure it is considered an accented, chromatic passing tone 77. Chromatic Neighbor Tones: in the last lesson, we saw that chromatic tons could be passing tons and this Listen, we will learn. The chromatic tons can also be neighbor tons, which again could be either accented we're known accented. Let's look at some examples. The court tones in this example make up the G major court cheese bees on many D's. The C Sharp is there for a non court tone. It is the lower neighbor tone between D and D. This example isn't a key of G major, since C. Sharp is not one of the pitches in the key of G major. We call it a chromatic neighbor tone. Now let's determine if the C Sharp is an accented or non accented chromatic neighbor. Ton, since it happens on a week, beat the second half of beat, too. It is considered non accented. Let's look at another example. The court tones in this example make up the G major court. Many G's bees and D's The C Sharp is there for a non core tone. It is the lower neighbor tone between quarter tones D and D. Once again, since C Sharp is not found in the G major skill, we call it a chromatic neighbor ton. Now let's determine that the C Sharp is accented or non accented. Since it happens on a stronger beat, be one of the second measure, it is considered an accented, chromatic neighbor tone. 78. Incomplete Neighbor Tones: The next type of non core ton we're going to look at is called the Incomplete Neighbor Ton . Like the neighbor tone, the incomplete neighbor tone occurs between two chord tons. The difference here is that it is neighbor to only one of the court tons. Let's demonstrate this with some examples. In the following example, the court tones in the first measure R F A and C in F major court. The court turns in the second measure R, C, E and G A. C Major Court B is therefore the non court son. It is the upper neighbor tone of the A that comes before it. It is not, however, a neighbor tone to the G, which comes after it. Thus it is called on incomplete neighbor tone. This particular type of incomplete your return is called on escape tone on Escape Tone leaves the court ton by a stepwise motion and returns to a different court tone by a skip price mission 1/3 or larger going in the opposite direction. As you could see A to be a stepwise and B to G his skip rise in the opposite direction. Escape tones are non accented. They fall on weak beats. Let's look at another type of any complete neighbor tone, which is, in a sense, the opposite of the escape turn. In the following example, the court tones in the first measure, our CNG c major court. The court turns in the second measure R F A, A and C. Enough major Court B is there for non court. It is the upper neighbor tone of the A, which comes after it. It is not, however, a neighbor turned to the G, which comes before it. Thus it is called an incomplete name. Burton. This particular type of incompletely return is called an apology. A tura on a pasilla tura leaves 1/4 tone by a skip wise motion 1/3 or larger and returns to a different court owned by step price motion in the opposite direction. As you can see, G to be a skip wise, moving up, be to a hiss stepwise. Moving down a projector is our accented. They fall on strong beats 79. Quiz for section 19: 80. Composition Assignments for section 19: 81. Anticipation Tones: In the past few lessons we've learned about a number of different non core tones. Passing tones, neighbor tones, an incomplete neighbor tones. And this. Listen, we're going to look at a few more non chord tones, anticipation tones and suspension turns. The anticipation tone is just what its name sounds like. It is a tone that anticipates the next court tone. Let's look at an example in the following example. The court tones in the first measure R D F sharp in a a d major court. The court tones in the second measure, RGB in D, a G major court. The anticipation tone G is a non core tone as it relates to the first chord of D major. It will, however, become a court tone when the court changes to G Major in the second measure. Basically, a single pitch of the G chord in the second measure is being played early in anticipation of the change in court. Yes, it is called in anticipation. Tone anticipation tones are non accented 82. Suspension Tones: Another type of non core tone is the suspension tone. A suspension tone is the opposite of an anticipation ton. Instead of playing a pitch from the second quarterly, a pitch from the first court has held over or suspended into the second cord. Let's look at an example to demonstrate this in the following example. The chord tones in the first measure R D F sharp in a a d major chord. The court tones in the second measure, RGB and D A G major chord. The suspension tone A is a non core tone as a real aged to the second measure where the court is G major. It was, however, accord tone in the previous measure, where the court was D major. Basically, a single pitch of the D chord in the first measure is being held over or suspended into the next court change. Thus it is called a suspension ton suspension tones are accented. It is important to note that the entire process is often times referred to as a suspension and not just the note itself. An important aspect of suspensions is that they must resolve downwards by a step in the phony example the pitch a resolves downwards by a step to become pitched g a pitch in the following cord. If the pitch that has held over results upwards by a step, it is not called a suspension tone but rather a retardation tone. Here's an example and the following example. The court tones in the first measure R D of sharpen a a D major chord. The court tones in the second measure, RGB Andy G. Major Chord. The suspension tone F sharp is a non core tone, as relates to the second measure with the court s G major. It was, however, 1/4 tone in the previous measure where the court was D major. Basically, a single pitch of the D major court in the first measure is being held over into the next court change. Because the F sharp results upwards by a step to become G a pitch in the phone cord. It is therefore called a retardation tone rather than a suspension tone like suspension tones, retardation tones are accented. It is important to note that the entire process is often times referred to as retardation and not just the tone itself. It should be mentioned that suspension and retardation tons may also be tied instead of played again. In the following example, the F sharp in the first measure is tied to the F sharp in the second measure, rather than being played again, as it was in the previous example, listen to and compare the difference. 83. Quiz for section 20: 84. Composition Assignments for section 20: 85. Creating and Resolving Tension: 86. Change in Pitch: One of the most basic ways to create tension and music is to play progressively higher pitches book of the overall shape or contour of the melody below. If you follow the red lines, you'll see that there are three rises or swells in the melodic line, each one higher than the next. Listen to the increase in tension as the melody moves higher with each swell. Uh oh. Uh, of course, there are other factors that also contributed to the tension, such as changing dynamics and tempo. But these only added to the intensity that was created by the progressively higher pitches . The tension is that finally resolved by the downward motion in the last three measures and also by ending on the pitch, see the tonic pitch. 87. Change in Interval Size: another way to create tension. A piece of music is through use of progressively larger intervals. Let's say a piece used mostly smaller intervals and then somewhere in the piece suddenly began using larger intervals. This would create a sort of tension by contrasts. Take a look at the following music. The first line consists of smaller intervals. It has many seconds a few fourths, and the largest interval is 1/5. In the second line, we see big jumps of sixth and seventh. This is a big part of the increase of tension at this point in the song. There are, of course, other factors to consider as well, such as non core tones, articulations and dynamics. Here is an example of a melody that uses both higher pitches and larger intervals to create tension as you can see the overall shape or contour. The melody consists of three swells, each one higher than the next measures to and four contain octaves, which is a huge contrast to the smaller intervals in the rest of the example. The tension is then resolved with the downward brushing in the second line, and also by ending on the Pitch G, which is the tonic pitch 88. Change in Duration: Yet another way to create tension in a piece of music is by using progressively shorter no durations. The 1st 7 measures in the following example consist of dotted coordinates. These are the longest notes in this section of music. In the next seven measures, we begin seeing knows a shorter duration, such as quarters and eighths. The last two measures contained Onley eighths. By using notes of progressively shorter duration, the tension in the music has been increased again. There are, of course, other factors to consider as well, such as dynamics tempo, non chord tones, chromatic tones, articulations. But these only added to the intensity that was created by using shorter durations to resolve the tension, we can simply do the opposite and begin using progressively longer, no durations in our melodies. 89. Syncopation: Before we can talk about how Syncopation creates tension and music, we must first understand what Syncopation is. Syncopation is simply placing stress on a note that is not normally stressed. This is a way of creating rhythmic tension in a piece of music. The two criteria for a notes, peacoat, syncopated or one the note must happen on either we beat or in between beats and to the note must be emphasized ban marking, such as its new toe or Mercado. We're by continuing to be held over during the very next strong beat. Let's look at an example. In the following example, the syncopated notes happens in between beats one and two. It is then held over during the very next strong beat Be to here. The lengthening of the note on the week pulls is what causes it to be stressed or accented where normally would not be, thus creating a sense of rhythmic tension. Let's look at a musical example, first without Syncopation and then with Syncopation as you will notice. The only difference between the first example in the second example are the tide notes. The last note of the first measure on the last night of the third measure. Both fall in between the beats. By holding each of these notes across into the next measure, we're lengthening the weak pulse, causing it to be stressed or emphasized where normally it would not have been. Compare both examples and see if you can hear the increase in rhythmic tension. Here's the example without sink a patient, here's the example with single patient. 90. Quiz for section 21: 91. Composition Assignments for section 21: 92. Congratulations: 93. Conclusion: